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Sample records for basin karnataka india

  1. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS.

    PubMed

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S

    2016-04-01

    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin. PMID:26969157

  2. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS.

    PubMed

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S

    2016-04-01

    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  3. Palaeoweathering, composition and tectonics of provenance of the Proterozoic intracratonic Kaladgi-Badami basin, Karnataka, southern India: Evidence from sandstone petrography and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukanta; Rai, A. K.; Chaki, Anjan

    2009-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data on the sandstones of the Proterozoic intracratonic Kaladgi-Badami basin, southern India are presented to elucidate the palaeoweathering pattern, and composition and tectonics of their provenance. The Kaladgi-Badami basin, hosting the Kaladgi Supergroup, occupies an E-W trending area. The Supergroup unconformably overlies Archaean basement TTG gneisses, granites and greenstones, comprises a cyclic arenite-pelite-carbonate association and is divided into the Bagalkot and Badami Groups. The immature arkosic character of the basal Saundatti Quartzite Member (Bagalkot Group) containing fresh and angular feldspars, along the northern margin of the basin, suggests that during the initial stage of deposition, this part of the basin received sediments from a restricted, uplifted and less weathered source dominated by K-rich granites occurring to the north. In contrast, the Saundatti Quartzite along the southern margin displays a mostly mature, quartz-rich character with less abundant but severely weathered feldspars, and higher SiO 2 and CIA but lower Al 2O 3, TiO 2, Rb, Sr, Ba, K 2O, K 2O/Na 2O, Zr/Ni and Zr/Cr. This is interpreted in terms of a tectonically stable, considerably weathered mixed source (Archaean gneisses, granites and greenstones) along the southern fringe of the basin. The highly mature (quartz arenite) Muchkundi Quartzite Member (also of the Bagalkot Group), occurring higher up in the succession, exhibits minor but severely altered feldspars, and higher SiO 2, Na 2O, CIA, Cr and Ni with lower K 2O, Al 2O 3, TiO 2 and K 2O/Na 2O. This reflects that with the passage of time the source evolved to a uniform, extensively weathered, tectonically stable peneplained provenance which consisted of less evolved TTG gneisses and greenstones. This was followed by closure, deformation and upliftment of the basin hosting the Bagalkot Group and subsequent deposition of the Badami Group. Sandstone Members of this younger Group (Cave

  4. Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, P Ishwara; Cristopher, S S; Hosetti, B B

    2009-11-01

    The avifaunal diversity and density in Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India, was studied for a period of three years. Anekere pond inhabits several local and migratory bird species. Reduction in water retention in this pond in summer, weed infestation, variations in food availability in different seasons and threat of predation on the breeding activity of birds affected the avifauna diversity in the study area. This habitat attracted 44 bird species, which are local and migratory including aquatic birds, waders and others. Highest population of tree ducks (lesser whistling teal) was recorded in all the three years of study. Other prominent residents were Moorhens, Jacanas, Herons and Cormorants. The visitors include ringed plovers, wagtails and storks. It was evident that purple moorhen and tree ducks have developed high tolerance to this highly fluctuating habitat and human activity. PMID:20329405

  5. Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, P Ishwara; Cristopher, S S; Hosetti, B B

    2009-11-01

    The avifaunal diversity and density in Anekere wetland, Karkala, Udupi district, Karnataka, India, was studied for a period of three years. Anekere pond inhabits several local and migratory bird species. Reduction in water retention in this pond in summer, weed infestation, variations in food availability in different seasons and threat of predation on the breeding activity of birds affected the avifauna diversity in the study area. This habitat attracted 44 bird species, which are local and migratory including aquatic birds, waders and others. Highest population of tree ducks (lesser whistling teal) was recorded in all the three years of study. Other prominent residents were Moorhens, Jacanas, Herons and Cormorants. The visitors include ringed plovers, wagtails and storks. It was evident that purple moorhen and tree ducks have developed high tolerance to this highly fluctuating habitat and human activity.

  6. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of skin diseases in Hyderabad Karnataka region, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Policepatel, Shivakumar Singh; Manikrao, Vidyasagar Gunagambhire

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document traditional medicinal plants knowledge used in treating skin diseases at Hyderabad Karnataka Region. Methods The information on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases was gathered from traditional herbal healers and other villagers through interviews. Results A total of 60 plants species belonging to 57 genera and 34 families were found useful and herewith described them along with the method of drug preparation, mode of administration, probable dosage and duration of treatment. Several new findings on the traditional rural practices were reported. Conclusions The present study revealed that the Hyderabad Karnataka rural people is primarily dependent on medicinal plants for treating skin diseases.

  7. Use of ICT in College Libraries in Karnataka, India: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, B. T. Sampath; Biradar, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose; The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of information communication technology (ICT) in 31 college libraries in Karnataka, India by investigating the ICT infrastructure, current status of library automation, barriers to implementation of library automation and also librarians' attitudes towards the use of ICT.…

  8. India--Karnataka: Secondary Education and The New Agenda for Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    Karnataka (India) recorded impressive growth in the 1990s, with state income growing at 8% per annum, driven largely by expansion of the industrial and service sectors. However, this impressive performance has not reduced rural poverty levels or regional disparities to a great extent. This report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in…

  9. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296

  10. Mineralogy of agricultural soil of selected regions of South Western Karnataka, Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Smitha, P G; Byrappa, K; Ranganathaiah, C

    2015-07-01

    Agricultural soils of selected regions of Southwestern Karnataka, Peninsular India, were subjected to systematic mineralogical characterization along with the study of soil physical properties. Physical properties such as soil texture and micro porosity were studied using particle size analyses and positron annihilation lifetime analysis (PALS) technique, respectively. The latter was used to analyze micro porosity of agricultural soil. Both major and minor minerals were identified and confirmed by some analytical techniques like thin section study, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  11. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. PMID:27155527

  12. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of dental interns in Karnataka state, India, regarding implants.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M; Kumar, Tarun A B; Mehta, Dhoom S

    2013-10-01

    Implant treatment today is highly reliable as a valid restorative option for missing teeth. As more patients worldwide opt for implant treatment, it is now imperative for dental practitioners to have sound information about dental implants so they can help patients make informed decisions. This study sought to define the knowledge and attitudes regarding dental implants of dental interns in the state of Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the dental implant curriculum structure at the undergraduate level. A survey was conducted of dental interns (students in their fifth, clinical year of undergraduate study) in seven of the forty-five academic dental institutions in this state. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen questions that assessed the respondents' level of knowledge and source of information regarding implants. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 417 interns responded for a response rate of 83.4 percent. In the results, 73.3 percent reported they were not provided sufficient information about implants in their undergraduate curriculum, and 95.7 percent of them wanted more. Also, 63.5 percent of the respondents believed that high costs could limit the use of dental implants as a tooth replacement modality in India. This study concludes that revision in the undergraduate dental curricula at these schools is needed to better prepare students for practicing implant dentistry. PMID:24098041

  14. Unfree markets: socially embedded informal health providers in northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    George, Asha; Iyer, Aditi

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of informal health markets in marginalised regions are relevant to policy discourse in India, but are poorly understood. We examine how informal health markets operate from the viewpoint of informal providers (those without any government-recognised medical degrees, otherwise known as RMPs) by drawing upon data from a household survey in 2002, a provider census in 2004 and ongoing field observations from a research site in Koppal district, Karnataka, India. We find that despite their illegality, RMPs depend on government and private providers for their training and referral networks. Buffeted by unregulated market pressures, RMPs are driven to provide allopathic commodities regardless of need, but can also be circumspect in their practice. Though motivated by profit, their socially embedded practice at community level at times undermines their ability to ensure payment of fees for their services. In addition, RMPs feel that communities can threaten them via violence or malicious rumours, leading them to seek political favour and social protection from village elites and elected representatives. RMPs operate within negotiated quid pro quo bargains that lead to tenuous reciprocity or fragile trust between them and the communities in which they practise. In the context of this 'unfree' market, some RMPs reported being more embedded in health systems, more responsive to communities and more vulnerable to unregulated market pressures than others. Understanding the heterogeneity, nuanced motivations and the embedded social relations that mark informal providers in the health systems, markets and communities they work in, is critical for health system reforms.

  15. A new species of Cnemaspis (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasulu, Chelmala; Kumar, Gandla Chethan; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi

    2015-01-01

    A new species of rupicolous gecko of the genus Cnemaspis is described from Hampi, Karnataka, southern India. Cnemaspis adii sp. nov. is diagnosable from all the Indian congeners in possessing the following suite of characters: medium-sized Cnemaspis, SVL less than 35 mm (31.7-34.9). Dorsal scales on the trunk homogeneous, small, granular and feebly keeled. Spine-like tubercles absent on the flanks. Mental subtraingular, two pairs of postmentals, primary pair separated by a single chin shield. Ventral scales on the trunk smooth, imbricate; 22-26 scales across the belly. Supralabial I narrowly in contact with nasal. Dorsal aspect of forelimbs and hindlimbs are weakly unicarinate. Lamellae under the digit IV of pes 20-22. Males with two precloacal pores, two femoral pores on each side of the thigh. The existence of the species in a World Heritage Site with continuous anthropogenic interference ascertains the robustness of the species and need for additional herpetofaunal explorations to reveal the total diversity of species of the genus Cnemaspis in peninsular India. PMID:25947720

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of dental interns in Karnataka state, India, regarding implants.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M; Kumar, Tarun A B; Mehta, Dhoom S

    2013-10-01

    Implant treatment today is highly reliable as a valid restorative option for missing teeth. As more patients worldwide opt for implant treatment, it is now imperative for dental practitioners to have sound information about dental implants so they can help patients make informed decisions. This study sought to define the knowledge and attitudes regarding dental implants of dental interns in the state of Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the dental implant curriculum structure at the undergraduate level. A survey was conducted of dental interns (students in their fifth, clinical year of undergraduate study) in seven of the forty-five academic dental institutions in this state. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen questions that assessed the respondents' level of knowledge and source of information regarding implants. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 417 interns responded for a response rate of 83.4 percent. In the results, 73.3 percent reported they were not provided sufficient information about implants in their undergraduate curriculum, and 95.7 percent of them wanted more. Also, 63.5 percent of the respondents believed that high costs could limit the use of dental implants as a tooth replacement modality in India. This study concludes that revision in the undergraduate dental curricula at these schools is needed to better prepare students for practicing implant dentistry.

  17. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  18. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  19. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  20. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  1. Spatial distribution of temperature trends and extremes over Maharashtra and Karnataka States of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhorde, Amit G.; Korade, Mahendra S.; Dhorde, Anargha A.

    2016-07-01

    Earth surface temperatures are changing worldwide together with the changes in the extreme temperatures. The present study investigates trends and variations of monthly maximum and minimum temperatures and their effects on seasonal fluctuations at different climatological stations of Maharashtra and Karnataka states of India. Trend analysis was performed on annual and seasonal mean maximum temperature (TMAX) and mean minimum temperature (TMIN) for the period 1969 to 2006. During the last 38 years, an increase in annual TMAX and TMIN has occurred. At most of the locations, the increase in TMAX was faster than the TMIN, resulting in an increase in diurnal temperature range. At the same time, annual mean temperature (TM) showed a significant increase over the study area. Percentiles were used to identify extreme temperature indices. An increase in occurrence of warm extremes was observed at southern locations, and cold extremes increased over the central and northeastern part of the study area. Occurrences of cold wave conditions have decreased rapidly compared to heat wave conditions.

  2. The 1993 epidemic of dengue fever in Mangalore, Karnataka state, India.

    PubMed

    Padbidri, V S; Adhikari, P; Thakare, J P; Ilkal, M A; Joshi, G D; Pereira, P; Guttikar, S N; Walhekar, B D; Chowta, N; Hegde, B M

    1995-12-01

    An epidemic of febrile illness with hemorrhagic manifestations occurred in certain parts of Mangalore city, Karnataka state, India, from the last week of July 1993. The epidemic reached its peak by mid-August and then started declining. Sporadic cases, however, continued to occur till early December. About 200 cases were reported covering all age groups and both sexes. The cases presented with pyrexia, myalgia, arthralgia and headache. Palatal petechiae, magenta colored tongue with central coating, maculopapular rash and facial flush were observed as classical signs. The tourniquet test was positive in 12% of the cases. Hemorrhage was observed in the form of epistaxis (2 cases), subconjunctival hemorrhage (2 cases) or purpura (3 cases). There were no deaths which were attributable to the epidemic. Five strains of dengue (DEN-2) virus were recovered from the acute-phase sera. Dengue virus-specific IgM type of antibodies were detected in 29/116 (25%) sera. Breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed in some of the areas where cases had occurred. No virus was isolated from any of the field-caught Ae. aegypti mosquitos.

  3. Evaluation of re-aeration equations for river Ghataprabha, Karnataka, India and development of refined equation.

    PubMed

    Kalburgi, P B; Jha, R; Ojha, C S P; Deshannavar, U B

    2015-01-01

    Stream re-aeration is an extremely important component to enhance the self-purification capacity of streams. To estimate the dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the river, estimation of re-aeration coefficient is mandatory. Normally, the re-aeration coefficient is expressed as a function of several stream variables, such as mean stream velocity, shear stress velocity, bed slope, flow depth and Froude number. Many empirical equations have been developed in the last years. In this work, 13 most popular empirical re-aeration equations, used for re-aeration prediction, have been tested for their applicability in Ghataprabha River system, Karnataka, India, at various locations. Extensive field data were collected during the period March 2008 to February 2009 from seven different sites located in the river to observe re-aeration coefficient using mass balance approach. The performance of re-aeration equations have been evaluated using various error estimations, namely, the standard error (SE), mean multiplicative error (MME), normalized mean error (NME) and correlation statistics. The results show that the predictive equation developed by Jha et al. (Refinement of predictive re-aeration equations for a typical Indian river. Hydrological Process. 2001;15(6):1047-1060), for a typical Indian river, yielded the best agreement with the values of SE, MME, NME and correlation coefficient r. Furthermore, a refined predictive equation has been developed for river Ghataprabha using least-squares algorithm that minimizes the error estimates.

  4. Tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vishal V; Shigli, Kamal; Hebbal, Mamata; Agrawal, Neha

    2012-01-01

    The health of industrial workers often goes uncared for due to their stressful working conditions, busy schedules and poor economic conditions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of tooth loss, prosthetic status and treatment needs among industrial workers in Belgaum, Karnataka, India according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (1997). A total of 614 workers participated in the study. Information was obtained regarding their oral hygiene practice. The presence or absence of habits, and the frequency and duration since the last visit to a dentist were recorded followed by clinical examination. Chi-square test was used to determine the association between the variables and tooth loss. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of missing teeth in different age groups, methods of cleaning, smoking habits and visits to the dentist. Regarding prosthetic status, only one worker had a fixed prosthesis in the mandibular arch. The study revealed that tooth loss was associated with oral hygiene practices, habits and visits to the dentist. Poor prosthetic status and high treatment needs were observed. This study emphasized the need for improved dental health awareness and availability of dental facilities to industrial workers.

  5. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in irrigated and non-irrigated fields of southern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C P Sunil; Garampalli, Rajkumar H

    2013-03-01

    The two different agro-ecosystems were selected to study the spore density, species abundance, and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in irrigated (Mandya district) and non-irrigated (Hassan district) agricultural fields in southern Karnataka region, India. A total of 22 AMF species were recorded during the study. Out of which 13 sp. were of Glomus, 4 sp. of Acaulospora, 1 sp. of Cetraspora, 1 sp. of Dentiscutata and 3 sp. of Gigaspora. The difference in species richness of AMF species in irrigated fields ranged from 5-12 sp. as compared to non-irrigated fields (5-11 sp.) and the difference may be attributed to the nutritional status of the soil. We also assumed that lower AMF colonization and abundance would be affected by water stress. Highest spore number and percent colonization of AM fungi were recorded in irrigated sites, showing 356-748 spore density and 70-92% colonization. Whereas, in non-irrigated sites, 174-341 spore density and 40-72% colonization was recorded. Different agro-climatic conditions like irrigation, soil pH, soil organic carbon, phosphorous correlated with the abundance and colonization of AM fungi. PMID:24620573

  6. Decentralization and decision space in the health sector: a case study from Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Parab, Suraj; Kotte, Sandesh; Latha, N; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2016-03-01

    Various attempts have been made in India with respect to decentralization, most significantly the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India (1993) which provided the necessary legal framework for decentralization to take place. However, the outcome has been mixed: an evaluation of the impact of decentralization in the health sector found virtually no change in health system performance and access to health services in terms of availability of health personnel or improvement in various health indicators, such as Infant Mortality Rates or Maternal Mortality Ratio. Subsequently, there has been a conscious effort under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)-launched in 2005-to promote decentralization of funds, functions and functionaries to lower levels of government; and Karnataka had a head-start since devolution of all 29 functions prescribed by the 73rd Amendment had already taken place in the state by the late 1990s. This study presents the findings of an on-going research effort to build empirical evidence on decentralization in the health sector and its impact on system performance. The focus here is on analyzing the responses of health personnel at the district level and below on their perceived 'Decision Space'-the range of choice or autonomy they see themselves as having along a series of functional dimensions. Overall, the data indicate that there is a substantial gap between the spirit of the NRHM guidelines on decentralization and the actual implementation on the ground. There is a need for substantial capacity building at all levels of the health system to genuinely empower functionaries, particularly at the district level, in order to translate the benefits of decentralization into reality. PMID:25967105

  7. Decentralization and decision space in the health sector: a case study from Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Parab, Suraj; Kotte, Sandesh; Latha, N; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2016-03-01

    Various attempts have been made in India with respect to decentralization, most significantly the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India (1993) which provided the necessary legal framework for decentralization to take place. However, the outcome has been mixed: an evaluation of the impact of decentralization in the health sector found virtually no change in health system performance and access to health services in terms of availability of health personnel or improvement in various health indicators, such as Infant Mortality Rates or Maternal Mortality Ratio. Subsequently, there has been a conscious effort under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)-launched in 2005-to promote decentralization of funds, functions and functionaries to lower levels of government; and Karnataka had a head-start since devolution of all 29 functions prescribed by the 73rd Amendment had already taken place in the state by the late 1990s. This study presents the findings of an on-going research effort to build empirical evidence on decentralization in the health sector and its impact on system performance. The focus here is on analyzing the responses of health personnel at the district level and below on their perceived 'Decision Space'-the range of choice or autonomy they see themselves as having along a series of functional dimensions. Overall, the data indicate that there is a substantial gap between the spirit of the NRHM guidelines on decentralization and the actual implementation on the ground. There is a need for substantial capacity building at all levels of the health system to genuinely empower functionaries, particularly at the district level, in order to translate the benefits of decentralization into reality.

  8. Determinants of condom breakage among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, when properly used. However, recent data from surveys of female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka in south India, suggest that condom breakage rates may be quite high. It is important therefore to quantify condom breakage rates, and examine what factors might precipitate condom breakage, so that programmers can identify those at risk, and develop appropriate interventions. Methods We explored determinants of reported condom breakage in the previous month among 1,928 female sex workers in four districts of Karnataka using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from July 2008 to February 2009. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we examined the possible determinants of condom breakage, controlling for several independent variables including the district and client load. Results Overall, 11.4% of FSWs reported at least one condom break in the previous month. FSWs were much more likely to report breakage if under 20 years of age (AOR 3.43, p = 0.005); if divorced/ separated/widowed (AOR 1.52, p = 0.012); if they were regular alcohol users (AOR 1.63, p = 0.005); if they mostly entertained clients in lodges/rented rooms (AOR 2.99, p = 0.029) or brothels (AOR 4.77, p = 0.003), compared to street based sex workers; if they had ever had anal sex (AOR 2.03, p = 0.006); if the sex worker herself (as opposed to the client) applied the condom at last use (AOR 1.90, p < 0.001); if they were inconsistent condom users (AOR 2.77, p < 0.001); and if they had never seen a condom demonstration (AOR 2.37, p < 0.001). Conclusions The reported incidence of condom breakage was high in this study, and this is a major concern for HIV/STI prevention programs, for which condom use is a key prevention tool. Younger and more marginalized female sex workers were most vulnerable to condom breakage. Special effort is therefore required to seek out such women and to

  9. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment & management on the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl Appelquist, Lars; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard screening in areas with limited data availability, and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The application makes use of published geophysical data and remote sensing information and is showcasing how the CHW framework can be applied at a scale relevant for regional planning purposes. It uses a GIS approach to develop regional and sub-regional hazard maps as well as to produce relevant hazard risk data, and includes a discussion of uncertainties, limitations and management perspectives. The hazard assessment shows that 61 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard of erosion, making erosion the most prevalent coastal hazard. The hazards of flooding and salt water intrusion are also relatively widespread as 39 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard for both of these hazard types.

  10. Some Less Known Ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and coorg districts, Karnataka, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, R. D.; Singh, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    Present communication deals with 51 less known uses belonging to 39 medicinal plants which are being used traditionally in Karnataka, and are not well known for its said efficacies for curing respective disorders. Each use has been given under correct botanical name, family, local name, locality in particular district and finally the collection number PMID:22557008

  11. High-risk sex among mobile female sex workers in the context of jatras (religious festivals) in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Halli, S S; Buzdugan, R; Moses, S; Blanchard, J; Jain, A; Verma, R; Saggurti, N

    2010-11-01

    Jatras (religious festivals) represent venues for female sex workers (FSWs) to meet potential clients in an environment of anonymity. Data from a survey conducted among 1499 mobile FSWs in Karnataka, India were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Overall, 31% of mobile FSWs reported attending jatras in the previous year. Women who sold sex at jatras tended to practice sex work in public places, in their own homes or on highways. Jatra attendees reported lower condom use with their last commercial sexual partners at their usual places of sex work. Jatra-related mobility was a significant predictor of non-condom use at their usual place of residence, after controlling for sociodemographic, sex work-related, HIV vulnerability and programme exposure variables. Moreover, only 13% of FSWs used condoms consistently at jatras. Condom availability and accessibility at jatras should be a priority for HIV prevention programmes, and such programmes should make efforts to introduce outreach activities at jatras. PMID:21187355

  12. High-risk sex among mobile female sex workers in the context of jatras (religious festivals) in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Halli, S S; Buzdugan, R; Moses, S; Blanchard, J; Jain, A; Verma, R; Saggurti, N

    2010-11-01

    Jatras (religious festivals) represent venues for female sex workers (FSWs) to meet potential clients in an environment of anonymity. Data from a survey conducted among 1499 mobile FSWs in Karnataka, India were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Overall, 31% of mobile FSWs reported attending jatras in the previous year. Women who sold sex at jatras tended to practice sex work in public places, in their own homes or on highways. Jatra attendees reported lower condom use with their last commercial sexual partners at their usual places of sex work. Jatra-related mobility was a significant predictor of non-condom use at their usual place of residence, after controlling for sociodemographic, sex work-related, HIV vulnerability and programme exposure variables. Moreover, only 13% of FSWs used condoms consistently at jatras. Condom availability and accessibility at jatras should be a priority for HIV prevention programmes, and such programmes should make efforts to introduce outreach activities at jatras.

  13. Staff working in ancillary departments at a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: How healthy are they?

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanya, Bhavya; Nisha, Catherin; Ramesh, Naveen; Joseph, Bobby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ancillary health services are those supplemental services other than room, board, and medical/nursing services provided to hospital patients in the course of care. Ancillary department staff forms an integral part in the smooth functioning of a hospital. There is a need to focus on the health of these individuals to ensure their well-being and in turn, productivity at the workplace. Objective: To study the morbidity profile of the staff working at ancillary departments of a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: We conducted our study in a 1,200-bedded tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Annual medical checkup (AMC) for all the staff working at the ancillary departments has been started in recent years and is provided free of cost and during working hours. A total of 150 employees from ancillary departments underwent AMC in the year 2013. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Spearman's correlation and Chi-square test were used. Results: Of the 150 employees, the majority was male (72%); the mean age was 38 ± 11 years. The most common morbidities were diabetes mellitus (11%), hypertension (10.6%), musculoskeletal disorders (9.3%), surgical problems (8.6%, hemorrhoids, varicose veins), and dental caries (6.6%). On stool microscopy, 12% of the dietary workers showed ova/cyst. There was a significant positive correlation between age and the number of chronic morbidities (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Lifestyle disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the major morbidities among the staff in the ancillary departments of the hospital. We ensured regular follow-up, adherence to medication, and lifestyle modifications in terms of diet and exercise. PMID:27390479

  14. Diabetes mellitus and smoking among tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care centre in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Jali, M V; Mahishale, V K; Hiremath, M B; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Nagaraja, S B; Isaakidis, P

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and smoking are risk factors for adverse outcomes in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). In a tertiary care hospital at Belgaum in the South Indian State of Karnataka, all TB patients aged ≥18 years consecutively diagnosed from February to September 2012 were evaluated for DM and smoking. Of 307 TB patients, 35.5% were found to have DM, 9.8% were current smokers, and 3.6% had DM and were also smokers. Measures to assess and address both these factors need to be taken into account during TB treatment.

  15. Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C

    2014-03-01

    An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

  16. Bedside Availability of Prepared Oxytocin and Rapid Administration After Delivery to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage: An Observational Study in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Gass, Jonathon; Lipsitz, Stuart; Spector, Jonathan; Agrawal, Priya; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Kodkany, Bhala

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Rapid provision of uterotonics after childbirth is recommended to reduce the incidence and severity of postpartum hemorrhage. Data obtained through direct observation of childbirth practices, collected in a study of the World Health Organization's Safe Childbirth Checklist in Karnataka, India, were used to measure if oxytocin prepared for administration and available at the bedside before birth was associated with decreased time to administration after birth. This was an observational study of provider behavior: data were obtained during a baseline assessment of health worker practices prior to introduction of the Safe Childbirth Checklist, representing behavior in the absence of any intervention. Analysis was based on 330 vaginal deliveries receiving oxytocin at any point postpartum. Oxytocin was prepared and available at bedside for approximately 39% of deliveries. We found that advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin was associated with increased likelihood of oxytocin administration within 1 minute after delivery (adjusted risk ratio = 4.89, 95% CI = 2.61, 9.16), as well as with decreased overall time to oxytocin administration after delivery (2.9 minutes sooner in adjusted models, 95% CI = -5.0, -0.9). Efforts to reduce postpartum hemorrhage should include recommendations and interventions to ensure advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin to facilitate prompt administration of the medicine after birth. PMID:26085025

  17. Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C

    2014-03-01

    An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed.

  18. Assessment of 'accredited social health activists'-a national community health volunteer scheme in Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Fathima, Farah N; Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S R; Mony, Prem K

    2015-03-01

    About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean ± SD age of ASHAs was 30.3 ± 5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist.

  19. Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sadashivaiah, C.; Ramakrishnaiah, C. R.; Ranganna, G.

    2008-01-01

    Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13° 06′30″ to 13° 31′ 00″ North latitude and 76° 59′ 00″ to 77° 19′ 00″ East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 sq.km falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both preand post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram. PMID:19139534

  20. Natural radioactivity in some major rivers of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Y; Rajashekara, K M; Siddappa, K

    2007-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation level and distribution of radionuclides have been carried out in riverine environs of three major rivers of coastal Karnataka, viz. Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi. The ambient gamma radiation levels along three rivers were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil, sediment and rock were measured using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In the Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi riverbanks, the median values of absorbed gamma dose rates in air were found to be 44 nGy h(-1), 35 nGy h(-1) and 57 nGy h(-1), respectively. The highest activity of (226)Ra was found in riverbank soil samples of Sharavathi River. The highest activities of (232)Th and (40)K were found in riverbank soil and sediment samples of Netravathi River. In Kali River, the highest (226)Ra activity was recorded for rock samples. To assess the radiological hazard of natural radioactivity in the samples, absorbed gamma dose rates in air, radium equivalent activity, representative level index, external hazard index and internal hazard index associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values. The representative level index (I(gammar)) values are high in sediment samples of Netravathi River. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) values are high in rock samples of Kali River. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M

    2012-04-01

    Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides. PMID:22349284

  2. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K. Ullas; Kumar, N. Samba; Karanth, Krithi K.; Goswami, Varun R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out ‘detection—non-detection’ surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km2 (SE = 847 km2) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need to

  3. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K Ullas; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, Krithi K; Goswami, Varun R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2) landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2) (SE = 847 km(2)) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2) of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2) or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need

  4. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K Ullas; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, Krithi K; Goswami, Varun R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2) landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2) (SE = 847 km(2)) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2) of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2) or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need

  5. Trends in self-medication for dental conditions among patients attending oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arun K.; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence, pattern, and awareness of self-medication practices among patients presenting at oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study, based on an interview conducted in randomly selected 400 study subjects from the patients presenting at these oral health outreach programs. Data were collected regarding demographic information and the interview schedule consisting of 14 questions was administered. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was 30%. Respondents’ gender (χ2 = 5.095, P < 0.05), occupation (χ2 = 10.215, P < 0.05), the time from the last dental visit (χ2 = 8.108, P < 0.05), recommendation of drug(s) to family members or friends (χ2 = 75.565, P < 0.001), and the likelihood of self-medication in the next 6 months (χ2 = 80.999, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with self-medication. Male respondents were less likely to have undertaken self-medication (odds ratio = 0.581 [0.361, 0.933]). The frequently self-medicated drug was analgesics (42.5%) for toothache (69.2%). The regression model explained 39.4% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in self-medication practices. Conclusions: Prevalence of self-medication was 30% with demographic influence. Hence, this study highlights the policy implications for drug control by government agencies and stresses on the need for dental health education to discourage irrational drug use. PMID:26600642

  6. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses’ knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  7. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses' knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  8. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses' knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  9. Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Breast Cancer - Case Study of Southern Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Kenkere Marulaiah; Rajendran, Vidyalakshmi; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Ashok, Nagaralu Channabasappa; Balasubramanian, Somanathan

    2016-01-01

    and moderate intensities seem to be fluctuating. However, 25 taluks do not fall into very high category during the study period. Taluks such Gundlupet (CH_T2), K R Nagar (MY_T25), Kollegal (CH_T3) have been observed to enter high intensity category during the year 2011 from moderate intensity. It is also observed that Nanjangud (MY_T27) is in high intensity category throughout the study period which might be due to its proximity to Mysore urban. Conclusion Analysis of Breast Cancer in southern Karnataka using GIS has revealed that urban areas of Mysore has the highest risk of breast cancer and the temporal trends reveal that even rural areas with moderate risk are moving towards high risk areas. PMID:27190838

  10. A profile of dengue cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, southern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwini; Pandit, Vinay Ramakrishna; Shetty, Sirish; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Krish, Sonia Nagesh; Roy, Sreoshi

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, epidemics of dengue fever have been causing concern in several South-East Asian countries, including India. A study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital situated in Southern India to determine the trends and outcome of dengue cases. There was a steady rise in number of cases from 2002 to 2007, with the largest number of cases seen in 2007. Most cases were observed in the post-monsoon season in the month of September. Out of a total of 344 cases, 285 (82.8%) patients had dengue fever, 34 (9.8%) had dengue haemorrhagic fever and 25 (7.3%) had dengue shock syndrome. Deaths were reported in nine cases, with the majority of deaths occurring in 2003. The disease control programme should emphasise on vector surveillance, integrated vector control, emergency response, early clinical diagnosis and appropriate management of the cases.

  11. Mapping of wasteland of india: A case study of Bangalore district of Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, G.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Nageswara Rao, P. P.; Gupta, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, J.; Ganesharaj, K.; Padmavathy, A. S.; Yogarajan, N.

    India is the second most populous country in the world. Its economy is agrarian in nature. Increasing demand for food, fodder, fuel and fibre has necessitated adoption of scientific measures for increase in land productivity and bringing more areas under cultivation/forests. However land degradation due to desertification, soil salinity, waterlogging, floods/drought, excessive soil erosion due to deforestation, unscientific agricultural practices etc. have resulted in the creation of vast stretches of wastelands and a decrease in per capita cultivable land besides ecological imbalance. Nearly 53 Mha are wasteland and 22 Mha of land have problems of either salinity, alkalinity, soil erosion, waterlogging, shifting cultivation or presently unused because of their undulating nature. Only 11% of India's geographic area is under effective tree cover. Forest degradation has increased by 14% over last 8-10 years. The land area prone to floods has doubled from 20 Mha to about 40 Mha in last 10 years. Awareness of this fact has resulted in the formation of the "National Wasteland Development Board" (NWDB) under the aegis of National Landuse and Wasteland Development Council (NLWC) with the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister of India.

  12. Genetic clustering of recent classical swine fever virus isolates from Karnataka, India revealed the emergence of subtype 2.2 replacing subtype 1.1.

    PubMed

    Shivaraj, D B; Patil, S S; Rathnamma, D; Hemadri, D; Isloor, S; Geetha, S; Manjunathareddy, G B; Gajendragad, M R; Rahman, H

    2015-09-01

    The phylogenetic analysis of 11 CSFV isolates from Karnataka, India obtained during the year 2012-13 was undertaken to obtain the most reliable genetic typing of the CSFV isolates based on E2, NS5B and 5'UTR genomic regions. The study indicated that all the 11 CSFV isolates belonged to subgroup 2.2. The most reliable classification was obtained with sequence data from the NS5B region which separated all the isolates based on the history of outbreak and geographic origin. Analysis of full length E2 amino acid sequences revealed different genetic makeup of Indian 2.2 isolates compared to 2.2 isolates from different countries. The group 2.2 viruses are gradually spreading as confirmed by frequent detection/ isolation of group 2.2 viruses in the recent years and replacing the subgroup 1.1 viruses, which were hitherto predominantly involved in CSF outbreaks in India. PMID:26396984

  13. Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K A; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Gadgil, Madhav

    2005-01-01

    The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as riparian land use type, the rarefied richness was higher than that of streams with natural evergreen forests and grasslands. The streams with scrub lands and iron ore mining as the riparian land use had the lowest rarefied richness. Within a landscape, the streams with the natural riparian vegetation had similar community composition. However, streams with natural grasslands as the riparian vegetation, had low diversity and the community composition was similar to those of paddy fields. We discuss how stream insect assemblages differ due to varied riparian land use patterns, reflecting fundamental alterations in the functioning of stream ecosystems. This understanding is vital to conserve, manage and restore tropical riverine ecosystems. PMID:17119631

  14. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Apoorva; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Raghavendra, T.; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID:23365728

  15. Connecting Ancient Land Use and Landform Histories: The Geoarchaeology of Central Karnataka's (South India) Residual Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A. M.; Morrison, K.

    2011-12-01

    In India, environmental historians have promoted the view that human impact on regional environments was relatively modest prior to the advent of colonization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. While this orthodoxy does highlight the significance of recent changes, it is based on unsupportable assumptions about human-environment relationships prior to colonization. Recent research in the southern Deccan, an area characterized by nearly-level plains punctuated with isolated granitic hills, has shown that soils and vegetation were already highly modified by the sixteenth century. We expand this work to show how Iron Age (1200-500 BCE) and Early Historic (500 BCE - CE 500) inhabitants significantly altered the morphology of the granitic inselbergs themselves as well as the distribution of soils in the region, impacting the geomorphological processes that have shaped this environment more generally. Combining archaeological excavation and survey results with multispectral remote sensing analyses of landforms, we argue that ancient agricultural and pastoral land use had environmental consequences that have significantly constrained and enabled land use in later periods.

  16. Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, K.A.; Sivaramakrishnan, K.G.; Gadgil, Madhav

    2005-01-01

    The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as riparian land use type, the rarefied richness was higher than that of streams with natural evergreen forests and grasslands. The streams with scrub lands and iron ore mining as the riparian land use had the lowest rarefied richness. Within a landscape, the streams with the natural riparian vegetation had similar community composition. However, streams with natural grasslands as the riparian vegetation, had low diversity and the community composition was similar to those of paddy fields. We discuss how stream insect assemblages differ due to varied riparian land use patterns, reflecting fundamental alterations in the functioning of stream ecosystems. This understanding is vital to conserve, manage and restore tropical riverine ecosystems. PMID:17119631

  17. Geochemistry of groundwater and groundwater prospects evaluation, Anekal Taluk, Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, P; Venkatesharaju, K; Prakash, K L; Somashekar, R K

    2011-08-01

    Anekal Taluk lies in the southern part of the of Bangalore urban district, known for Bannerghatta wildlife sanctuary, Jigani industrial estate, silk industry, and the electronics city, the pride of India and hub of Bangalore's information technology. In the present study, evaluation of geochemistry of 28 representative bore wells samples from Anekal Taluk was undertaken. It was found that most of the samples (92.9%) belong to Ca(2+ )-Mg(2+ )-Cl( - ) -SO²⁻₄water type with Ca-Mg-Cl and Ca-Cl hydrochemical facies. The groundwater sources were further categorized as normal chloride (32.14%) and normal sulfate (100%) water types based on Cl and SO(4) concentrations. Majority of the samples (64.3%) belong to C3-S1 water class, indicating water with high salinity and low sodium. Positive index of base exchange indicates the chloro-alkaline equilibrium in the study area. Groundwater potential zonation map for Anekal Taluk was generated using multiparametric and weighted overlay method using the spatial analyst tool in ArcGIS v9.2. Accordingly, five distinct classes corresponding to good(high), moderate (medium), moderate to poor (low), poor (very low), and poor to nil (very low) groundwater potential zones were identified in the region. Of this, 85.27% of the study area belongs to good/high to moderate/medium groundwater potential and only 14.73% belonging to moderate/poor to nil groundwater potential zones.

  18. Policy Implications of the Distribution of Public Subsidies on Health and Education: The Case of Karnataka, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahal, Ajay

    2005-01-01

    This article has two primary objectives. The first objective is to assess the manner in which public subsidies for health and education are distributed among people of different socioeconomic standing in the Indian state of Karnataka. The second purpose is to highlight the policy lessons that follow from it. In undertaking these tasks, the author…

  19. Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Mahajanakatti, Arpitha Badarinath; Grandhi, Nisha Jayaprakash; Prasanna, Akshatha; Sen, Ballari; Sharma, Narasimha; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses prudent elucidation of microbial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of the fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India. Water samples were collected from ten hotspots during the year 2011-2012. The physiochemical characteristics and microbial count of water samples collected from most of the hotspots exhibited greater biological oxygen demand and bacterial count especially coliforms in comparison with control samples (p ≤ 0.01). The antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using 48 antibiotics against the bacterial isolates by disk-diffusion assay. The current study showed that out of 848 bacterial isolates, 93.51% (n = 793) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to most of the current generation antibiotics. Among the major isolates, 96.46% (n = 273) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to 30 antibiotics and they were identified to be Escherichia coli by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Similarly, 93.85% (n = 107), 94.49% (n = 103), and 90.22% (n = 157) of the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance to 32, 40, and 37 antibiotics, and they were identified to be Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas trivialis, and Shigella sonnei, respectively. The molecular studies suggested the prevalence of bla TEM genes in all the four isolates and dhfr gene in Escherichia coli and Sh. sonnei. Analogously, most of the other Gram-negative bacteria were found to be multidrug-resistant and the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the water samples were found to be methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first study elucidating the bacterial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, Karnataka, India.

  20. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI =  2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  1. Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of Northeastern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Reshmi; Siddayya; Patil, S G; Sarkar, Atanu; Dadapeer, H J; Yendigeri, Saeed; Ahmed, Rishad; Das, Kusal K

    2013-11-15

    This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in the Mangalur greenstone belt of Karnataka, India. Arsenic contents in water, hair, nail, soil and food were measured by FI-HG-AAS. Elemental analyses of soils were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Of 59 tube-well water samples, 79% had As above 10 μg L(-1) (maximum 303 μg L(-1)). Of 12 topsoil samples, six were found to contain As greater than 2000 mg kg(-1) possibly indicating the impact of mine tailings on the area. All hair and nail samples collected from 171 residents contained elevated As. Arsenical skin lesions were observed among 58.6% of a total 181 screened individuals. Histopathological analysis of puncture biopsies of suspected arsenical dermatological symptoms confirmed the diagnosis in three out of four patients. Based on the time-course of As-like symptoms reported by the community as well as the presence of overt arsenicosis, it is hypothesized that the primary route of exposure in the study area was via contaminated groundwater; however, the identified high As content in residential soil could also be a significant source of As exposure via ingestion. Additional studies are required to determine the extent as well as the relative contribution of geologic and anthropogenic factors in environmental As contamination in the region. This study report is to our knowledge one of the first to describe overt arsenicosis in this region of Karnataka, India as well as more broadly an area with underlying greenstone geology and historic mining activity.

  2. Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of Northeastern Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Reshmi; Siddayya; Patil, S.G.; Sarkar, Atanu; Dadapeer, H.J.; Yendigeri, Saeed; Ahmed, Rishad; Das, Kusal K.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in the Mangalur greenstone belt of Karnataka, India. Arsenic contents in water, hair, nail, soil and food were measured by FI-HG-AAS. Elemental analyses of soils were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Of 59 tube-well water samples, 79% had As above 10 μg L−1 (maximum 303 μg L−1). Of 12 topsoil samples, six were found to contain As greater than 2000 mg kg−1 possibly indicating the impact of mine tailings on the area. All hair and nail samples collected from 171 residents contained elevated As. Arsenical skin lesions were observed among 58.6% of a total 181 screened individuals. Histopathological analysis of puncture biopsies of suspected arsenical dermatological symptoms confirmed the diagnosis in 3 out of 4 patients. Based on the time-course of arsenic-like symptoms reported by the community as well as the presence of overt arsenicosis, it is hypothesized that the primary route of exposure in the study area was via contaminated groundwater; however, the identified high As content in residential soil could also be a significant source of As exposure via ingestion. Additional studies are required to determine the extent as well as the relative contribution of geologic and anthropogenic factors in environmental As contamination in the region. This study report is to our knowledge one of the first to describe overt arsenicosis in this region of Karnataka, India as well as more broadly an area with underlying greenstone geology and historic mining activity. PMID:23228450

  3. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Methods Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Results Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and

  4. Understanding the role of peer group membership in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Prakash, Ravi; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Haranahalli, Mohan; Blanchard, Andrea; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In Karnataka state, South India, we analyzed the role of membership in peer groups in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs). Data from three surveys conducted in Karnataka, a behavioral tracking survey and two rounds of integrated biological and behavioral assessments (IBBAs), were analyzed. Using propensity score matching, we examined the impact of group membership on selected outcomes, including condom use, experience of violence, access to entitlements, and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. Focus group discussions were conducted with the FSWs to better understand their perceptions regarding membership in peer groups. Peer group members participating in the IBBAs had a lower prevalence of gonorrhea and/or chlamydia (5.2 vs 9.6%, p <0.001), and of syphilis (8.2 vs 10.3%, p <0.05), compared to non-members. The average treatment effect for selected outcome measures, from the propensity score matching, showed that FSWs who were members of any peer group reported significantly less experience of violence in the past six months, were less likely to have bribed police to avoid trouble in the past six months, and were more likely to have obtained at least one formal identification document in the past five years, compared to non-members. In focus group discussions, group members indicated that they had more confidence in dealing with situations of forced sex and violence. Including community mobilization and peer group formation in the context of HIV prevention programing can reduce HIV-related risk and vulnerability among FSWs. PMID:23745630

  5. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  6. The Intersection between Sex Work and Reproductive Health in Northern Karnataka, India: Identifying Gaps and Opportunities in the Context of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marissa; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Halli, Shiva; Blanchard, James F.; Raghavendra, T.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa; Mishra, Sharmistha

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the reproductive health practices of female sex workers (FSWs) in the context of an HIV prevention program in Karnataka, India. Methods. Data obtained from a survey of 1,011 FSWs registered with an HIV prevention program. We examined reproductive health indicators, and performed multivariate logistic regression among primiparous FSWs to assess sex work during pregnancy and antenatal HIV testing. Results. Among primiparous FSWs (N = 251), 92.0% continued sex work during pregnancy, and 55.4% received antenatal HIV testing. A longer duration in sex work (AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0–7.5), rural residence (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2–8.9), and antenatal HIV testing (AOR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.0–20.1) were associated with continued sex work during pregnancy. Older FSWs (age >25 years, AOR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.05–0.33), who delivered at home (AOR 0.14, 95% CI: 0.09–0.34), were least likely to receive antenatal HIV testing. Antenatal HIV testing was associated with awareness of methods to prevent vertical HIV transmission (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.9–14.1). Conclusions. Antenatal HIV testing remains low in the context of ongoing sex work during pregnancy. Existing HIV prevention programs are well positioned to immediately integrate reproductive health care with HIV interventions targeted to FSWs. PMID:23346390

  7. Predictors and Timing of ATT Initiation among HIV-TB Patients at ART Centers of Karnataka, India: Two Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. Objectives To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Methods Patients registered at sixteen ART centres in Karnataka, from October through December 2009 formed the study cohort and were followed till December 2011. Results A total of 604 HIV-TB patients were registered. Follow-up (a) at the end of one year had shown 63.6% (377)patients with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (b) at the end of second year, 55.6% (336)patients were alive on ART treatment. The variables male, smear negative TB, CD4 count less than 50cells per cumm and unfavorable TB outcome were significantly associated with unfavorable ART treatment outcome. Conclusions The programmes need to review the existing strategies and strengthen HIV-TB collaborative activities for timely treatment initiation with intensive monitoring of HIV-TB patients on treatment. PMID:26394397

  8. Changes in risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections following HIV preventive interventions among female sex workers in five districts in Karnataka state, south India

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Tara S H; Shajy, Isac; Washington, Reynold; Jagannathan, Latta; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of a large-scale HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSW) in Karnataka state, south India, on the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI), condom use and programme coverage. Methods Baseline and follow-up integrated biological and behavioural surveys were conducted on random samples of FSW in five districts in Karnataka between 2004 and 2009. Results 4712 FSW participated in the study (baseline 2312; follow-up 2400), with follow-up surveys conducted 28–37 months after baseline. By follow-up, over 85% of FSW reported contact by a peer educator and having visited a project STI clinic. Compared with baseline, there were reductions in the prevalence of HIV (19.6% vs 16.4%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99, p=0.04); high-titre syphilis (5.9% vs 3.4%, AOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77, p=0.001); and chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea (8.9% vs 7.0%, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94, p=0.02). Reported condom use at last sex increased significantly for repeat clients (66.1% vs 84.1%, AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.48, p<0.001) and marginally for occasional clients (82.9% vs 88.0%, AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.66, p=0.2), but remained stable for regular partners (32%). Compared with street and home-based FSW, brothel-based FSW were at highest risk of HIV and STI, despite high levels of reported condom use. Conclusions This large-scale HIV prevention programme for FSW achieved reductions in HIV and STI prevalence, high rates of condom use with clients and high rates of programme coverage. Improved strategies to increase condom use with regular partners and reduce the vulnerability of brothel-based FSW to HIV are required. PMID:20167725

  9. An Estimation of Mortality Risks among People Living with HIV in Karnataka State, India: Learnings from an Intensive HIV/AIDS Care and Support Programme

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold; Halli, Shiva S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Indian context, limited attempts have been made to estimate the mortality risks among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We estimated the rates of mortality among PLHIV covered under an integrated HIV-prevention cum care and support programme implemented in Karnataka state, India, and attempted to identify the key programme components associated with the higher likelihood of their survival. Methods Retrospective programme data of 55,801 PLHIV registered with the Samastha programme implemented in Karnataka state during 2006–11 was used. Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to estimate the ten years expected survival probabilities and Cox-proportional hazard model was used to examine the factors associated with risk of mortality among PLHIV. We also calculated mortality rates (per 1000 person-year) across selected demographic and clinical parameters. Results Of the total PLHIV registered with the programme, about nine percent died within the 5-years of programme period with an overall death rate of 38 per 1000 person-years. The mortality rate was higher among males, aged 18 and above, among illiterates, and those residing in rural areas. While the presence of co-infections such as Tuberculosis leads to higher mortality rate, adherence to ART was significantly associated with reduction in overall death rate. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that increase in CD4 cell counts and exposure to intensive care and support programme for at least two years can bring significant reduction in risk of death among PLHIV [(hazard ratio: 0.234; CI: 0.211–0.260) & (hazard ratio: 0.062; CI: 0.054–0.071), respectively] even after adjusting the effect of other socio-demographic, economic and health related confounders. Conclusion Study confirms that while residing in rural areas and presence of co-infection significantly increases the mortality risk among PLHIV, adherence to ART and improvement in CD4 counts led to significant reduction in their mortality risk

  10. Teachers Colleges in the State of Karnataka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umpathy, K. Setty

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of the 30 teachers colleges in the state of Karnataka, India, are described based on questionnaire responses from their principals: year established, administrative control, academic programs, objectives of the B.Ed. course, courses of study, language of instruction, admission requirements, enrollment, facilities, and sources of…

  11. Predictors of Morbidity and Mortality in Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Case Study in Rural Hospital in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Banday, Tanveer Hassan; Tathineni, Bharath; Desai, Mehul Surendra; Naik, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides poisoning can result from occupational, accidental or intentional exposure. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous (CNS) system and cardiovascular disorders. Death is usually due to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Aim: To evaluate various parameters that can predict outcome of patients in OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Department of Medicine, Adichunchingiri Institute Of medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karnataka, over period of 1 year. Diagnosis of OP poisoning was based on clinical history of exposure to OP compound and low serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Results: In the present study 133 patients were enrolled, out of which 98.5% were suicidal cases and only 1.5% had accidental exposure. Majority of cases were young male, with F/M ratio 1:3.2. Mortality rates were higher in younger people and in patients who required prolonged ventilator support. The mortality rate was directly proportional to amount of poison consumed, lag time, organ failure (Acute Renal Failure) and plasma pseudocholinesterase levels. Acute complications were frequently noted and were related to morbidity and mortality. No strict relationship was found between liver dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and clinical outcome. Conclusion: This case study concluded that mortality is directly proportionate to the lag time, amount of OP substances consumed, clinical severity, pseudocholinesterase levels, Acute renal failure and duration of ventilatory support. This study highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis, and initiation of early and effective treatment, which may result in less number complications and also decreases the mortality rates. PMID:26199922

  12. Evolution of Anklesvar anticline, Cambay basin, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, M.K.

    1981-02-01

    The Anklesvar structure, discovered productive by the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in May 1960, is the best hydrocarbon-bearing anticline known in the Cambay basin of India. Situated south of the Narmada River, the structure is a 15 x 2.5-km, doubly plunging, northeast-southwest-trending, asymmetric anticline limited on the south by the South Anklesvar fault system. Regional paleostructural profiles across Anklesvar from Broach on the north to Kosamba on the south suggest that, at the end of the Cretaceous, the regional slope was south. By middle Eocene time, this regional slope had been removed. After the Oligocene, the regional relief of the entire area was reversed, resulting in regional north tilt. The south Anklesvar fault system, a zone of reverse faults, originated probably during the period of reversal. Growth of the Anklesvar anticline was, however, initiated during the Paleocene. One fault on the northern limb developed during the Oligocene. Anklesvar anticline grew into an asymmetric fold in post-Oligocene time as a result of differential movement of the blocks across the strike faults present on both the limbs of the anticline.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25538349

  14. Complications related to blood donation: A multicenter study of the prevalence and influencing factors in voluntary blood donation camps in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajat Kumar; Periyavan, Sundar; Dhanya, Rakesh; Parmar, Lalith G.; Sedai, Amit; Ankita, Kumari; Vaish, Arpit; Sharma, Ritesh; Gowda, Prabha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated from 01-04-2011 to 01-08-2014 in Karnataka. Uniform protocols for donor selection, predonation preparation, counseling, postdonation care, and refreshments were used. The postdonation complications were recorded on a form immediately, after they were observed. Results: We observed 995 (3.2%) complications in 30,928 whole blood donations. Of these 884 (2.86%) mild, 77 (0.25%) moderate, and 5 (0.02%) severe complications were observed. Local symptoms (blood outside vessels, pain, and allergy) contributed 1.0%, and generalized symptoms (vasovagal reaction) contributed 2.2% to all the complications. Conclusion: We observed 322 complications for every 10,000 donations. Since 27 out of every 10000 experience moderate and severe complication, the readiness to manage complications is crucial. Women donors, young donors, and donors with a lower weight are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing complications, highlighting the need for specific guidelines for the management of higher risk donor groups. Complications varied significantly between various blood banks. Predonation hydration was effective in limiting complications with generalized symptoms. We recommend a robust donor hemovigilance program for voluntary blood donation for monitoring complications and enable assessment of effectiveness and implementation of appropriate interventions. PMID:27011671

  15. Causality analysis of groundwater dynamics based on a Vector Autoregressive model in the semi-arid basin of Gundal (South India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Sekhar, M.; Berthon, L.; Javeed, Y.; Mazzega, P.

    2012-08-01

    Causal relationships existing between observed levels of groundwater in a semi-arid sub-basin of the Kabini River basin (Karnataka state, India) are investigated in this study. A Vector Auto Regressive model is used for this purpose. Its structure is built on an upstream/downstream interaction network based on observed hydro-physical properties. Exogenous climatic forcing is used as an input based on cumulated rainfall departure. Optimal models are obtained thanks to a trial approach and are used as a proxy of the dynamics to derive causal networks. It appears to be an interesting tool for analysing the causal relationships existing inside the basin. The causal network reveals 3 main regions: the Northeastern part of the Gundal basin is closely coupled to the outlet dynamics. The Northwestern part is mainly controlled by the climatic forcing and only marginally linked to the outlet dynamic. Finally, the upper part of the basin plays as a forcing rather than a coupling with the lower part of the basin allowing for a separate analysis of this local behaviour. The analysis also reveals differential time scales at work inside the basin when comparing upstream oriented with downstream oriented causalities. In the upper part of the basin, time delays are close to 2 months in the upward direction and lower than 1 month in the downward direction. These time scales are likely to be good indicators of the hydraulic response time of the basin which is a parameter usually difficult to estimate practically. This suggests that, at the sub-basin scale, intra-annual time scales would be more relevant scales for analysing or modelling tropical basin dynamics in hard rock (granitic and gneissic) aquifers ubiquitous in south India.

  16. Retention in pre-antiretroviral treatment care in a district of Karnataka, India: how well are we doing?

    PubMed

    Shankar, D; Kumar, A M V; Rewari, B; Kumar, S; Shastri, S; Satyanarayana, S; Ananthakrishnan, R; Nagaraja, S B; Devi, M; Bhargava, N; Das, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Centre de traitement antirétroviral (ART) du district de Tumkur dans l'état de Karnataka, Inde. Il n'y a pas de document publié sur les perdus de vue avant le traitement ART en Inde.Objectif : Evaluer la proportion de perdus de vue (définis comme l'absence de visite au centre d'ART dans l'année suivant l'enregistrement) et les variables sociodémographiques et immunologiques qui y sont associées.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte impliquant une revue des dossiers médicaux des patients adultes infectés par le VIH (âge ⩾15 ans) enregistrés en soins pré-ART entre janvier 2010 et juin 2012.Résultats : Sur 3238 patients enregistrés, 2519 (78%) étaient éligibles pour le traitement ART tandis que 719 (22%) ne l'étaient pas. Quatre de ces derniers ont été transférés. Parmi les 715 individus enrôlés en soin pré-ART, 290 (41%) ont été perdus de vue. Les facteurs associés avec le fait d'être perdus de vue en analyse multivariée incluaient la tranche d'âge ⩾45 ans, un niveau d'instruction faible, le célibat, le stade 3 ou 4 de l'OMS et la résidence en milieu rural.Conclusion : Près de quatre individus sur 10 en soins pre-ART ont été perdus de vue dans l'année suivant leur enregistrement. Ceci requiert une attention urgente. L'analyse de cohorte en routine du programme national devrait inclure les patients en soins pré-ART afin d'améliorer la revue des cas, leur suivi et leur supervision. Une recherche qualitative ultérieure afin de cerner les raisons des pertes de vue est nécessaire pour concevoir les interventions futures.

  17. Changes in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers from three serial cross-sectional surveys in Karnataka state, South India

    PubMed Central

    Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Rajaram, S; Washington, Reynold; Bradley, Janet E; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Beattie, Tara S; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper examined trends over time in condom use, and the prevalences of HIV and syphilis, among female sex workers (FSWs) in South India. Design Data from three rounds of cross-sectional surveys were analysed, with HIV and high-titre syphilis prevalence as outcome variables. Multivariable analysis was applied to examine changes in prevalence over time. Setting Five districts in Karnataka state, India. Participants 7015 FSWs were interviewed over three rounds of surveys (round 1=2277; round 2=2387 and round 3=2351). Women who reported selling sex in exchange for money or gifts in the past month, and aged between 18 and 49 years, were included. Interventions The surveys were conducted to monitor a targeted HIV prevention programme during 2004–2012. The main interventions included peer-led community outreach, services for the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and empowering FSWs through community mobilisation. Results HIV prevalence declined significantly from rounds 1 to 3, from 19.6% to 10.8% (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.48, p<0.001); high-titre syphilis prevalence declined from 5.9% to 2.4% (AOR=0.50, p<0.001). Reductions were observed in most substrata of FSWs, although reductions among new sex workers, and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, were not statistically significant. Condom use ‘always’ with occasional clients increased from 73% to 91% (AOR=1.9, p<0.001), with repeat clients from 52% to 86% (AOR=5.0, p<0.001) and with regular partners from 12% to 30% (AOR=4.2, p<0.001). Increased condom use was associated with exposure to the programme. However, condom use with regular partners remained low. Conclusions The prevalences of HIV infection and high-titre syphilis among FSWs have steadily declined with increased condom use. Further reductions in prevalence will require intensification of prevention efforts for new FSWs and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, as well as

  18. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India.

  19. Girl, woman, lover, mother: towards a new understanding of child prostitution among young Devadasis in rural Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Treena Rae

    2007-06-01

    The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers.

  20. Occupational stress and health-related quality of life among public sector bank employees: A cross-sectional study in Mysore, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Malamardi, Sowmya N.; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Phadnis, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational morbidities have been estimated to cause an economic loss up to 10–20% of the gross national product of a country. It is an important cause of occupational morbidity and decreased quality of life (QOL) for the workers. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the level of occupational stress and its association with the QOL among the public sector bank employees. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among employees of public sector banks in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study. Job stress was measured by using occupational stress index (OSI) scale questionnaire and health-related QOL was measured using the short form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The sample size estimated for the study was 526 and cluster random sampling technique was used. Chi-square test was used to find the association between the study variables and level of stress. Multiple linear regression model was used to find the determinants of health-related QOL among the study subjects. Results: The total number of the study subjects was 546 out of which 57% were males and 43% were females. The proportion of study subjects reporting to be current smokers was 4.2% and almost all study subjects reported occasional alcohol consumption. The mean physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) using the original United States standardization were 47.90 and 48.30, respectively. The individuals with mild stress scored higher in both PCS and MCS than the individuals who had moderate to severe stress levels. There was significant association of health related quality of life with the age of the respondent,presence of at least one morbidity and level of stress with health-related QOL. Conclusion: This study has shown an association of occupational stress with the QOL. There is a need for interventions aimed at mitigating the occupational stress among employees of the banking sector. PMID

  1. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence

  2. The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.

    PubMed

    Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

    1982-01-01

    The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as

  3. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, J.-M.; Hoareau, J.; Grammare, M.; Caron, D.; Nandagiri, L.; Legchenko, A.

    2012-11-01

    Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements. We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m-2 of surface area (± 50%). We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  4. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2015-11-01

    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection.

  5. Effectiveness of Onsite Nurse Mentoring in Improving Quality of Institutional Births in the Primary Health Centres of High Priority Districts of Karnataka, South India: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Janet; Mony, Prem; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Rao, Suman; Thomas, Annamma; S, Rajaram; Kar, Arin; N, Swaroop; B M, Ramesh; H L, Mohan; Fischer, Elizabeth; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. Methods All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. Results Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better

  6. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem. PMID:26818015

  7. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  8. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  9. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Lippert, Peter C; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H

    2012-05-15

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"-Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  10. Tribes in Karnataka: Status of health research

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Subarna; Hegde, Harsha V.; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Upadhya, Vinayak; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.

    2015-01-01

    The south Indian State of Karnataka, once part of several kingdoms and princely states of repute in the Deccan peninsula, is rich in its historic, cultural and anthropological heritage. The State is the home to 42,48,987 tribal people, of whom 50,870 belong to the primitive group. Although these people represent only 6.95 per cent of the population of the State, there are as many as 50 different tribes notified by the Government of India, living in Karnataka, of which 14 tribes including two primitive ones, are primarily natives of this State. Extreme poverty and neglect over generations have left them in poor state of health and nutrition. Unfortunately, despite efforts from the Government and non-Governmental organizations alike, literature that is available to assess the state of health of these tribes of the region remains scanty. It is however, interesting to note that most of these tribes who had been original natives of the forests of the Western Ghats have been privy to an enormous amount of knowledge about various medicinal plants and their use in traditional/folklore medicine and these practices have been the subject matter of various scientific studies. This article is an attempt to list and map the various tribes of the State of Karnataka and review the studies carried out on the health of these ethnic groups, and the information obtained about the traditional health practices from these people. PMID:26139788

  11. Early Opening of Seychelles and India: the Gop Basin Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, J.; Vadakkeyakath, Y.; Bhattacharya, G.

    2012-12-01

    The deep offshore region located between the India-Pakistan continental margin and the Laxmi Ridge continental sliver contains valuable imprints of the early oceanic opening phase between India and the Seychelles. The acquisition of wide-angle deep seismic data by British scientists in 2003 provided new information about the deep structure and nature of the crust [1,2]. These data complement the large amount of seismic reflection profiles, altimetry-derived gravity and marine magnetic data which allow mapping the structure and determining the age of the oceanic crust [3,4,5]. Although these authors all agree on the oceanic nature of the Gop Basin, they surprisingly differ on the extent of the oceanic crust, the location of the extinct spreading center and the age of the basin. Here we re-evaluate published interpretations of the Gop Basin in light of all available data. The major discrepancy between [1,2,4] and [5] is the location of the extinct spreading center. [1,2,4] place it on an unnamed basement high located at 19°55'N, whereas [5] identify it with the Palitana Ridge at 19°25'N. Checking the location of the basement high of [1,2,4] on the basement isobath map of [3], based on many seismic reflection profiles, reveals that this basement high actually is an isolated feature of limited extent, which at best can be considered as part of a NE-SW trending basement high zone. This basement high locally coincides with a strong positive magnetic anomaly and a narrow gravity anomaly low but the trend of these anomalies is E-W, in contrast to the NE-SW trend of the basement in this area. For these reasons, this basement high probably is not the location of the Gop Basin extinct spreading center. Conversely, on the basement isobath map of [3], the Palitana Ridge appears as a prominent E-W high, located in the middle of a broad E-W graben, the Gop Basin. It extends over 200 km and is flanked on both sides by basement 2000 m deeper. On free air gravity anomaly maps, the

  12. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  13. Rifting to India-Asia Reactivation: Multi-phase Structural Evolution of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. J.; Bladon, A.; Clarke, S.; Najman, Y.; Copley, A.; Kloppenburg, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Barmer Basin, situated within the West Indian Rift System, is an intra-cratonic rift basin produced during Gondwana break-up. Despite being a prominent oil and gas province, the structural evolution and context of the rift within northwest India remains poorly understood. Substantial subsurface datasets acquired during hydrocarbon exploration provide an unrivalled tool to investigate the tectonic evolution of the Barmer Basin rift and northwest India during India-Asia collision. Here we present a structural analysis using seismic datasets to investigate Barmer Basin evolution and place findings within the context of northwest India development. Present day rift structural architectures result from superposition of two non-coaxial extensional events; an early mid-Cretaceous rift-oblique event (NW-SE), followed by a main Paleocene rifting phase (NE-SW). Three phases of fault reactivation follow rifting: A transpressive, Late Paleocene inversion along localised E-W and NNE-SSW-trending faults; a widespread Late Paleocene-Early Eocene inversion and Late Miocene-Present Day transpressive strike-slip faulting along NW-SE-trending faults and isolated inversion structures. A major Late Eocene-Miocene unconformity in the basin is also identified, approximately coeval with those identified within the Himalayan foreland basin, suggesting a common cause related to India-Asia collision, and calling into question previous explanations that are not compatible with spatial extension of the unconformity beyond the foreland basin. Although, relatively poorly age constrained, extensional and compressional events within the Barmer Basin can be correlated with regional tectonic processes including the fragmentation of Gondwana, the rapid migration of the Greater Indian continent, to subsequent collision with Asia. New insights into the Barmer Basin development have important implications not only for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration but the temporal evolution of northwest India.

  14. Riparian vegetation assessment of Cauvery River Basin of South India.

    PubMed

    Sunil, C; Somashekar, R K; Nagaraja, B C

    2010-11-01

    The Cauvery river basin of South India has a large phyto-floristic wealth, rightfully enough to constitute a separate phyto-geographic unit. Increase in the anthropogenic pressures within the river basin and surrounding landscapes have persistently stressed the riparian ecosystem structure adversely, besides altering its composition. The objective of this study was to examine the present status of riparian vegetation along the Cauvery river basin, in response to anthropogenic pressures. For vegetation analysis, the riparian forest coming in the middle stretch of Cauvery river was categorized into two zones, viz., forest zone covering ~54 km stretch and agroecosystem zone covering ~80 km stretch. In each zone, tree species were quantified using transects at 8-km interval. Overall tree species accounting for both forest and agroecosystem were recorded and compared. The results indicate that the mean density and basal area of trees per plot were higher in the forest zone than agroecosystem zone. The Shannon-Weiner diversity of forest zone is 4.6, which is higher than agroecosystem. In addition, species composition indicated a relatively low or poor similarity between the two zones. The vegetation density and site disturbance scores for all the study sites reveals that sand mining and grazing areas have exerted negative impact on riparian forest. The results of the present study clearly brought out the need for preparing and implementing site-specific conservation plans for riparian ecosystem.

  15. Variations in the total water storage in the major river basins of India from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Swenson, S.

    2008-12-01

    We present an estimate of total water storage variations of the major river basins of India during the period of 2002 to mid 2008 from modelling of time-variable gravity field observed by GRACE satellite by utilising the scheme of Swenson and Wahr, (2002). The largest annual volume change is observed over the upper Ganga basin, followed by the lower Gnaga basin and the Yamuna basin of northern India. Basins of northern India show a declining trend of water storage over this time period, whereas the Godavari basin, the largest basin of central south India, as well as basins in central India show similar seasonal variations but increasing trends. It is interesting to note that these trends are prevalent over a decadal time period of ground water level and therefore the trend observed from GRACE data can be extrapolated backward. If these trends are sustained over a long time period, northern India and Bangladesh will lead to a major water crisis

  16. Temporal variation in the specific growth rate of bacterioplankton in the River Cauvery and its four down stream tributaries in Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Tondoti Sathyanarayana Rao, Harsha; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand Mallappa; Mallaiah, Mahadeveswamy

    2009-07-01

    The temporal variation in the Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of natural population of heterotrophic bacterioplankton of the river Cauvery and its four down stream tributaries in Karnataka State was monitored over a period of two years from February 2000 to January 2002. The SGR was calculated by taking into account only the abundance of bacterioplankton at the beginning (0 h) and at the end (48 h) incubation period, at room or river temperature. The mean SGR was less and significantly different in the surface waters of river Kapila, Shimsha, Suvarnavathy and Arkavathy. But it was more and significantly different in river Cauvery when compared to other tributaries. This suggests that the river Cauvery was more favorable habitat for SGR of bacterioplankton than the other four watercourses studied. Investigation of interrelationship between SGR and other bacterial variables showed presence of only one correlation with direct counts of particle bound bacteria in river Arkavathy. Further, the relationship between SGR of bacterioplankton and other environmental variables showed the presence of six correlations in river Shimsha, five in river Suvarnavathy, three in river Cauvery, and two each in river Kapila and river Arkavathy. Negative SGR were recorded on thirteen occasions in river Cauvery followed by eleven in river Shimsha, nine in river Suvarnavathy, seven in river Arkavathy and five in river Kapila, out of fifty SGR determinations. This negative SGR were a result of decrease in the observed bacterial cell counts after 48 h incubation from that of 0 h count. The probable reason for such negative growth rate and dependency of SGR of bacterioplankton and environmental variables has been discussed. PMID:18600464

  17. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia

    PubMed Central

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lippert, Peter C.; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2012-01-01

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India–Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic “Greater India” promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North–South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma “India”–Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The “hard” India–Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25–20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography. PMID:22547792

  18. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously) and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face). Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.001); to have accessed the HIV intervention program (ever contacted by peer educator, 84.9% vs. 89.6%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0, p = 0.04); or to have ever visited the project sexual health clinic (59.0% vs. 68.1%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0, p = 0.02); and were significantly more likely to be infected with gonorrhea (5.0% vs. 2.6%, AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3, p = 0.02). By the follow-up surveys, significant reductions were seen in the proportions of FSWs reporting violence compared with baseline (IBBA 13.0% vs. 9.0%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9 p = 0.01; PBS 27.3% vs. 18.9%, crude OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach

  19. Rift basins in western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects with special reference to Kutch basin

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S.K.

    1982-10-01

    The western continental margin of India can be classed as a divergent or passive margin. The western continental shelf is an extensive carbonate bank (Bombay offshore basin) passing into clastic sediments on the north and south. Three craton-margin embayed basins-Kutch, Cambay, and Narmada- in the northern part of the shelf, are filled predominantly with clastic sediments. These basins occupy grabens bounded by faults diverging seaward. The grabens were formed by three rift systems along major Precambrian tectonic trends. The rifting developed sequentially from north to south around the Saurashtra horst. Kutch basin was formed in the Early Jurassic, followed by Cambay basin in Early Cretaceous time, and the Narmada in the Late Cretaceous. It appears that these rifting events occurred at successive stages during the northward migration of the Indian plate after its break from Gondwanaland in Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. It is inferred that these rift basins opened up successively as a result of the counterclockwise drift of the Indian craton. Bombay offshore and Cambay are two major oil-producing basins in the western margin. These basins are characterized by high geothermal gradients attributed to the shallowness of the mantle in this region. Oil has not been found in KUtch basin, which is mainly an onshore Mesozoic basin. The basin basin depocenter shifted offshore at the northwestern part of the continental shelf where the shelf is wide.

  20. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, HL; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Ramesh, BM; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte H; Heise, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (four districts) (2005 to 2011) and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS) (16 districts) (2007 to 2011) were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1) changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2) associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. Results 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS) (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, p<0.001), being arrested in the past year [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.57 (0.35, 0.93), p=0.025] and being beaten in the past six months by a non-partner (clients, police, pimps, strangers, rowdies) [AOR 0.69 (0.49, 0.95), p=0.024)] (IBBA). The proportion drinking alcohol (during the past week) also fell significantly (32.5% in 2005, 24.9% in 2008, 16.8% in 2011; p<0.001). Violence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months) and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15), p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12), p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week) [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53), p<0.001; AOR 2.79 (1.93, 4.04), p<0.001, respectively], reduced condom self-efficacy with clients [AOR 0.36 (0.27, 0.47), p<0.001; AOR 0.62 (0.39, 0.98), p=0.039, respectively], symptomatic STI (during the past

  1. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1

  2. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1

  3. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  4. South China connected to north India in Gondwana: sedimentary basin and detrital provenance analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z. X.; Li, W. X.; Li, X. H.; Yang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The paleoposition of South China during the Ediacaran-Silurian is important for understanding the assembly of Gondwana. We report here the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China, and discuss South China's connection with Gondwana and potential tectonic triggers for both the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India. The Nanhua basin was involved in a three-stage evolution, which are: Stage 1 (the Ediacaran-Cambrian) recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine clastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2 (the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian) featured by migrating depocentres with dominant shallow marine to deltaic clastic deposition, fed by the local Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; and Stage 3 (the Silurian) showing the arrival of depocentre in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. Detrital zircon analyses of the Ediacaran-Silurian sandstones across the Nanhua basin reveal a prominent age population of 1100-900 Ma (with a peak age at ~980 Ma) and moderate populations of Archean-Paleozoic ages, grossly matching that of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in northern India. Zircon isotopes of the Stage 1 samples suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth at 3.0 Ga, 2.5 Ga and 1.0 Ga, and a major crustal reworking at 580-500 Ma for the source areas, which are constraint to be northwestern India and its surrounding orogens. Together with other evidence, we propose that South China likely collided with northwestern India during the Gondwana assembly, generated the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India and formed two foreland basins on both the north India and South China sides. Far-field stress of the collision triggered the Ordovician-Silurian Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China. The Stage 2-3 samples in the Nanhua basin of South China were shed

  5. Aeromagnetic anomalies uncover the Precambrian basement in the Chhattisgarh basin area, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Bahadur; Singh, Nagendra; Murthy, A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents aeromagnetic images for the Chhattisgarh basin region, in Central India, to provide a new window on Precambrian basement geology and structure. On the basis of aeromagnetic patterns, the Chhattisgarh basin is sub-divided into a northern low (negative) anomaly zone and a southern high (positive) anomaly zone. The northern portion of the main Chhattisgarh basin has been further divided into two subbasins, the Hirri sub-basin in the west, and Baradwar sub-basin in the east. A prominent negative anomaly delineates a NW-SE trending greenstone belt separating these sub-basins. Positive magnetic anomalies delineate the extent of the Dongargarh granite and equivalents, while the weak magnetic anomaly in the southeast of the Dongargarh granite and equivalents reflect granulite gneisses of the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. By applying the reduced-to-the-equator filter we enhanced the possible magnetic sources and structural lineaments within the Chhattisgarh basin. A new sketch map of structural elements was then compiled from aeromagnetic interpretation over the Chhattisgarh basin area. It includes possible faults, folds and an inferred lithological boundary.

  6. Trend analysis of rainfall time series for Sindh river basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sarita; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The study of precipitation trends is critically important for a country like India whose food security and economy are dependent on the timely availability of water such as 83 % water used for agriculture sector, 12 % for industry sector and only 5 % for domestic sector. In this study, the historical rainfall data for the periods 1901-2002 and 1942-2002 of the Sindh river basin, India, were analysed for monthly, seasonal and annual trends. The conventional Mann-Kendall test (MK) and Mann-Kendall test (MMK), after the removal of the effect of all significant autocorrelation coefficients, and Sen's slope estimator were used to identify the trends. Kriging technique was used for interpolating the spatial pattern using Arc GIS 9.3. The analysis suggested significant increase in the trend of rainfall for seasonal and annual series in the Sindh basin during 1901-2002.

  7. Heavy metal transport in the hindon river basin, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K; Sharma, M K

    2006-01-01

    Total mass transfers of heavy metal in dissolved and particulate form has been determined in the downstream section of river Hindon, an important tributary of river Yamuna (India). The contribution of different point sources to the river Hindon has also been assessed. The river Kali has the largest contribution to the river Hindon. The highest metal loads were related to the highest flow of the river and thereby increased both by surface runoff and sediment resuspension. The contribution of monsoon months to the total transported load was also calculated and it was observed that monsoon months contributes more than 40% of total loading annually for all the metals. The metal fluxes from the river Hindon were compared with other rivers of Indian sub-continent. PMID:16404544

  8. Heavy metal transport in the hindon river basin, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K; Sharma, M K

    2006-01-01

    Total mass transfers of heavy metal in dissolved and particulate form has been determined in the downstream section of river Hindon, an important tributary of river Yamuna (India). The contribution of different point sources to the river Hindon has also been assessed. The river Kali has the largest contribution to the river Hindon. The highest metal loads were related to the highest flow of the river and thereby increased both by surface runoff and sediment resuspension. The contribution of monsoon months to the total transported load was also calculated and it was observed that monsoon months contributes more than 40% of total loading annually for all the metals. The metal fluxes from the river Hindon were compared with other rivers of Indian sub-continent.

  9. Implementing blended learning into the academic programs of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D

    2014-06-01

    Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India, is established by an Act of Karnataka State Legislature in the year 1996. Its mandate is to provide training and development in health sciences sector. This University has done pioneering work in the field of curriculum designing for all the health sciences courses offered by the affiliated institutions. In this regard, it has taken lead among all the health sciences universities in India. With student strength of more than one lakh, it has now become a necessity to explore all the possible technological options, so as to provide a comprehensive education to the students. In this context, a proposal has been submitted to the executive head of the University to implement the Blended Learning Program.

  10. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    NGHP-01 yielded evidence of gas hydrate from downhole log and core data obtained from all the sites in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, the Mahanadi Basin, and in the Andaman Sea. The site drilled in the Kerala–Konkan Basin during NGHP-01 did not yield any evidence of gas hydrate. Most of the downhole log-inferred gas hydrate and core-recovered gas hydrate were characterized as either fracture-filling in clay-dominated sediments or as pore-filling or grain-displacement particles disseminated in both fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Geochemical analyses of gases obtained from sediment cores recovered during NGHP-01 indicated that the gas in most all of the hydrates in the offshore of India is derived from microbial sources; only one site in the Andaman Sea exhibited limited evidence of a thermogenic gas source. The gas hydrate petroleum system concept has been used to effectively characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in the offshore of India.

  11. The astronomical significance of megalithic stone alignments at Vibhuthihalli in northern Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya

    2010-03-01

    A megalithic site at Vibhuthihalli in Karnataka, India, contains alignments of stones that are arranged in a square pattern with rows and columns showing a diagonal arrangement. Such structures are non-sepulchral, and although their purpose is not clear it has been suggested that they have astronomical significance. We investigated this possibility and our observations showed that the rows of stones point to the direction of equinoctial sunrise and sunset. lt is likely that calendrical events were monitored at this site.

  12. The record of India-Asia collision preserved in Tethyan ocean basin sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Yani; Jenks, Dan; Godin, Laurent; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Bown, Paul; Horstwood, Matt; Garzanti, Eduardo; Bracialli, Laura; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the understanding of crustal deformation processes, since, for example, it impacts on calculations regarding the amount of convergence that needs to be accommodated by various mechanisms. In this research we use sediments originally deposited in the Tethyan ocean basin and now preserved in the Himalayan orogeny to constrain the timing of collision. In the NW Himalaya, a number of workers have proposed a ca 55-50 Ma age for collision along the Indus suture zone which separates India from the Kohistan-Ladakh Intraoceanic Island arc (KLA) to the north. This is based on a number of factors including the age of youngest marine sediments in the Indus suture (e.g. Green et al. 2008), age of eclogites indicative of onset of Indian continental subduction (e.g. de Sigoyer et al. 2000), and first evidence of detritus from north of the suture zone deposited on the Indian plate (e.g. Clift et al. 2002). Such evidence can be interpreted as documenting the age of India-Asia collision if one takes the KLA to have collided with the Asian plate prior to its collision with India (e.g. Petterson 2010 and refs therein). However, an increasing number of workers propose that the KLA collided with Asia subsequent to its earlier collision with India, dated variously at 85 Ma (Chatterjee et al. 2013), 61 Ma (Khan et al. 2009) and 50 Ma (Bouilhol et al. 2013). This, plus the questioning of earlier provenance work (Clift et al. 2002) regarding the validity of their data for constraining timing of earliest arrival of material north of the suture deposited on the Indian plate (Henderson et al. 2011) suggests that the time is right for a reappraisal of this topic. We use a provenance-based approach here, using combined U-Pb and Hf on detrital zircons from Tethyan ocean basin sediments, along with petrography and biostratigraphy, to identify first arrival of material from north of the Indian plate to arrive on the Indian continent, to constrain

  13. Water quality in select regions of Cauvery Delta River basin, southern India, with emphasis on monsoonal variation.

    PubMed

    Solaraj, Govindaraj; Dhanakumar, Selvaraj; Murthy, Kuppuraj Rutharvel; Mohanraj, Rangaswamy

    2010-07-01

    Delta regions of the Cauvery River basin are one of the significant areas of rice production in India. In spite of large-scale utilization of the river basin for irrigation and drinking purposes, the lack of appropriate water management has seemingly deteriorated the water quality due to increasing anthropogenic activities. To assess the extent of deterioration, physicochemical characteristics of surface water were analyzed monthly in select regions of Cauvery Delta River basin, India, during July 2007 to December 2007. Total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, and phosphate recorded maximum levels of 1,638, 96, and 0.43 mg/l, respectively, exceeding the permissible levels at certain sampling stations. Monsoonal rains in Cauvery River basin and the subsequent increase in river flow rate influences certain parameters like dissolved solids, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen. Agricultural runoff from watershed, sewage, and industrial effluents are suspected as probable factors of water pollution. PMID:19496010

  14. Water quality in select regions of Cauvery Delta River basin, southern India, with emphasis on monsoonal variation.

    PubMed

    Solaraj, Govindaraj; Dhanakumar, Selvaraj; Murthy, Kuppuraj Rutharvel; Mohanraj, Rangaswamy

    2010-07-01

    Delta regions of the Cauvery River basin are one of the significant areas of rice production in India. In spite of large-scale utilization of the river basin for irrigation and drinking purposes, the lack of appropriate water management has seemingly deteriorated the water quality due to increasing anthropogenic activities. To assess the extent of deterioration, physicochemical characteristics of surface water were analyzed monthly in select regions of Cauvery Delta River basin, India, during July 2007 to December 2007. Total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, and phosphate recorded maximum levels of 1,638, 96, and 0.43 mg/l, respectively, exceeding the permissible levels at certain sampling stations. Monsoonal rains in Cauvery River basin and the subsequent increase in river flow rate influences certain parameters like dissolved solids, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen. Agricultural runoff from watershed, sewage, and industrial effluents are suspected as probable factors of water pollution.

  15. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  16. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Kashmir Basin Fault is located in the Jammu and Kashmir region of Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya, India. It is a classic example of an out-of-sequence thrust faulting and is tectonically active as observed from multiple geological evidences. Its geomorphology, structure and lateral extent indicate significant accommodation of stress since long, which is further supported by the absence of a large earthquake in this region. It seems this fault is actively accommodating some portion of the total India-Eurasia convergence, apart from two well-recognised active structures the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust, which are referred in Vassallo et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 411:241-252, 2015). This requires its quantification and inclusion into slip distribution scheme of NW Himalaya. Therefore, it should be explored extensively because this internal out-of-sequence thrust could serve major seismic hazard in KB, repeating a situation similar to Muzaffarabad earthquake of Northern Pakistan in 2005.

  17. Changing Pattern of Heavy Rainstorms in Indus Basin of India Under Global Warming Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, N. R.; Kulakarni, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    A major concern of the hydraulic design engineers is to determine a practical value for the design storm where maximum protection against structural failure is required. Design of such structures is based on the extremely large values such as 'Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP)'. The estimation of PMP involves selection of heavy rainstorm, its areal rainfall distribution and maximization of areal rainfall for moisture content. The study attempts to examine the characteristics of heavy rainstorms of Indus basin located in northern parts of India under changing climate and to provide information on heavy rainfall over a large area which serves as a guide in hydrologic design projects in the basin. The Indus river originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash ranges in the Himalaya and flows through India and Pakistan where it meets Arabian sea. Heavy rainstorms occurred in the Indus basin during 1971-2009 are selected and analyzed. Future scenarios of such heavy rainstorms occurring in this basin are projected using regional climate model, PRECIS (Providing REgional Climate for Impact Studies) scenarios for the period 2071-2100. Baseline simulations (1961-1990) generated by this model used to assess the efficiency of the model to generate widespread heavy rainfall in the basin. Primary emphasis is given on the areal distribution of rainfall during severe rainstorms having durations of 24 hours and producing excessive amount of rainfall over an area of at least 25000 square kilometers with rainfall intensity at the centre of rainstorm more than 30cm. Information is also provided on other important storm factors such as its shape, orientation and movement. Fig.1 shows the spatial patterns of severe-most rainstorms from observational data sets, baseline and future simulated datasets from PRECIS. Table gives the average shape factor (ratio of major to minor axis) and average orientation of these rainstorms. In general it is observed that common shape of the

  18. Upper Cisuralian palynology and palaeoclimate of Manuguru area Godavari basin, India and their global correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Pauline Sabina; Jha, Neerja

    2014-10-01

    The Permian system of the Palaeozoic Erathem is divided into three series, the Early Permian Cisuralian Series, the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, and the Late Permian Lopingian Series. The Cisuralian Series encompasses the Asselian to Kungurian stages which constitute the basal part of the Gondwana supersequence I. In India, they are represented lithostratigraphically by the Talchir, Karharbari, and Barakar formations. This paper presents the palynological results from the Barakar Formation of the Upper Cisuralian Series from Manuguru which lies in the southeastern part of the Godavari basin. The succession studied comprises 35 subsurface samples from bore hole 1007 represented by clay, shale, sandstone, and coal. The palynofloras in this sequence have a homogenous composition demonstrating that not many significant floral changes took place through the considered stratigraphic range. The entire sequence is characterized by the dominance of nonstriate bisaccate genus Scheuringipollenites and sub-dominance of striate bisaccate genus Faunipollenites(= Protohaploxypinus). The other pollen genera among the nonstriate bisaccates are Rhizomaspora, Primuspollenites, Ibisporites, and Platysaccus. The striate bisaccates include Striatites, Striatopodocarpites, and Stroterosporites. The taeniate taxa are represented by Lueckisporites and Lunatisporites. The common monosaccate genera include Caheniasaccites, Potoniesporites, and Barakarites. Spores are less common and include Latosporites, Brevitriletes, Horriditriletes, Microbaculispora, and Callumispora. They characterize the palynofloral composition of the Lower Barakar Formation. The correlation of this assemblage with some of the biostratigraphic palynozones proposed previously for the Cisuralian sequences of the Paraná Basin of South America, Kalahari Karoo Basin of South Africa, Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, East Africa as well as palynoassemblages from South Victoria Land and Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and

  19. The record of India-Asia collision preserved in Tethyan ocean basin sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Yani; Jenks, Dan; Godin, Laurent; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Bown, Paul; Horstwood, Matt; Garzanti, Eduardo; Bracialli, Laura; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the understanding of crustal deformation processes, since, for example, it impacts on calculations regarding the amount of convergence that needs to be accommodated by various mechanisms. In this research we use sediments originally deposited in the Tethyan ocean basin and now preserved in the Himalayan orogeny to constrain the timing of collision. In the NW Himalaya, a number of workers have proposed a ca 55-50 Ma age for collision along the Indus suture zone which separates India from the Kohistan-Ladakh Intraoceanic Island arc (KLA) to the north. This is based on a number of factors including the age of youngest marine sediments in the Indus suture (e.g. Green et al. 2008), age of eclogites indicative of onset of Indian continental subduction (e.g. de Sigoyer et al. 2000), and first evidence of detritus from north of the suture zone deposited on the Indian plate (e.g. Clift et al. 2002). Such evidence can be interpreted as documenting the age of India-Asia collision if one takes the KLA to have collided with the Asian plate prior to its collision with India (e.g. Petterson 2010 and refs therein). However, an increasing number of workers propose that the KLA collided with Asia subsequent to its earlier collision with India, dated variously at 85 Ma (Chatterjee et al. 2013), 61 Ma (Khan et al. 2009) and 50 Ma (Bouilhol et al. 2013). This, plus the questioning of earlier provenance work (Clift et al. 2002) regarding the validity of their data for constraining timing of earliest arrival of material north of the suture deposited on the Indian plate (Henderson et al. 2011) suggests that the time is right for a reappraisal of this topic. We use a provenance-based approach here, using combined U-Pb and Hf on detrital zircons from Tethyan ocean basin sediments, along with petrography and biostratigraphy, to identify first arrival of material from north of the Indian plate to arrive on the Indian continent, to constrain

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2015-08-28

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  1. Recent trends in sediment load of the tropical (Peninsular) river basins of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Dileep K.; Kumar, A.; Mohanty, S.

    2011-02-01

    The tropical river basins of India are important because of the coastal ecosystem that they sustain and the densely populated economic zones that they serve. This study examines the recent trends in sediment load and also explores the influence of the climatic and human forcing mechanisms on the land-ocean fluvial systems. A large dataset comprised of the sediment time series of different timescale during the period 1986-87 to 2005-06 from 133 gauging stations spreading across tropical river basins of India was analyzed. Results indicate dramatic reductions in sediment load in the tropical river basins, which is beyond the fold of assignable natural variability. Around 88% (62%) of the total 133 gauging stations showed decline in sediment loads in the monsoon (non-monsoon) season. The significant downward trends outnumbered the corresponding upward trends in high proportions for both the seasons. Striking spatial coherence was observed among the significant trends, suggesting the presence of the cross-correlation among the sediment records. The regional trends, which account the spatial correlation, also indicated the widespread nature of the sediment declines. The rainfall, which is characterized by the non-significant decreasing trends and also frequent drought years, is the primary controller of the sediment loads for most of the river basins. It may be inferred that a little change in rainfall towards the deficit side leads to a significant reduction in sediment load. This is due to the diversion and storage of runoff to meet the manifold increases in water requirements for the agriculture and industry. Among the tropical rivers, the maximum reduction in sediment flux has taken place for the Normada River (-2.07 × 10 6 t/yr) due to the construction of dam. Although the sea level is rising, we speculate that the significant reduction in sediment loads may also have influenced the coastal erosion in recent years. The results of this study can be utilized for the

  2. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  3. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: Regional modeling analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  4. Thermal history of the Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology and organic maturity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Himansu S.; Raab, Matthias J.; Kohn, Barry P.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Bal, Kiron D.

    2013-09-01

    The Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, a passive margin Late Carboniferous to Holocene basin along the rifted east coast of India, includes the deltaic and inter-deltaic regions of the Krishna and Godavari rivers onshore and extends into the offshore. It is one of India's premier hydrocarbon-bearing basins. In an attempt to better understand the thermal history of the basin, apatite fission track (AFT) data has been obtained from six exploration wells (five onshore and one offshore). AFT thermal history models as well as other thermal indicators e.g. vitrinite reflectance (VR), Rock-Eval Tmax data reveal that the host rocks are currently at their maximum post-depositional temperatures and that any possible heating related to small-scale tectonism or rifting episodes in the basin bears little significance on the maturation of the sediments. In the case of one borehole (M-1) however, the organic maturity data reveals a period of Oligocene cooling across an unconformity when ∼1000 m of section was eroded due to falling sea-level. This information offers the potential for improved basin modeling of the KG basin.

  5. Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

    2014-04-01

    The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other

  6. Gas Hydrate Deposits in the Cauvery-Mannar Offshore Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of geophysical and coring data from Mahanadi and Krishna-Godavari offshore basins, eastern continental margin of India, has established the presence of gas hydrate deposits; however, other promising petroliferous basins are relatively unexplored for gas hydrates. A collaborative program between GSI/MoM and CSIR-NIO was formulated to explore the Cauvery-Mannar offshore basin for gas hydrate deposits (Fig. 1a). High quality multi-channel reflection seismics (MCS) data were acquired with 3,000 cu. in airgun source array and 3 km long hydrophone streamer (240 channels) onboard R/V Samudra Ratnakar for gas hydrate studies. Other geophysical data such as gravity, magnetic and multibeam data were also acquired along with seismic data.After routine processing of seismic data, the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) are observed in the central and north-eastern part of the survey area. The BSRs are identified based on its characteristic features such as mimicking the seafloor, opposite polarity with respect to the seafloor and crosscutting the existing geological layers (Fig. 1b). At several locations, seismic signatures associated with free gas such as drop in interval velocity, pull-down structures, amplitude variation with offset (AVO) and attenuation are observed below the BSRs which confirm the presence of free gas in the study area. Acoustic chimneys are observed at some locations indicating vertical migration of the free gas. The observed seismic signatures established the presence of gas hydrates/free gas deposits in Cauvery-Mannar basin. Interestingly, BSRs appear to be distributed along the flanks of submarine canyon indicating the influence of geomorphology on the formation and distribution of gas hydrates.

  7. Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

    2014-04-01

    The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other

  8. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%.

  9. Molecular markers in ambient aerosol in the Mahanadi Riverside Basin of eastern central India during winter.

    PubMed

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deb, Manas K; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Tsai, Ying I; Verma, Santosh K

    2015-01-01

    Organic molecular markers are important atmospheric constituents. Their formation and sources are important aspects of the study of urban and rural air quality. We collected PM10 aerosol samples from the Mahanadi Riverside Basin (MRB), a rural part of eastern central India, during the winter of 2011. PM10 aerosols were characterized for molecular markers using ion chromatography. The concentration of PM10 ranged from 208.8 to 588.3 μg m(-3) with a mean concentration of 388.9 μg m(-3). Total concentration of anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, primary sugars, and oxalate were found to be 3.25, 5.60, 10.52, and 0.37 μg m(-3), respectively, during the study period. Glucose was the most abundant species followed by levoglucosan and mannitol. Significant positive correlation between the molecular markers, anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, primary sugars, and oxalic acid confirmed that biomass burning, biogenic activity, and re-suspension of soil particles were the main sources of aerosol in the eastern central India study area. PMID:25131681

  10. Evaporation Ponds or Recharge Structures ? the Role of Check Dams in Arkavathy River Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeremiah, K.; Srinivasan, V.; R, A.

    2014-12-01

    "Watershed development" has been the dominant paradigm for water management in India for the last two decades. Current spending on watershed development programmes rivals spending on large dams. In practice, watershed development involves a range of soil and water conservation measures including building check dams, gully plugs, contour bunds etc. Despite their dominance in water management paradigms, relatively little empirical data exists on these structures. Importantly, even though the benefits of individual watershed structures are recognized, the cumulative impact of building hundreds of such structures on hydrologic partitioning of a watershed remains unknown. We investigated the role of check dams in two small milli-watersheds in the Arkavathy River basin in South India. We conducted a comprehensive census of all check dams in the two milli-watersheds with a total area of 26 sq km. 40 check dams (representing a density of 1.35/sq km of watershed area) were geotagged, photographed, measured and their condition was recorded. We then selected twelve check dams and monitored the water stored using capacitance sensors. We also set up Automatic Weather Stations in each watershed. Inflows, evaporation and infiltration were calculated at each site to evaluate how check dams alter hydrologic partitioning in the watershed as a whole.

  11. Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2009-05-01

    Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results.

  12. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  13. Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

    2010-12-01

    Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations.

  14. Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2009-05-01

    Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results. PMID:18509735

  15. Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

    2010-12-01

    Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations. PMID:20041344

  16. Climate change impact on forest cover and vegetation in Betwa Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmate, S. S.; Pandey, Ashish; Kumar, Dheeraj; Pandey, R. P.; Mishra, S. K.

    2014-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of climate change (described in terms of temperature and rainfall) on forest cover and vegetation (described in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) in the Betwa river basin, a tributary of River Yamuna in Central India. Temperature and rainfall data of 18 stations, forest cover and vegetation (derived using 5 years data from Landsat images employing ERDAS Imagine and ArcGIS) were used in the analysis. The effect of climate change was studied for both the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. In this study, the simple regression method was used to evaluate their relationship. In pre-monsoon season, temperature and forest cover analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6876 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.5751. Further, in post-monsoon season analysis rainfall and forest cover shows regression coefficient value of 0.8417 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6854. The study reveals that, in pre-monsoon season temperature was significantly related with forest cover and vegetation. In post-monsoon season rainfall exhibited positive response to forest cover and, temperature exhibited negative response to vegetation in the Betwa river basin.

  17. Estimating Glacier Retreat through Satellite Based Observation In the Beas Basin, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Shruti; Ramanathan, Al.; Linda, Anurag

    2010-05-01

    Glaciers are now well recognized as the most reliable indicators of climate (IPCC, 2007), more particularly in the regions where there is an acute paucity in the availability of meteorological database. Subsequently it can be said that monitoring the glaciers is important to assess the overall reservoir health (Kulkarni et al., 2007). Almost negligible studies have been conducted to investigate the deglaciation status in the Indian Himalaya. A change detection analysis of the areal cover of glaciers in the Beas basin, India with the aid of remote sensing techniques in the present study concludes that the Beas basin has witnessed a loss of about 22.49 km2in the last four decades which is about 22% of the area. Another major aspect of this study is the noticeable retreat of the glaciers in the period 1972-1989. The glaciers in the Beas basin show larger area loss in this period as compared to the loss in area during the 1990s and later. Thus, it can be said that in spite of the alarming scenario of a continued recession of the glaciated terrain in the Beas basin, the pace of retreat has been observed to slow down after the 1990s. The loss has been more significant in the glaciers comprising of the area of 2-5 km2range as compared to the other categories. Glaciers in the area range more than 5 km2and less than 2 km2show less variation reflecting not much of significant loss. The total number of glaciers increased in the period of last four decades although not very significantly, indicating fragmentation. The glaciers in the range 0.5-2 km2 show a higher tendency towards fragmentation. The average elevation of the glaciers in the basin underwent an upward shift from 4565 m in the year 1972 to 4629 m in the year 2006 which is a reason for concern. The gradual upward shifting of contours over a period of almost four decades can be a consequence of a shift in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) which has been constantly moving upwards showing a retreat of glaciers in the

  18. The Cuddapah Salient: a tectonic model for the Cuddapah Basin, India, based on Landsat image interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatakrishnan, Ramesh; Dotiwalla, Firoz E.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of geologic, geophysical data and lineaments derived from Landsat image interpretation has revealed a pattern of tectonic inheritance of Archean structural elements by the folded and thrusted eastern margin of the middle-late Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin in India. A structural pattern set by deep crustal faults in the Archean and intracratonic basin fabric is apparent in both sedimentary and tectonic trends in the basin. The lineaments represent broad zones of en echelon and parallel alignments that appear to have nucleated on deep crustal faults which were reactivated as structural uplifts, lateral and frontal ramps, and transverse tear faults. The major zones recognized are the northeast-trending Veldruti-Guntur lateral ramp to the north and the northwest-trending Cuddapah-Nellore transverse tear fault to the south. East-west directed compression during the Eastern Ghats (latest Proterozoic) orogeny was apparently confined within these converging lineament zones that effectively buttressed the west-verging thrust fronts. Block uplift along the NE-trending Veldruti-Guntur lateral ramp acted as a boundary to east to west thrust translation. The northeastern ends of folds and thrusts were "pinned down" with relative displacement being clockwise and greater, increasing to the southwest. The lack of a lateral ramp or basement buttress to the south resulted in the development of the left-lateral Cuddapah-Nellore transverse tear fault. Steep imbricate thrust ramps in the foreland resisted further movement westward. The resulting convex to the west, arcuate Nallamalai and Vellikonda thrust fronts, broadly paralleled by the east coast gravity high anomaly (Kaila and Bhatia, 1981) is herein named the Cuddapah Salient.

  19. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  20. Documenting channel features associated with gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, offshore India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.S.; Shankar, U.

    2011-01-01

    During the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 in 2006 significant sand and gas hydrate were recovered at Site NGHP-01-15 within the Krishna-Godavari Basin, East Coast off India. At the drill site NGHP-01-15, a 5-8m thick interval was found that is characterized by higher sand content than anywhere else at the site and within the KG Basin. Gas hydrate concentrations were determined to be 20-40% of the pore volume using wire-line electrical resistivity data as well as core-derived pore-fluid freshening trends. The gas hydrate-bearing interval was linked to a prominent seismic reflection observed in the 3D seismic data. This reflection event, mapped for about 1km2 south of the drill site, is bound by a fault at its northern limit that may act as migration conduit for free gas to enter the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) and subsequently charge the sand-rich layer. On 3D and additional regional 2D seismic data a prominent channel system was imaged mainly by using the seismic instantaneous amplitude attribute. The channel can be clearly identified by changes in the seismic character of the channel fill (sand-rich) and pronounced levees (less sand content than in the fill, but higher than in surrounding mud-dominated sediments). The entire channel sequence (channel fill and levees) has been subsequently covered and back-filled with a more mud-prone sediment sequence. Where the levees intersect the base of the GHSZ, their reflection strengths are significantly increased to 5- to 6-times the surrounding reflection amplitudes. Using the 3D seismic data these high-amplitude reflection edges where linked to the gas hydrate-bearing layer at Site NGHP-01-15. Further south along the channel the same reflection elements representing the levees do not show similarly large reflection amplitudes. However, the channel system is still characterized by several high-amplitude reflection events (a few hundred meters wide and up to ~1km in extent) interpreted as gas

  1. The India-Eurasia collision and marginal basin evolution in the NW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, S.; Müller, P.; Gurnis, M.; Seton, M.; Whittaker, J.; Flament, N.

    2010-12-01

    with mantle tomography. This approach will allow us to impose plate velocities and age-dependent crustal buoyancy on the uppermost thermal boundary layer, with a refined mesh resolution in the upper mantle to help track subduction zone evolution. Because our global mantle convection model is consistent with plate motion histories, we can isolate whether the chronology of the India-Eurasia collision or whether changes in the subduction style in NW Pacific better correlate with the timing of South China and Japan Sea opening.Preliminary results indicate that the back-arc scenario along southern Eurasia produces a better match between predicted and imaged present-day mantle structure. A continent-continent collision at ~40 Ma would correlate well with the distal effects of the propagating stress field leading to extrusion and rotation of east Asian blocks, and back-arc opening in the NW Pacific. Additionally, we aim to test if local effects in the NW Pacific such as changes in convergence rates, slab dip, trench rollback or slab interaction with various mantle transition zones offer a better explanation of the marginal basin evolution chronology.

  2. Seismic imaging of a fractured gas hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.S.; Kumar, P.; Sathe, A.V.; Cook, A.

    2010-01-01

    Gas hydrate was discovered in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin during the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 1 at Site NGHP-01-10 within a fractured clay-dominated sedimentary system. Logging-while-drilling (LWD), coring, and wire-line logging confirmed gas hydrate dominantly in fractures at four borehole sites spanning a 500m transect. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data were subsequently used to image the fractured system and explain the occurrence of gas hydrate associated with the fractures. A system of two fault-sets was identified, part of a typical passive margin tectonic setting. The LWD-derived fracture network at Hole NGHP-01-10A is to some extent seen in the seismic data and was mapped using seismic coherency attributes. The fractured system around Site NGHP-01-10 extends over a triangular-shaped area of ~2.5 km2 defined using seismic attributes of the seafloor reflection, as well as " seismic sweetness" at the base of the gas hydrate occurrence zone. The triangular shaped area is also showing a polygonal (nearly hexagonal) fault pattern, distinct from other more rectangular fault patterns observed in the study area. The occurrence of gas hydrate at Site NGHP-01-10 is the result of a specific combination of tectonic fault orientations and the abundance of free gas migration from a deeper gas source. The triangular-shaped area of enriched gas hydrate occurrence is bound by two faults acting as migration conduits. Additionally, the fault-associated sediment deformation provides a possible migration pathway for the free gas from the deeper gas source into the gas hydrate stability zone. It is proposed that there are additional locations in the KG Basin with possible gas hydrate accumulation of similar tectonic conditions, and one such location was identified from the 3D seismic data ~6 km NW of Site NGHP-01-10. ?? 2010.

  3. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India.

    PubMed

    Chetia, Mridul; Chatterjee, Soumya; Banerjee, Saumen; Nath, Manash J; Singh, Lokendra; Srivastava, Ravi B; Sarma, Hari P

    2011-02-01

    Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, which is formed by the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The present study was carried out to examine As contamination in the state of Assam, an adjoining region of the West Bengal and Bangladesh borders. Two hundred twenty-two groundwater samples were collected from shallow and deep tubewells of six blocks of Golaghat district (Assam). Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, and Mg with pH, total hardness, and SO[Formula: see text], was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO; As 0.01 ppm, Fe 1.0 ppm, and Mn 0.3 ppm for potable water), the present study showed that out of the 222 groundwater samples, 67%, 76.4%, and 28.5% were found contaminated with higher metal contents (for total As, Fe, and Mn, respectively). The most badly affected area was the Gamariguri block, where 100% of the samples had As and Fe concentrations above the WHO drinking water guideline values. In this block, the highest As and Fe concentrations were recorded 0.128 and 5.9 ppm, respectively. Tubewell water of depth 180±10 ft found to be more contaminated by As and Fe with 78% and 83% of the samples were tainted with higher concentration of such toxic metals, respectively. A strong significant correlation was observed between As and Fe (0.697 at p<0.01), suggesting a possible reductive dissolution of As-Fe-bearing minerals for the mobilization of As in the groundwater of the region.

  4. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  5. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  6. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  7. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  8. Net subsidence and number of cycles; their interrelationship in different Permian Gondwana basins of peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zahid A.; Tewari, Ram C.

    1991-09-01

    Seven data sets were structured from subsurface lithologs of Permian Gondwana coal measures comprising the Karharbari, Barakar and Raniganj formations of the Koel-Damodar and Mahanadi basins of peninsular India. All three formations are fluvial in nature and composed largely of fining-upward cycles of clastic sediments capped by coal/carbonaceous shale. Simple linear regression lines and correlation coefficients were computed for total thickness of strata (net subsidence) and number of cycles in each data set. The strong positive relationships between total thickness of strata and number of cycles in Permian coal measures suggest that the fluvial cycles of Karharbari, Barakar and Raniganj are formed by intrabasinal mechanisms of channel migration, sedimentation and subsidence rather than tectonic events in the source area. The slopes of linear regression lines fitted to the data sets vary more than has hitherto been supposed and are classified into two categories. Three out of seven regression lines exhibit steeper slopes and they are closely similar in this respect to other Permian and Upper Carboniferous coal measures of Australia, Great Britain and Germany; the other four have gentler slopes. These dissimilarities in the slopes of regression lines are attributed to the differential rate of increase in the number of cycles with respect to the total thickness of the strata (net subsidence) as well as the differential subsidence of the Permian Gondwana Supergroup through space and time.

  9. Health Seeking Behavior in Karnataka: Does Micro-Health Insurance Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Savitha, S; Kiran, KB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. Objectives: This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Results: Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Conclusion: Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective. PMID:24302822

  10. Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E.; Hasan, Md. Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra

    2008-07-01

    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO3 water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (pe: + 5 to - 2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH4, Fe, Mn, NO3-, NH4+, SO42-) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.

  11. Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E; Hasan, Md Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra

    2008-07-29

    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO(3) water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (p(e): +5 to -2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH(4), Fe, Mn, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-)) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.

  12. Evaluation of TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) against terrestrial measurement over a humid sub-tropical basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dheeraj; Gautam, Amar Kant; Palmate, Santosh S.; Pandey, Ashish; Suryavanshi, Shakti; Rathore, Neha; Sharma, Nayan

    2016-04-01

    To support the GPM mission which is homologous to its predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), this study has been undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) daily-accumulated precipitation products for 5 years (2008-2012) using the statistical methods and contingency table method. The analysis was performed on daily, monthly, seasonal and yearly basis. The TMPA precipitation estimates were also evaluated for each grid point i.e. 0.25° × 0.25° and for 18 rain gauge stations of the Betwa River basin, India. Results indicated that TMPA precipitation overestimates the daily and monthly precipitation in general, particularly for the middle sub-basin in the non-monsoon season. Furthermore, precision of TMPA precipitation estimates declines with the decrease of altitude at both grid and sub-basin scale. The study also revealed that TMPA precipitation estimates provide better accuracy in the upstream of the basin compared to downstream basin. Nevertheless, the detection capability of daily TMPA precipitation improves with increase in altitude for drizzle rain events. However, the detection capability decreases during non-monsoon and monsoon seasons when capturing moderate and heavy rain events, respectively. The veracity of TMPA precipitation estimates was improved during the rainy season than during the dry season at all scenarios investigated. The analyses suggest that there is a need for better precipitation estimation algorithm and extensive accuracy verification against terrestrial precipitation measurement to capture the different types of rain events more reliably over the sub-humid tropical regions of India.

  13. Chemical weathering and arsenic enrichment in aquifer of Brahmaputra River Basin, India, adjoining Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Swati; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Mahanta, Chandan; Choudhury, Runti

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) enrichment in the shallow aquifers of Brahmaputra river basin (BRB), mostly located in the Indian state of Assam, has not been known for a long time. So far, very limited number of studies has been done to understand the geological and geochemical processes controlling groundwater chemistry and evolution in the BRB. The present study interprets the groundwater solute chemistry, hydrogeochemical evolution, As enrichment and aquifer characterization in BRB with special reference to two geologically distinct regions in upper Assam, India. These regions consist of the northern (N) region (located along the Eastern Himalayas) and southern (S) region (near Indo-Burma Range) of the Brahmaputra basin which shows distinct tectonic settings and sediments provinces in the Himalayas orogenic belt. Shallow alluvial aquifers of the northern part are mainly composed of grey/brown sand (fine, medium and course) and light grey clay however aquifers of southern part mainly composed of black/dark grey clay and fine grey sands. Aquifers of S-region are severely contaminated with dissolved As (maximum 0.45 mg/L) in comparison to the northern aquifers (maximum: 0.18 mg/L). However, both areas have similar reducing, postoxic environments with high concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), and saturation index calculations suggest that As is liberated primarily by reductive dissolution of metal oxides. Major mineralogical compositions of the aquifer sediments analysed by FESEM/EDX, XRD and thin section which indicate the major presence of Fe-oxide and oxyhydroxides, mica (muscovite and biotite), feldspar, pyroxene, abundance of quartz and some clay minerals whereas clay highly present in sediments of S-aquifers. The major-ion composition shows that groundwater composition is mainly Ca2+-HCO3- and Ca2+-Na+-HCO3 in N-region while S-region part is dominated by Na+-Ca2+-HCO3- hydrochemical facies. Molar ratios and thermodynamic calculations show that groundwater composition

  14. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2015-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  15. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India.

    PubMed

    Chetia, Mridul; Chatterjee, Soumya; Banerjee, Saumen; Nath, Manash J; Singh, Lokendra; Srivastava, Ravi B; Sarma, Hari P

    2011-02-01

    Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, which is formed by the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The present study was carried out to examine As contamination in the state of Assam, an adjoining region of the West Bengal and Bangladesh borders. Two hundred twenty-two groundwater samples were collected from shallow and deep tubewells of six blocks of Golaghat district (Assam). Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, and Mg with pH, total hardness, and SO[Formula: see text], was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO; As 0.01 ppm, Fe 1.0 ppm, and Mn 0.3 ppm for potable water), the present study showed that out of the 222 groundwater samples, 67%, 76.4%, and 28.5% were found contaminated with higher metal contents (for total As, Fe, and Mn, respectively). The most badly affected area was the Gamariguri block, where 100% of the samples had As and Fe concentrations above the WHO drinking water guideline values. In this block, the highest As and Fe concentrations were recorded 0.128 and 5.9 ppm, respectively. Tubewell water of depth 180±10 ft found to be more contaminated by As and Fe with 78% and 83% of the samples were tainted with higher concentration of such toxic metals, respectively. A strong significant correlation was observed between As and Fe (0.697 at p<0.01), suggesting a possible reductive dissolution of As-Fe-bearing minerals for the mobilization of As in the groundwater of the region. PMID:20224855

  16. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  17. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during Late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.

    2013-01-01

    Important concerns about the consequences of climate change for India are the potential impact on tropical cyclones and the monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as an indicator of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the Late Oligocene warming period (~27-24 Ma). Direct proxies providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system in the Early Miocene. The vast shell concentrations comprise a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deep to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished each recording a relative storm wave base depth. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore mollusks, corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclind foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinaceans; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. Vertical changes in these skeletal associations give evidence of gradually increasing tropical cyclone intensity in line with third-order sea level rise. The intensity of cyclones over the Arabian Sea is primarily linked to the strength of the Indian monsoon. Therefore and since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the Late Oligocene, the longer-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the Late Oligocene global warming (~24 Ma).

  18. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  19. Karnataka: pioneer in family planning.

    PubMed

    Rao, S

    1983-01-26

    A century ago the administration of Mysore (India) realized the need for family planning, and Dewan Rangacharlu, when addressing the 1st session of the Mysore State Representative Assembly on October 7, 1881, indicated concern at the rapid population growth which hampered production. On June 11, 1930 Shri Nyapathy Madhava Rao, Chief Secretary, passed orders for the establishment of birth control clinics, making Mysore the 1st government in the world to start a network of birth control clinics in the state. Clinics at Bangalore and Mysore were frequented by married women in need of advice from experts. Despite the social taboo, many took advantage of the facility provided by the state. When World War 2 broke out in 1939, the work in these clinics had to slow down because of a lack of funds. The text of the orders for the birth control clinics included the proposals of the Senior Surgeon who recognized the need to provide the necessary knowledge and the means for contraception: the Lady Medical Officers of the Victoria and the Maternity Hospitals, Bangalore and the Krishnarajendra and the Vani Vilas Hospitals, Mysore, be authorized to provide information to women who want knowledge on the subject and to teach the necessary technique; contraceptive appliances be supplied at cost price to those who want them; and Dr. C. V. Natarajan be asked to cooperate with the Lady Medical officers by giving them such advice as they may require for the development of the birth control clinics.

  20. Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery-Palar basin, Eastern Continental Margin of India based on seismic and potential field modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twinkle, D.; Rao, G. Srinivasa; Radhakrishna, M.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2016-03-01

    The Cauvery-Palar basin is a major peri-cratonic rift basin located along the Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI) that had formed during the rift-drift events associated with the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland (mainly India-Sri Lanka-East Antarctica). In the present study, we carry out an integrated analysis of the potential field data across the basin to understand the crustal structure and the associated rift tectonics. The composite-magnetic anomaly map of the basin clearly shows the onshore-to-offshore structural continuity, and presence of several high-low trends related to either intrusive rocks or the faults. The Curie depth estimated from the spectral analysis of offshore magnetic anomaly data gave rise to 23 km in the offshore Cauvery-Palar basin. The 2D gravity and magnetic crustal models indicate several crustal blocks separated by major structures or faults, and the rift-related volcanic intrusive rocks that characterize the basin. The crustal models further reveal that the crust below southeast Indian shield margin is ˜36 km thick and thins down to as much as 13-16 km in the Ocean Continent Transition (OCT) region and increases to around 19-21 km towards deep oceanic areas of the basin. The faulted Moho geometry with maximum stretching in the Cauvery basin indicates shearing or low angle rifting at the time of breakup between India-Sri Lanka and the East Antarctica. However, the additional stretching observed in the Cauvery basin region could be ascribed to the subsequent rifting of Sri Lanka from India. The abnormal thinning of crust at the OCT is interpreted as the probable zone of emplaced Proto-Oceanic Crust (POC) rocks during the breakup. The derived crustal structure along with other geophysical data further reiterates sheared nature of the southern part of the ECMI.

  1. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  2. Chemical weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption in a tropical river basin (Swarna River), Southwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguli, T.; Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Audry, S.; Riotte, J.; Braun, J.; Chadaga, M.; Shankar HN, U.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering in river basins forms the key process to study the global climate change on a long term scale due to its association with the carbon sequestration. Water samples from a west flowing tropical river (Swarna River) of Southern India were collected for a period of two years to study the chemical weathering process and to quantify the weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption rates in the river basin. In addition, the major ion chemistry of Swarna River is studied for the first time on a spatial and temporal (monthly) scale to decipher the factors (lithology, precipitation/ discharge, temperature, slope and physical weathering) controlling the chemical weathering process. Swarna River originates in Western Ghats at an altitude of 1100 m above mean sea level and flows westwards draining Peninsular Gneiss and Dharwar Schist to join the Arabian Sea near Udupi. The river basin receives annual rainfall of 4500 mm and experiences warm climate with average temperature of 30°C. Major ion composition and radiogenic strontium isotopic composition measured in the Swarna river water reflects the influence of silicate rocks in the basin. The river water chemistry is found to be least affected by anthropogenic impact; however, the effect of evaporation is observed on few samples during the peak dry season. The atmospheric inputs and carbonate contributions to the river water are corrected to estimate the silicate weathering rate (SWR) and the associated carbon-dioxide consumption rate (CCR) using local rainwater and bed rock composition respectively. The SWR and CCR in the Swarna river basin are estimated to be 46 tons/km2/yr and 4.4 x 10^5 mol/km2/yr respectively. This estimation is observed to be relatively higher than the recently reported SWR and CCR in the adjacent larger Nethravati river basin (Gurumurthy et al., 2012). The increased rate could be attributed to the relatively higher precipitation in the Swarna river basin than the lithological

  3. Knowledge and Perceptions Regarding Nicotine Replacement Therapy among Dental Students in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Alshahrani, Obaid Abdullah; Jhugroo, Chitra; Tashery, Hamed Mohammed; Mathews, Jacob; Chavan, Khechari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organized dentistry has recognized the role of oral health professionals in discouraging tobacco use. Unexplored level of knowledge regarding the benefits and prescription of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) have aroused interest among us which initiated us to assess the knowledge and perception of dental students toward NRT among various dental colleges in Karnataka, South India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was done among 16 selected colleges in Karnataka. It was distributed for 3rd year, final year, and interns. The study group provided answers to 14 item close-ended questionnaire. The first dimension obtained information on sex, age, course and year of study, and other dimension on forms in which NRT's are supplied, effectiveness of NRT's, side effects of NRT's, rate of success of NRT's, electronic cigars, and recommendations of NRT's. Statistical analysis was done using frequency distribution of responses. Results: A total of 1984 undergraduate students from Dental Colleges in Karnataka responded to the questionnaire. Most of the students were unaware about NRT term and its forms. Most of the students were aware about the effectiveness of NRT's (54%) for the rescue of the smokers to quit and felt transdermal patch (42%) could be the most effective way for smokers to quit followed by chewing gums, respectively. More than half of the respondents (53.5%) were unaware of E-cigar's and also felt that NRT's and Counseling cumulatively can contribute for cessation of the tobacco habit. Conclusion: A large proportion of dental students in this part of the country were unaware about NRT. PMID:26229380

  4. Constraints on the collision and the pre-collision tectonic configuration between India and Asia from detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry studies in the lower Indus basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Guillot, Stéphane; Roddaz, Martin; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Métais, Grégoire; Carter, Andrew; Marivaux, Laurent; Solangi, Sarfraz H.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the timing of India-Asia collision is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding the evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen and its role in global climate, oceanic chemistry, and ecological evolution. Despite much active research, the basic pre-collision tectonic configuration and the timing of terminal India-Asia suturing remain debated. For example, debates regarding when and how the intervening Kohistan-Ladakh arc was sutured with India and Asia still remain elusive; some models propose the arc collided with Asia at about 100 Ma, with India-Asia collision at ca. 55 Ma, whilst a newer model proposed the arc's collision with India at 50 Ma and subsequently with Asia at 40 Ma. Another example is the recent proposition that an oceanic Greater India Basin separated the Tethyan Himalaya microcontinent from the remaining Indian plate until 20- 25 Ma with the consumption of this oceanic basin marking the final collision at this time. These controversies relate to whether the commonly documented 50 Ma contact represents the terminal India-Asia suturing or the amalgamation between various arcs or microcontinents with India or Asia. Here we present an integrated provenance study of geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry on the late Cretaceous-Pleistocene sediments from the lower Indus basin on the Indian plate. The detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track data show a reversal in sediment source from a pure Indian signature to increasing inputs from the suture zone and the Asian plate between the middle Paleocene and early Oligocene. The Nd and Sr isotopes narrow down this change to 50 Ma by revealing input of Asian detritus and the establishment of a Nd & Sr isotopic pattern similar to the present-day Indus Fan by 50 Ma, with no significant variations up section, contrary to what might be expected if later major collisions had occurred. Our isotopic data indicate that Greater India was occupied by a fluvial-deltaic system, analogous to the

  5. Contributions of zircon U-Pb geochronology to understanding the volcanic and sedimentary history of some Purāna basins, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Abhijit; Bickford, Marion. E.

    2014-09-01

    In this century, U-Pb ages of magmatic and detrital zircons, together with a few less accurate but fairly robust ages determined on monazite and baddeleyite, in the Purāna successions in India have established a few firm timelines that constrain the opening, closure, inversion, and provenance of the Purāna basins. The Cuddapah basin opened shortly before ca. 1900 Ma, the Vindhyan basin opened before ca. 1630 Ma, the Khariar basin likely opened ca. 1500 Ma, and the Chhattisgarh basin opened ca. 1400 Ma. The Marwar basin opened after ca. 750 Ma. The Chhattisgarh basin began to invert at ca. 1000 Ma and closed shortly thereafter. The Indravati and the Vindhyan basins closed ca. 1000 Ma. There are no other defensible geochronologic data to adequately constrain the opening and closure of other Purāna basins (e.g., Kaladgi, Badami, Bhima, Kurnool, Mallampalli, Albaka, Ampani, Sabari, and Kolhan). Neither the fossil record nor the biostratigraphy of these basins necessarily correspond to the chronology determined through radiometric measurements. The discovery of ca. 1000 Ma volcanic events in the Indravati and Chhattisgarh basins adds to the growing list of ca. 1000 Ma thermal disturbances in the Indian shield. Most of these events were likely the far field effects of the final assembly of Rodinia.

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  7. Discriminant analysis for characterization of hydrochemistry of two mountain river basins of contrasting climates in the southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jobin; Joseph, Sabu; Thrivikramji, K P

    2015-06-01

    Discriminant analysis (DA) was performed on river hydrochemistry data for three seasons (i.e., monsoon (MON), post-monsoon (POM), and pre-monsoon (PRM)) to examine the spatio-temporal hydrochemical variability of two mountain river basins (Muthirapuzha River Basin (MRB) and Pambar River Basin (PRB)) of the southern Western Ghats, India. Although the river basins drain tropical mountainous terrain, climate and degree of anthropogenic disturbances show significant differences (i.e., humid, more disturbed MRB vs semiarid, less disturbed PRB). In MRB, TDS, Na(+), pH, Mg(2+), and K(+) are the attributes responsible for significant hydrochemical variations between the seasons, while Cl(-), TH, and Na(+) are the predictors in PRB. The temporal discriminant models imply the importance of rainfall pattern, relative contribution of groundwater toward stream discharge and farming activities in hydrochemistry between the seasons. Inclusion of hydrochemical attributes (in the temporal discriminant functions) that can be derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources suggests that ionic enrichment strongly depends on the seasons, and is mainly due to the variability in the intensity of anthropogenic activities as well as fluctuations in river discharge. In spatial discriminant models, Cl(-) is the only variable responsible for hydrochemical variations between the basins (during MON), whereas Si discriminates during POM and PRM, implying the role of atmospheric supply, anthropogenic modifications as well as intensity of weathering. In the spatial discrimination models, misclassification of hydrochemistry data between MRB and PRB can be attributed to the overlapping effect of humid climate of MRB extending toward the upstream of (semiarid) PRB. This study underscores the versatility of DA in deciphering the significance of climatic controls on hydrochemical composition of tropical mountain rivers.

  8. Crustal development of the eastern Tibetan Plateau preceding and post India-Asia continent-continent collision: Insights from terrestrial 'redbed' basins in the Yidun Arc Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Jackson, W. T., Jr.; Weislogel, A. L.; Shang, F.; Jian, X.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the spatial crustal configuration and temporal evolution of the pre-Cenozoic ancestral Tibetan Plateau is essential to accurately model the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. The eastern Tibetan Plateau contains several terrestrial 'redbed' basins within the Yidun Arc Terrane (YAT) that preserve a Mesozoic sedimentary record of YAT post-accretionary tectonism, and a Cenozoic sedimentary record influenced by terrane collisions to the south, including arc magmatism and re-activation of inherited structures in response to strike-slip translation and far-field deformation. The West and East Ganzi basins in the northern YAT formed in a compressional tectonic setting and basin fill records a detrital zircon signature indicative of provenance from Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks of the Zhongza Massif and local Mesozoic Yidun arc plutons. The West and East Ganzi basins may be isolated flexural basins associated with the collision of the YAT and the Gondwana-derived Qiangtang Terrane with the Lhasa block during the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. Structural analysis shows that the West and East Ganzi basin strata have deformational phases associated with additional Mesozoic terrane collisions, far-field reactivation deformation associated with the India-Asia collision, and Late Cenozoic strike-slip deformation associated with growth of Tibetan Plateau. The Jawa and Mula basins located in the YAT to the southeast of the West and East Ganzi basins contain similar basin fill and structural features; however, both the Jawa and Mula basins contain a Cenozoic zircon population, establishing a maximum depositional age of ~41 Ma for both basins. The Jawa and Mula basins formed as small isolated basins associated with Early Cenozoic far-field deformation related to the India-Asia collision. Analyses of these four basins, along with recent study of Mesozoic deposits in the Qamdo basin of the eastern Qiangtang area to the west, shows that the southeastern Tibet plateau

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus rhodochrous Strain KG-21, a Soil Isolate from Oil Fields of Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    PubMed Central

    Dawar, Chhavi

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the 6.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain KG-21, a soil isolate from the oil fields of Krishna-Godavari Basin in Andhra Pradesh, India. This genomic resource may help in the identification of the gene(s) involved in hydrocarbon degradation and their possible deployment for bioremediation. PMID:26472842

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain KG-4, Isolated from Soil Samples Collected from Krishna-Godavari Basin in India

    PubMed Central

    Dawar, Chhavi

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 5.58-Mb draft genome of Pseudomonas putida strain KG-4 obtained from the oil fields of the Krishna-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. The genome sequence is expected to facilitate identification and understanding of genes associated with hydrocarbon metabolism, which can help in developing strategies for managing oil spills and bioremediation. PMID:26044433

  11. Parameter Identification and Uncertainty Analysis for Visual MODFLOW based Groundwater Flow Model in a Small River Basin, Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, S.

    2015-12-01

    The overexploitation of groundwater resulted in abandoning many shallow tube wells in the river Basin in Eastern India. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, basin-scale modelling of groundwater flow is essential for the efficient planning and management of the water resources. The main intent of this study is to develope a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study basin using the Visual MODFLOW package and successfully calibrate and validate it using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were adopted as two criteria during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE and R2 values of groundwater flow model for calibration and validation periods were in acceptable range. Also, the MCMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.

  12. Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magesh, N. S.; Jitheshlal, K. V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Jini, K. V.

    2013-06-01

    A morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The Bharathapuzha drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 5,988.56 km2. The study area was designated as seventh-order basin and lower order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 1.07 km/km2. The slope of basin varied from 0° to 70° and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The elongation ratio of the basin is 0.57 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The drainage texture of the basin is 7.78 which indicates an intermediate texture that exists over the region. Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis and the data can be used for basin management and other hydrological studies in future.

  13. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B.; S., Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G.

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic—rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub—coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon—lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0–3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of

  14. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  15. Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba Basin, South-Western India during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G

    2016-01-01

    Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) India have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba Basin have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river basins during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of India. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW India. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land

  16. Microbial quality of lakes around Dharwad City, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Bagade, N S; Belagali, S L

    2013-07-01

    Water being an essential component of food chain of living beings is contaminated day-by-day in the increasing order due to public apathy and improper management of water sources like lakes, reservoirs and ponds. The microbiological studies of Kelageri, Nuggikeri, Navalur, Neerasagar and Salakinakoppa lakes located around Dharwad were carried out with respect to total plate count (TPC),Total Fungal count (TFC) and total Coliform. They are highly contaminated with bacterial species like fecal Coliforms, E. coli, Bacillus species, Actinomycetes, Monococcus sps, Streptococcus sps. and Fungal sps like Pencilium, Fusarium, Mucor , Rhizopus, Yeast cells. The results indicate that the lakes except Neerasagar lake were considered to be unfit for drinking purpose due to the excess of anthropogenic activities, inflow of water through widespread agricultural land and stream, where the dairy industry, poultry, brick manufacturing unit, animal husbandry are maintained. The extent of pollution of water depends upon the dense population of these microorganisms which vary in rainy, winter and summer seasons. The presence of Fecal Streptococcal species viz., S. fecalis, S. equinus, S. faecium, S. bovis, S. avium, indicate the fecal pollution with seasonal variations throughout the year. PMID:25509950

  17. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: A Case Series from Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Rudramurthy, Pradeep; Lokanatha, Hemalata

    2015-01-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent pyogenic infections, and the presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and other granulecontaining cells. The abnormal granules are readily seen in blood and marrow granulocytes. Other clinical features include silvery hair, photophobia, nystagmus and hepatosplenomegaly. However, the presence of abnormal giant intracytoplasmic granules in neutrophils and their precursors are diagnostic of CHS. Here, we present a series of five cases, out of which four presented in the accelerated phase. In all the five cases, the giant granules were noted predominantly in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, which is a rare occurrence compared to those present in the granulocytes. PMID:26538743

  18. A Revised Glacier Inventory of Bhaga Basin Himachal Pradesh, India : Current Status and Recent Glacier Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birajdar, F.; Venkataraman, G.; Bahuguna, I.; Samant, H.

    2014-11-01

    Himalayan glaciers show large uncertainty regarding their present and future state due to their sensitive reaction towards change in climatic condition. Himalayan glaciers are unique as they are located in tropical, high altitude regions, predominantly valley type and many are covered with debris. The great northern plains of India sustain on the perennial melt of glaciers meeting the water requirements of agriculture, industries, domestic sector even in the months of summer when large tracts of the country go dry. Therefore, it is important to monitor and assess the state of snow and glaciers and to know the sustainability of glaciers in view of changing global scenarios of climate and water security of the nation. Any information pertaining to Himalayan glaciers is normally difficult to be obtained by conventional means due to its harsh weather and rugged terrains. Due to the ecological diversity and geographical vividness, major part of the Indian Himalaya is largely un-investigated. Considering the fact that Himalayan glaciers are situated in a harsh environment, conventional techniques of their study is challenging and difficult both in terms of logistics and finances whereas the satellite remote sensing offers a potential mode for monitoring glaciers in long term. In order to gain an updated overview of the present state of the glacier cover and its changes since the previous inventories, an attempt has been made to generate a new remotesensing- derived glacier inventory on 1:50,000 scale for Bhaga basin (N32°28'19.7'' - N33°0'9.9'' ; E76°56'16.3'' - E77°25'23.7'' ) Western Himalaya covering an area of 1695.63 km2. having 231 glaciers and occupying glacierized area of 385.17 ±3.71 km2. ranging from 0.03 km2. to 29.28 km2. Glacier inventory has been carried out using high resolution IRS P6 LISS III data of 2011, ASTER DEM and other ancillary data. Specific measurements of mapped glacier features are the inputs for generating the glacier inventory data

  19. Tectonic control on Pleistocene basin-filling processes and landscape evolution: the intermontane Kangra Basin, NW Sub-Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The growth of a collisional mountain belt like the Himalaya is dynamically coupled both to tectonics and climate and can result in strong temporal variations in the delivery of sediment to intermontane basins and the foreland. Orogenic critical taper models have been helpful to explain the processes controlling the evolution of mountain fronts in such settings. Rapid and voluminous sediment accumulations might destabilize the orogenic wedge and force architectural re-organization by outward propagation of the deformation front, while basin evacuation can induce out-of-sequence-thrusting to return the wedge to a critical taper. Structural reentrants along the Himalayan front are promising locations to study sediment delivery, storage, and sediment-evacuation mechanisms, as those areas commonly expose extensive transiently stored foreland-basin sediments. The Kangra re-entrant in the NW Sub-Himalaya hosts intermontane valley fills of Pleistocene age, eroded from the Dhauladhar Range. The sediments were unconformably deposited on top of Neogene foreland-basin sediments (i.e. the Siwaliks) in the hanging wall of the NW-SE striking Jwalamukhi Thrust. This major sediment accumulation phase appears to have preceded a phase of sediment evacuation in the course of episodic re-incision into the fill unit, which carved a series of fill-terrace levels. Angular unconformities, differential fluvial incision, tilted fluvial terraces, drainage re-organization, and steepened river segments in the hanging wall of the Jwalamukhi Thrust indicate post-depositional shortening and uplift in the Kangra re-entrant. From this evidence, we infer a primary importance of the Jwalamukhi Thrust in controlling the Quaternary sediment deposition in the Kangra re-entrant - however, we cannot exclude the influence of climate as the main trigger for sediment aggradation and subsequent excavation. However, knickpoints and steep river-channel gradients crossing other tectonic structures within the

  20. Analysis of trends in streamflow and its linkages with rainfall and anthropogenic factors in Gomti River basin of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysingha, N. S.; Singh, Man; Sehgal, V. K.; Khanna, Manoj; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-02-01

    Trend analysis of hydro-climatic variables such as streamflow, rainfall, and temperature provides useful information for effective water resources planning, designing, and management. Trends in observed streamflow at four gauging stations in the Gomti River basin of North India were assessed using the Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope for the 1982 to 2012 period. The relationships between trends in streamflow and rainfall were studied by correlation analyses. There was a gradual decreasing trend of annual, monsoonal, and winter seasonal streamflow ( p < 0.05) from the midstream to the downstream of the river and also a decreasing trend of annual streamflow for the 5-year moving averaged standardized anomalies of streamflow for the entire basin. The declining trend in the streamflow was attributed partly to the increased water withdrawal, to increased air temperature, to higher population, and partly to significant reducing trend of post monsoon rainfall especially at downstream. Upstream gauging station showed a significant increasing trend of streamflow (1.6 m3/s/year) at annual scale, and this trend was attributed to the significant increasing trend of catchment rainfall (9.54 mm/year). It was further evident in the significant coefficient of positive correlation ( ρ = 0.8) between streamflow and catchment rainfall. The decreasing trend in streamflow and post-monsoon rainfall especially towards downstream area with concurrent increasing trend of temperature indicates a drying tendency of the Gomti River basin over the study period. The results of this study may help stakeholders to design streamflow restoration strategies for sustainable water management planning of the Gomti River basin.

  1. Formation and evolution of strike-slip faults, rifts, and basins during the India-Asia collision - An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, Gilles; Tapponnier, Paul

    1988-12-01

    The processes which have governed the formation and evolution of large tertiary strike-slip faults during the penetration of India into eastern Asia are investigated by plane strain indentation experiments on layered plasticine models. The results show the influence of boundary conditions as well as that of the internal structure of the plasticine model on the faulting sequence. The ubiquity of strain softening in experimental deformation of a variety of rocks, as well as the widespread occurrence of shear zones in nature, suggest that long-term deformation of the continental lithosphere may also be primarily influenced by the geometry of large faults which rapidly develop with increasing strain. The deformation and faulting sequence observed in the plasticine indentation experiments may thus be compared to collision-induced strike-slip faulting in Asia, particularly to total offsets and rates of movements on the faults. The experiments also illustrate mechanisms for the formation of extension basins near active continental margins.

  2. Petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic lamproite dykes from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western Cuddapah Basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Atiullah; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Samarendra; Nanda, Purnendu; Chahong, Ngazimpi; Lehmann, B.; Rao, K. V. S.

    2016-04-01

    We report mineral chemistry and whole-rock major and trace-element geochemistry for a recent find of Mesoproterozoic (~1.4 Ga) lamproites from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western part of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin, southern India. The Garledinne lamproites occur as WNW-ESE-trending dykes that have undergone varying degree of pervasive silicification and carbonate alteration. Nevertheless, their overall texture and relict mineralogy remain intact and provide important insights into the nature of their magmas. The lamproite dykes have porphyritic to weakly porphyritic textures comprising pseudomorphed olivine macrocrysts and microphenocrysts, titanian phlogopite microphenocrysts, spinel having a compositional range from chromite to rarely magnesiochromite, Sr-rich apatite and niobian rutile. The Garledinne and other Cuddapah Basin lamproites (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) collectively lack sanidine, clinopyroxene, potassic richterite, and titanite and are thus mineralogically distinct from the nearby Mesoproterozoic lamproites (Krishna and Ramadugu) in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India. The strong correlation between various major and trace elements coupled with high abundances of incompatible and compatible trace elements imply that alteration and crustal contamination have had a limited effect on the whole-rock geochemistry (apart from K2O and CaO) of the Garledinne lamproites and that olivine fractionation played an important role in their evolution. The Garledinne lamproites represent small-degree partial melts derived from a refractory (previously melt extracted) peridotitic mantle source that was subsequently metasomatised (enriched) by carbonate-rich fluids/melts within the garnet stability field. The involvement of multiple reservoirs (sub-continental lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere) has been inferred in their genesis. The emplacement of the Garledinne lamproites is linked to extensional events, across the various

  3. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

    PubMed Central

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) could enable more women to be reached. With careful tailoring of

  4. Prevalence of Anemia among Tribal Women of Reproductive Age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Majeed, Jazeel Abdul; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Pattanshetty, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years). Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3). Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 – 11.6), with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5%) were severely anemic, 33 (19.4%) were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9%) were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia. PMID:26664839

  5. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  6. Permian, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous palynofloral assemblages from subsurface sedimentary rocks in Chuperbhita Coalfield, Rajmahal Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A

    2001-04-01

    The results of a palynological analysis of the sedimentary sequence of Borehole RCH-151, Chuperbhita Coalfield, Rajmahal Basin, Bihar are presented here. The borehole penetrated the Rajmahal Formation (comprising two traps sandwiching an intertrappean bed), the thinly represented Dubrajpur Formation and in its lower part, the Coal Measures. The coal-bearing interval is associated with Scheuringipollenites barakarensis, Faunipollenites varius, Densipollenites indicus, Gondisporites raniganjensis and Densipollenites magnicorpus Assemblage Zones. The presence of these biostratigraphic units indicates correlation with the Barakar Formation (Early Permian) and the Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations (both Late Permian). This is the first record, in the Chuperbhita Coalfield, of Late Permian strata, which appear to represent a condensed sequence. Prior to the present study, the Permian succession was thought to have been associated entirely with the Barakar Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation yielded a distinct spore-pollen assemblage (in association with the first report of dinoflagellate, Phallocysta), which is assigned to the newly identified Callialasporites turbatus palynozone of latest Early to early Middle Jurassic age. The diverse spore-pollen flora of the intertrappean bed (Rajmahal Formation) incorporates several age marker taxa, viz. Undulatisporites, Leptolepidites, Klukisporites, Ruffordiaspora, and Coptospora. The assemblages from intertrappean beds are correlated with the Ruffordiaspora australiensis palynozone of Australia. Thus the palynodating indicates Permian, latest Early to early Mid-Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age for the strata studied. This is the first record of definite Jurassic microfossils from the non-marine sequence of Rajmahal Basin, India.

  7. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V

    2007-09-01

    The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards.

  8. Trend and concentration characteristics of precipitation and related climatic teleconnections from 1982 to 2010 in the Beas River basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yixing; Xu, Chong-Yu; Chen, Haishan; Li, Lu; Xu, Hongliang; Li, Hong; Jain, Sharad K.

    2016-10-01

    The Beas River, located in the Western Himalayan mountainous regions in India, is one of the major tributaries of the Indus River. However, recent changes of precipitation and related climatic teleconnections in this river basin have rarely been investigated yet. In this study, the trend and concentration characteristics of precipitation during1982-2010 are investigated by using Mann-Kendall trend test and two kinds of concentration indices. The climatic teleconnections are explored with the help of cross correlation, wavelet transform and composite analysis, revealing the relationship of precipitation with climatic indices of Indian summer monsoon (ISM), El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The results indicate that: (1) Precipitation of most of the stations increased in the monsoon season while precipitation of all the stations decreased in the non-monsoon seasons. As a result, the annual precipitation of the majority of the stations was on the decrease. (2) A general increase in the precipitation Gini coefficient and precipitation concentration degree (PCD) was detected. Moreover, the precipitation concentration period (PCP) is mainly within the period from May to August, and more PCP occurred in the monsoon months recently. (3) The relationship between monsoon precipitation and ISM is not significant in the Beas River basin. The relationship between precipitation and ENSO in winter is less significant than in the monsoon season, and the relationship of monsoon/winter precipitation with IOD is not as evident as that with ENSO. Besides, ENSO and NAO play important roles in the changes of monsoon and winter precipitation in the Beas River basin.

  9. Magnetostratigraphic Record of the Early Evolution of the Southwestern Tian Shan Foreland Basin (Ulugqat Area), Interactions with Pamir Indentation and India-Asia Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Tian Shan range is an inherited intracontinental structure reactivated by the far-field effects of India-Asia collision. A growing body of thermochronology and magnetostratigraphy datasets shows the range grew through several tectonic pulses since ~25 Ma, however the early Cenozoic history remains poorly constrained. Particularly enigmatic is the time-lag between the Eocene India-Asia collision and the Miocene onset of Tian Shan exhumation. This peculiar period is potentially recorded along the southwestern Tian Shan piedmont. There, recently dated late Eocene marine deposits of the proto-Paratethys epicontinental sea transition to continental foreland basin sediments of unknown age. We provide magnetostratigraphic dating of these continental sediments from the 1700-m-thick Mine section integrated with previously published detrital apatite fission track and U/Pb zircon ages. The most likely correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale indicates an age span from 20.8 to 13.3 Ma with a marked accumulation rate increase at 19-18 Ma. This implies the entire Oligocene period is missing between the last marine and first continental sediments, as suggested by previous southwestern Tian Shan results. This differs from the southwestern Tarim basin where Eocene marine deposits are continuously overlain by late Eocene-Oligocene continental sediments. This supports a simple evolution model of the western Tarim basin with Eocene-Oligocene foreland basin activation to the south related to northward thrusting of the Kunlun Shan, followed by early Miocene activation of northern foreland basin related to overthrusting of the south Tian Shan. Our data also support southward propagation of the Tian Shan piedmont from 20-18 Ma that may relate to motion on the Talas Fergana Fault. The coeval activation of a major right-lateral strike-slip system allowing indentation of the Pamir Salient into the Tarim basin, suggest far-field deformation from the India-Asia collision zone

  10. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  11. Constraints on the collision and the pre-collision tectonic configuration between India and Asia from detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry studies in the lower Indus basin, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Guillot, Stephane; Roddaz, Martin; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Metais, Gregoire; Carter, Andrew; Marivaux, Laurent; Solangi, Sarfraz

    2016-04-01

    The timing of India-Asia suturing in the Western Himalaya is complex, with the relative timings of collision between the Indian plate and Asian plate with the Kohistan Island arc and a proposed Tethyan Himalayan microcontinent, debated. Here we present an integrated provenance study of geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry on the late Cretaceous-Pleistocene sediments from the lower Indus basin on the Indian plate. The detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track data show a reversal in sediment source from a pure Indian signature to increasing inputs from the suture zone and the Asian plate between the middle Paleocene and early Oligocene. The Nd and Sr isotopes narrow down this change to 50 Ma by revealing input of Asian detritus and the establishment of a Nd & Sr isotopic pattern similar to that of the present-day Indus Fan by 50 Ma, with no significant variations up section, contrary to what might be expected if later major collisions had occurred. Our isotopic data indicate that since 50 Ma, Greater India was occupied by a fluvial-deltaic system, analogous to the present-day Indus and named as the Paleo-Indus, which has been transporting Asian detritus southward across the suture zone and Kohistan-Ladakh arc. This suggests that no other ocean basins were located between India and Asia after this time in this region. Our data require that in the west, the India-Asia collision was accomplished by ˜50 Ma.

  12. Multivariate analysis of groundwater resources in Ganga-Yamuna basin (India).

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha P; Gupta, Apurba; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-07-01

    Groundwater quality data on physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal concentrations in three cities (Faridabad, Allahabad and Varanasi) in Ganga-Yamuna basin was subjected to multivariate analysis (MVA) using SPSS. The factors extracted showed high loading (> 0.3) of various parameters, such as Cl, conductivity, TDS, hardness, Na, Mg, and SO4, indicating contamination due to leaching of pollutants. Major manifest variable associated with these factors is the unorganized solid waste dumping practiced in all the cities. Bacterial contamination of hand pump samples in Allahabad is attributed to surface water-groundwater interaction. The factor with high loading of Ca and F is indicative of geological conditions of the region. Wells in Yamuna river sub-watershed exhibit less freshwater recharge, which is attributed to surface water pollution and sediment deposition in the river. Thus, the methodology for hydrogeological analysis is useful to identify critical water quality issues and possible sources of pollution in river basins. PMID:19552076

  13. Multivariate analysis of groundwater resources in Ganga-Yamuna basin (India).

    PubMed

    Sargaonkar, Aabha P; Gupta, Apurba; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-07-01

    Groundwater quality data on physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal concentrations in three cities (Faridabad, Allahabad and Varanasi) in Ganga-Yamuna basin was subjected to multivariate analysis (MVA) using SPSS. The factors extracted showed high loading (> 0.3) of various parameters, such as Cl, conductivity, TDS, hardness, Na, Mg, and SO4, indicating contamination due to leaching of pollutants. Major manifest variable associated with these factors is the unorganized solid waste dumping practiced in all the cities. Bacterial contamination of hand pump samples in Allahabad is attributed to surface water-groundwater interaction. The factor with high loading of Ca and F is indicative of geological conditions of the region. Wells in Yamuna river sub-watershed exhibit less freshwater recharge, which is attributed to surface water pollution and sediment deposition in the river. Thus, the methodology for hydrogeological analysis is useful to identify critical water quality issues and possible sources of pollution in river basins.

  14. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, M. V.; Chidambaram, S.; Hameed, A. Shahul; Srinivasamoorthy, K.

    2011-02-01

    Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na + ), Potassium (K + ), Calcium (Ca + ), Magnesium (Mg + ), Bicarbonate (HCO3^{ -}), Sulphate (SO4^{ -}), Phosphate (PO4^{ -}) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

  15. Revised magnetostratigraphy and characteristics of the fluviolacustrine sedimentation of the Kashmir basin, India, during Pliocene-Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavaiah, N.; Appel, E.; Lakshmi, B. V.; Deenadayalan, K.; Satyanarayana, K. V. V.; Misra, Saumitra; Juyal, N.; Malik, M. A.

    2010-08-01

    The Pliocene-Pleistocene Karewa Group sediments of the Kashmir basin, India, provide an important continental archive for past climatic reconstruction. The present study reevaluates the magnetic polarity stratigraphy and the nature of the depositional environment at a 440-m-thick section along Romushi river near Pakharpur (33°48'50″N, 74°45'54″E). Magnetic remanences are predominantly carried by Ti-rich titanomagnetite and magnetite. We identified eight normal and eight reversed-polarity magnetozones in this succession, ranging between 4.40 and 0.77 Ma. The polarity sequence includes the new identification of the Cochiti and the Mammoth and their preceding and succeeding reversed/normal as well as the Jaramillo subchrons. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data suggest the existence of northeast- and northwest-flowing fluvial system before 4.18 Ma, indicating the Pir Panjal range at the southwest as the sediment source area. Following this, the valley was under the influence of fluviolacustrine environment between 4.18 and 0.77 Ma. Our results suggest relatively strong flow velocity toward the northeast during the upper Gilbert, Gauss, and lower and middle Matuyama chrons (4.18-1.07 Ma). In the upper Matuyama chron (<1.07 Ma), the prevailing paleocurrent direction in the basin changed toward the northwest with a reduced flow velocity, indicating the emergence of the ancestral Jhelum river. On the basis of the magnetic polarity chronology, the sediment accumulation rate indicates a very low value of ˜4.6 cm kyr-1 before 1.95 Ma to ˜33 cm kyr-1 between 1.95 and 1.77 Ma and 23 cm kyr-1 after 1.77 Ma. We attribute temporal changes in sedimentation rate to the interplay between climate (predominantly westerlies) and tectonics (pulsating Pir Panjal uplift).

  16. Groundwater solute chemistry and arsenic fate in aquifer of Brahmaputra river basin, India: Controls of geology and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Mahanta, C.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwater of the river Brahmaputra basin of India has been largely undocumented, and unexplored. Hydrogeochemical investigations in three different tectono-geomorphic settings of the basin i.e. the northwestern and northern part (located along foothills of the Eastern Himalayas) and southern part (in vicinity of Naga-thrust belt) demonstrate regional variability of groundwater chemistry and redox conditions with geology. Shallow alluvial aquifers of southern part, which are mainly composed of black/dark grey clay and fine sands are affected by high arsenic concentration whereas groundwater from sandy aquifer in the northwestern and northern part have comparatively lower As concentrations. Stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) in groundwater indicate suggest that some evaporation may have taken place through recharging water in the study areas. The major-ion composition shows that groundwater of northwestern and northern part are dominated by Ca2+-HCO3-, Ca2+-Na+-HCO3 while southern part is dominated by Na+-Ca2+-HCO3- hydrochemical facies. Molar ratios suggested that most groundwater solutes of northwestern and northern parts were derived from both silicate weathering and carbonate dissolution and have not been affected by cation exchange, while silicate weathering process dominates in aquifers of southern where cation exchange probably has little influence on water chemistry. Thermodynamic calculations show that most of samples fall along the equilibrium line between kaolinite and smectite. While, positive correlations of As with Fe, Mn and HCO3 were observed in northwestern and northern parts aquifers, no consistent correlation of As with any parameter was observed in the aquifers of southern part. Therefore, the results of the study clearly indicate geological control (i.e. change in lithofacies, tectonic set-up) on groundwater chemistry and distribution of redox-sensitive solutes such as As.

  17. Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.

    PubMed

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena

    2013-12-01

    Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05). All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1+ and 3+ age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2+ and 7+ age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin.

  18. Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.

    PubMed

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena

    2013-12-01

    Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05). All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1+ and 3+ age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2+ and 7+ age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin. PMID:24432546

  19. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. Aim The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. Results The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. Conclusion PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for. PMID:27134901

  20. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    PubMed

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  1. Modelling the impact of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    2011-06-01

    Groundwater modelling is widely used as a management tool to understand the behaviour of aquifer systems under different hydrological stresses, whether induced naturally or by humans. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a subsurface barrier on groundwater flow in the Palar River basin, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Groundwater is supplied to a nearby nuclear power plant and groundwater also supplies irrigation, industrial and domestic needs. In order to meet the increasing demand for groundwater for the nuclear power station, a subsurface barrier/dam was proposed across Palar River to increase the groundwater heads and to minimise the subsurface discharge of groundwater into the sea. The groundwater model used in this study predicted that groundwater levels would increase by about 0.1-0.3 m extending out a distance of about 1.5-2 km from the upstream side of the barrier, while on the downstream side, the groundwater head would lower by about 0.1-0.2 m. The model also predicted that with the subsurface barrier in place the additional groundwater requirement of approximately 13,600 m3/day (3 million gallons (UK)/day) can be met with minimum decline in regional groundwater head.

  2. Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of temperature parameters over Sutlej river basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dharmaveer; Glupta, R. D.; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2015-02-01

    The annual and seasonal trend analysis of different surface temperature parameters (average, maximum, minimum and diurnal temperature range) has been done for historical (1971-2005) and future periods (2011-2099) in the middle catchment of Sutlej river basin, India. The future time series of temperature data has been generated through statistical downscaling from large scale predictors of CGCM3 and HadCM3 models under A2 scenario. Modified Mann-Kendall test and Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) chart have been used for detecting trend and sequential shift in time series of temperature parameters. The results of annual trend analysis for period of 1971-2005 show increasing as well as decreasing trends in average ( T Mean), maximum ( T Max), minimum ( T Min) temperature and increasing trends in Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) at different stations. But the annual trend analysis of downscaled data has revealed statistically significant (95% confidence level) rising trends in T Mean, T Max, T Min and falling trend in DTR for the period 2011-2099. The decreasing trend in DTR is due to higher rate of increase in T Min compared to T Max.

  3. Statistical downscaling and projection of future temperature and precipitation change in middle catchment of Sutlej River Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dharmaveer; Jain, Sanjay K.; Gupta, R. D.

    2015-06-01

    Ensembles of two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CGCM3 and HadCM3, are used to project future maximum temperature ( T Max), minimum temperature ( T Min) and precipitation in a part of Sutlej River Basin, northwestern Himalayan region, India. Large scale atmospheric variables of CGCM3 and HadCM3 under different emission scenarios and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research reanalysis datasets are downscaled using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Variability and changes in T Max, T Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model are presented for future periods: 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. The study reveals rise in annual average T Max, T Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 for CGCM3 model as well as under A2 and B2 scenarios for HadCM3 model in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Increase in mean monthly T Min is also observed for all months of the year under all scenarios of both the models. This is followed by decrease in T Max during June, July August and September. However, the model projects rise in precipitation in months of July, August and September under A1B and A2 scenarios of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model for future periods.

  4. Regional hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow modeling in the arsenic-affected areas of the western Bengal basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2007-11-01

    The first documented interpretation of the regional-scale hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow is presented for a ˜21,000-km2 area of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal [Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas (including Calcutta)], India. A hydrostratigraphic model demonstrates the presence of a continuous, semi-confined sand aquifer underlain by a thick clay aquitard. The aquifer thickens toward the east and south. In the south, discontinuous clay layers locally divide the near-surface aquifer into several deeper, laterally connected, confined aquifers. Eight 22-layer model scenarios of regional groundwater flow were developed based on the observed topography, seasonal conditions, and inferred hydrostratigraphy. The models suggest the existence of seasonally variable, regional, north-south flow across the basin prior to the onset of extensive pumping in the 1970s. Pumping has severely distorted the flow pattern, inducing high vertical hydraulic gradients across wide cones of depression. Pumping has also increased total recharge (including irrigational return flow), inflow from rivers, and sea water intrusion. Consequently, downward flow of arsenic contaminated shallow groundwater appears to have resulted in contamination of previously safe aquifers by a combination of mechanical mixing and changes in chemical equilibrium.

  5. Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, K; Elango, L

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of suitability of groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes was carried out in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The study area covers an area of 315 km(2) and lies in a semiarid region. Groundwater is the major source for domestic and agricultural activity in this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 45 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period in the year 2006. The water samples were analysed for physical and chemical characteristics. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on salinity hazard, sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, US salinity diagram, Wilcox's diagram, Kelly's ratio and permeability index. Ca-HCO(3), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl were the dominant groundwater types. High hardness and electrical conductivity in this area makes the groundwater unsuitable for drinking and agricultural purposes. Concentration of trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) did not exceed the permissible limit for drinking and agricultural purposes. Majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for domestic and agricultural purposes except for 31% and 36%, which were suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, respectively.

  6. A multistorey sandstone complex in the Himalayan Foreland Basin, NW Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohtash; Sangode, Satish J.; Ghosh, Sumit K.

    2004-07-01

    Ten parallel stratigraphic sections (1500-1800 m thick) spread over an area of >400 km 2 in Dehra Dun sub-basin (DSB) of the Himalayan Foreland Belt (HFB) were studied to understand the anatomy of one of the largest (900-1200 m thick) fluviatile Multistorey Sandstone Complexes (MSC) of the world using fluvial geometry, compositional data and magnetic fabrics over a magnetostratigraphically controlled master section. The multistorey sandstone complex, between 10-5 Ma representing the Middle Siwalik sub-Group, comprises of grey, medium- to fine-grained lithic arenites to lithic greywacke and records tectonic and/or climatic episodes. Three main facies associations are recognised: sandstone-mudstone, sandstone, and conglomerate-sandstone that represent fluvial fan deposit. Palaeocurrent data show radial palaeoflow pattern with major palaeodrainage towards the southern quadrant. The magnetic fabric studies suggest three major tectonic pulses. The first pulse at ˜8.7 Ma resulted in the development of major depocenter for the MSC, the second pulse at ˜7.65 Ma enhanced the sedimentation and progradation, while the third pulse at ˜6.5 Ma records overlapping earlier fluvial fan by another coarse grained piedmont alluvial fan. Thrust movement in the northern fold belt, basement lineaments and rate of basin subsidence controlled the lateral and vertical facies distribution and palaeodrainage. The sedimentation pattern of the multistorey complex is characterised by mainly sheet flood deposits of laterally avulsing unconfined braided rivers and resembles to the modern megafan sedimentation in the Ganga Basin to the south.

  7. Changing pattern of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin of India under global warming scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, N. R.; Kulkarni, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    Estimation of extremely high rainfall (point or areal) is one of the major components of design storm derivation. The estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) involves selection of heavy rainstorms and its maximization for the moisture content during the rainstorm period. These heavy rainstorms are nothing but the widespread heavy rainfall exceeding a certain threshold value. The present study examines the characteristics of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin selected from present climate and future scenarios simulated by the regional climate model. Such information on heavy rainfall forms the basis for the hydrologic design projects and also for the water management of a river basin. Emphasis is given to severe rainstorms of 1-day duration covering an area of at least 40,000 km 2 with spatial average rainfall of at least 5cm. This analysis also provides the information on the temporal changes in the storm factors such as shape, orientation, and movement, and shows that the model can well simulate the rainstorm pattern in terms of its intensity, orientation, and shape of the rainstorm, but overestimates the frequency of such heavy rainstorms. The future scenario indicates increase in rainfall intensity at the center of the rainstorm with decreasing areal spread. Decrease in the frequency of rainstorms is projected under the global warming conditions.

  8. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.

  9. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions. PMID:25522499

  10. Ichnofossil from the Cambrian succession of Parahio Valley, Spiti Basin, India: Their stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shivani; Parcha, Suraj Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The Spiti Basin exposes an excellent section of Neoproterozoic- Cretaceous rocks in the Tethyan Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh. The diverse assemblage of ichnofossils is present in the Cambrian succession of Parahio Valley in the Spiti Basin. In the present study nineteen ichnofossils are reported from the Cambrian succession of Parahio Valley. The ichnofossils includes Bergaueria, Chondrites, Cruziana, Didymaulichnus, Dimorphichnus, Diplichnites, Helminthorhaphe, Merostomichnites, ?Monocraterion, Monomorphichnus, Nereites, Palaeopascichnus, Palaeophycus, Phycodes, Planolites, Rusophycus, Skolithos, Scolicia, Treptichnus etc. along with annelid worm, burrow and scratch marks. The described ichnofossil assemblage indicates that the ichnocenosis is dominated by a high behavioral diversity ranging from suspension to deposit feeders. It seems that the ichnofauna present in the Cambrian succession of this section were mostly produced by trilobite and arthropods, whereas some of them were produced by crustacean, priapulid worm, polychaetes and polyphyletic vermiforms. The distribution pattern of ichnofossils shows increase in taxonomic and morphological diversity up in the section. It further indicates that the availability of nutrients significantly increased their abundance as well as spatial distribution during Cambrian. The presence of Chondrites, Treptichnus, and Phycodes at the basal part of the Cambrian indicates shallow to deep environment with anaerobic condition. Whereas, the complex forms like Rusophycus, Cruziana, Monomorphichnus and Nereites represent shelf to slope environment. The appearance of Skolithos in the upper part reflects well oxygenated high energy condition. The environmental changes in the Parahio Valley during Cambrian period was distinctly marked by an anaerobic to aerobic condition and by a faunal change from endobenthic, soft - bodied, deposit feeders to epibenthic grazers. The present ichnofossils indicates that these sediments were

  11. Stratigraphic and provenancial evidence for recognition of an underfilled foreland basin in central Himalaya: implication for timing of India-Asia initial collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Wang, J.; Jansa, L.; Wu, F.; Yu, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Himalayan peripheral foreland basin developed when India and Asia collided. Previous studies in the Himalayan foreland were mostly concentrated on Neogene continental clastic sedimentation in sub-Himalaya or Paleogene shallow marine sedimentation along Pakistan, India, and Nepal in Lesser Himalaya. The lack of early stage of underfilled, deep-water facies in the Himalayan foreland basin is intriguing, because classic peripheral foreland basins involves generally a progression from “underfilled” (deep-water flysch facies), to “overfilled” (continental facies) stage. In this study, we present a new model of an early (underfilled) Himalayan foreland basin, through stratigraphic, sedimentologic and provenance analysis of Upper Cretaceous - Lower Paleogene deposits at the Zhepure Mountain, southern Tibet. Four main conclusions were achieved: 1) Detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data indicated that sediments of both the Eocene Enba Formation and overlying Zhaguo Formation have mainly sourced from rocks of the Trans-Himalaya, with minor contribution from the Tethyan Himalaya. The first arrival of orogenic detritus occurred around 50.6 Ma (P8, Zhu et al., 2005), when the siliclastic sediments of Enba Formation were deposited. 2) The Paleocene-Early Eocene Zhepure Shan Formation represents establishment of a stable carbonate ramp, which began with deposition of oolitic bars at high-energy shoals, and progressively changed to a typical open marine ramp environment (Willems et al., 1996). This carbonate ramp is interpreted to develop on the northern flank of the peripheral forebulge of the underfilled Himalayan foreland basin, analogous to carbonate build-ups that occupy submarine forebulges in many other collisional foreland regions such as Alps, Papua New Guinea, Pyrenees, and Arabian Gulf. 3) The Zhepure Shanpo Formation (middle Maastrichtian - Lower Danian) and the overlying Jidula Formation (Upper Danian) show an overall shallowing-upward trend from the

  12. Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Phytotoxicity of Tannery Effluent Discharged into Palar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suki; Nagarchi, Lubbnaz; Das, Ishita; Mangalam Achuthananthan, Jayasri; Krishnamurthy, Suthindhiran

    2015-01-01

    Ambur, a town located on the banks of Palar River, is considered one of the most polluted areas in India and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. The present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (TE) on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. The phytotoxic effects of TE tested on Allium cepa and Lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, protein, and chlorophyll content. Moreover, TE induced chlorosis and tissue necrosis in Nostoc muscorum at low concentration (10%). TE has also negative impact on ecofriendly microorganisms, Bacillus thuringiensis, Rhizobium etli, and Aspergillus terreus which play an important role in the nutrition of plant growth. The genotoxicity of TE was investigated in human leukocytes which showed interference with normal mitotic division with subsequent cell lysis. It also intervened with the normal replication process and induced micronucleus formation in the healthy leukocyte. 5% concentration of TE has been revealed to be toxic to erythrocytes. From this study TE found in the Palar River of Ambur has adverse effects on all the three levels of organisms in ecosystem even at lower concentrations. PMID:26839546

  13. Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Phytotoxicity of Tannery Effluent Discharged into Palar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Suki; Nagarchi, Lubbnaz; Das, Ishita; Mangalam Achuthananthan, Jayasri; Krishnamurthy, Suthindhiran

    2015-01-01

    Ambur, a town located on the banks of Palar River, is considered one of the most polluted areas in India and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. The present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (TE) on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. The phytotoxic effects of TE tested on Allium cepa and Lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, protein, and chlorophyll content. Moreover, TE induced chlorosis and tissue necrosis in Nostoc muscorum at low concentration (10%). TE has also negative impact on ecofriendly microorganisms, Bacillus thuringiensis, Rhizobium etli, and Aspergillus terreus which play an important role in the nutrition of plant growth. The genotoxicity of TE was investigated in human leukocytes which showed interference with normal mitotic division with subsequent cell lysis. It also intervened with the normal replication process and induced micronucleus formation in the healthy leukocyte. 5% concentration of TE has been revealed to be toxic to erythrocytes. From this study TE found in the Palar River of Ambur has adverse effects on all the three levels of organisms in ecosystem even at lower concentrations. PMID:26839546

  14. Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal Basin in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, U; Sikdar, P K; McArthur, J M

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the Bengal Basin is badly polluted by arsenic (As) which adversely affects human health. To provide low-As groundwater for As mitigation, it was sought across 235 km(2) of central West Bengal, in the western part of the basin. By drilling 76 boreholes and chemical analysis of 535 water wells, groundwater with <10 µg/L As in shallow aquifers was found under one-third of a study area. The groundwater is in late Pleistocene palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of weathered brown sand that are capped by a palaeosol of red clay. The aquifers form two N-S trending lineaments that are bounded on the east by an As-polluted deep palaeo-channel aquifer and separated by a shallower palaeo-channel aquifer. The depth to the top of the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers is mostly between 35 and 38 m below ground level (mbgl). The palaeo-interfluvial aquifers are overlain by shallow palaeo-channel aquifers of gray sand in which groundwater is usually As-polluted. The palaeosol now protects the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers from downward migration of As-polluted groundwater in overlying shallow palaeo-channel aquifers. The depth to the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of 35 to 38 mbgl makes the cost of their exploitation affordable to most of the rural poor of West Bengal, who can install a well cheaply to depths up to 60 mbgl. The protection against pollution afforded by the palaeosol means that the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers will provide a long-term source of low-As groundwater to mitigate As pollution of groundwater in the shallower, heavily used, palaeo-channel aquifers. This option for mitigation is cheap to employ and instantly available.

  15. Terminal fans and the Ganga plain tectonism of the Indo-Gangetic foreland basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, R. M.; Pati, P.; Biswal, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    Study of spatial and temporal distribution of Holocene terminal fans in the Indo-Gangetic foreland basin suggests the segmentation of the basin was initiated at 9.3 Ka and continued up to 0.75 Ka in three distinct episodes. The earliest episode (9.3-7.3 Ka) was exclusively confined in the upper Gangetic plain. This episode covers 29% of total time span and contributes 13% of total faults including their reactivations. Development of six faults associated with terminal fans having large age gaps indicate relatively slow rate of faulting activities in the early Holocene. The second episode was started at 6.4 Ka and continued upto 2.3 Ka covering 60% time of the total time span and contributed 69% of total faults (including their reactivations). Though in most of the time the faulting events were confined in the upper Gangetic plain, but development of few faults in the middle Gangetic plain in the middle of this episode shows a transitional shift of tectonic front from the upper to the middle Gangetic plain. The third faulting episode (1.5-0.75 Ka) is mainly confined in the middle Gangetic plain. This episode covers 11% time of the total time span and contributes 18% of faults. Out of the eight faults, seven of them are in the middle Gangetic plains. These three episodes have contributed in segmentation of the Gangetic plains, but the second episode was responsible for major segmentation of the region. Two major tectonically stable periods (7.3-6.4 Ka and 2.3-1.5 Ka) and three minor periods (i.e 0.5 Ka) have been observed in the region. Episodic development of faults in individual tectonic blocks indicates the stress distribution along the plains is non-uniform which can also be correlated to the adjacent corresponding segments of the Himalayan tectonics. It has been observed that, in each fault-bounded block the faulting events start slowly and later becomes more frequent. The youngest faulting episode of the present study coincides with that of previous study and

  16. Remote sensing approach to study morphotectonic influences on hydrogeoenvironment accross yamuna river basin,India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit; Shashtri, Satyanarayan; Singh, Chander Kumar; Singh, Ravi; Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2010-05-01

    Changes in groundwater as well as surface water resources have been mainly attributed as anthropogenic in origin (particularly in case of depleting groundwater levels) but focus still exists on underlying natural processes (such as tectonic activity) that play a major role in shaping the hydrogeoenvironment in a long run. Structural changes associated with tectonic activity mainly affect the subsurface features associated with any terrain, affecting the flow and accumulation of water, which ultimately affects the groundwater recharge. Such activity also affects the subsurface geochemical composition. Studying these effects is not easy as the changes associated can be very subtle, spread over a large landscape. Present study aimed at studying the influences of active faulting episodes (that change the overall physical landscape) on the whole of geological environment pertaining to the water resource in a hard rock area that is located in vicinity of an active fault passing through Yamuna river basin. The study area falls between 76.990 E to 78.000 E and 28.240 N to 28.450 N. The study area, however, is not selected and bound by administrative boundaries but the topography and geomorphic structural units reflective of possible tectonic activity. It is a part of river Yamuna basin (with alluvial/colluvial deposits spreading across) that intersects rocks that have undergone multiple folding. Methodology included identification of sites suitable for other geophysical investigations (resistivity and magnetic surveys) through utilization of satellite images. Structural lineaments were identified with help of satellite data and their orientation with respect to each other was observed. Possible neotectonic activity (supported with study of microtremor spectra) and the seismogenic potentiality of lineaments identified was established. Terrain modeling was done to identify landform features and associated effects of tectonic activity. Hyperspectral Data was used for

  17. Inversion of calcite twin data, paleostress reconstruction and multiphase weak deformation in cratonic interior - Evidence from the Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Vikash; Saha, Dilip

    2015-08-01

    Paleostress orientations from mechanically twinned calcite in carbonate rocks and veins in the neighborhood of large faults were investigated to comment on the nature of weak upper crustal stresses affecting sedimentary successions within the Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, India. Application of Turner's P-B-T method and Spang's Numerical dynamic analysis on Cuddapah samples provided paleostress orientations comparable to those derived from fault-slip inversion. Results from the neighborhood of E-W faults cutting through the Paleoproterozoic Papaghni and Chitravati groups and the Neoproterozoic Kurnool Group in the western Cuddapah basin, reveal existence of multiple deformation events - (1) NE-SW σ3 in strike-slip to extensional regime along with an additional event having NW-SE σ3, for lower Cuddapah samples; (2) compressional/transpressional event with ESE-WNW or NNE-SSW σ1 mainly from younger Kurnool samples. Integrating results from calcite twin data inversion, fault-slip analysis and regional geology we propose that late Mesoproterozoic crustal extension led to initial opening of the Kurnool sub-basin, subsequently influenced by weak compressional deformation. The dynamic analysis of calcite twins thus constrains the stress regimes influencing basin initiation in the southern Indian cratonic interior and subsequent basin inversion in relation to craton margin mobile belts and plausible global tectonic events in the Proterozoic.

  18. Silicate Weathering and Pervasive Authigenic Carbonate Precipitation Coupled to Methanogenesis in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, Offshore India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, E. A.; Spivack, A. J.; Kastner, M.; Torres, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    The cycling of methane in marine sediments has been actively studied for the past several decades, but less attention has been paid to the cycling of CO2 produced in methanogenic sediments. The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 cored 10 sites with the Joides Resolution drillship in the Krishna-Godavari basin, located on the southeastern margin of India. A comprehensive suite of pore water solute concentrations and isotope ratios were analyzed to investigate the distribution and concentration of gas hydrate along the margin, in situ diagenetic and metabolic reactions, fluid migration and flow pathways, and fluid and gas sources. This represents one of the most comprehensive pore water geochemical datasets collected at a continental margin to date, and provides the necessary tracers to better understand the processes and sinks controlling CO2 in margin sediments. Our results show that the CO2 produced through net microbial methanogenesis is effectively neutralized through silicate weathering throughout the sediment column drilled at each site (~100-300 m), buffering the pH of the sedimentary pore water and generating excess alkalinity through the same reaction sequence as continental silicate weathering. Most of the excess alkalinity produced through silicate weathering in the Krishna-Godavari basin is sequestered in Ca- and Fe-carbonates as a result of ubiquitous calcium release from weathering detrital silicates and Fe-reduction within the methanogenic sediments. Formation of secondary hydrous silicates (e.g. smectite) related to incongruent primary silicate dissolution acts as a significant sink for pore water Mg, K, Li, Rb, and B. The consumption of methane through anaerobic oxidation of methane, sequestration of methane in gas hydrate, and sequestration of dissolved inorganic carbon in authigenic carbonates keeps methanogenesis as a thermodynamically feasible catabolic pathway. Our results combined with previous indications of silicate weathering in

  19. Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Vijayaragavan, K; Ganthi, R Rajiv; Chidambaram, S; Anandhan, P; Manivannan, R; Vasudevan, S

    2010-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical parameters to develop water quality index in Thirumanimuttar sub-basin. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na>Mg>Ca>K for cations and Cl>HCO(3) >SO(4) in anions. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate alkalis (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO(4)) exceed weak acid (HCO(3)). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to effective leaching of ions, over exploitation of groundwater, direct discharge of effluents and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC correspond to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. SAR, Na%, and TH were noted higher during both the seasons indicating most of the groundwater locations not suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:20091344

  20. Magnetostratigraphic record of the early evolution of the southwestern Tian Shan foreland basin (Ulugqat area), interactions with Pamir indentation and India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Jolivet, Marc; Guo, Zhaojie; Bougeois, Laurie; Bosboom, Roderic; Zhang, Ziya; Zhu, Bei; Heilbronn, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    The Tian Shan range is an inherited intracontinental structure reactivated by the far-field effects of the India-Asia collision. A growing body of thermochronology and magnetostratigraphy datasets shows that the range grew through several tectonic pulses since ~ 25 Ma, however the early Cenozoic history remains poorly constrained. The time-lag between the Eocene India-Asia collision and the Miocene onset of Tian Shan exhumation is particularly enigmatic. This peculiar period is potentially recorded along the southwestern Tian Shan piedmont. There, late Eocene marine deposits of the proto-Paratethys epicontinental sea transition to continental foreland basin sediments of unknown age were recently dated. We provide magnetostratigraphic dating of these continental sediments from the 1700-m-thick Mine section integrated with previously published detrital apatite fission track and U/Pb zircon ages. The most likely correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale indicates an age span from 20.8 to 13.3 Ma with a marked increase in accumulation rates at 19-18 Ma. This implies that the entire Oligocene period is missing between the last marine and first continental sediments, as suggested by previous southwestern Tian Shan results. This differs from the southwestern Tarim basin where Eocene marine deposits are continuously overlain by late Eocene-Oligocene continental sediments. This supports a simple evolution model of the western Tarim basin with Eocene-Oligocene foreland basin activation to the south related to northward thrusting of the Kunlun Shan, followed by early Miocene activation of northern foreland basin related to overthrusting of the south Tian Shan. Our data also support southward propagation of the Tian Shan piedmont from 20 to 18 Ma that may relate to motion on the Talas Fergana Fault. The coeval activation of a major right-lateral strike-slip system allowing indentation of the Pamir Salient into the Tarim basin, suggests far-field deformation from the

  1. PLS regression-based pan evaporation and minimum-maximum temperature projections for an arid lake basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Manish Kumar; Ojha, C. S. P.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change information required for impact studies is of a much finer scale than that provided by Global circulation models (GCMs). This paper presents an application of partial least squares (PLS) regression for downscaling GCMs output. Statistical downscaling models were developed using PLS regression for simultaneous downscaling of mean monthly maximum and minimum temperatures ( T max and T min) as well as pan evaporation to lake-basin scale in an arid region in India. The data used for evaluation were extracted from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset for the period 1948-2000 and the simulations from the third-generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) for emission scenarios A1B, A2, B1, and COMMIT for the period 2001-2100. A simple multiplicative shift was used for correcting predictand values. The results demonstrated that the downscaling method was able to capture the relationship between the premises and the response. The analysis of downscaling models reveals that (1) the correlation coefficient for downscaled versus observed mean maximum temperature, mean minimum temperature, and pan evaporation was 0.94, 0.96, and 0.89, respectively; (2) an increasing trend is observed for T max and T min for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios, whereas no trend is discerned with the COMMIT scenario; and (3) there was no trend observed in pan evaporation. In COMMIT scenario, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are held at year 2000 levels. Furthermore, a comparison with neural network technique shows the efficiency of PLS regression method.

  2. Chronology of late Quaternary glaciation in the Pindar valley, Alaknanda basin, Central Himalaya (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Rameshwar; Nawaz Ali, S.; Agarwal, K. K.; Rastogi, Saurabh Kumar; Krishna, Kalyan; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    Palaeoglacial reconstruction based on geomorphological mapping in the Pindari glacier valley, Alaknanda basin (Central Himalaya), has revealed five glacial stages with decreasing magnitude. The oldest and most extensive stage-I glaciation deposited sediments at ˜2200 masl (Khati village). The stage-II glaciation was around 7 km long and luminescence dated to 25 ± 2 ka, and has deposits at 3200 masl (Phurkia village). Stage-III glaciation is represented by degraded linear moraine ridges and is dated to 6 ± 1 ka and its remnants can be found around 3850 masl. A sharp crested crescentic moraine extending from around 3650 masl to 3900 masl is attributed to stage-IV glaciation and is dated to 3 ± 1 ka. Following this, there appears to have been a gradual recession in Pindari glacier as indicated by four sharp crested unconsolidated moraines (stage-V) on the valley floor which abuts the stage-IV moraine. We suggest that the stage-I glaciation occurred during the cool and wet Marine Isotopic Stage 3/4 (MIS-3/4), stage-II glaciations began with the onset of MIS-2, whereas the stage-III and IV glaciations occurred during the mid-to late Holocene (MIS-1). We speculate that the first sharp crested unconsolidated moraines around 3600 masl correspond to the later phase of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Historical data suggests that the remaining three ridges represent Pindari glacier snout positions at 1906, 1958 and 1965. We argue that the late Quaternary glaciations in the Pindar valley were modulated by changing insolation and summer monsoon intensity including the LIA, whereas the 20th century recessional trends can be attributed to post-LIA warming.

  3. Groundwater potential zoning of a peri-urban wetland of south Bengal Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, Pradip K

    2011-03-01

    Demand for groundwater for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid increase in population. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the groundwater potential of different areas, especially in a fragile wetland ecosystem to select appropriate sites for developing well fields to minimize adverse environmental impacts of groundwater development. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW)--a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. The subsurface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades, and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to scouring action of past channels. The groundwater in the study area is being over-extracted at the rate of 65 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Overlay analysis in Geographic Information System platform using multiple criteria such as water quality index, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity, and depth to piezometric surface reveals that in and around ECW, there are five groundwater potential zones. About 74% of the aquifer of this area shows very poor to medium groundwater potential. Management options such as minimization of groundwater abstraction by introducing the treated surface water supply system and the implementation of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge in high-rise buildings and industries are suggested for different potential zones.

  4. Groundwater potential zoning of a peri-urban wetland of south Bengal Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, Pradip K

    2011-03-01

    Demand for groundwater for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid increase in population. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the groundwater potential of different areas, especially in a fragile wetland ecosystem to select appropriate sites for developing well fields to minimize adverse environmental impacts of groundwater development. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW)--a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. The subsurface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades, and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to scouring action of past channels. The groundwater in the study area is being over-extracted at the rate of 65 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Overlay analysis in Geographic Information System platform using multiple criteria such as water quality index, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity, and depth to piezometric surface reveals that in and around ECW, there are five groundwater potential zones. About 74% of the aquifer of this area shows very poor to medium groundwater potential. Management options such as minimization of groundwater abstraction by introducing the treated surface water supply system and the implementation of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge in high-rise buildings and industries are suggested for different potential zones. PMID:20437269

  5. Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh Basin, NW India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch Basin) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27-24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late

  6. Assessing the implications of baseline climate uncertainty on simulated water yield within the Himalayan Beas river basin in NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Adeloye, A.; Ojha, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of the changing water cycle on future water resources and society is one of the most important issues surrounding anthropogenic climate change, especially in regions with limited adaptive capacity or highly water-dependent economies. One such region is the north western Himalayan region of India, where supplementary irrigation is used in the non-monsoon seasons and where over 90% of the population are reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods. This paper focuses on the transboundary 12,560km2 Beas catchment in Himachal Pradesh, which is one of the case study catchments of the Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change in Indian agriculture (MICCI) project of the UK NERC Changing Water Cycle Programme. However, understanding of the impacts of changes in the water cycle in such regions is dependent on the quality of available observational climate datasets- a challenge given the relative paucity of ground-based observations in mountainous terrains. River flows in the Beas, which support both irrigation and hydropower, are highly seasonal, being dependent on the Indian Monsoon augmented by seasonal snow and ice melt from the Himalayas. This paper describes the uncertainty in simulating water yield in the Beas catchment, using the HySim hydrological model, associated with the use of a diverse range of public domain and governmental observed and derived precipitation and evapo-transpiration datasets (including gridded ground-based data from the Indian Meteorological Department; TRMM, NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and the APHRODITE project). For example, basin annual average precipitation (2000-07) ranges from 1476 mm/yr (CFSR), 2093mm/yr (APHRODITE) to 2357 mm/yr (TRMM), whilst basin annual average reference evapotranspiration ranges from 1320 mm/yr (with a minimum to maximum sub-basin range of 136-4680 mm/yr) using the Priestley Taylor to 2296 mm/yr (190-6954 mm/yr) with Penman-Monteith. The selection of datasets affects

  7. Constraints to the timing of India-Eurasia collision; a re-evaluation of evidence from the Indus Basin sedimentary rocks of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Alexandra L.; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall; Mark, Darren F.; Foster, Gavin L.

    2011-06-01

    Deposited within the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks have been interpreted to hold evidence that may constrain the timing of India-Eurasia collision, a conclusion challenged by data presented here. The Eurasian derived 50.8-51 Ma Chogdo Formation was previously considered to overlie Indian Plate marine sedimentary rocks in sedimentary contact, thus constraining the timing of collision as having occurred by this time. Using isotopic analysis (U-Pb dating on detrital zircons, Ar-Ar dating on detrital white mica, Sm-Nd analyses on detrital apatite), sandstone and conglomerate petrography, mudstone geochemistry, facies analysis and geological mapping to characterize and correlate the formations of the Indus Basin Sedimentary rocks, we review the nature of these contacts and the identification and correlation of the formations. Our results reveal that previously interpreted stratigraphic contacts identifying Chogdo Formation unconformably overlying Indian plate sedimentary rocks are incorrect. Rather, we suggest that the inaccuracy of previous interpretations is most likely a result of Formation misidentification and thus cannot be used to constrain the timing of India-Asia collision.

  8. C, O, Sr and Nd isotope systematics of carbonates of Papaghni sub-basin, Andhra Pradesh, India: Implications for genesis of carbonate-hosted stratiform uranium mineralisation and geodynamic evolution of the Cuddapah basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absar, Nurul; Nizamudheen, B. M.; Augustine, Sminto; Managave, Shreyas; Balakrishnan, S.

    2016-10-01

    The Cuddapah basin (CB) is one of a series of Proterozoic basins that overlie the Archaean cratons of India, and contains a unique stratiform carbonate-hosted uranium mineralisation. In the present work, we discuss stable (C, O) and radiogenic (Nd, Sr) isotope systematics of carbonates of the Papaghni sub-basin in order to understand uranium ore forming processes and geodynamic evolution of the CB. Uranium mineralised dolomites (UMDs) of the basal Vempalle Formation show a significantly lighter (~ 1.5‰) C-isotope signature compared to that of open-marine stromatolitic sub-tidal facies, suggesting input of isotopically lighter carbon through in situ remineralisation of organic matter (OM). This implies deposition in a hydrologically-restricted, redox-stratified lagoonal basin wherein exchange with open oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was limited. Persistent bottom water anoxia was created and maintained through consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) by decaying OM produced in oxidised surface water zone. Significantly more radiogenic εNd(t) of UMD (- 6.31 ± 0.54) compared to that of Dharwar upper crust (- 8.64 ± 3.11) indicates that dissolved constituents did not originate from the Dharwar craton, rather were derived from more juvenile exotic sources - possibly from a continental arc. Dissolved uranyl ions (U+ 6) were introduced to the basin through fluvial run-off and were reduced to immobile uranous ions (U+ 4) at the redox interface resulting in precipitation of pitchblende and coffinite. Carbonate horizons of upper Vempalle Formation and Tadpatri Formation show progressively more radiogenic Nd isotope compositions signifying increased juvenile arc contribution to the Papaghni sub-basin through time, which is also corroborated by the presence of younger zircons (1923 ± 22 Ma) in Pulivendla quartzites. We propose that the Papaghni sub-basin opened as a back-arc extensional basin at ~ 2 Ga as a result of westerly-directed subduction of oceanic crust

  9. Compositional variability of glauconites within the Upper Cretaceous Karai Shale Formation, Cauvery Basin, India: Implications for evaluation of stratigraphic condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Bansal, Udita; Pande, Kanchan; Meena, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed mineral chemical investigation of glauconite within the condensed section deposits of the Cretaceous Karai Shale Formation, Cauvery Basin, India reflects a wide spectrum in chemical composition related to origin and evolution in different substrates, stratigraphic condensation, and post-depositional alteration. Fe- and Mg-rich glauconite, comprising up to 60% of the sedimentary rocks, occurs as replaced forms of fecal pellets, as infillings within pores and chambers of bioclasts including those of foraminifera, ostracoda, bryozoa, and algae, and as altered forms of mica exhibiting vermiforms. Authigenic precipitation of K- and Fe-poor glauconite, followed by addition of Fe and K into the lattice and concomitant release of Al and Si explains the origin of glauconite pellets and infillings; the origin of glauconite vermiforms in partly degraded mica involves only the second stage of Fe and K addition. Glauconite pellets and vermiforms exhibit sharply defined alteration zones along peripheries to form rims, and in proximity to cracks or cleavages with reduced K2O and Fe2O3 (total) and enhanced Al2O3 and SiO2, related to late-stage meteoric water actions. Cores of glauconite pellets and unaltered zones of vermiforms reflect 'evolved' characteristics with > 6% K2O, typical of a condensed section, while other glauconite varieties occurring at the same stratigraphic level exhibit 'slightly evolved' nature, not consonant with stratigraphic condensation. Increasing abundance of glauconite pellets from the bottom to the top of the transgressive systems tract, accompanied by slight increase in K2O within their cores, reflects the effect of stratigraphic condensation on the evolution of glauconite. High Fe2O3 (total) content of glauconite in the Karai Shale Formation may be related to upwelling, although the Fe may be contributed partly by the biotite substrate. Mössbauer spectroscopy of glauconites reveals significant total Fe substitution in both tetrahedral and

  10. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Result: Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18–30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems. PMID:26957808

  11. On the transmission pattern of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in India.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Manoj V; Kasabi, Gudadappa S; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Tandale, Babasaheb V

    2015-01-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, is endemic in five districts of Karnataka state, India. Recent reports of the spread of disease to neighboring districts of the Western Ghats, namely Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka, Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu, Wayanad and Malappuram districts in Kerala, and Pali village in Goa are a cause for concern. Besides vaccination of the affected population, establishing an event-based surveillance system for monkey deaths in the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests of the Western Ghats would help detect the disease early and thereby help implement appropriate control measures.

  12. Prediction of the likely impact of climate change on monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature in the Chaliyar river basin, India, using ANN-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, N. R.; Thampi, Santosh G.; Surapaneni, Sujith; Nannapaneni, Revanth; Reddy, A. Ashok Kumar; Kumar, J. Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    In this work, an approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been employed to assess the likely impact of climate change on mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature ( T max and T min) in the Chaliyar river basin, Kerala, India. ANN is trained to downscale temperature from the General Circulation Model (GCM) from a coarser resolution to the required resolution of the river basin. The work aims to estimate the GCMs' output to the scales compatible with that employed in a hydrologic model of the river basin. In order to satiate this purpose, predictor variables were obtained from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction and National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data; this was utilized for training the ANN using a feed-forward network with a back-propagation algorithm. These models were validated further and used to downscale CGCM3 GCM simulations for the scenarios outlined in the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Results showed that both T max and T min are increasing consistently in all the scenarios. T max exhibited an average increase of maximum 3 °C during the dry season (December-May) and 1 °C during the wet season (June-November) by the year 2100, while T min showed an average increase of 2.5 °C in the dry season and 0.5 °C in the wet season.

  13. Metasediments of the deep crustal section of Southern Karnataka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaraju, T. C.; Laajoki, K.; Wodeyar, B. K.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the rocks of supracrustal origin in the amphibolite and granulite facies terrane in southern Karnataka was presented. In addition to introducing the metasediments in the field area of the workshop, a review was presented of the common occurrence of metasediments in amphibolite and granulite facies rocks worldwide. Models of granulite metamorphism must include a mechanism for the burial of these sediments to the depths recorded by the geobarometers in granulite metamorphism in addition to their reexposure at the surface. Unfortunately, the common occurrence of supracrustals in granulite facies rocks, sometimes with remarkably little deformation was deemed significant.

  14. Privatisation Policies and Postprivatisation Control Devices in India's Higher Education: Evidence from a Regional Study and Implications for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayana, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on economic analysis of privatisation policies and postprivatisation control devices in India's higher education. As a case study, the experiences of Karnataka State in collegiate education under general higher education are emphasised. A change in public financing, rather than a shift of public ownership and management to…

  15. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l

  16. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  17. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l

  18. Applying appropriate-use criteria to cardiac revascularisation in India

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Ugargol, Allen P; Barnes, Kayleigh; Mahajan, Anish

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The high prevalence of coronary heart disease and dramatic growth of cardiac interventions in India motivate an evaluation of the appropriateness of coronary revascularisation procedures in India. Although, appropriate-use criteria (AUC) have been used to analyse the appropriateness of cardiovascular care in the USA, they are yet to be applied to care in India. In our study, we apply AUC to cardiac care in Karnataka, India, compare our results to international applications of AUC, and suggest ways to improve the appropriateness of care in India. Setting Data were collected from the Vajpayee Arogyashree Scheme, a government-sponsored health insurance scheme in Karnataka, India. These data were collected as part of the preauthorisation process for cardiac procedures. Participants The final data included a random sample of 600 patients from 28 hospitals in Karnataka, who obtained coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention between 1 October 2014 and 31 December 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures We obtained our primary baseline results using a random imputation simulation to fill in missing data. Our secondary outcome measure was a best case–worst case scenario where missing data were filled to give the lowest or highest number of appropriate cases. Results Of the cases, 86.7% (CI 0.837% to 0.892%) were deemed appropriate, 3.65% (CI 0.023% to 0.055%) were inappropriate and 9.63% (CI 0.074% to 0.123%) were uncertain. Conclusions The vast majority of cardiac revascularisation procedures performed on beneficiaries of a government-sponsored insurance programme in India were found to be appropriate. These results meet or exceed levels of appropriate use of cardiac care in the USA. PMID:27029773

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 was Responsible for a Cholera Outbreak in 2013 in Bagalkot, North Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Roy, Subarna; Parande, Mahantesh V; Telsang, M; Seema, M H; Parande, Aisha V; Mantur, Basappa G

    2015-01-01

    Cholera is a major cause of illness in the developing world. During the monsoon season, small sporadic clusters of cholera cases are reported on an annual basis in Karnataka, India. During the monsoons of 2013, there was a cholera outbreak in Badami, a remote area of Bagalkot district in Karnataka. The multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was found to be responsible for this outbreak. On 5 August 2013, a 30-year-old woman presented with severe dehydration and watery diarrhea at the Aganwadi Health Centre in Badami. A total of 49 suspected cholera cases were reported, with an attack rate of 3.5%. The V. cholerae isolates exhibited resistance to a wide range of drugs, including ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, carbenicillin, and third generation cephalosporins, and showed reduced susceptibility to third generation fluoroquinolones. All of the cephalosporin-resistant V. cholerae strains produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. All V. cholerae O1 isolates harbored virulent genes (ctxA, ctxB, tcpA El Tor, Tox S, VPI, ToxT, ToxR, ToxRS, ace, zot, and tcpP) and were found to be genetically similar as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cholera outbreak in the district of Bagalkot. The resistance of V. cholerae to commonly used antimicrobial drugs is becoming a major public health concern in the region as clinicians are left with a limited choice of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera.

  20. Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in India's Yamuna River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2006-08-01

    The government of India decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River basin under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach. PMID:16338055

  1. Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in India's Yamuna River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2006-08-01

    The government of India decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River basin under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach.

  2. Morphological Spectrum of Basal Cell Carcinoma in Southern Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora Dorothy; Naik, Ramdas; Khadilkar, Urmila Niranjan; Kini, Hema; Kini, Ullal Anand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide, which appears over sun-exposed skin as slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Many phenotypic presentations are possible. BCCs are more common in males and tend to occur in older people. Majority is found on the head and neck. Many histopathological subtypes have been defined including nodular, micronodular, cystic, superficial, pigmented, adenoid, infiltrating, sclerosing, keratotic, infundibulocystic, metatypical, basosquamous and fibroepitheliomatous. Mixed patterns are common. Aim The aim was to study morphological spectrum of BCC in a tertiary care hospital in southern Karnataka. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 100 cases of BCCs reported in the Department of Pathology over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014. Results The mean age of presentation was 62 years. There was slight female preponderance (56%). The most common location was face (65%) and the most common presentation was ulceration (45%). Of the 100 BCCs, 50% were nodular, 13% infiltrating, 6% basosquamous, 4% superficial, 3% keratotic, 3% multinodular and 1% mixed. Conclusion BCC, besides being the commonest cutaneous cancer, is also known for its numerous histological patterns which are shown to have prognostic implications. This study reveals the frequency of the various histological patterns of BCC in southern Karnataka, where it has been rarely studied before. PMID:27504291

  3. Estimation of weathering rates and CO2 drawdown based on solute load: Significance of granulites and gneisses dominated weathering in the Kaveri River basin, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, J. K.; Balakrishnan, S.; Bhutani, R.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The solute load of the Kaveri River (South India) and its tributaries draining diverse Precambrian terrains during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods was determined. Using average annual flow, total drainage area and atmospheric input corrected major ion concentrations of these rivers chemical weathering rates, annual fluxes of different ionic species to the ocean and CO2 consumption rates were estimated. Bicarbonate is the most dominant ion (27-79% of anion budget) in all the river samples collected during monsoon period followed by Ca2+, whereas, in case of pre-monsoon water samples Na+ is the most dominant ion (in meq/l). Two approaches were adopted to estimate silicate and carbonate weathering rates in the drainage basin. At Musuri silicate weathering rate (SWR) is 9.44 ± 0.29 tons/km2/a and carbonate weathering rate (CWR) is 1.46 ± 0.16 tons/km2/a. More than 90% of the total ionic budget is derived from weathering of silicates in the Kaveri basin. CO2 consumption rate in the basin for silicate weathering FCO2sil is 3.83 ± 0.12 × 105 mol/km2/a (upper limit), which is comparable with the Himalayan rivers at upper reaches. For carbonate weathering (FCO2carb) CO2 consumption rate is 0.15 ± 0.03 × 105 mol/km2/a in the Kaveri basin. The lower limit of CO2 consumption rate corrected for H2SO4 during silicate and carbonate weathering is FCO2sil is 3.24 × 1005 mol/km2/a and FCO2carb 0.13 × 105 mol/km2/a respectively. CO2 sequestered due to silicate weathering in the Kaveri basin is 25.41 (±0.82) × 109 mol/a which represents 0.21 (±0.01)% of global CO2 drawdown. This may be due to tropical climatic condition, high rainfall during both SW and NE monsoon and predominance of silicate rocks in the Kaveri basin.

  4. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  5. Application of SEBAL approach and MODIS time-series to map vegetation water use patterns in the data scarce Krishna river basin of India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M D; Biggs, T; Turral, H; Scott, C A

    2006-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated land is one of the most useful indicators to explain whether the water is used as "intended". In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to compute actual ET from a Landsat7 image of December 29, 2000 for diverse land use in the Krishna Basin in India. SEBAL ETa varies between 0 to 4.7 mm per day over the image and was quantified for identified land use classes. Seasonal/annual comparison of ETa from different land uses requires time series images, processed by SEBAL. In this study, the Landsat-derived snapshot SEBAL ETa result was interpreted using the cropping calendar and time series analysis of MODIS imagery. The wastewater irrigated area in the basin has the highest ETa in the image, partly due to its advanced growth stage compared to groundwater-irrigated rice. Shrub and forests in the senescence phase have similar ETa to vegetable/cash crops, and ETa from grasslands is a low 0.8 mm per day after the end of the monsoon. The results indicate that wastewater irrigation of fodder and rice is sufficient to meet crop water demand but there appears to be deficit irrigation of rice using groundwater. PMID:16838692

  6. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  7. Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the

  8. Anthropometry and Prevalence of Common Health Problems among School Going Children in Surathkal, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Airody, Sathyajith Karanth; Mahale, Ramnath; SR, Ravikiran; Shetty, Suresh; Rao, Aarathi R

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To measure the anthropometric data of school children and to compare with the CDC and Agarwal centile Growth charts. The prevalence of thinness, stunting, overweight and obesity were estimated. Children were also screened for hypertension, refractory errors, dental problems, skin disease and other abnormalities. Design: Study was conducted in November in a central school in Surathkal, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India. All children from nursery up to 10th standard were screened. Materials and Methods: Weight and Height were measured using standard equipment and plotted on CDC and Agarwal Charts. BMI was calculated and plotted on both charts. Blood Pressure (BP) was taken using mercury sphygmomanometer by a trained nurse. Vision was tested using Snellens chart by refractionist. Dental evaluation was done by dentist. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test and Student’s unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. A statistical package SPSS version 17.0 were used. p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Total 755 children were screened. Among these 392 (51.9%) were females and 363 (48.1%) were males. Eighty five (11.3%) children had short stature and 283 (37.5%) had under nutrition when plotted on CDC chart. Values were lower when plotted on Agarwal charts. Thinness was more prevalent than obesity and overweight. Majority were normotensive though hypertension was noted in 6(0.8%) children and prehypertension in 14(1.9%).112 children (16.3%) had undetected refractory error. Common skin disease noted was T.Versicolor in 27 children. Common dental problem noted was Caries teeth (22.9%). Conclusion: Weight and height were below the CDC centile charts. Under nutrition was more prevalent than overweight and obesity. Majority were normotensive. High prevalence of undetected refractory error and caries teeth were noted. Prevalence of skin disease was low. PMID:25653997

  9. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Mutharayappa, R

    1993-03-01

    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  10. Glacier changes in the Ravi basin, North-Western Himalaya (India) during the last four decades (1971-2010/13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Pritam; Sharma, Milap Chand

    2015-12-01

    A glacier inventory of the Ravi basin, north-western Himalaya has been generated for the year 2002 using Landsat ETM + and ASTER Global DEM (GDEM V2) as the baseline data for the change analysis. The Ravi basin consists of 285 glaciers (> 0.02 km2) covering an area of 164.5 ± 7.5 km2, including 71 debris-covered glaciers with an area of 36.1 ± 2.1 km2 (22% of total glacierized area) in 2002. Change analysis based on Corona KH-4B (1971), Worldview (2010) and Landsat 8 OLI/TRIS (2013) images was restricted to a subset of 157 glaciers (covering an area of 121.4 ± 5.4 km2 in 2002) due to cloud cover. Glacier area decreased from 125.8 ± 1.9 km2 (1971) to 119.9 ± 4.8 km2 (2010/13), a loss of 4.7 ± 4.1% or 0.1 ± 0.1% a- 1. The glacier recession rate has decreased, to a minimum for the recent decades (2002-2010/13). The debris-covered glacier area increased by 19.2 ± 2.2% (0.5 ± 0.05% a- 1) in the Ravi basin. However, there were significant variation in its sub-basins i.e. in Budhil and Upper Ravi sub-basin, where the debris-covered area increased by 28.6 ± 3.1% (0.7 ± 0.1% a- 1) and 14 ± 1.6% (0.3 ± 0.04% a- 1), respectively, between 1971 and 2010/13. Field investigation of selected glaciers (2010-2014) supports glacier recession trend from remote sensing data. Glacier retreat rates in the Ravi basin were lower than previously reported for selected glaciers in the similar basin and other basins (e.g. Chenab, Beas, Parbati, Baspa and Tirungkhad) of the Himachal Himalaya.

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in bovines in Bangalore district, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D'

    2016-09-01

    The study was undertaken to know the current status of prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of cattle and buffaloes in Bangalore, Karnataka. An overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among cattle (75.2 %) and buffalos (76.8 %) was determined by coprological examination. The gastrointestinal parasites detected in cattle and buffalo were Strongyle (39.8 and 29.1 %), followed by Amphistome (24.4 and 23.1 %), Moniezia spp. (5.3 and 5.9 %), Fasciola spp. (4.1 and 15.6 %), Trichuris spp. (1.4 and 2.9 %), Buxtonella spp. (36.6 and 37.3 %) and Eimeria spp. (26.7 and 29.8 %) respectively. The percentage prevalence of mixed helminth and protozoan infections was 20.2 and 26.1 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. PMID:27605757

  12. Child friendly school initiative at Karkala Taluk, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Hegde, A; Shetty, A

    2008-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 40 schools in Karkala Taluk, Karnataka to evaluate whether they met the 10 criteria of Child Friendly School Initiative as recommended by Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Data were collected using a predesigned proforma by talking to the headmaster and school teachers and inspection of the premises for various facilities. We found that none of the schools met all the criteria; 90% of the schools did not have adequate toilet facilities, 90% did not have safe transportation for the students, children in 82% schools had excess baggage, 72% did not have access to safe drinking water, 57% did not have properly ventilated and illuminated classrooms, and physical punishment was being administered in 45% of schools. 72% of schools did have periodic health checkup, 60% of schools had clean kitchen/ dining room, 60% had adequate facilities for games, and 57% had facilities for first aid facility at school.

  13. Prevalence of gingival enlargement in Karnataka school going children

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, K Bala; Raju, P Krishnam; Chitturi, Radha Raani; Smitha, G; Vijai, S; Srinivas, B V V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal diseases affect more people all over the world than dental caries. Increase in size of gingiva is known as gingival hyperplasia or gingival enlargement. Gingival swelling is almost universally the result of Fluid accumulation within the tissues. Enlargement and even aesthetically disfiguring over growth of the gingival tissue, is also a common finding of leukemia, scurvy and subjects undergoing the hormonal changes of puberty, pregnancy, menopause and drugs. Materials & Methods: A sample size of 1500 was taken. All children who were between the chronological age of 5-12 years from selected schools were included in the study.Three age groups were selected for the study, Group I: 5-7yrs, Group II: 7-9 yrs, Group III 9-12yrs. Each group comprised of 500 students. The examination of gingival enlargement was made according to Gingival Enlargement Index. The oral hygiene status of the child was examined using Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Results: The prevalence of Gingival Enlargement increased with the increase of age. Though the Prevalence of GE in female children (15.1%) was more than male children (13.4%), it was not statistically significant. Female children (1.6%) had a higher prevalence of epilepsy than male children (0.29%) in this present study. Conclusion: The prevalence of gingival enlargement was predominantly inflammatory, showing that the oral hygiene status of the oral Children in Karnataka was far from satisfactory. Further studies need to be undertaken regarding the prevalence if GE in School going children. How to cite the article: Krishna KB, Raju PK, Chitturi RR, Smitha G, Vijai S, Srinivas BV. Prevalence of gingival enlargement in Karnataka school going children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):106-10. PMID:24653613

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Results Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that ‘cold’ can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. Conclusion General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka. PMID:26816922

  15. Constraints on the development of Proterozoic basins in central India from 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic glauconitic minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrad, J.E.; Hein, J.R.; Chaudhuri, A.K.; Patranabis-Deb, S.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Deb, G.K.; Beukes, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ages of some key stratigraphic sequences in central Indian Proterozoic basins are based predominantly on lithostratigraphic relationships that have been constrained by only a few radioisotopic dates. To help improve age constraints, single grains of glauconitic minerals taken from sandstone and limestone in two Proterozoic sequences in the Pranhita-Godavari Valley and the Chattisgarh basin were analyzed by the 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating method. Analysis of the age spectra distinguishes between ages that are interpreted to reflect the time of glauconite formation, and anomalous ages that result from inherited argon or postcrystallization heating. The analyses indicate an age of 1686 ± 6 Ma for the Pandikunta Limestone and 1566 ± 6 Ma for the Ramgundam Sandstone, two units in the western belt of Proterozoic sequences in Pranhita-Godavari Valley. Glauconite from the Chanda Limestone, in the upper part of this sequence, contains inherited 40Ar but is interpreted to reflect an age of ca. 1200 Ma. Glauconite from the Somanpalli Group in the eastern belt of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley gives an age of 1620 ± 6 Ma. In the Chattisgarh basin, glauconite from two units gives disturbed ages that suggest a period of regional heating in the Chattisgarh basin at ca. 960–1000 Ma. These new ages indicate that these sequences are 200–400 m.y. older than previously recognized, which has important implications for geochemical studies of Mesoproterozoic ocean redox conditions in addition to providing important constraints on regional tectonics and lithostratigraphy.

  16. GIS based quantitative morphometric analysis and its consequences: a case study from Shanur River Basin, Maharashtra India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Chaitanya B.; Moharir, Kanak

    2015-06-01

    A morphometric analysis of Shanur basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. These techniques are found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Hence, from the study, it is concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM data of 30 m resolution) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool used in morphometric analysis and evaluation of linear, slope, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The combined outcomes have established the topographical and even recent developmental situations in basin. It will also change the setup of the region. It therefore needs to analyze high level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of water resource developmental plan and land resource development plan. The Shanur drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 281.33 km2. The slope of the basin varies from 1 to 10 %, and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The main stream length ratio of the basin is 14.92 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton (Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361, 1945), Miller (A quantitative geomorphologic study of drainage basin characteristics in the clinch mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee Columbia University, Department of Geology, Technical Report, No. 3, Contract N6 ONR 271-300, 1953), and Strahler (Handbook of applied hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1964). GIS based on analysis of all morphometric parameters and the erosional development of the area by the streams has been progressed well beyond maturity and lithology is

  17. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vineet Kumar; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Pandey, Ajay; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2013-09-01

    In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species) in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species) in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33%) in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51%) than Ken (28.07%). Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3) and Ken (K2, K3 and K5) were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (> 0.32) as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases), and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India.

  18. Response of a dryland fluvial system to climate-tectonic perturbations during the Late Quaternary: Evidence from Rukmawati River basin, Kachchh, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Archana; Bhattacharya, Falguni; Rastogi, B. K.; Chauhan, Gaurav; Ngangom, Mamata; Thakkar, M. G.

    2016-08-01

    Dryland rivers, dominated by short-lived, localised and highly variable flow due to discrete precipitation events, have characteristic preservation potential, which serves as suitable archives towards understanding the climate-tectonic coupling. In the present study, we have investigated the fluvial records of a major, southerly-draining river - the Rukmawati River in the dryland terrain of southern Kachchh, in western India. The sediment records along the bedrock rivers of Kachchh register imprints of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), which is the major source of moisture to the fluvial system in western India. The Rukmawati River originates from the Katrol Hill Range in the north and flows towards the south, into the Gulf of Kachchh. The field stratigraphy, sedimentology, along with the optical chronology suggests that a braided-meandering system existed during 37 ka period due to an overall strengthened monsoon. A gradual decline in the monsoon strength with fluctuation facilitated the development of a braided channel system between 20 and 15 ka. A renewed phase of strengthened monsoon with seasonality after around 15 ka which persisted until around 11 ka, is implicated in the development of floodplain sequences. Two zones of relatively high bedrock uplift are identified based on the geomorphometry and morphology of the fluvial landform. These zones are located in the vicinity of the North Katrol Hill Fault (NKHF) and South Katrol Hill Fault (SKHF). Geomorphic expression of high bedrock uplift is manifested by the development of beveled bedrock prior to or around 20 ka during weak monsoon. The study suggests that the terrain in the vicinity of NKHF and SKHF is uplifting at around 0.8 and >0.3 mm/a, respectively. Simultaneously, the incision in the Rukmawati River basin, post 11 ka, is ascribed to have occurred due to lowered sea level during the LGM and early Holocene period.

  19. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vineet Kumar; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Pandey, Ajay; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2013-09-01

    In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species) in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species) in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33%) in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51%) than Ken (28.07%). Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3) and Ken (K2, K3 and K5) were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (> 0.32) as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases), and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India. PMID:24027928

  20. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively. PMID:27394311

  1. Groundwater arsenic contamination from parts of the Ghaghara Basin, India: influence of fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary morphostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Babar Ali

    2016-09-01

    A groundwater arsenic (As) distribution in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts of Uttar Pradesh is shown in the entrenched channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. Tubewell water samples were analysed for As through flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system. About 38, 61, and 42 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As >10 µg/l (WHO guideline). Moreover, 15, 45, and 26 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As above 50 µg/l. About 86, 69, and 35 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, are from shallow depth (21-45 m), and it is worth noticing that 47 % As-contaminated (As >10 µg/l) tubewells in these three districts are located within the depth of 10-35 m in Holocene Newer Alluvium aquifers. The high content of As (7.11 mg/kg) is measured in suspended river sediments of the Ghaghara River. Most of the As-contaminated villages in the Ghaghara Basin are located close to abandoned or present meander channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. In contrast, tubewells in Faizabad, Ayodhya, and Nawabganj towns are As-safe because of their positions on the Pleistocene Older Alluvium upland surfaces. Quaternary geomorphology plays an important role in groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ghaghara Basin. The sources of groundwater arsenic are geogenic and perennial mountainous rivers in the Ghaghara Basin supplied high sediment loads. The arsenic in groundwater of Ghaghara Basin is getting released from associated sediments which were likely deposited from the Himalayas. The process of release of groundwater arsenic is reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides.

  2. Chemical weathering in the Krishna Basin and Western Ghats of the Deccan Traps, India: Rates of basalt weathering and their controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Krishnaswami, S.; Sarin, M. M.; Pande, K.

    2005-04-01

    Rates of chemical and silicate weathering of the Deccan Trap basalts, India, have been determined through major ion measurements in the headwaters of the Krishna and the Bhima rivers, their tributaries, and the west flowing streams of the Western Ghats, all of which flow almost entirely through the Deccan basalts. Samples ( n = 63) for this study were collected from 23 rivers during two consecutive monsoon seasons of 2001 and 2002. The Total dissolved solid (TDS) in the samples range from 27 to 640 mg l -1. The rivers draining the Western Ghats that flow through patches of cation deficient lateritic soils have lower TDS (average: 74 mg l -1), whereas the Bhima (except at origin) and its tributaries that seem to receive Na, Cl, and SO 4 from saline soils and anthropogenic inputs have values in excess of 170 mg l -1. Many of the rivers sampled are supersaturated with respect to calcite. The chemical weathering rates (CWR) of "selected" basins, which exclude rivers supersaturated in calcite and which have high Cl and SO 4, are in range of ˜3 to ˜60 t km -2 y -1. This yields an area-weighted average CWR of ˜16 t km -2 y -1 for the Deccan Traps. This is a factor of ˜2 lower than that reported for the Narmada-Tapti-Wainganga (NTW) systems draining the more northern regions of the Deccan. The difference can be because of (i) natural variations in CWR among the different basins of the Deccan, (ii) "selection" of river basin for CWR calculation in this study, and (iii) possible contribution of major ions from sources, in addition to basalts, to rivers of the northern Deccan Traps. Silicate weathering rates (SWR) in the selected basins calculated using dissolved Mg as an index varies between ˜3 to ˜60 t km -2 y -1, nearly identical to their CWR. The Ca/Mg and Na/Mg in these rivers, after correcting for rain input, are quite similar to those in average basalts of the region, suggesting near congruent release of Ca, Mg, and Na from basalts to rivers. Comparison of

  3. Bias correction of satellite precipitation products for flood forecasting application at the Upper Mahanadi River Basin in Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beria, H.; Nanda, T., Sr.; Chatterjee, C.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite precipitation products such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), etc., offer a promising alternative to flood forecasting in data scarce regions. At the current state-of-art, these products cannot be used in the raw form for flood forecasting, even at smaller lead times. In the current study, these precipitation products are bias corrected using statistical techniques, such as additive and multiplicative bias corrections, and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA) with India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation product,obtained from gauge-based rainfall estimates. Neural network based rainfall-runoff modeling using these bias corrected products provide encouraging results for flood forecasting upto 48 hours lead time. We will present various statistical and graphical interpretations of catchment response to high rainfall events using both the raw and bias corrected precipitation products at different lead times.

  4. Improving assessment of groundwater-resource sustainability with deterministic modelling: a case study of the semi-arid Musi sub-basin, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massuel, S.; George, B. A.; Venot, J.-P.; Bharati, L.; Acharya, S.

    2013-11-01

    Since the 1990s, Indian farmers, supported by the government, have partially shifted from surface-water to groundwater irrigation in response to the uncertainty in surface-water availability. Water-management authorities only slowly began to consider sustainable use of groundwater resources as a prime concern. Now, a reliable integration of groundwater resources for water-allocation planning is needed to prevent aquifer overexploitation. Within the 11,000-km2 Musi River sub-basin (South India), human interventions have dramatically impacted the hard-rock aquifers, with a water-table drop of 0.18 m/a over the period 1989-2004. A fully distributed numerical groundwater model was successfully implemented at catchment scale. The model allowed two distinct conceptualizations of groundwater availability to be quantified: one that was linked to easily quantified fluxes, and one that was more expressive of long-term sustainability by taking account of all sources and sinks. Simulations showed that the latter implied 13 % less available groundwater for exploitation than did the former. In turn, this has major implications for the existing water-allocation modelling framework used to guide decision makers and water-resources managers worldwide.

  5. Land use /Land Cover Approaches as Instruments of Natural Hazard Mitigation in the Manjira River Sub-Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    THATIPARTI, V. L.

    2001-05-01

    Rapid industrialization during the last three decades had a profound adverse effect on the land use / land cover practices in , and the water quality, of the Manjira River sub-basin, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh, India. As water interacts with all other components of the environment, such as geology, soils, weather and climate, flora and fauna, the pollution of water has affected both biophysical and socioeconomic and cultural environments. The area of study is the catchment of Nakkavagu (stream) in the Manjira river system, which lies between long. 78 05' - 78 25' E., and the lat. 17 25'- and 17 45' N., and covers an area of 734 sq.km. Remote Sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of the industrialization and for being prepared for extreme weather events. The methodology employed in the present study involves the generation of various thematic layers like slope, hydrogeomorphology and land use / land cover maps using Land sat MSS, IRS IA LISS II and IRS ID LISS III and PAN merged data in EASI / PACE 6.3 ver. Platform. By overlaying all the above thematic maps, action plan maps are generated to device various ways and means of rolling back the degradation of the environment, and to develop low -cost, people - participatory strategies ( such as, agricultural practices, use of water bodies and land under urbanization, structural and non-structural, particularly vegetation methods, etc.) of reducing the vulnerability of the population for extreme weather events.

  6. Investigation on the hydrodynamics of Ganga Alluvial Plain using environmental isotopes: a case study of the Gomati River Basin, northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Munendra; Kumar, Sudhir; Kumar, Bhishm; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Indra Bir

    2013-05-01

    An investigation using environmental isotopes (δ18O and δD) was conducted to gain insight into the hydrological processes of the Ganga Alluvial Plain, northern India. River-water, shallow-groundwater and lake-water samples from the Gomati River Basin were analyzed. During the winter season, the δ18O and δD compositions of the Gomati River water ranged from -1.67 to -7.62 ‰ and -25.08 to -61.50 ‰, respectively. Deuterium excess values in the river water (+0.3 to -13 ‰) and the lake water (-20 ‰) indicate the significance of evaporation processes. Monthly variation of δ18O and δD values of the Gomati River water and the shallow groundwater follows a similar trend, with isotope-depleted peaks for δ18O and δD synchronized during the monsoon season. The isotopically depleted peak values of the river water (δ18O = -8.30 ‰ and δD = -57.10 ‰) can be used as a proxy record for the isotopic signature of the monsoon precipitation in the Ganga Alluvial Plain.

  7. Documenting human transformation and establishing the reference condition of large river systems using Corona images: a case study from the Ganga River basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Rajiv; Pipil, Shobhit; Carbonneau, Patrice; Galiatsatos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The Ganga basin in northern India is one of the most populous river basin in the world with nearly half a billion inhabitants. In the post-independence era, population expansion and human interventions have left the ecosystem of the Ganga in a severely damaged state with dwindling water levels, pollution due to human activity and natural sediment transport severely perturbed by dams and barrages. Fortunately, there is a growing recognition by the policy managers in India that the restoration of the Ganga to a healthier status, closer to its original unperturbed state, would set a strong foundation to future, greener, economic growth in Northern India. However, given the past six decades of fast development, efforts to restore the Ganga to its original condition are faced with a fundamental question: What was the original state of the Ganga? Answering this question will require some knowledge of the former course of the Ganga and of the farming and urban density of the surrounding plains before the impacts of human disturbance could be felt. We have made use of the Corona spy satellite program that collected a large number of earth observation photos in the 1960s. These photos, now declassified, offer us a unique view of the Ganga at the very early stages of intense development and thus before the worst ecological damages occurred. However, actual usage of these images poses significant technical challenges. In the design of the Corona cameras, very high resolution comes at the cost of complex distortions. Furthermore, we have no information on the exact position and orientation of the satellite at the time of image acquisition so an accurate reprojection of the image into conventional map coordinates is not straightforward. We have developed a georectification process based on polynomial transformation to achieve a positional accuracy of ±20m for the area of our interest. Further, We have developed an object-based classification method that uses both texture and

  8. Evaluation of SDSM developed by annual and monthly sub-models for downscaling temperature and precipitation in the Jhelum basin, Pakistan and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rashid; Babel, Mukand S.

    2013-07-01

    The study evaluates statistical downscaling model (SDSM) developed by annual and monthly sub-models for downscaling maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation, and assesses future changes in climate in the Jhelum River basin, Pakistan and India. Additionally, bias correction is applied on downscaled climate variables. The mean explained variances of 66, 76, and 11 % for max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation, respectively, are obtained during calibration of SDSM with NCEP predictors, which are selected through a quantitative procedure. During validation, average R 2 values by the annual sub-model (SDSM-A)—followed by bias correction using NCEP, H3A2, and H3B2—lie between 98.4 and 99.1 % for both max and min temperature, and 77 to 85 % for precipitation. As for the monthly sub-model (SDSM-M), followed by bias correction, average R 2 values lie between 98.5 and 99.5 % for both max and min temperature and 75 to 83 % for precipitation. These results indicate a good applicability of SDSM-A and SDSM-M for downscaling max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation under H3A2 and H3B2 scenarios for future periods of the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s in this basin. Both sub-models show a mean annual increase in max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation. Under H3A2, and according to both sub-models, changes in max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation are projected as 0.91-3.15 °C, 0.93-2.63 °C, and 6-12 %, and under H3B2, the values of change are 0.69-1.92 °C, 0.56-1.63 °C, and 8-14 % in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. These results show that the climate of the basin will be warmer and wetter relative to the baseline period. SDSM-A, most of the time, projects higher changes in climate than SDSM-M. It can also be concluded that although SDSM-A performed well in predicting mean annual values, it cannot be used with regard to monthly and seasonal variations, especially in the case of precipitation unless correction is applied.

  9. Field survey of pollutants discharged from different types of residential area in the Yamuna River Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, A; Sakurai, K; Hiraide, R; Minamiyama, M; Fujiki, O

    2011-01-01

    The Ganges River, one of the most heavily populated and urbanized river basins in Asia, is polluted by increasing wastewater influent and water-borne diseases are caused in the metropolitan area. This study focused on the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges. We determined the pollutant load per unit of urban area classified by the income of the residents to help design an appropriate sewerage system. In addition, a simple method of estimating runoff pollutant load was examined using data on pollutant load per unit and runoff coefficient. PMID:22156124

  10. Application of electromagnetic propagation logging in the interpretation of fresh water neogene sands of upper Assam tertiary basin (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handique, G. K.; Saikia, A. K.; Mallick, R. K.; Das, S. C.

    The EPT and ND overlay technique has been tried and found to be quite succesful in distinguishing between hydrocarbon and water zones in fresh water Tipam and Girujan sands, some of which could have been easily overlooked other wise, in a number of Upper Assam oilfields. The EPT-MSEL combination offers reliable values of m which could be utilized for estimation of more accurate values of water saturation. EPT measurement has also proved to be particularly useful in resolution of thin beds in the wells of Upper Assam basin.

  11. Field survey of pollutants discharged from different types of residential area in the Yamuna River Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, A; Sakurai, K; Hiraide, R; Minamiyama, M; Fujiki, O

    2011-01-01

    The Ganges River, one of the most heavily populated and urbanized river basins in Asia, is polluted by increasing wastewater influent and water-borne diseases are caused in the metropolitan area. This study focused on the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges. We determined the pollutant load per unit of urban area classified by the income of the residents to help design an appropriate sewerage system. In addition, a simple method of estimating runoff pollutant load was examined using data on pollutant load per unit and runoff coefficient.

  12. Prevalence of a few variant dental features in children aged 11–16 years in Davangere, a city in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, P.; Kirthiga, M.; Sasalwad, Shilpa; Nagaveni, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Variations in morphology of shape of teeth have always been of interest to dentists from ancient times. But to our surprise, till date, no studies related to the prevalence of dental features have been conducted in any part of the world. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of a few variant dental features in a group of children aged from 11 to 16 years in the city of Davangere that belongs to the state of Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted where children aged 11–16 years were selected (both girls and boys) and type III clinical examination was done. They were checked for the following features – Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped maxillary 2nd molar, 5-cusped maxillary 1st molar, 4-cusped mandibular 1st molar, 5-cusped mandibular 2nd molar, cusp 6 present in mandibular 1st molar, and 7-cusped mandibular 1st molar. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: Around 99.3% of the school children examined had at least one of the dental variations that were examined in relation to the shape of teeth. Conclusions: This study definitely provides us with baseline data, but further epidemiological studies are required to determine the prevalence of the above mentioned dental anomalies. PMID:27051217

  13. Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River basin of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K

    2016-01-01

    Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods.

  14. Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River basin of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K

    2016-01-01

    Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods. PMID:27536533

  15. Structural mapping of Chikotra River basin in the Deccan Volcanic Province of Maharashtra, India from ground magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, S. P.; Erram, Vinit C.; Patil, J. D.; Pawar, N. J.; Gupta, Gautam; Suryavanshi, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Ground magnetic data collected over Chikotra River in the peripheral region of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of Maharashtra located in Kolhapur district was analysed to throw light on the structural pattern and distribution of magnetic sources within the basin. In order to isolate the magnetic anomalies showing varying trend and amplitude, several transformation operations including wavelength filtering, and upward continuation has been carried out on the reduced to pole anomaly map. Qualitative interpretation of these products help identify the distribution of magnetic sources, viz., the Deccan basalts, dolerite intrusives and older greenstone and schist belts in the subsurface. Present study suggests that the Chikotra basin is composed of three structural units; a NE-SW unit superposed on deeper NW-SE unit with randomly distributed trap flows on the surface. One of the major outcome of the present study is the delineation of almost 900-m thick Proterozoic Kaladgi sediments below the Deccan trap flows. The NE-SW magnetic sources may probably represent intrusives into the Kaladgi sediments, while the deeper NW-SE trends are interpreted as the northward extension of the Dharwars, underneath the Deccan lava flows, that forms the basement for the deposition of Kaladgi sediments.

  16. Orthodontic Treatment: Need and Demand in North Karnataka School Children

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Naveen; Reddy, Suga; Vanishree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the normative need, demand and knowledge of/for/on orthodontic treatment in Karnataka school children who were aged 12-16 years. Method: A simple random selection of a sample of 1000 students who were aged 12-16 years was made. Informed consents were obtained from each subject. The dental health component (DHC) and aesthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and the index of complexity, outcome and need (ICON) were assessed by using the index. The knowledge and demand on/for orthodontic treatment were assessed by using a questionnaire. Results: The survey population showed 49.3%, 44.4%, and 7.1% of samples needed definite orthodontic treatment need on basis of DHC, ICON, AC respectively. In terms of treatment need, boys were more likely to seek orthodontic treatment need than girls. There was fair agreement between operator and students. A high percentage of students clearly expressed a ‘definite need’ of orthodontic treatment. Only 40% of children had some knowledge on orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: The present study showed that the awareness, need and demand for orthodontic treatment were less among school children. So, we need to enlighten the students regarding aesthetics among children. PMID:24995242

  17. The transition from an Archean granite-greenstone terrain into a charnockite terrain in southern India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condie, K. C.; Allen, P.

    1983-01-01

    In southern India, it is possible to study the transition from an Archean granite-greenstone terrain (the Karnataka province) into high grade charnockites. The transition occurs over an outcrop width of 20-35 km and appears to represent burial depths ranging from 15 to 20 km. Field and geochemical studies indicate that the charnockites developed at the expense of tonalites, granites, and greenstones. South of the transition zone, geobarometer studies indicate burial depths of 7-9 kb.

  18. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of mafic dykes from the Mesoproterozoic Chhattisgarh basin, Bastar craton, Central India: Implication for the origin and spatial extent of the Deccan Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Burgess, R.; Lehmann, B.; Mainkar, D.; Pande, S. K.; Hari, K. R.; Bodhankar, N.

    2011-08-01

    We present 40Ar/ 39Ar whole-rock ages of 63.7 ± 2.7 Ma (2σ, 92% Ar release) and 66.6 ± 2.2 Ma (2σ, 96% Ar release) for two samples of sub-surface mafic dykes intrusive into the sedimentary rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Chhattisgarh basin, Bastar craton, Central India. The obtained ages are synchronous with those of the Deccan Traps whose nearest exposures are at a distance of ~ 200 km to the west, and the recently dated diamondiferous orangeites (Group-II kimberlites) of the Mainpur area (located ~ 100 km SE within the Bastar craton). The chemical composition of the Chhattisgarh mafic dykes is indistinguishable from the chemostratigraphic horizons of the upper Deccan lavas of the Wai Subgroup (Ambenali and Poladpur Formations) and confirms them to be a part of the Deccan Large Igneous Province (LIP). The geological setting of the Deccan-age mafic dykes in the Chhattisgarh basin is analogous to that observed in other LIPs of the world such as (i) Pasco Basin of NW U.S.A, (ii) Ellisras sub-basin of southern Africa, (iii) Rift basins of New England in the NE U.S.A and (iv) the West Siberian Basin of Russia where LIP-related basalts and sills have been emplaced in distant domains from the main province. The Deccan-age of the Chhattisgarh dykes and the Mainpur orangeites permits a substantial increase of at least 8.5 × 10 4 km 2 in the spatial extent of the Deccan LIP. The temporal link at ~ 65 Ma between the Deccan Traps and (i) sub-surface mafic dykes within the Chhattisgarh basin and orangeites in the Bastar craton, (ii) Ambadongar carbonatite in western India, (iii) Salma mafic dyke in the Eastern Indian craton, (iv) Rajahmundry Traps off the eastern coast of southern India and (v) tholeiitic dykes and basalts from the Seychelles, suggests a common tectonomagmatic control, via a vast mantle plume-head of the order of 2000-2500 km. Our study has relevance to the (i) origin (plume vs non-plume) of the Deccan LIP, (ii) plumbing system for Deccan dykes and lavas in

  19. Petro-mineralogical Studies of the Paleoproterozoic Phosphorites in the Sonrai basin, Lalitpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Shamim A. Khan, K. F.; Khan, Saif A.; Khan, Samsuddin; Masroor Alam, M.

    2015-09-15

    The Paleoproterozoic phosphorites constitute an economically significant component of the Sonrai basin of Lalitpur district. These are associated with ferruginous shale, ironstone, limestone and quartz breccia. Petro-mineralogical studies of samples of the phosphorites, using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, reveal that the collophane (carbonate-fluorapatite) is the dominant phosphate mineral. Calcite, dolomite, quartz, mica and haematite are the dominant gangue constituents. The phosphate minerals occur as oolites mutually replaced by carbonate and silica. The presence of iron oxides has been found in most of the thin sections. There is meagre evidence of organic matter in the form of filaments of microbial phosphate laminae in the samples of phosphorite. The mineral assemblages, their texture and various forms in these phosphorites may be due to some environmental vicissitudes followed by replacement processes and biogenic activities.

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Water and Crop Yields in the Glacial Dominated Beas River Basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Ojha, C. S. P. S.; Adeloye, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan valleys are confronting severe climate change related issues (floods in summer, flash flood and landslides, water scarcity in higher altitudes) because of fluctuating monsoon precipitation and increasing seasonal temperatures. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. The Beas is regionally significant as it holds two giant dams, one which annually diverts 4700 Mm3 of water to a nearby basin. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for Daily River flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). We then applied the models within a scenario-neutral framework to develop hydrological and crop yield Impact Response Surfaces (IRS) for future changes in annual temperature and precipitation for the region from AR5. Future Q10 and Q90 daily flows indicate amplified 'flash flood' situations and increased low flows, respectively, with increasing temperatures due to increased snowmelt from retreating glaciers. Under existing crop and irrigation management practices, the IRS show decreasing and increasing crop yields for summer (monsoon) and winter (post monsoon) crops, respectively, with rising temperature. Climate change scenario studies shows that, the sensitivity of winter (post monsoon) crop yields to precipitation increases with increasing temperature. The paper will consider the implications of the research for future agricultural water resource management and the potential of adaptation to offset yield losses

  1. Human health risk assessment via drinking water pathway due to metal contamination in the groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 30 sampling sites throughout the Subarnarekha River Basin for source apportionment and risk assessment studies. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant spatial variation with some of the metals like As, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se exceeding the drinking water standards at some locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) outcome of four factors that together explained 84.99 % of the variance with >1 initial eigenvalue indicated that both innate and anthropogenic activities are contributing factors as source of metal in groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) and cancer risk by ingestion for adult and child, and it was indicated that Mn was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. The carcinogenic risk of As for adult and child was within the acceptable cancer risk value of 1 × 10(-4). The largest contributors to chronic risks were Mn, Co and As. Considering the geometric mean concentration of metals, the hazard index (HI) for adult was above unity. Considering all the locations, the HI varied from 0.18 to 11.34 and 0.15 to 9.71 for adult and child, respectively, suggesting that the metals posed hazard by oral intake considering the drinking water pathway.

  2. Sone megafan: A non-Himalayan megafan of craton origin on the southern margin of the middle Ganga Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar; Dayal, Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Researchers in the last few decades have focused on the fluvial megafans at the base of Himalayan foothills in the Ganga Basin. No major effort has so far been made to delineate any such large depositional environment at the base of the northern Indian peninsular craton at the distal parts of the basin. In this work, for the first time, we document a megafan, unusually created by the cratonic Sone River in the marginal plains south of the Ganga. The geomorphology of the megafan surface, distribution of palaeochannels, sedimentology, and areal extent of the megafan are described. The study also reconstructs the tectonic and palaeoclimatic conditions, which might have helped in sediment supply from the cratonic catchment areas of the Sone. We suggest tectonic control over the Sone River channel dynamics and development of the megafan. The oval- and fan-shaped, craton-derived sediment body covers an area of around 12,000 km2 in the marginal plains and about 9000 km2 in the central alluvium north of the Ganga River. The megafan is around 190 km long and ~ 240 km wide. The mean slope of the megafan surface is ~ 0.03°. An onlap of Himalayan sediments has occurred over the megafan at its toe parts caused by southward encroachment of the Ganga during the Holocene. The megafan sediments comprise brownish yellow fine to coarse sand and gravels with an admixture of carbonaceous nodules (kankars). The thickness of the megafan sediment, which directly overlies the Precambrian basement, varies from only a few meters in the south near the peninsular craton to ~ 1000 m at the north in the central alluvial plain. The granular zones form prolific aquifer systems in an otherwise poor hydrogeological setting of the marginal plains.

  3. Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern India, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern India for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar Basin of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close

  4. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) from south India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Chelmala, Srinivasulu; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Shah, Tariq Ahmed; Devender, Gundena; Srinivasulu, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat Hipposiderosdurgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das's leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this species in southern India, extending its distribution range by almost 1300 km. We also provide a detailed morphological description for this species. PMID:25535483

  5. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  6. Why hasn't a seawater intrusion yet happened in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry basin, Tamil Nadu, India?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is even bigger when those aquifers are overexploited, for example for irrigation, or when their recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The sedimentary basin studied here presents both this characteristics, and water level records in the main aquifer can be as low as 30m below MSL. Though, no seawater intrusion has been monitored yet. To understand why, and because a good knowledge of a system hydrodynamic is a necessary step to an efficient water management strategy, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been implemented into a quasi-3D hydrogeological model performed with NEWSAM code. Recharge had been previously quantified through the intercomparison of hydrological models, based on surface flow field measurements. During the hydrogeological modelling, sensitivity tests on parameters, and on the nature of the boundary condition with the sea, led to the hypothesis of an offshore freshwater stock. Extension of this fresh groundwater stock has been calculated thanks to Groen approximation.

  7. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from fractured reservoir at Site NGHP-01-10, Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-Ol), one of the richest marine gas hydrate accumulations was discovered at Site NGHP-01-10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin. The occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate at this site is primarily controlled by the presence of fractures. Assuming the resistivity of gas hydratebearing sediments is isotropic, th?? conventional Archie analysis using the logging while drilling resistivity log yields gas hydrate saturations greater than 50% (as high as ???80%) of the pore space for the depth interval between ???25 and ???160 m below seafloor. On the other hand, gas hydrate saturations estimated from pressure cores from nearby wells were less than ???26% of the pore space. Although intrasite variability may contribute to the difference, the primary cause of the saturation difference is attributed to the anisotropic nature of the reservoir due to gas hydrate in high-angle fractures. Archie's law can be used to estimate gas hydrate saturations in anisotropic reservoir, with additional information such as elastic velocities to constrain Archie cementation parameters m and the saturation exponent n. Theory indicates that m and n depend on the direction of the measurement relative to fracture orientation, as well as depending on gas hydrate saturation. By using higher values of m and n in the resistivity analysis for fractured reservoirs, the difference between saturation estimates is significantly reduced, although a sizable difference remains. To better understand the nature of fractured reservoirs, wireline P and S wave velocities were also incorporated into the analysis.

  8. Multivariate statistical evaluation of heavy metals in the surface water sources of Jia Bharali river basin, North Brahmaputra plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khound, Nayan J.; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of surfacewater sources in the Jia Bharali river basin and adjoining areas of the Himalayan foothills with respect to heavy elements viz. (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) by hydrochemical and multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). This study presents the first ever systematic analysis on toxic elements of water samples collected from 35 different surface water sources in both the dry and wet seasons for a duration of 2 hydrological years (2009-2011). Varimax factors extracted by principal component analysis indicates anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural run-off) and geogenic influences on the trace elements. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 35 surfacewater sources into three statistically significant clusters based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of complex data sets, and in water quality assessment, identification of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective surfacewater quality management.

  9. Land Use/Land Cover Approaches as Instruments of Natural Hazard Mitigation in the Manjira River Sub-Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Rapid industrialization during the last three decades had a profound adverse effect on the land use/land cover practices in, and the water quality, of the Manjira River sub-basin, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India. As water interacts with all other components of the environment, such as, geology, soils, weather and climate, flora and fauna, the pollution of water has affected both biophysical and socioeconomic and cultural environments. The area of study is the catchment of Nakkavagu (stream) in the Manjira river system, which lies between long. 78 05' - 78 25' E., and the lat. 17 25' - 17 45' N., and covers an area of 734 sq. km. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of the industrialization and for being prepared for extreme weather events. The methodology employed in the present study involves the generation of various thematic layers like slope, hydrogeomorphology and land use / land cover maps using Landsat MSS, IRS 1A LISS II and IRS 1D LISS III and PAN merged data in EASI/PACE 6.3 ver. platform. By overlaying all the above thematic maps, action plan maps are generated to devise various ways and means of rolling back the degradation of the environment, and to develop low-cost, people-participatory strategies (such as, agricultural practices, use of water bodies and land under urbanization, structural and non-structural, particularly vegetation methods, etc.) of reducing the vulnerability of the population for extreme weather events.

  10. Estimating aquifer recharge in fractured hard rock: analysis of the methodological challenges and application to obtain a water balance (Jaisamand Lake Basin, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Melissa M.; Edmunds, W. Mike; Freyberg, David; Sharma, Om Prakash; Sharma, Anupma

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important metric for sustainable water management, particularly in semi-arid regions. Hard-rock aquifers underlie two-thirds of India and appropriate techniques for estimating groundwater recharge are needed, but the accuracy of such values is highly uncertain. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method was employed to estimate annual groundwater recharge rates in a monsoon-dependent area of Jaisamand Lake basin in Rajasthan, which contains the Gangeshwar watershed. A monitoring program was established within the watershed during summer 2009, with local participation for the collection of rainfall and groundwater samples. Groundwater recharge was estimated spatially over a 3-year period with pre-monsoon and post-monsoon datasets. Recharge rates estimated using the CMB method were then compared to those estimated using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method. Specific yield was 0.63 % and assumed to be homogenous across the watershed. The average recharge rate derived from the WTF method (31 mm/year) was higher than that derived from the CMB method (24.3 mm/year). CMB recharge rates were also applied to obtain a water balance for the watershed. CMB recharge rates were used to estimate annual groundwater replenishment and were compared with estimates of groundwater withdrawal using Landsat imagery. Over the 2009-2011 study period, groundwater demand was about seven times greater than the estimated groundwater renewal of 5.6 million cubic meters. This analysis highlights the challenges associated with estimating groundwater recharge in fractured hard-rock aquifers, and how renewable groundwater-resource estimates can be used as a metric to promote sustainable water use.

  11. Climatology of columnar aerosol properties at a continental location in the upper Brahmaputra basin of north east India: Diurnal asymmetry and association with meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The spectro-temporal variation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and associated physico-optical properties are studied for the period October 2001-November 2010 over a continental location, Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl) located in the upper Brahmaputra basin of north-east India. The emphasis is on the climatological diurnal asymmetry of AOD and its association with meteorological parameters. AOD is found to be higher during forenoon (FN) hours compared to those in the afternoon (AN) hours in almost all seasons. The mean difference between FN and AN AOD averaged for the period 2001-2010 is 0.18. This variability is found primarily to be driven by the prevailing meteorological conditions including columnar water vapour content. It may also be attributed to the change in the ray path in the forenoon through the polluted industrialised areas located in the east and north-east of Dibrugarh to the cleaner mountain region and river Brahmaputra in the afternoon hours. The estimated CSDs are mostly bimodal in the FN hours while in the AN power law and unimodal character prevails. This indicates dominance of coarse mode aerosols in the forenoon as compared to that in the afternoon. The differences in aerosol modes between FN and AN hours result in the diurnal asymmetry of the modified Ångström coefficients. AOD retrieved from MODIS satellites is also higher in the FN by 0.08 as compared to that in the AN The climatological mean difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua AOD is however, less than the mean difference observed between AOD measured from ground.

  12. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Vinay

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), Tmax and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal

  13. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Vinay K.

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), T max and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal

  14. Shallow subsurface stratigraphy and alluvial architecture of the Kosi and Gandak megafans in the Himalayan foreland basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Rajiv; Ahmad, Jawed; Gaurav, Kumar; Morin, Guillaume

    2014-03-01

    The Kosi and the Gandak are two major Himalayan tributaries of the Ganga River in the north Bihar plains India. With a large hinterland in the Nepal Himalaya, both these rivers have generated megafans in the plains over the Quaternary time scale. Both these rivers are known to be highly dynamic and sediment-charged. A few conceptual models and limited field data suggested that these megafans have produced thick sand sheets over Late Quaternary period but these ideas have remained speculative and there is no data on the size and dimension of these sand bodies. This paper attempts to reconstruct the subsurface stratigraphy and alluvial architecture for the upper ~ 100 m of the megafans based on electrical resistivity soundings, borehole data and drill cores. Alluvial architecture of the Kosi megafan shows significant variability from proximal to medial parts of the fan in terms of sediment grain size and layer thicknesses. While the medial part shows ~ 20-30 m thick medium to coarse sand sheets which are laterally stacked, the proximal part of the fan has a dominantly gravel unit below ~ 15 m depth that is underlain and overlain by medium to coarse sand units. Further, the medial fan also shows significant vertical and lateral variability in alluvial stratigraphy. The near-surface (< 20 m depth) deposits from the Kosi megafan have pockets of clay and silt within large amalgamated sand bodies whereas the shallow sub-surface (50-100 m depth) sediments are largely sandy and devoid of clay and silt pockets. Alluvial architecture of the Gandak megafan shows two major lithounits; the upper fan succession has a higher stacking density of smaller sand bodies perhaps reflecting the migratory behavior of the river whereas the lower succession shows narrow but thick sand fills reflecting incised channels. The western part of the Gandak megafan has more abundant sand bodies compared to the eastern side of the river along both transects. There are no significant differences

  15. Distribution of iron, manganese, zinc and atrazine in groundwater in parts of Palar and Cheyyar river basins, South India.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, N; Elango, L

    2005-08-01

    A study was carried out in a part of Palar and Cheyyar river basin to evaluate the current status of iron, manganese, zinc and atrazine concentrations, their origin and distribution in groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected during post-monsoon (March 1998 and February 1999) and pre-monsoon (June 1999) periods from 41 sampling wells distributed throughout the study area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for trace metals using AAS and atrazine using HPLC. The concentration of the trace elements in groundwater is predominant during pre-monsoon period. Distribution pattern indicates that the concentration of these elements increases from west to northeast and towards Palar river. Lower concentrations in the central part may be due to recharge of fresh water from the lakes located here. During most of the months, as there is no flow in Palar river, the concentrations of trace elements in groundwater are high. Drinking water standards indicate that Mn and Zn cross the permissible limit recommended by EPA during the pre-monsoon period. A comparison of groundwater data with trace element chemistry of rock samples shows the abundance of trace elements both in the rock and water in the order of Fe > Mn > Zn and Fe > Zn > Mn. This indicates that iron in groundwater is derived from lithogenic origin. Further, Fe, Mn and Zn have good correlation in rock samples, while it is reverse in the case of water samples, indicating the non-lithogenic origin of Mn and Zn. Atrazine (a herbicide) was not detected in any of the groundwater samples in the study area, perhaps due to low-application rate and adsorption in the soil materials.

  16. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  17. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  18. Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba; Rao, P Surya; Reddy, G Venktram; Nagamani, M; Vidyasagar, G; Satyanarayana, N L V V

    2012-08-01

    Study on chemical characteristics of groundwater and impacts of groundwater quality on human health, plant growth, and industrial sector is essential to control and improve the water quality in every part of the country. The area of the Varaha River Basin is chosen for the present study, where the Precambrian Eastern Ghats underlain the Recent sediments. Groundwater quality is of mostly brackish and very hard, caused by the sources of geogenic, anthropogenic, and marine origin. The resulting groundwater is characterized by Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-), and Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] facies, following the topographical and water flow-path conditions. The genetic geochemical evolution of groundwater ([Formula: see text] and Cl(-)-[Formula: see text] types under major group of [Formula: see text]) and the hydrogeochemical signatures (Na(+)/Cl(-), >1 and [Formula: see text]/Cl(-), <1) indicate that the groundwater is of originally fresh quality, but is subsequently modified to brackish by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources, which also supported by the statistical analysis. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), TH, Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), [Formula: see text], Cl(-), [Formula: see text], and F(-) are above the recommended limits prescribed for drinking water in many locations. The quality of groundwater is of mostly moderate in comparison with the salinity hazard versus sodium hazard, the total salt concentration versus percent sodium, the residual sodium carbonate, and the magnesium hazard, but is of mostly suitable with respect to the permeability index for irrigation. The higher concentrations of TDS, TH, [Formula

  19. Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba; Rao, P Surya; Reddy, G Venktram; Nagamani, M; Vidyasagar, G; Satyanarayana, N L V V

    2012-08-01

    Study on chemical characteristics of groundwater and impacts of groundwater quality on human health, plant growth, and industrial sector is essential to control and improve the water quality in every part of the country. The area of the Varaha River Basin is chosen for the present study, where the Precambrian Eastern Ghats underlain the Recent sediments. Groundwater quality is of mostly brackish and very hard, caused by the sources of geogenic, anthropogenic, and marine origin. The resulting groundwater is characterized by Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-), and Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] facies, following the topographical and water flow-path conditions. The genetic geochemical evolution of groundwater ([Formula: see text] and Cl(-)-[Formula: see text] types under major group of [Formula: see text]) and the hydrogeochemical signatures (Na(+)/Cl(-), >1 and [Formula: see text]/Cl(-), <1) indicate that the groundwater is of originally fresh quality, but is subsequently modified to brackish by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources, which also supported by the statistical analysis. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), TH, Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), [Formula: see text], Cl(-), [Formula: see text], and F(-) are above the recommended limits prescribed for drinking water in many locations. The quality of groundwater is of mostly moderate in comparison with the salinity hazard versus sodium hazard, the total salt concentration versus percent sodium, the residual sodium carbonate, and the magnesium hazard, but is of mostly suitable with respect to the permeability index for irrigation. The higher concentrations of TDS, TH, [Formula

  20. Intensified tuberculosis case finding amongst vulnerable communities in southern India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K K; Ananthakrishnan, R; Jacob, A G; Das, M; Isaakidis, P; Kumar, A M V

    2015-12-21

    India mainly uses passive case finding to detect tuberculosis (TB) patients through the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP). An intensified case finding (ICF) intervention was conducted among vulnerable communities in two districts of Karnataka during July-December 2013; 658 sputum smear-positive TB cases were detected. The number of smear-positive cases detected increased by 8.8% relative to the pre-intervention period (July-December 2012) in intervention communities as compared to an 8.6% decrease in communities without the ICF intervention. ICF activities brought TB services closer to vulnerable communities, moderately increasing TB case detection rates.

  1. Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bengal basin (India and Bangladesh) have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focused on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in areas of southeastern Bangladesh and West Bengal. Drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlying a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43--tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42- and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43--tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43--tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitoring of hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling studies illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional predominantly

  2. Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bengal basin (India and Bangladesh) have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focused on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in areas of southeastern Bangladesh and West Bengal. Drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlying a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43‑-tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42‑ and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43‑-tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43‑-tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitoring of hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling studies illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional

  3. Low-cost, open access flood inundation modelling with sparse data: A case study of the Lower Damodar River Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, J.; Carbonneau, P.

    2012-04-01

    In developed nations, flood monitoring and management benefits from a range of high-cost modern data and methods such as high resolution terrain data and digital elevation models, cloud penetrating radar data which defines flood extents and advanced computer modelling software. However, in developing countries, such resources are rarely available. The situation is further compounded by the fact that developing countries often have higher population densities which are even more vulnerable to flood hazards. This paper addresses these issues and presents a methodology for flood modelling which is accessible within the resource constraints which are typical in developing countries. A 20 Km flood prone reach of the lower Damodar River Basin in Northern India has been selected as the study area. This area has been subjected to inundation 4 times during the last 6 years due to water released from a network of upstream reservoirs during intense monsoon rainfall events. Within the study site, topographic data from three sources was available. First, we used SRTM data. Second, 40 cross-sections were surveyed with differential GPS and a handheld depth sounder. These data were corrected and their datum adjusted to that of the SRTM DEM with the precise point positioning (PPP) system freely available from Natural Resources Canada. Third, low-cost Cartosat-1 stereo images were used to produce a DEM with Leica Photogrammetry Suite. The elevation points derived from Cartosat-1 images were then manually edited in a 3D stereo viewing environment to represent the narrow but hydraulically significant features, such as the embankments, roads, smaller depressions and merged with the surveyed points for the channel. The SRTM data over the featureless farmland was also made bare-earth and merged with the rest of the mass points to create a hybrid point cloud. The RMSE of this hybrid terrain data was found to be 1.1 m as compared to 2.4 m for the original SRTM DEM. TELEMAC2D, an open

  4. Diagnosis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas .S.; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AB among pregnant women in a tertiary care set-up and analyse the contributory risk factors, its effects on pregnancy and the role of chromogenic media in the laboratory diagnosis of these cases. Materials and Methods: Urine samples of all pregnant women attending pre-natal check-ups with no genitourinary complaints, history of fever or antibiotic intake were collected for Gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. A second urine specimen for culture and sensitivity testing was obtained from those with significant bacteriuria. The results were compared with patients showing negative urine cultures. Results: The overall prevalence of this clinical condition in our study was 13.2%. The significant isolates were Klebsiella pneumonia and E.coli and the most common risk factor was a previous history of urinary tract infection. The isolates were easily identified by using chromogenic agar ( HiCrome ) but colonies of uncommon pathogens like Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species appeared white and needed further identification. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for AB at first prenatal checkup helps analyse the associated factors and prevents its effects on pregnancy. The use of a chromogenic media can enhance reporting accuracy and will be an effective tool to monitor these cases routinely. PMID:25386490

  5. Oral Health Related Awareness and Practices among Pregnant Women in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Parappa; Pattanshetti, Jyoti I; Padmini, Chiyadu; Nagathan, Veeresh M; Sajjanar, Mangala; Siddiqui, Taha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cumulative evidence in the dental literature strongly supports the fact that poor oral hygiene practices and inadequate attention toward oral health during pregnancy have an impact on developing the fetus and significant adverse postnatal effects. Available literature suggests that the research is deficit in assessing knowledge and practices related to exposure to radiation, use of medication and safe period for dental treatment during pregnancy. Assessing the knowledge and practices among pregnant women could be a valuable tool for policy makers to improve the oral health. To assess knowledge and practices of pregnant woman regarding oral health. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional survey. A total of 332 samples were selected by convenience sampling technique. A questionnaire containing 14 close-ended questions related to knowledge and practices pertaining to oral health during pregnancy along with sociodemographic data were used for collecting baseline information. Results: The overall level of knowledge and practice was 27.17% and 55%, respectively. Majority of respondents (89.10%) were not aware that gum diseases are common during pregnancy. Most of them (73.07%) were not aware of safe period for undergoing dental treatment during pregnancy. Only 19.87% were aware that exposure to high dose of radiation was hazardous to their babies. Around 18.6% did not brush when they experienced bleeding, 35.25% cleaned their teeth using finger. Conclusion: The overall results suggest that knowledge and practices of pregnant women need to be greatly improved. All necessary measures should be taken for maintenance of oral hygiene and to avoid complications with the use of drugs and exposure to radiation. PMID:25859098

  6. Floristic diversity of regenerated tree species in Dipterocarp forests in Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

    2012-07-01

    The research was focused on exploring the structure, diversity and form of regeneration process of the Dipterocarp forests in Western Ghats in relation to environmental factors. Eight populations in the distribution range of Dipterocarp forests were selected. In each population 32 plots of 2mx2m were laid down randomly. Atotal of 1243 seedlings < or = 10 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) belonging to 99 species and 48 families were recorded. The number of regenerated tree species was found to be high in the populations of Mudigere (40), Sakleshpura (40) and Makuta (39), which are characterized by favorable locality factors and lower disturbances. The highest similarity index in species composition was recorded between the populations of Sampaje in Kodagu district and Gundya in Dakshina Kannada (60%) whereas the lowest similarity index was observed between the population of Sringeri in Chikmagalore and Sampaje (53%) and Gundya and Makuta (35%) in Kodagu district. Dipterocarpus indicus was found to be dominant among the regenerated tree species in all the sites studied except Gundy and Sampaje. The frequencies of regeneration classes (seedlings, saplings, poles and adult trees) were shaped as inverse J curve indicating the normal regeneration pattern under the present disturbance. The average disturbance of litter collection, grazing, fire, weeds and canopy opening were significant among different populations (p < or = 0.05). Negative correlation was observed between disturbance and species richness, number of individuals and density. PMID:23360009

  7. Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanth, Krithi K.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km2 landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.

  8. A study on physicochemical parameters of an aquaculture body in Mysore city, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Sachidanandamurthy, K L; Yajurvedi, H N

    2006-10-01

    Monthly changes in water quality parameters (physicochemical) of a rain fed lake (Bilikere) in Mysore city, were investigated for two calendar years (2002 and 2003) to assess the suitability of this lake for pisciculture. Although there were monthly fluctuations in water temperature, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite and ammonia, they were within the desirable limits. On the other hand, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide throughout the study period and pH for a major part, were higher than the desirable limits. Other parameters viz; turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate, and nitrate in a few months were higher than the desirable limits for waters used for fish culture. The high levels of these factors are due to the entry of agricultural run off and occasional flow of sewage into the lake. In addition dense algal growth was noticed at times of the year which is caused by surge in nutrients level whenever there was a rainfall. Since, the lake has a great aquacultural potential, it is suggested that control of nutrient load that enters the lake occasionally, might help the lake to continue its mesotrophic status.

  9. Study on radionuclides in granite quarries of Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Karunakara, N

    2008-01-01

    Studies on natural radiation levels and radionuclides were carried out extensively in the environment of granite quarries of Kanakapura, Ramanagara Taluks and Bidadi Hobli in Bangalore rural District and Bangalore city. The indoor and outdoor gamma exposure rate in air was measured using an environmental dosemeter, and it is converted into absorbed dose using suitable conversion factor. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in rock samples and also in soil samples were measured using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The results reveal that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in rocks are found to be vary from 32.2 to 163.6, 128.3 to 548.6 and 757.4 to 1418.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 93.2, 306.2 and 1074.4 Bq kg(-1). Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples were found to vary from 32.4 to 55.2, 39.9 to 214.3 and 485.4 to 1150.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 40.7, 93.1 and 750.4 Bq kg(-1). The average activity levels of all these radionuclides are above the global average. This is consistent with the geological and geo-chemical significance of the rocks of the area under investigation. The results of these systematic investigations are discussed in detail and compared with the literature values represented for other environments.

  10. Anemia Among Hospitalized Children at a Multispecialty Hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka), India

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Firdos; Poornima, Siddaraju; Balaji, Pishey Ashwathnarayan Rao; Varne, Smitha Ranoji Rao; Jayashree, Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the limited availability of data related to anemia in hospitalized children, this research was conducted to study the occurrence, morphological patterns, distribution in different age groups, sex, and severity of anemia among children aged 6 months-12 years. Setting: Inpatients in department of pediatrics at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study from Oct, 2011 to Sep, 2012. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital as per 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Unrestricted random sampling method was used to select the study group consisting of 882 children between the age of 6 months and 12 years. After obtaining the consent, data were obtained and statistically analyzed using statistical tools like mean, median, standard deviation, and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 882 children selected, 642 (72.79%) were anemic, out of which a majority of 629 (98%) children suffered from nonhemoglobinopathies and a meagre 13 (2%) suffered from hemoglobinopathies. Children in the age group of 6 months-1 year were most affected with nonhemoglobinopathies (33%). Moderate degree of anemia (hemoglobin = 7-9.9 g/dL) was the commonest grade of anemia (80%), while microcytic hypochromic anemia was commonest morphological type of anemia (48%). Among hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia major was the most common (69%, that is 9 out of 13 patients). Conclusion: The occurrence of anemia among children aged between 6 months and 12 years is high and nonhemoglobinopathies predominate over the hemoglobinopathies. PMID:24791237

  11. Gneiss-charnockite-granite connection in the archaean crust of Karnataka Craton, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananthaiyer, G. V.

    1988-01-01

    It is explained that the big picture of the Indian crust contains essentially three components: (1) the upper crust, which is composed of platformal sedimentary sequences (including banded iron formations), (2) the middle crust, which is represented by the Peninsular gneiss, and (3) the deep crust, which is composed predominantly of charnockites. The charnockitization controversy was addressed by stating that CO2 is absolutely not essential for charnockite formation, and it is suggested rather that molecular hydrogen movements play an important role.

  12. Studies on diversity of lichen, Pyxine cocoes to air pollution in Bhadravathi town, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Danesh, Naveen; Puttaiah, E T; Basavarajappa, B E

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution induced climate change affecting the pigmentation and diversity of lichen, Pyxine cocoes were monitored around the industrial area and traffic area of Bhadravthi using European guidelines. The obtained data has been discussed and results compared with data from that of Kuvempu University campus (control). From the present study, it was evident that the air pollutants emitted from the two major industries and other small scale industries affected the total chlorophyll (0.16 mg g(-1)) and carotene pigments (0.11 mg g(-1)) in Pyxine cocoes, as well as their diversity (approx 13) on two plants (M. indica and P. pinnata) in the vicinity of the industrial area. Further, as a result of vehicular pollution at traffic area resulted in the deterioration of total chlorophyll (0.11 mg g(-1)), carotene pigments (0.07 mg g(-1)) and diversity (approx. 17) of Pyxine cocoes compared to control site. The present study has thrown light on lichens sensitivity to the air pollution.

  13. Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Krithi K

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km(2) landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.

  14. Sources and distribution of organic matter in the tropical (Peninsular) river basin of Central India: Lignin phenol and stable isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Y.; Shirodkar, P. V.; Zhang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the sources and pathways of organic matter in tropical river basin of peninsular India is important towards its coastal biogeochemical changes under existing densely populated economic zone. Present study highlights multi proxy investigations using TOC, C/N ratios, stable isotopes, and lignin phenol compositions in spatially well-distributed samples of TSM, river sediments, and agricultural soil collected during flood season from Godavari River, the largest peninsular river draining into the Bay of Bengal. Total organic carbon (TOC) content of the main river stream varies from upper reaches (av. 0.63%) to mid reaches (av. 1.69%) to the deltaic region (av. 1.45%) with similar distributions in the tributaries in the upstream (av. 0.7%) and in the mid stream (av.1.7%). The TOC values do not show significant correlation with grain sizes of river or tributary sediments. The (C/N) atom ratios of river sediments varies from the upper reaches (av. ~13.5) to the deltaic region (av. ~18), while in the TSM (C/N) atom ratios from upstream (av. ~13) to mid region (av. 8) to the deltaic region (av. 10). This pertains to the degraded soil characteristics and nitrogen rich plant detritus from rain forest and agricultural fields of the middle reaches. The δ13C of river sediments varies from upstream (av. - 22%) to mid stream (av. -25.2%) to the deltaic region (av. -24.6%), with a similar variation in upper tributary (av. -20%) and lower tributary (av. -25.4%). The value indicates C3 plant contribution in the middle and lower riches and contribution from mixture of C4 plant in the upper reaches climatic properties and agriculture. Total Lignin-phenol (λ8 mg/100mgOC) of river sediments varies from the upper reaches (av. 3.6) to mid stream (av. 2.83) to the deltaic region (av. 2.5); with lower values (av. 1.9) in tributaries corresponds to the distinct geographical setup and land usage. The ratio between syringyl phenols to vanillin phenols (S/V) is ≈ 1 and cinnamyl

  15. U-Pb detrital zircon ages to determine the provenance signature of late Quaternary paleo-channel systems in the western Indo-Gangetic basin, northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Carter, A.; Gupta, S.; Sinha, R.; Murray, A. S.; Buylaert, J.; Thomsen, K.; Jain, M.; Paul, D.

    2011-12-01

    An extensive set of paleo-river channels are present in the shallow subsurface of the alluvial plains of the western Indo-Gangetic basin in northwest India as evidenced by the analysis of satellite imagery. There has been considerable interest in paleochannels in the doab between the present-day courses of the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers in particular because of the hypothesized relationship between the distribution of Harappan settlements and paleo-river courses. Specifically, the Ghaggar-Hakra paleo-channel has been the focus of attention because of the occurrence of archaeological Harappan sites along its course. Several studies link the end of the Harappan urban phase ~3500 BP to paleo-river drying or drainage diversion. However, no detailed scientific study has been done to establish the sub-surface stratigraphy and/or the provenance of alluvial sediments of the Ghaggar-Hakra paleo-channel. Some of the major questions are: (1) What is the provenance of the sediments that form the paleo-channels?; (2) Do they represent major Himalayan-sourced paleo-rivers or smaller rivers derived from the frontal Himalayan ranges? We investigated the provenance of river sediments retrieved through core-drilling, down to ~50 m depth, along three transects across the paleo-valleys on the Ghaggar and Sutlej plains. Drill core litho-stratigraphy shows ~20-25 m thick micaceous coarse- to medium-sand bodies at variable depths below ~10 m. U-Pb detrital zircon ages were determined for the fluvial sand bodies, in five drill-cores, using the LA-ICPMS technique available at University College of London. We selected 3-7 number of samples from each core and performed heavy mineral separation to extract zircon grains, which were then dated by U-Pb technique. Further to establish provenance links we determined the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from modern river sands along this sector of the Himalayan front, i.e., the major Himalayan rivers such as the modern Sutlej, the Yamuna, and the Ganges

  16. Detection of enzootic plague foci in peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shyamal; Lal, Sohan; Mittal, Veena; Malini, M; Kumar, Shiv

    2011-09-01

    A continuous serological and bacteriological surveillance in rodents was carried out in peninsular India i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu to detect the role of different species of rodents in the maintenance of active enzootic plague foci. Live rodents were collected from wild and ruderal/peri-domestic situations by digging and trapping for sera and organ samples. During 1989 to 2007 serological evidence of plague was detected in different species of rodents in peninsular India. Plague antibodies were detected in 243 sera samples in three different rodent species. Sero-positivity (0.042 percent) amongst rodents tested were found in Tatera indica cuvieri (Hardwicke) followed by Rattus rattus and Bandicota bengalensis. Regular plague surveillance work enhanced the possibility of detecting and delimiting plague foci and helped in implementing necessary preventive anti plague measures to prevent the occurrence of human plague.

  17. Outbreak of chikungunya fever, Dakshina Kannada District, South India, 2008.

    PubMed

    Manimunda, Sathya P; Sugunan, Attayur P; Rai, Subhodh K; Vijayachari, Paluru; Shriram, Ananganallur N; Sharma, Sameer; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Chaitanya, Itta K; Guruprasad, Dev R; Sudeep, Anakkathil B

    2010-10-01

    The outbreak of chikungunya fever that surfaced in India during late 2005 has affected more than 1.56 million people, spread to more than 17 states/union territories, and is still ongoing. Many of these areas are dengue- and leptospirosis-endemic settings. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in one such chikungunya-affected location in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka State to estimate the magnitude of the epidemic and the proportion of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections that remained clinically inapparent. The seropositivity for CHIKV infection was 62.2%, and the attack rate of confirmed CHIK fever was 58.3%. The proportion of inapparent CHIKV infection was 6.3%. The increasing trend in the seropositivity and attack rate of CHIKV infection with age group was statistically significant. The present study is an indicator of the magnitude of the ongoing outbreak of CHIKV infection in India that started during 2005-2006.

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic composition from foreland sediments of the Assam Basin, NE India: Constraints on sediment provenance and tectonics of the Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Ravikant; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Synorogenic Palaeogene-Neogene sediments of the Assam foreland basin, were derived by erosion of adjacent crustal and orogenic sources following the Greater India-Eurasia collision since ∼55 Ma. To constrain source sediment influx, and its relation to Himalayan tectonics, from pre- to post-collision time, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and their Hf isotopic compositions were carried out. The varying detrital zircon spectral patterns analyzed from the Paleogene Jaintia, Barail and Neogene Surma and Tipam Groups, with sediment petrography, track source sediment derived from cratonic India, Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths and the eastern Himalaya. These sources are tested against Cenozoic paleopositions proposed for the northeastward motion of the Indian plate. Precollisional cratonic detritus to Middle to Late Eocene Sylhet Formation shifted to Tethyan Himalaya and arc sources of the Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths to Late Eocene Kopili and Barail Formations, consistent with the proposed paleoposition proximal to the Indus-Yarlung suture. This Sylhet-Kopili Formation transition, within the Jaintia Group, reflects one of the earliest Himalayan hinterland exhumation stages during the Late Eocene. Major shift in provenance to Higher Himalayan Crystalline and arc detritus is recorded from the Surma Group, constraining Mid Miocene Himalayan tectonic exhumation from the eastern Himalaya. Late Miocene Tipam Group preserves sediment of Higher Himalayan Crystalline detritus, ophiolite and likely Lesser Himalayan rocks.

  19. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  20. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  1. Morphological Patterns of Intracranial Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Karnataka: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, Ramdurg Shashank; Karnappa, Andola Sainath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An “Intra-cranial space occupying lesion” (ICSOL)is defined as a mass lesion in the cranial cavity with a diverse aetiology like benign or malignant neoplasm, inflammatory or parasitic lesion, haematoma, or arterio-venous malformation. Central nervous system neoplasms represent a unique, heterogenous population of neoplasms constituting 1.9% of all malignant tumours in India. A broad spectrum of non-neoplastic conditions can mimic a brain tumour, both clinically and radiologically and these patients undergo biopsy. In such cases, the pathologist can readily differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic imitators. Aim The present study attempts to provide preliminary data on morphological patterns of intracranial lesions in North Karnataka region and to study clinicopathological spectrum with correlation of radiological findings of ICSOL. Special emphasis is made on the utility of special stains and IHC markers in CNS tumours. Materials and Methods This retrospective and prospective descriptive study was performed on biopsy specimen of ICSOL received from Departmnet of Neurosurgery, Basaveshwar Teaching Hospital, Kalaburgi. The study period was from January 2012 to June 2013 retrospectively and July 2013 to June 2015 prospectively. All specimens were preserved in 10% formalin and allowed to fix for 24 hours. The haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the CNS lesions were obtained by routine processing and paraffin embedding. Special stains and IHC were done wherever appropriate. Results Sixty two cases of CNS lesions were studied, of which 12 (19.4%) cases were non neoplastic with six (50%) being cystic lesions and four (33.4%) were cerebral abscess. The neoplastic lesions comprised of 50 (80.6%) cases, which included 48 (96%) primary and two (4%) metastatic lesions. Among primary tumours, gliomas constituted the largest category of 24 (50%) cases with 16.7% being Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and pilocytic astrocytomas each, followed by

  2. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  3. Variations of radon and thoron concentrations in different types of dwellings in Mysore city, India.

    PubMed

    Shashikumar, T S; Chandrashekara, M S; Nagaiah, N; Paramesh, L

    2009-01-01

    (222)Rn and (220)Rn, the immediate decay products of radium isotopes, are causative agents of lung cancer. (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations in houses with different floorings, roofs and walls and in different rooms of houses have been measured in Mysore city, Karnataka state, India, using solid-state nuclear track detectors. The radon and thoron concentrations in dwellings with granite floorings are found to be higher compared with other types. A correlation between the indoor radon concentration and dose in air from terrestrial gamma radiation is observed.

  4. Evaluation of Catrosat 1PAN Stereo and Resourcesat Liss 4 MSS Merged Data for Morphometric Analysis, Delineation of Drainage Basins and Codification in Tamil Nadu, India and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, G. S.; Srinivasan, S.; Pandian, R.; Gummidipoondi, R. J.; Venkatchalam, R. V.; Swaminathan. S, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital as well as visual

  5. Structural patterns in high grade terrain in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed geological mapping in parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has brought out vast areas occupied by highly deformed charnockite and high grade gneisses. These areas, similar to high grade shield terrains in other parts of the world have the impress of extensive tectonic reworking multideformation and polymetamorphism and are closely associated with layered ultramafics, shelf type sediments and different igneous events. In North Arcot and Charmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu and Kollegal taluk in Mysore district in Karnataka, charnockite is intensely cofolded with a supracrustal succession of layered ultramafics, pyroxene granulite, pink granolites, magnetite quartzite and khondalites. These areas have undergone five phases of deformation, five generations of basic dyke activities, four phases of migmatisation and two periods of metallogeny. Geochronological data ranges from 2900 m.y. to 750 m.y. In working out the tectanostratigraphy of the above areas the basic dykes of different generations have served as major time markers. In addition, the persistent strike continuity of linear bands of pyroxene granulite, pink granolite and magnetite quartzite has been of great utility in using them as structural markers for bringing out the complex structural history in these areas.

  6. Shallow to deep-water deposition in a Cratonic basin: an example from the Proterozoic Penganga Group, Pranhita Godavari Valley, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Joydip; Chaudhuri, Asru K.

    2003-03-01

    The unmetamorphosed Proterozoic succession dominated by deep-water lithographic limestone and shale in the western flank of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley is designated as the Penganga Group. The succession in different parts of the Valley includes the Pranhita Sandstone (25-400 m), the Chanda Limestone (300 m), and the Sat Nala Shale (>2000 m) in ascending order. The Pranhita Sandstone and the Chanda Limestone reveal considerable variations in the character of the stratal packages and depositional settings from Mancherial in the south to Adilabad in the north. The Sat Nala Shale in both southern and northern outcrop belts is completely devoid of sand. It is brown to purple in colour and resembles present-day deep-water mud deposits. In the Mancherial area, the Pranhita Sandstone consists of 25-400 m thick conglomerate, pebbly red arkose and quartzose sandstone succession of coastal alluvial fan to shallow shelf origin. The Chanda Limestone is micritic and locally includes interbedded lenses of cross-stratified quartzose sandstone in the lower part. The depositional milieu varies from shallow shelf to below wave base outer ramp carbonate platform. Around Adilabad, the Pranhita Sandstone (25 m) lacks the conglomerate-pebbly arkose association at the base and comprises only quartzose sandstone and shale of shoreface to muddy shelf settings. The Chanda Limestone is essentially micritic but, in contrast to the Mancherial area, includes several interbedded intervals of slope-related, autoclastic debris flow limestone conglomerates and calciturbidites, and represents deep, outer ramp to slope and basinal settings. A predominantly deep-water micritic limestone and deep-water shale succession suggests that the Penganga basin evolved to a vast, deep epicratonic sea connected to an open ocean. The absence of a coastal alluvial fan association at the lower part of the Pranhita Sandstone and presence of a slope to basinal association in the Chanda Limestone in the northern

  7. An extended linear scaling method for downscaling temperature and its implication in the Jhelum River basin, Pakistan, and India, using CMIP5 GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rashid; JIA, Shaofeng

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the linear scaling method used for the downscaling of temperature was extended from monthly scaling factors to daily scaling factors (SFs) to improve the daily variations in the corrected temperature. In the original linear scaling (OLS), mean monthly SFs are used to correct the future data, but mean daily SFs are used to correct the future data in the extended linear scaling (ELS) method. The proposed method was evaluated in the Jhelum River basin for the period 1986-2000, using the observed maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) of 18 climate stations and the simulated Tmax and Tmin of five global climate models (GCMs) (GFDL-ESM2G, NorESM1-ME, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, and CanESM2), and the method was also compared with OLS to observe the improvement. Before the evaluation of ELS, these GCMs were also evaluated using their raw data against the observed data for the same period (1986-2000). Four statistical indicators, i.e., error in mean, error in standard deviation, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient, were used for the evaluation process. The evaluation results with GCMs' raw data showed that GFDL-ESM2G and MIROC5 performed better than other GCMs according to all the indicators but with unsatisfactory results that confine their direct application in the basin. Nevertheless, after the correction with ELS, a noticeable improvement was observed in all the indicators except correlation coefficient because this method only adjusts (corrects) the magnitude. It was also noticed that the daily variations of the observed data were better captured by the corrected data with ELS than OLS. Finally, the ELS method was applied for the downscaling of five GCMs' Tmax and Tmin for the period of 2041-2070 under RCP8.5 in the Jhelum basin. The results showed that the basin would face hotter climate in the future relative to the present climate, which may result in increasing water requirements in public, industrial, and agriculture

  8. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  9. Greigite as a marker of paleo sulphate methane transition zone (SMTZ) in cold seep environment of Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, Bay of Bengal, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, F. K.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Mazumdar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Tammisetti, R.; Khalap, S. T.; Satelkar, N. P.; Mehrtens, T.; Rosenauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rockmagnetic results and electron microscopic observations on a sediment core retrieved from a proven cold seep environment of Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin revealed an anomalously magnetically enhanced zone (17 - 23 mbsf) below the present-day SMTZ in the KG offshore basin. This zone is characterized by higher SIRM / k, kARM / SIRM and kfd % values indicating the presence of fine grained superparamagnetic (SP) sized ferrimagnetic iron sulphides minerals such as greigite formed due to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Identification of such mineral phases and understanding the mechanism of their formation and preservation is of vital importance which could provide better understanding of the geochemical processes on the paleo - SMTZ. Magnetic concentrates extracted from this zone were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X- ray spectrometry. We observed two possible occurrences of magnetic phases within this sediment depths 17 - 23 mbsf. (a) authigenically formed SP sized ferrimagnetic inclusions of magnetite, pyrite and greigite within matrix of host siliceous grain, (b) poorly crystallized fine-grained magnetite with ill defined grain boundary possibily formed extracellulary by magnetotactic bacterias through biologically-induced mineralization. High methane fluxes as observed in this basin provides suitable environment for the formation of greigite in the vicinity of SMTZ. We hypothesize that due to availability of residual iron and low supply of hydrogen sulphide caused by downwards diffusion lead to preservation of greigite. The occurence of greigite as inclusion within the host silicate matrix might explain its preservation in this zone in spite of intense pyritization. The greigite would otherwise be converted to stable-form pyrite. It is challenging to explain the origin of biologically produced magnetite within 17 - 23 mbsf as it is expected to dissolve in this zone due to intense pyritization.

  10. Changes in agricultural cropland areas between a water-surplus year and a water-deficit year impacting food security, determined using MODIS 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques, in the Krishna river basin (India)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Muralikrishna, I.V.; Velpuri, M.N.; Gangadhararao, P.T.; Dheeravath, V.; Biradar, C.M.; Nalan, S.A.; Gaur, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in cropland areas as a result of water availability using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques (SMTs). The study was conducted in the Krishna River basin in India, a very large river basin with an area of 265 752 km2 (26 575 200 ha), comparing a water-surplus year (2000-2001) and a water-deficit year (2002-2003). The MODIS 250 m time-series data and SMTs were found ideal for agricultural cropland change detection over large areas and provided fuzzy classification accuracies of 61-100% for various land-use classes and 61-81% for the rain-fed and irrigated classes. The most mixing change occurred between rain-fed cropland areas and informally irrigated (e.g. groundwater and small reservoir) areas. Hence separation of these two classes was the most difficult. The MODIS 250 m-derived irrigated cropland areas for the districts were highly correlated with the Indian Bureau of Statistics data, with R2-values between 0.82 and 0.86. The change in the net area irrigated was modest, with an irrigated area of 8 669 881 ha during the water-surplus year, as compared with 7 718 900 ha during the water-deficit year. However, this is quite misleading as most of the major changes occurred in cropping intensity, such as changing from higher intensity to lower intensity (e.g. from double crop to single crop). The changes in cropping intensity of the agricultural cropland areas that took place in the water-deficit year (2002-2003) when compared with the water-surplus year (2000-2001) in the Krishna basin were: (a) 1 078 564 ha changed from double crop to single crop, (b) 1 461 177 ha changed from continuous crop to single crop, (c) 704 172 ha changed from irrigated single crop to fallow and (d) 1 314 522 ha changed from minor irrigation (e.g. tanks, small reservoirs) to rain-fed. These are highly significant changes that will have strong impact on food

  11. Impact of textile dyeing industries effluent on groundwater quality in Karur Amaravathi River basin, Tamil Nadu (India)--a field study.

    PubMed

    Rajamanickam, R; Nagan, S

    2010-10-01

    Karur is an industrial town located on the bank of river Amaravathi. There are 487 textile processing units in operation and discharge about 14610 kilo litres per day of treated effluent into the river. The groundwater quality in the downstream is deteriorated due to continuous discharge of effluent. In order to assess the present quality of groundwater, 13 open wells were identified in the river basin around Karur and samples were collected during pre-monsoon, post monsoon and summer, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. TDS, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, chlorides and sulphates exceeded the desirable limit. Amaravathi River water samples were also colleted at the upstream and downstream of Karur and the result shows the river is polluted. During summer season, there is no flow in the river and the river acts as a drainage for the effluent. Hence, there is severe impact on the groundwater quality in the downstream. The best option to protect the groundwater quality in the river basin is that the textile processing units should adopt zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system and completely recycle the treated effluent.

  12. Incidence of gastro-intestinal parasites in horses of Shimoga region, Karnataka state.

    PubMed

    Adeppa, J; Ananda, K J; Krishna Murthy, C M; Satheesha, G M

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses of Shimoga region, to generate the data regarding status of parasitic infections of equines in Karnataka state due to paucity of information. A total of 100 fresh fecal samples of equines were collected and examined by direct and sedimentation method for the detection of parasitic egg/ova. Among 100 samples examined, 84 (84.0 %) were found positive for various gastrointestinal helminths. Out of 84 positive cases, 44 (52.38 %) were found positive for Strongylus spp. eggs, 09 (10.71 %) showed Parascaris equorum eggs, 06 (7.14 %) had Gastrodiscus spp. eggs, 04 (4.76 %) harbored Oxyuris equi and the remaining 21 (25.0 %) had a mixed infection of Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp. and Gastrodiscus spp. PMID:27605810

  13. Studies on gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Shimoga region of Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Ananda, K J; Adeppa, J; Satheesha, M G

    2016-09-01

    The study was conducted to ascertain the actual status of gastro-intestinal parasites in pigs maintained under different rearing systems in Shimoga region, Karnataka state. A total of 150 Pigs fecal samples were examined, which includes 50 from organized piggery farm, Veterinary College Shimoga, 50 from private piggery farm of Shimoga and 50 from free range desi pigs of Shimoga city. The fecal samples were processed and examined by direct and sedimentation method. Out of 50 fecal samples examined from organized piggery farm, 19 were found positive for different parasitic eggs, Out of 50 fecal samples screened form private farm, 28 harbored different parasites, whereas from 50 free range desi pigs fecal samples examined, all showed one and other parasitic eggs/ova. The percent prevalence of parasitic infection is more in free range desi pigs compared to Yorkshire breeds maintained under stall fed condition. PMID:27605803

  14. Sedimentary profile from oxbow lake as an archive for past productivity and vegetation changes: a case study from Ganges basin, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Sambit; Sanyal, Prasanta; Ambili, Anoop

    2015-04-01

    Isotope (δ13CSOM) and biomarker (lipid n-alkane) investigations has been carried out on three sedimentary profiles (ca. 1.8 m depth) collected from Mohanpur, West Bengal, India with the aim of reconstructing paleovegetational and paleoproductivity changes. Satellite images reveal that the investigated sediments has been deposited in an oxbow lake setting of the river Ganges. The correlation of the three sedimentary profiles has been achieved using lithological and isotopic (δ13CSOM) marker layers. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the profile ranges from 0.9% to 0.1%. The isotopic analysis (δ13CSOM) shows values mostly fluctuating between -19.2o to -22o with a rapid excursions (~5) showing enriched δ13CSOMvalue (-14.2) observed at ca. 1.5 m depth. The biomarker studies of the profile reveals dominant preferences in short carbon chain (C14, C16, C18, C20) with a little preferences for higher chain (C29, C31, C33). Interestingly, n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth shows very high concentration in short chain n-alkanes. Since the lower chain n-alkane represents aquatic vegetation/productivity and higher chain indicates the terrestrial contribution, the data from the investigated sedimentary profile shows contribution mostly from aquatic vegetation with a little contribution from terrestrial plants. This inference has been further corroborated by δ13CSOMvalues (-19.2o to -22) of the sedimentary profile typical of mixed aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. Additionally, the enriched δ13CSOMvalue (-14.2) coupled with very high concentration of short chain n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth reveals intense lake eutrophication. The development of rigorous chronology and high resolution data set of additional analytical parameters (e.g., C/N, δ15N) will provide crucial paleoclimate data set from this unexplored setting of Indian summer monsoon domain.

  15. Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3–5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0–14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana). T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR) was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young. PMID:25941645

  16. Socio-economic vulnerability and sustainable development in context of Development vs. Conservation debate: A study of Bhagirathi Basin, Uttarakhand, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisha; Punia, M.

    2014-11-01

    mountain system bound to have a different path of development owing to its fragile ecological and geological setup. Any drastic and abrupt changes in this system can have repercussion beyond mitigation in form of natural disasters. Remote sensing can play a key role in risk assessment and management, particularly when a few simultaneous reasons coincide, for example, susceptibility to natural disaster and the urban sprawl, spreading over highly vulnerable regions. The present study furnish socioeconomic vulnerability mapping of the Bhagirathi basin through computation of the Socio vulnerability Index (SoVI). SoVI correlates vulnerability to natural or anthropogenic disasters to socio - economic development and illustrates how developmental parameters alter equation of potential effect and recovery in event of a natural catastrophe in the study region. An analytical framework has been imparted to understand possible triggering factors of disasters. Built up area expansion; land use land cover change (LULCC) - deforestation, conversion of forested land into agricultural land and residential settlements, and dam project area; road network development; urbanization; population growth & migration and pilgrimage activities are major drivers which put burden on limited carrying capacity of the natural resources. A guideline for policy making has been presented for an integrated and wholesome development incorporating regional developmental aspiration of the people and ingredients of sustainable development.

  17. Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater using major ion chemistry: a case study of Penna-Chitravathi river basins in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Kumar, K Niranjan

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in the Penna-Chitravathi river basins to identify and delineate the important geochemical processes which were responsible for the evolution of chemical composition of groundwater. The area is underlain by peninsular gneissic complex of Archaean age, Proterozoic meta-sediments, and strip of river alluvium. Groundwater samples were collected covering all the major hydrogeological environs in pre- and post-monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed for major constituents such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO2(-4), NO3-, and F-. The groundwater in general is of Na+-Cl-, Na+-HCO3-, Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3-, and Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- types. Na+ among cations and Cl- and/or HCO3- among anions dominate the water; Na+ and Ca2+ are in the transitional state with Na+ replacing Ca2+ and HCO3- Cl- due to physiochemical changes in the aquifer and water-rock interactions. The Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- HCO3- type water in one third samples suggest that ion exchange and dissolution processes are responsible for its origin. Change in storage of aquifer in a season does not influence the major geochemical makeup of groundwater. Gibbs plots indicate that the evolution of water chemistry is influenced by water-rock interaction followed by evapotranspiration process. The aquifer material mineralogy together with semiarid climate, poor drainage system, and low precipitation factors played major role in controlling groundwater quality of the area.

  18. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  19. Exploratory Study on the Ayurvedic Therapeutic Management of Cerebral Palsy in Children at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Shailaja, U; Rao, Prasanna N.; Debnath, Parikshit; Adhikari, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting cognitive function and developments in approximately 1.5 to 3 cases per 1000 live births. Based on Ayurvedic therapeutic principles, CP patients were subjected to Abhyanga (massage) with Moorchita Tila Taila (processed sesame oil) and Svedana (fomentation) with Shastikashali Pinda Sveda (fomentation with bolus of drugs prepared with boiled rice). Study group received Mustadi Rajayapana Basti (enema with herbal decoction) and Baladi Yoga (a poly-herbo-mineral formulation), while the placebo group received Godhuma Vati (tablet prepared with wheat powder) and saline water as enema. Treatment with Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga improved the activities of daily life by 8.79%, gross motor functions by 19.76%, and fine motor functions 15.05%, and mental functions like memory retention got improved by 15.43%. The placebo group showed an improvement of 0.21% in daily life activities, 2.8% in gross motor, and 2.4% in fine motor functions. Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga proved to be more supportive in improving the motor activities and gross behavioral pattern. Further clinical trials are required to evaluate and validate the maximum effect of the combination therapy in a large sample with repetition of the courses for longer duration. PMID:24872933

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae) from Western Ghats Region, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-06-01

    Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%), followed by alpha-humulene (17.3%), piperitenone oxide (8.5%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.0%) and E-beta-farnesene (5.9%). The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065 +/- 0.008-0.937 +/- 0.139 mg/mL, 0.468 +/- 0.069-3.333 +/- 0.527 mg/mL and 0.117 +/- 0.017-0.338 +/- 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be usefulness in the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. PMID:25102628

  1. Re-Os, Rb-Sr, and O isotopic systematics of the Archean Kolar schist belt, Karnataka, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Richard J.; Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.; Rajamani, V.; Horan, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    The Re-Os, Rb-Sr, and O isotopic compositions of mafic and ultramafic amphibolites, gold ores, and granitic gneisses of the circa 2700 Ma Kolar schist belt are reported which reveal at least two episodes of postmagmatic alteration that affected these systems. The Re-Os isotopic systematics of many of the belt rocks indicate that Os was introduced to the area via fluids that carried very radiogenic Os, probably from ancient crust. The Rb-Sr systematics of most of these rocks indicate that the alteration event probably occurred no later than the early Proterozoic. Samples of several komatiitic amphibolites have very Os-187-depleted compositions, indicating that open-system behavior also occurred at a much later time than the late Archean or early Proterozoic. The results suggest that the Re-Os system may have only limited utility for geochronologic applications in regions for which postcrystallization noble metal mineralization is evident.

  2. Water quality index to determine the surface water quality of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake, Bangalore urban district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, P.; Aneesul Mehmood, Mohammad; Somashekar, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    The present work aims at assessing the water quality index (WQI) in the surface water of Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake situated in Bangalore Urban district by monitoring three sampling locations within Sankey tank (viz., A, B and C) and Mallathahalli lake (viz., Inlet, Centre and outlet) for a period of 3 months from March to May 2012. The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analysis involving major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe2+), anions (HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, F-, PO4 3-) besides general parameters (pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO, BOD, COD, CO2, SiO2, colour, turbidity). For calculating the WQI, 14 parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluorides and iron were considered. SAR values indicated that both Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake waters are excellent (S1) for irrigation, while electrical conductivity values classified these lake water, respectively under medium salinity (C2) and high (C3) salinity category. Correlation between SAR and electrical conductivity revealed that Sankey tank water is C2S1 (medium salinity-low sodium) type while Mallathahalli lake water is C3S1 (high salinity-low sodium) type. Sankey tank and Mallathahalli lake water were, respectively hard and very hard in nature. Further, it is apparent from WQI values that Sankey tank water belongs to good water class with WQI values ranging from 50.34 to 63.38. The Mallathahalli lake water with WQI value ranging from 111.69 to 137.09, fall under poor water category.

  3. Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals in coconut trees near Nanjangud, mysore district, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, M. Sharif; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P. N.; Muthanna, Lata

    1991-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater from one of the paper mills near Nanjangud and the differential accumulation of heavy metals in parts of coconut trees growing in the area irrigated directly by the wastewaters of a paper mill were investigated. The total dissolved and suspended solids of wastewater were 1,136.9 mg/l and 2,185.4 mg/l, respectively. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) expands and COD is beyond the tolerance limit proposed by Indian standards. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cd in coconut water, root, and leaf are higher than the limits suggested by World Health Organization. Survival of coconut trees irrigated by polluted waters indicates tolerance to toxic heavy metals. Since coconut forms part of human food chain, accumulation of toxic heavy metals may lead to organic disorders.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae) from Western Ghats Region, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-06-01

    Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%), followed by alpha-humulene (17.3%), piperitenone oxide (8.5%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.0%) and E-beta-farnesene (5.9%). The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065 +/- 0.008-0.937 +/- 0.139 mg/mL, 0.468 +/- 0.069-3.333 +/- 0.527 mg/mL and 0.117 +/- 0.017-0.338 +/- 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be usefulness in the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi.

  5. Exploratory study on the ayurvedic therapeutic management of cerebral palsy in children at a tertiary care hospital of karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Shailaja, U; Rao, Prasanna N; Debnath, Parikshit; Adhikari, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting cognitive function and developments in approximately 1.5 to 3 cases per 1000 live births. Based on Ayurvedic therapeutic principles, CP patients were subjected to Abhyanga (massage) with Moorchita Tila Taila (processed sesame oil) and Svedana (fomentation) with Shastikashali Pinda Sveda (fomentation with bolus of drugs prepared with boiled rice). Study group received Mustadi Rajayapana Basti (enema with herbal decoction) and Baladi Yoga (a poly-herbo-mineral formulation), while the placebo group received Godhuma Vati (tablet prepared with wheat powder) and saline water as enema. Treatment with Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga improved the activities of daily life by 8.79%, gross motor functions by 19.76%, and fine motor functions 15.05%, and mental functions like memory retention got improved by 15.43%. The placebo group showed an improvement of 0.21% in daily life activities, 2.8% in gross motor, and 2.4% in fine motor functions. Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga proved to be more supportive in improving the motor activities and gross behavioral pattern. Further clinical trials are required to evaluate and validate the maximum effect of the combination therapy in a large sample with repetition of the courses for longer duration. PMID:24872933

  6. Early Precambrian crustal evolution of south India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Early Precambrian sequence in Karnataka, South India provides evidences for a distinct trend of evolution which differs from trends exhibited in many other Early Precambrian regions of the world. The supracrustal rock associations preserved in greenstone belts and as inclusions in gneisses and granulites suggest the evolution of the terrain from a stable to a mobile regime. The stable regime is represented by (1) layered ultramafic-mafic complexes, (2) orthoquartzite-basalt-rhyodacite-iron formation, and (30 ortho-quartzite-carbonate-Mn-Fe formation. The mobile regime, which can be shown on sedimentological grounds to have succeeded the stable regime, witnessed the accumulation of a greywacke-pillow basalt-dacite-rhyolite-iron formation association. Detrital sediments of the stable zone accumulated dominantly in fluvial environment and the associated volcanics are ubaerial. The volcanics of the stable regime are tholeiites derived from a zirconium and LREE-enriched sources. The greywackes of the mobile regime are turbidities, and the volcanic rocks possess continental margin (island-arc or back-arc) affinity; they show a LREE depleted to slightly LREE-enriched pattern. The evolution from a stable to a mobile regime is in contrast to the trend seen in most other regions of the world, where an early dominantly volcanic association of a mobile regime gives way upward in the sequence to sediments characteristic of a stable regime.

  7. SWOT Analysis of Dental Health Workforce in India: A Dental alarm

    PubMed Central

    B H, Naveen; Kumar, Santhosh; H, Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    Context: India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, dental health workers also become a part contributing to it impeding the progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Aim: To assess dental health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in dental health-workers provision and report the impact of this mal distribution in India. Materials and Methods: Situational analysis done by using the primary data from the records of Dental Council of India. Results: In India, 0.088% of dental health worker per 1000 population exists. Inequalities in the distribution of dentists exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of dental health personnel whereas certain cities are over fledged with dentists like Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamilnadu being states with high concentration & Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal being the least. Conclusion: Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years by increase in number of dental colleges the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. In the race of increasing dentist population ratio in total, inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported dentists gives a mere feel of saturation in jobs making youngsters to not to choose dentistry as a career giving an alarm. PMID:25584341

  8. Epidemiology of Accidents in Tile Factories of Mangalore City in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Rathnakar, UP; Harsha Kumar, HN

    2010-01-01

    Background: Occupational accidents are a major point of concern in industries. The academic community should take the first step to address the long-neglected concerns of occupational safety. Objective: To assess the prevalence and pattern of occupational accidents. Materials and Methods: A record-based, cross-sectional study was done in three tile factories of Mangalore city, in Karnataka. A total of 416 workers were analyzed for the year 2004, and data regarding age, sex, job duration, type and nature of injury, body parts involved, and time of injury were collected in a prestructured proforma. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, Univariate and Multivariate analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of accidents was found to be 18.5%. It was found that almost around 86% of the accidents had affected the limbs (upper limb 24.7%, lower limb 61%), around half (52%) of the injuries were contributed by superficial injuries, 40% of accidents were due to stepping/striking against objects and while handling. Hand tools and machinery in motion contributed to around 20% of the accidents. Accidents were more common among the younger age group and less-experienced workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the age group of 30-39 years had an independent significant association with accidents (OR = 0.21, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Accidents in tile industries are an important occupational health problem in this area of the country. There is a need for proper safety training of the workers. PMID:20606926

  9. Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A Multi-Centric Study Across Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sridhar PN; Rama, Prasad Subba; Gurushanthappa, Vishwanath; Manipura, Radhakrishna; Srinivasan, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are sporadic reports on detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producers from Karnataka; hence, this is a first multicentric study across Karnataka state to determine the prevalence of ESBL production among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalence of ESBL producing clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae from five geographically distributed centers across Karnataka, to study the susceptibility of ESBL producing isolates to other beta-lactam and beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitors and to demonstrate transferability of plasmids coding for ESBL phenotype. Materials and Methods: Two hundred isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae each were collected from each of the five centers (Bellary, Dharwad, Davangere, Kolar and Mangalore). They were screened for resistance to screening agents (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam) and positive isolates were confirmed for ESBL production by test described by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Co-production of ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamase was identified by using amino-phenylboronic acid disk method. Susceptibility of ESBL producers to beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors was performed. Transferability of plasmids was performed by conjugation experiment. Results: Overall prevalence of ESBL production among E. coli and K. pneumoniae across five centers of the state was 57.5%. ESBL production was found to be 61.4% among E. coli and 46.2% among K. pneumoniae. ESBL production was significantly more among E. coli than K. pneumoniae. Significant variations in distribution of ESBL across the state was observed among E. coli isolates, but not among K. pneumoniae isolates. All ESBL producers demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration levels ≥2 μg/ml towards cefotaxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: Overall prevalence of ESBL production among clinical isolates of E. coli and K

  10. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  11. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  12. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  13. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Tonita M.; Tophakhane, Raghavendra S.; Nadiger, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail) and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%). Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7%) was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%). Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of Karnataka. PMID:27559499

  15. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Rudresh, B. H.; Murthy, H. N. N.; Jayashankar, M. R.; Nagaraj, C. S.; Kotresh, A. M.; Byregowda, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in isolation for a longer

  16. Sociodemographic and health profile of inmates of old age homes in and around Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Joshi, A V; Pujar, Kirankumar; Patil, Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    A new trend of admitting more and more senior citizens hailing from the Indian middle class background to old age homes is being observed in recent times. The objectives of this study were to study sociodemographic dimensions and common health problems of inmates of old age homes and to know various reasons for their admissions and their leisure time activities in old age homes. The present cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April 2010 in 4 different old age homes in and around Belgaum city, North Karnataka, by interviewing the inmates of old age homes using predesigned, pretested, structured questionnaire followed by thorough clinical examination and haemoglobin estimation by Sahli's method. The collected data was compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 14. Out of 73 elderly, 54 were females (74.0%). Majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (50.7%) and 56 were belonging to nuclear family (76.7%). Thirty-nine inmates were widow/widower (53.4%) and 42 were having no children (57.5%). Forty-seven inmates were admitted as there was nobody to take care of them (64.4%). Common health problems observed were locomotive/joint and muscle disorders (35.6%), hypertension (34.2%), diabetes mellitus (26.0%), respiratory disorders (23.3%), hearing loss (21.9%) etc. Forty-nine were having normal body mass index (67.1%) while 19.2% were underweight. Majority were having haemoglobin levels between 10-12 g/dl (58.9%). Old age homes definitely will enable the elderly to remain sociopsychologically healthy and lead active lives if effective medical and emotional support is given.

  17. Physician's practices and perspectives regarding tobacco cessation in a teaching hospital in Mysore City, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Saud, Mohammed; Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Ashok, N C; Renuka, M

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tobacco is a leading cause of disease and premature death. Most of the smokers visit a doctor for various health related ailments and thus such clinic visits provide many opportunities for interventions and professional tobacco cessation advice. Aims: The primary aim of the following study is to assess the physician practices, perspectives, resources, barriers and education relating to tobacco cessation and their perceived need for training for the same. The secondary aim is to compare the physician's cessation practices from patient's perspective. Settings and Design: A descriptive study was conducted in a hospital attached to Medical College in Mysore city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Information about doctor's practices, perspectives and their perceived need for training in tobacco cessation were collected using pre-structured self-administered Questionnaire, which were distributed in person. Patient's practices and perspectives were assessed using a pre-structured Oral Questionnaire. Results: Almost 95% of physicians said that they ask patients about their smoking status and 94% advise them to quit smoking, but only 50% assist the patient to quit smoking and only 28% arrange follow-up visits. Thus, they do not regularly provide assistance to help patients quit, even though 98% of the physicians believed that helping patients to quit was a part of their role. Only 18% and 35% of the physicians said that Undergraduate Medical Education and Post Graduate Medical Education respectively prepared them very well to participate in smoking cessation activities. Conclusions: Tobacco cessation requires repeated and regular assistance. Such assistance is not being provided to patients by attending doctors. Our medical education system is failing to impart the necessary skills to doctors, needed to help patients quit smoking. Reforms in education are needed so as to prepare the physician to effectively address this problem. PMID:24574555

  18. Perception, knowledge, and attitude toward mental disorders and psychiatry among medical undergraduates in Karnataka: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, G.; Mittal, Shobhana; Yadiyal, Muralidhara B.; Acharya, Chandana; Acharya, Srilekha; Uppulari, Chinmay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Globally, psychiatry as a subject, psychiatrists as professionals, and patients with psychiatric disorders are subjected to cultural stereotypes and negative attitude by the general population. What is of alarming concern is that these prejudices exist within the medical community as well. Aims: This study aims at evaluating the perception, knowledge, and attitude toward psychiatric disorders, therapeutic modalities used in psychiatry, psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals among undergraduate medical students in Karnataka. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional type of study conducted in three medical colleges located in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A sample of 500 students from all three professional phases of MBBS was selected using purposive sampling. A semistructured prevalidated questionnaire was used to assess the perception, knowledge, and attitude of undergraduate medical students toward psychiatric disorders and psychiatry. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0. Results: The undergraduate medical student population had significant shortcomings in knowledge and attitude pertaining to psychiatric disorders, more glaring in the initial years of education. A comparatively positive opinion was obtained regarding psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals, which may reflect the changing trends and concepts, both in society and medical community. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for better educational measures at undergraduate level in order to shape a positive attitude of the health care providers towards psychiatry, which is essential for ensuring better care for patients as well as reduction of stigma surrounding psychiatric disorders. PMID:26985108

  19. Total and Free Fluoride Concentration in Various Brands of Toothpaste Marketed in India

    PubMed Central

    Siddanna, Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Background For fluoridated toothpaste to be effective in controlling dental caries, an adequate concentration of soluble fluoride must be available in the oral cavity. Aim To determine the total and free fluoride concentration in various brands of toothpaste marketed in India. Materials and Methods Three samples of 12 different toothpastes were purchased from supermarkets in Mysore city, Karnataka, India. Toothpastes were analysed in duplicate using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. The concentration of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) were determined. Results Measured TF was consistent with that declared by the manufacturer in five products. Four toothpastes showed lower TF and two higher TF than declared. Most toothpastes exhibited TSF concentrations similar to the TF content except four samples that displayed considerably lower TSF than TF. Conclusion The measurement of total and free fluoride concentrations of toothpastes available in India showed inhomogenities. Therefore there is a need for stringent regulatory control measures for the determination of fluoride content in toothpastes in developing country like India. PMID:26557607

  20. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  1. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Quitline Activity in Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh; Verma, Vinit; Mathur, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Quitline activity in Rajasthan, India is a voluntary activity of Rajasthan Cancer Foundation (RCF) since April 2013. To kick-off, it took the benefit of the State Government- PIRAMAL SWASTHYA (PS)1 collaborative 104 Health Information Helpline that existed already in public-private partnership. It is a reactive quitline that helps callers through the counselors and nursing staff trained specifically through the weekly sessions held by the first author, the RCF resource on quitline. Besides structuring of the scripts for primary intervention and follow-ups after 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and a year, he also monitors calls, advices and coordinates with the supervisors to manage and analyze the data base, and reports to the PS lead at the Jaipur Center on overall performance and to plan strategic communication with the State Government on its outcomes. The quitline has limitations of its informal existence through a voluntary effort of RCF, no specific resource allocation, suboptimal data management, minimal awareness in the masses due to poor IEC (Information, Education and Communication; except its efforts made by RCF in last 1 year through the government-run State TV and City Radio) and staff shortage and its attrition due to lack of plan for career advancement. Despite these challenges in the year 2013, the quit line has registered a quit rate (for complete abstinence) of 19.93% amongst 1525 callers. The quit rate were 58.01% (304/ 524) among the responders at the 3rd follow-up at 18 months (in September 2014)2. In view of an increase in quit rate by 5- 9 times over the prevailing quit rate in the former ever daily users [both smokers and the users of smokeless tobacco (SLT)], efforts are being made by RCF in concurrence with PS to have this cost-effective model established formally with optimal resource allocation in collaboration with willing agencies (the State and Central Governments and the International Quitline Agencies) and its replication in 4 more states

  3. Persistence of Azoxystrobin in/on Grapes and Soil in Different Grapes Growing Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Gajbhiye, Vijay Tularam; Gupta, Suman; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Shashi Bala; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Yogesh

    2010-01-01

    Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in/on grapes when applied @ 150 g ai ha−1 (recommended dose) and 300 g ai ha−1 (double the recommended dose) in three grapes growing states of India, namely Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in the year 2006–2007. A total of five sprays were given at an interval of about 15 days. Grapes and soil samples were collected after 5th spray, extracted and analysed by gas chromatography using electron capture detector. Half life of azoxystrobin on grapes varied from 5.4 to 11.2 days. Residues of azoxystrobin were much below the prescribed MRL (0.5 mg kg−1) after 21 days. The dissipation of azoxystrobin in soil followed first order rate kinetics with an average half life of 8.1 days at the recommended dose of application. PMID:21153804

  4. Palatoscopy: An adjunct to forensic odontology: A comparative study among five different populations of India

    PubMed Central

    Byatnal, Amit; Byatnal, Aditi; Kiran, A. Ravi; Samata, Y.; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Telagi, Neethu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze and identify differences in the palatal rugae patterns and to identify gender wise changes in the palatal rugae shapes in populations of five different states of India. Study Design: Study was conducted in five different Indian states. 500 sample subjects from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were included. Rugae patterns with predominant shapes were analyzed and categorized according to different states and both genders, data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 15.0 and the results were obtained by Chi-square analysis. Results: “Wavy” type of palatal rugae pattern is the most predominant variant in five different study groups in both the genders. Conclusion: This study could identify variations in distribution of various palatal rugae pattern in five different states and confirmed the “wavy” type of palatal rugae patterns to be the most predominant variant in five different study groups. PMID:24678197

  5. Badis britzi, a new percomorph fish (Teleostei: Badidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Badis britzi, the first species of the genus endemic to southern India, is described from the Nagodi tributary of the west-flowing Sharavati River in Karnataka. It is distinguished from congeners by a combination of characters including a slender body, 21-24 pored lateral-line scales and a striking colour pattern consisting of 11 bars and a mosaic of black and red pigmentation on the side of the body including the end of caudal peduncle, and the absence of cleithral, opercular, or caudal-peduncle blotches, or an ocellus on the caudal-fin base. Badis triocellus Khynriam & Sen is considered a junior synonym of B. singenensis Geetakumari & Kadu. PMID:25947522

  6. Peste des petits ruminants vaccine and vaccination in India: sharing experience with disease endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2015-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants, a viral disease of small ruminants, the control of which is important for poverty alleviation and to ensure livelihood security in Asia, Middle East and Africa. In recognition of these issues, we developed and applied vaccine and diagnostics to demonstrate effective control of PPR during preceding 6 years in a sub-population of small ruminants in India. Two south Indian states, namely Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, strongly indicated possibility of PPR control with more than 90 % reduction in number of reported outbreaks of PPR, mostly through mass vaccination. Similarly, the situation at the national level also demonstrated a decline of more than 75 % in the number of reported outbreaks. Sharing these experiences may motivate other countries for similar initiatives leading to progressive control of PPR, which is in line with the initiatives of the organizations like FAO/OIE and the recent platforms on global PPR research alliance. PMID:26645031

  7. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  8. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  9. Chikungunya Infection in India: Results of a Prospective Hospital Based Multi-Centric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H.; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, B. S.; Kalaivani, Mani; Wig, Naveet

    2012-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIKV) has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. Methods and Findings A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Karnataka (South); Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS) Rajasthan (West), and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) New Delhi (North) from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36%) followed by west (16.28%) and north (0.56%) India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05). Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05). Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM) were detected for more than 60days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15) revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. Conclusions The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate molecular

  10. Evaluating Birth Preparedness and Pregnancy Complications Readiness Knowledge and Skills of Accredited Social Health Activists in India

    PubMed Central

    Kochukuttan, Smitha; Ravindran, TK Sundari; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2013-01-01

    Background: The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in India relies on Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to act as a link between pregnant women and health facilities. All ASHAs are required to have a birth preparedness plan and be aware of danger signs of complications to initiate appropriate and timely referral to obstetric care. Objectives: To examine the extent to which Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills and the adequacy of support they get from supervisors to carry out their assigned tasks in a rural district in Karnataka, (South) India. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 225 ASHAs between June – July 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables. Results: The response rate was 207(92%). In terms of knowledge of all key danger signs (Complication Readiness), 2(1%), 10(4.8%), and 15(7.2%) ASHAs were aware of key danger signs for labor and child birth, postpartum period and pregnancy period, respectively. Knowledge of key danger signs was associated with repeated, recent and practical training (p <0.05). A majority (71%) scored 4-7 of the maximum score out of 8 for knowledge regarding Birth Preparedness. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: ASHAs in rural Karnataka, India, are poorly equipped to identify obstetric complications and to help expectant mothers prepare a birth preparedness plan. There is critical need for the implementation of appropriate training and follow-up supervision of ASHAs within a supportive, functioning and responsive health care system.

  11. Genomic characterization of coxsackievirus type B3 strains associated with acute flaccid paralysis in south-western India.

    PubMed

    Laxmivandana, Rongala; Cherian, Sarah S; Yergolkar, Prasanna; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2016-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with coxsackievirus type B3 (CV-B3) of the species Enterovirus B is an emerging concern worldwide. Although CV-B3-associated AFP in India has been demonstrated previously, the genomic characterization of these strains is unreported. Here, CV-B3 strains detected on the basis of the partial VP1 gene in 10 AFP cases and five asymptomatic contacts identified from different regions of south-western India during 2009-2010 through the Polio Surveillance Project were considered for complete genome sequencing and characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of complete VP1 gene sequences of global CV-B3 strains classified Indian CV-B3 strains into genogroup GVI, along with strains from Uzbekistan and Bangladesh, and into a new genogroup, GVII. Genomic divergence between genogroups of the study strains was 14.4 % with significantly lower divergence (1.8 %) within GVI (n = 12) than that within GVII (8.5 %) (n = 3). The strains from both AFP cases and asymptomatic contacts, identified mainly in coastal Karnataka and Kerala, belonged to the dominant genogroup GVI, while the GVII strains were recovered from AFP cases in north interior Karnataka. All study strains carried inter-genotypic recombination with the structural region similar to reference CV-B3 strains, and 5' non-coding regions and non-structural regions closer to other enterovirus B types. Domain II structures of 5' non-coding regions, described to modulate virus replication, were predicted to have varied structural folds in the two genogroups and were attributed to differing recombination patterns. The results indicate two distinct genomic compositions of CV-B3 strains circulating in India and suggest the need for concurrent analysis of viral and host factors to further understand the varied manifestations of their infections.

  12. Rejuvenation of the Kuqa foreland basin, northern flank of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Huafu; Jia Dong; Cai Dongsheng

    1994-12-01

    The Kuqa depression along the northern flank of the Tarim basin is filled with a thick sequence of Neogene and Quaternary coarse elastic continental sediments. This structural depression is part of a large foreland basin that leads south of the Tianshan - an orogenic belt of intracontinental convergence resulting from the northward propagation of stress following the collision of India with the southern margin of Eurasia. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control. PMID:26618637

  14. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India

    PubMed Central

    Rekha Sarma, Roshmi; Munsi, Madhushree; Neelavara Ananthram, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world’s 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control. PMID:26618637

  15. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  16. Multinomial Logistic Regression Predicted Probability Map To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2014-11-01

    Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.

  17. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT

  18. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  19. Measurements of transpiration from Eucalyptus plantations, India, using deuterium tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, I.R.; Swaminath, M.H.; Kariyappa, G.S.; Srinivasalu, N.V.; Murthy, K.V.; Mumtaz, J.

    1992-12-31

    Measurements of transpiration from individual trees in Eucalyptus plantations at four different sites in Karnataka, southern India, are presented. These show large (as much as tenfold) differences in the transpiration between pre and post monsoon periods; a reflection of the effects of soil moisture stress in the pre monsoon periods. For trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) less than 10 cm the transpiration rate of individual trees is proportional to the square of the DBH. For trees which are not experiencing soil water stress the daily transpiration rate of individual trees, q, is well represented by the relation: q= (6.6 {+-} 0.3)g m{sup 3}d{sup {minus}1} where g (m{sup 2}) is the tree basal area. On a unit ground area basis the transpiration rate, expressed as a depth per day, is given by the relation: E{sub t}= (0.66 {+-} 0.03)G (mm d{sup {minus}1}) where G (m{sup 2} ha{sup {minus}1}) is the total basal area per hectare. For all the sites studied, although there is evidence for the mining of soil water as roots penetrate deeper depths in the soil each year, there is no evidence for direct abstraction from the watertable.

  20. New age data on the geological evolution of Southern India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Paul N.; Chadwick, B.; Friend, C. R. L.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Moorbath, Stephen; Viswanatha, M. N.

    1988-01-01

    The Peninsular Gneisses of Southern India developed over a period of several hundred Ma in the middle-to-late Archaean. Gneisses in the Gorur-Hassan area of southern Karnataka are the oldest recognized constituents: Beckinsale et al. reported a preliminary Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 33558 + or - 66 Ma, but further Rb-Sr and Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron determinations indicate a slightly younger, though more precise age of ca 3305 Ma (R. D. Beckinsale, Pers. Comm.). It is well established that the Peninsular Gneisses constitute basement on which the Dharwar schist belts were deposited. Well-documented exposures of unconformities, with basal quartz pebble conglomerates of the Dharwar Supergroup overlying Peninsular Gneisses, have been reported from the Chikmagalur and Chitradurga areas, and basement gneisses in these two areas have been dated by Rb-Sr and Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron methods at ca 3150 Ma and ca 3000 Ma respectively. Dharwar supracrustal rocks of the Chitradurga schist belt are intruded by the Chitradurga Granite, dated by a Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron at 2605 + or - 18 Ma. These results indicate that the Dharwar Supergroup in the Chitradurga belt was deposited between 3000 Ma and 2600 Ma.

  1. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  2. Hospital based epidemiology of HIV-1 in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, S; Kudva, I; Raj, I S; Srinivasa, H; Ray, S; Jayanthi, A; Damodar, P

    1992-06-01

    Of more than 1 million people screened in serosurveillance centers across India, more than 6000 have been found to be infected with HIV. Bombay, Madras, and Manipur are the 3 epicenters of pandemic viral spread. The majority of infected individuals in southern India are in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra states. HIV-1serology was, however, added to the center in Karnataka state amid reports of rising HIV seroprevalence. St. John's Medical College Hospital is in Bangalore, a rapidly growing city of the state. An ongoing study began screening high-risk groups and blood donors for seroprevalence to HIV in March, 1989. This report presents findings based upon the first 3 years of the study. In all, sera from 26,236 voluntary blood donors and 1364 high-risk group patients were screened with ELISA. 26 seropositives were identified, 17 of which were from Bangalore city and its suburbs; the others were from semi-urban environments. Quite a few were unaware of HIV infection and its implications. Most seropositives were males aged 20-40 years thought to have contracted HIV from heterosexual intercourse, although one admitted to homosexuality. Further, many are frequent travellers due to the nature of their jobs. Of the blood donors, none was seropositive in 1989, 1 in 1990, and 15 in 1992; a similar trend was observed among the high-risk group patients. These findings point to the as-yet modest, but growing, entry of HIV into populations in and around Bangalore. Continuous serosurveillance and vigorous health education of the population are required to stem further HIV infection.

  3. Microbial Flora in Chronic Periodontitis: Study at a Tertiary Health Care Center from North Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi K; Nagamoti, Jyoti; Kothiwale, Shaila; Metgud, Sharada C

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Periodontitis is a major public health problem in India with a prevalence of 60–80%. If untreated it acts as a risk factor for systemic diseases. Data on anaerobic periodontal microflora in the Indian population is very scarce. Hence, this study was undertaken to know the nature of oral microbiota in chronic periodontitis in this region of India and also the semiquantitative study in pre- and post-treatment group and to determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern for aerobic isolates. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 cases. Material was collected from the subgingival pockets in patients with chronic periodontitis attending the Periodontology, Outpatient Department. Clinical samples were transported to the laboratory in fluid thioglycollate medium. Initially Gram's stain and Fontana stains were done. Aerobic, anaerobic, and microaerophilic culture were put up. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for aerobic isolates. Results: Sixty samples yielded 121 isolates of which 78.34% were polymicrobial, 11.66% were monomicrobial and oral commensals were grown in 10% cases. Out of 121 isolates 91.74% were anaerobic, 7.43% were aerobic and 0.83% were microaerophilic. Fusobacterium species was the most common isolate among anaerobes. Using “paired t-test” “P” value was significant indicating significant reduction in colony count after phase-I periodontal therapy. Conclusion: This study has shown that anaerobic bacteria are important cause of chronic periodontitis, along with aerobes and microaerophilic organisms. Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis, Porphyromonas spp and Prevotella intermedia are the most common anaerobic pathogens. Bacterial culture methods are still economical and gold standard. PMID:25949060

  4. Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-basin models and their applicability to some world basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tertiary intermontane basins in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal basin is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park Basin, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge Basin, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal basin is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of basin sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed basin (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed basin is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open basins (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain basins, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal basins in China, New Zealand, and India. ?? 1989.

  5. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  6. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of the Askot klippe, Kumaun, northwest India: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonics, basin evolution and associated metallogeny of the northern Indian cratonic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Subhadip; Robinson, Delores M.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Khanal, Subodha; Das, Oindrila; Bose, Sukhanjan

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the Himalayan thrust belt, klippen of questionable tectonostratigraphic affinity occur atop Lesser Himalayan rocks. Integrated U-Pb ages, Hf isotopic, and whole rock trace element data establish that the Askot klippe, in northwest India, is composed of Paleoproterozoic lower Lesser Himalayan rocks, not Greater Himalayan rocks, as previously interpreted. The Askot klippe consists of 1857 ± 19 Ma granite-granodiorite gneiss, coeval 1878 ± 19 Ma felsic volcanic rock, and circa 1800 Ma Berinag quartzite, representing a small vestige of a Paleoproterozoic (circa 1850 Ma) continental arc, formed on northern margin of the north Indian cratonic block. Detrital zircon from Berinag quartzite shows ɛHf1850 Ma values between -9.6 and -1.1 (an average of -4.5) and overlaps with ɛHf1850 Ma values of the Askot klippe granite-granodiorite gneiss (-5.5 to -1.2, with an average of -2.7) and other Paleoproterozoic arc-related Lesser Himalayan granite gneisses ( -4.8 to -2.2, with an average of -4.0). These overlapping data suggest a proximal arc source for the metasedimentary rocks. Subchondritic ɛHf1850 Ma values (-5.5 to -1.2) of granite-granodiorite gneiss indicate existence of a preexisting older crust that underwent crustal reworking at circa 1850 Ma. A wide range of ɛHf1850 Ma values in detrital zircon (-15.0 to -1.1) suggests that a heterogeneous crustal source supplied detritus to the northern margin of India. These data, as well as the presence of a volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit within the Askot klippe, are consistent with a circa 1800 Ma intra-arc extensional environment.

  7. Chest physiotherapy techniques in neurological intensive care units of India: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Anup; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Rao, Bhamini K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Neurological intensive care units (ICUs) are a rapidly developing sub-specialty of neurosciences. Chest physiotherapy techniques are of great value in neurological ICUs in preventing, halting, or reversing the impairments caused due to neurological disorder and ICU stay. However, chest physiotherapy techniques should be modified to a greater extent in the neurological ICU as compared with general ICUs. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain data on current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. Settings and Design: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India, and cross-sectional survey. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was formulated and content validated to assess the current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. The questionnaire was constructed online and a link was distributed via E-mail to 185 physiotherapists working in neurological ICUs across India. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The response rate was 44.3% (n = 82); 31% of the physiotherapists were specialized in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy and 30% were specialized in neurological physiotherapy. Clapping, vibration, postural drainage, aerosol therapy, humidification, and suctioning were used commonly used airway clearance (AC) techniques by the majority of physiotherapists. However, devices for AC techniques such as Flutter, Acapella, and standard positive expiratory pressure devices were used less frequently for AC. Techniques such as autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing technique are also frequently used when appropriate for the patients. Lung expansion therapy techniques such as breathing exercises, incentive spirometry exercises, and positioning, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of breathing are used by majority of physiotherapists. Conclusions: Physiotherapists in this study were using conventional chest physiotherapy techniques more frequently in comparison to the devices available for

  8. The contribution of reproductive ill-health to the overall burden of perceived illness among women in southern India.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, J.; Cleland, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate women's perceptions of the overall burden of illness among a sample of women in southern India. METHODS: A community-based sample of 421 young married women in a subdistrict about 70 kilometres from Bangalore, Karnataka State, India, were interviewed monthly for one year. At each visit, information on the symptoms of all forms of illness they had experienced was elicited with the aid of a checklist. Details were obtained on the durations of episodes of illness and on health-seeking behaviour and costs. The symptoms were subsequently coded in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). FINDINGS: Reproductive ill-health accounted for half of all illness-days and for 31% of total curative health expenditure. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study estimated that 27.4% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Indian women aged 15-44 years were attributable to reproductive ill-health. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that this dimension of morbidity, when measured in terms of women's subjective experiences, makes a larger contribution to the burden of illness than that suggested by the DALY approach. This lends justification to the high priority attached to reproductive ill-health in India. PMID:11731815

  9. Marital status, family ties, and self-rated health among elders in South India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mutran, Elizabeth J; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sarma, P Sankara

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. We hypothesized that (a) widowhood would be associated with poorer self-rated health, (b) number of kin ties would be positively associated with self-rated health, (c) economic and emotional support from kin would improve outcomes, and (d) these associations would be stronger among women than among men. Results of logistic regression techniques supported the first hypothesis and partially supported the third. With regard to the second hypothesis, the presence of specific kin rather than the number of each type of family member was important. For the fourth hypothesis, results suggest that men and women in this sample have broadly similar associations between widowhood and self-rated health. For women however, controlling for socioeconomic status did not weaken the association between widowhood and self-rated health, suggesting the symbolic/cultural importance of this status. In general, these findings suggest that theories on the importance of marital status and kin ties for older adults' self-rated health, which were developed and tested in Western societies, need to be refined for Asian societies, where the nature of marriage and widowhood are different.

  10. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B.; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Results Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Conclusion Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue. PMID:26266133

  11. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009): temporal and spatial trends.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Nitin; Bera, Bidhan C; Gulati, Baldev R; Karuppusamy, Shanmugasundaram; Singh, Birendra K; Kumar Vaid, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajendra; Malik, Parveen; Khurana, Sandeep K; Singh, Jitender; Manuja, Anju; Dedar, Ramesh; Gupta, Ashok K; Yadav, Suresh C; Chugh, Parmod K; Narwal, Partap S; Thankur, Vinod L N; Kaul, Rakesh; Kanani, Amit; Rautmare, Sunil S; Singh, Raj K

    2010-01-01

    Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e., horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir) and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples) before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s). The virus (H3N8) was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka), Ahmedabad (Gujarat), Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740) of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1074 (22.65%) samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8). PMID:21120800

  12. The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S; Hiremath, Jyoti M; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme.

  13. Tectonic interactions between India and Arabia since the Jurassic reconstructed from marine geophysics, ophiolite geology, and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Gondwana breakup since the Jurassic and the northward motion of India toward Eurasia were associated with formation of ocean basins and ophiolite obduction between and onto the Indian and Arabian margins. Here we reconcile marine geophysical data from preserved oceanic basins with the age and location of ophiolites in NW India and SE Arabia and seismic tomography of the mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The North Somali and proto-Owen basins formed due to 160-133 Ma N-S extension between India and Somalia. Subsequent convergence destroyed part of this crust, simultaneous with the uplift of the Masirah ophiolites. Most of the preserved crust in the Owen Basin may have formed between 84 and 74 Ma, whereas the Mascarene and the Amirante basins accommodated motion between India and Madagascar/East Africa between 85 and circa 60 Ma and 75 and circa 66 Ma, respectively. Between circa 84 and 45 Ma, oblique Arabia-India convergence culminated in ophiolite obduction onto SE Arabia and NW India and formed the Carlsberg slab in the lower mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The NNE-SSW oriented slab may explain the anomalous bathymetry in the NW Indian Ocean and may be considered a paleolongitudinal constraint for absolute plate motion. NW India-Asia collision occurred at circa 20 Ma deforming the Sulaiman ranges or at 30 Ma if the Hindu Kush slab north of the Afghan block reflects intra-Asian subduction. Our study highlights that the NW India ophiolites have no relationship with India-Asia motion or collision but result from relative India-Africa/Arabia motions instead.

  14. A reassessment of Melanophidium Günther, 1864 (Squamata: Serpentes:
    Uropeltidae) from the Western Ghats of peninsular India, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Giri, Varad; Captain, Ashok; Wilkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the uropeltid snake genus, Melanophidium Günther, 1864 is described based on a series of eight specimens. Melanophidium khairei sp. nov. is the fourth species described in the genus, and the first for 144 years. Superficially M. khairei sp. nov. resembles M. punctatum Beddome, 1871 in being piebald and punctate (and it was previously misidentified as M. punctatum), but in many scalation characters it more closely resembles M. wynaudense (Beddome, 1863). The new species occurs in southern Maharashtra, Goa, and northern Karnataka, in the Western Ghats region of peninsula India. It is the most northerly member of its genus. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for M. wynaudense, M. bilineatum Beddome, 1870, and M. punctatum. A new key to the species of Melanophidium is presented. Aspects of the morphology, taxonomy and distribution of the three previously described species of Melanophidium are reviewed and revised. PMID:27394315

  15. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  16. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  17. Evaluation of Stepping Stones as a tool for changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours associated with gender, relationships and HIV risk in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stepping Stones training aims to help individuals explore sexual relationships and recognize gender inequalities, the structural drivers of the HIV epidemic, in order to understand risk behaviours and to seek solutions to factors that increase HIV vulnerability. Despite earlier studies suggesting the success of Stepping Stones, little data exist to show diffusion to trainees' social networks or the wider community. Methods A mixed-methods evaluation of this approach was undertaken using in-depth interviews of trainees and friends, and polling booth surveys in 20 villages where Stepping Stones training took place and in another 20 villages with no Stepping Stones intervention. Results The interview respondents and their friends reported significant changes in their relationships after training, and benefit from discussion of gender, sexuality, condom use and HIV vulnerability issues. However, though diffusion of this knowledge at the level of personal contacts was strong, the evaluation revealed that diffusion to the community level was limited. Conclusions The qualitative part of this study reflects other studies in different settings, in that SS participants gained immensely from the training. Wider behaviour change is a challenging goal that many programmes fail to attain, with most interventions too limited in scope and intensity to produce larger community effects. This may have contributed to the fact that we observed few differences between interventions and non-intervention villages in this study. However, it is also possible that we had excessive expectations of individual change at the community level, and that it might have been more appropriate to have had broader community level rather than individual behavioural change indicators. We suggest that SS could be enhanced by efforts to better engage existing community opinion leaders, to empower and train participants as community change agents, and to support the development of village-level action plans that combat sexual stereotyping and risky behaviours that lead to unhealthy sexual relationships. PMID:21702965

  18. Effect of yoga therapy on physical and psychological quality of life of perimenopausal women in selected coastal areas of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Gayathry; Kamath, Asha; Kumar, Pratap N.; Rao, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perimenopausal period is characterized by a continuous decline in ovarian function due to which women are vulnerable to various physical and psychological symptoms affecting their quality of life. Currently these symptoms are managed by hormone replacement therapy. However, hormonal therapy can cause complications including malignancy which has resulted in search for various alternative therapies to improve the quality of life (QOL). Yoga is one such alternative therapy shown to enhance the QOL at all stages of human life associated with the chronic illness. There are very few scientific studies regarding the effect of yoga on perimenopause and in this study we investigated the effects of yoga therapy on physical and psychological symptoms using the standardized questionnaire. Objective: To study the effect of yoga therapy on physical, psychological, vasomotor and sexual symptoms of perimenopause. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective non-randomized control study of 216 perimenopausal women with 12 weeks of intervention. The subjects were divided in two groups with either yoga therapy [n = 111] or exercise [n = 105] as the interventional tool. The symptoms control and QOL before and after intervention in both the groups were assessed by using the menopausal QOL questionnaire. Results: The perimenopausal symptoms in all the four domains were improved by yoga therapy, thus significantly improving the overall QOL compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of yoga therapy in managing the distressing perimenopausal symptoms. It is easy, safe, non-expensive alternative therapy helping the well-being of perimenopausal women and must be encouraged in the regular management of perimenopausal symptoms. PMID:25540568

  19. Ophthalmic surgical training in Karnataka and Southern India: Present status and future interests from a survey of final-year residents

    PubMed Central

    Ajay, K; Krishnaprasad, R; Divya, D S

    2015-01-01

    Settings and Design: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduates on the subject of their surgical training and their future plans after residency. Purpose: This survey aimed to answer the question, What is the present status of surgical training in ophthalmic training centers? by obtaining information from students about (1) various methods used in surgical training (2) numbers and types of surgeries performed by them in the training centers (3) their plans after residency. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 21 questions was distributed to 155 students attending an intensive 4-day teaching program. The questions related to orientation training, wet lab training, facilities for training, free surgical camps and detailed information about numbers and types of surgeries observed and performed. Completed questionnaires were collected, and responses analyzed. Results: One hundred and seven completed responses were analyzed. The majority had not received formal orientation training. More than half had undergone wet lab training. Most residents performed their first ophthalmic surgery during the 1st year of residency and went to the operation theatre multiple times a week. Most of the students planned to undergo further training after residency. More than half of the students found their surgical training to be fair or satisfactory. Conclusions: The number and frequency of ophthalmic surgeries done by residents appear satisfactory, but further efforts from trainers on enhancing the quality and range of surgical training would benefit students and improve their satisfaction. PMID:26044468

  20. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  1. Hydrological Modelling of Ganga River basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, J.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Application of a hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to the Ganga basin having a total drainage area of around 1.08 M sq. km extending over Tibet, Nepal, India and Bangladesh has been made. The model is calibrated to determine the spatial deviations in runoff at sub-basin level, and to capture the water balance of the river basin. Manual calibration approach was used for calibrating the SWAT model by following multi-step procedure to get to the realistic present situation as close as possible. Simulations were then further made with and without proposed future projects to obtain various scenarios. The various statistical parameters used for the evaluation of the monthly runoff simulation showed that SWAT performed well in mimicking the monthly stream flow for Ganga River basin. The model under predicted the flows in the non-perennial region during non-monsoon season, due to low rainfall and regulated flows and seepage taking place from the reservoirs. The impacts of the interventions, both existing as well as proposed, on the water balance of the basin were evaluated and quantified. The derived results suggest that there is a substantial reduction in overall water resources availability in the study basin on account of the current level of development and further, future developments, as are being proposed, may require a careful study of their potential impact on currently sanctioned water use. The present study showcases that efficacy of the model for simulating the stream flow is admirable.

  2. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant and emergence of Haitian ctxB variant in the strains isolated from South India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Parande, Mahantesh V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Roy, Subarna

    2016-04-01

    Cholera still continues to be an important cause of human infection, especially in developing countries that lack access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. In the present study, we report the emergence of new variant form of V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype with a novel mutation in ctxB in strains isolated from various outbreaks during 2010-2014 in Belgaum situated in north-west Karnataka, India. A total of 14 occurrences of cholera were documented from Belgaum Division of North Karnataka during the 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. All the V. cholerae O1 isolates were subjected to DAMA PCR to detect the three different allelic subtypes of ctxB and PCR-based detection of virulent genes, and subsequently, 14 strains (one strain from each outbreak or sporadic case) were subjected to ctxB gene sequence and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 54 V. cholerae O1 strains were obtained of which 21 strains isolated during 2010-2011 had classical ctxB and remaining 33 strains isolated during 2012-2014 belonged to Haitian variant. In the cluster analysis, the PFGE profiles were divided into clades A with and B. Clade A contained eight strains with 94 % similarity and Haitian type of ctxB. Clade B contained six strains and had Haitian type of ctxB except one with classical ctxB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the Haitian variant of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of cholera in South India.

  3. UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

    2005-05-04

    What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non-unitary site response

  4. Basin analysis of tertiary strata in the Pattani Basin, Gulf of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Chonchawalit, A. ); Bustin, R.M. )

    1994-07-01

    The stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Pattani basin, the most prolific petroleum basin in Thailand, reflects the extensional tectonics of continental southeast Asia. East-west extension, a product of the northward collision of India with Eurasia since the early Tertiary resulted in the formation of a series of north-south-trending sedimentary basins including the Pattani basin. Subsidence and thermal histories of the basin can generally be accounted for by nonuniform lithospheric stretching. The validity of nonuniform lithospheric stretching as a mechanic for the formation of the Pattani basin is confirmed by a reasonably good agreement between modeled and observed vitrinite reflectance at various depths and locations. The amount of stretching and surface heat flow generally increases from the basin margin to the basin center. Crustal stretching factor ([beta]) ranges from 1.3 at the basin margin to 2.8 in the center. Subcrustal stretching factor ([sigma]) ranges from 1.3 at the margin to more than 3.0 in the center. The stretching of the lithosphere may have extended basement rocks as much as 45 to 90 km and may have caused the upwelling of asthenosphere, resulting in high heat flow. The sedimentary succession in the Pattani basin is divisible into synrift and postrift sequences. The synrift sequences comprise (1) late Eocene ( ) to early Oligocene alluvial fan, braided river, and flood-plain deposits; (2) late Oligocene to early Miocene floodplain and channel deposits; and (3) an early Miocene regressive package of marine to nonmarine sediments. Deposition of synrift sequences corresponded to rifting and extension, which included episodic block faulting and rapid subsidence. Postrift succession comprises (1) an early to middle Miocene regressive package of shallow marine to nonmarine sediments, (2) a late early Miocene transgressive package; and (3) a late Miocene to Pleistocene transgression succession.

  5. Emerging viral infections with special reference to India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, K

    1996-04-01

    An emerging viral infection may be a totally new disease with undescribed symptomatology as it was in the case of Kyasanur forest disease in Karnataka, but more often it is an introduction of a known or little known disease in an area where the disease did not occur earlier e.g. yellow fever in Kenya or Rift valley fever in Egypt. The virus may show altered degree of virulence due to many changing factors as in the case of the different haemorrhagic fevers. Many factors may contribute to the emergence of viral infections which may be genetic exchanges or mutations; adaptation to new hosts or vectors; and changed social patterns of humans like urbanization, rapid transport, trade, migration of people or of vectors, strain on civic facilities or changing moral values and life-styles. Large scale changes in ecology due to global warming, deforestation or afforestation, building of dams or canals, changed agricultural practices, rearing of livestock or birds may also contribute to emergence of viral diseases. A number of emergent virus infections relatively important to India have been discussed. To combat emergent virus infections, a comprehensive strategy needs to be evolved. A national viral surveillance system needs to be established. Epidemiology of virus diseases needs to be studied in depth. Development of diagnostic reagents and their supply to investigating centres, a Central serum bank, and a virus respository are important factors. Research and development on viruses, as regards the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and vaccinology of virus infections need to be strengthened. An international network of databases of virus infections needs to be instituted. A global network for the diagnosis and containment of emerging viral diseases is advocated.

  6. Intrashelf basins: A geologic model for source-bed and reservoir facies deposition within carbonate shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, G. Jr. )

    1993-09-01

    Intrashelf basins (moats, inshore basins, shelf basins, differentiated shelf, and deep-water lagoons of others) are depressions of varying sizes and shapes that occur within tectonically passive and regionally extensive carbonate shelves. Intrashelf basins grade laterally and downdip (seaward) into shallow-water carbonates of the regional shelf, are separated from the open marine basin by the shelf margin, and are largely filled by fine-grained subtidal sediments having attributes of shallow- and deeper water sedimentation. These basins are commonly fringed or overlain by carbonate sands, reefs, or buildups. These facies may mimic those that occur along the regional shelf margin, and they can have trends that are at a high angle to that of the regional shelf. Intrashelf basins are not intracratonic basins. The history of most intrashelf basins is a few million to a few tens of million of years. Examples of intrashelf basins are known throughout the Phanerozoic; the southern portion of the Holocene Belize shelf is a modern example of an intrashelf basin. Two types of intrashelf basins are recognized. Coastal basins pass updip into coastal clastics of the craton with the basin primarily filled by fine clastics. Shelf basins occur on the outer part of the shelf, are surrounded by shallow-water carbonate facies, and are filled by peloidal lime mud, pelagics, and argillaceous carbonates. Intrashelf basins are commonly the site of organic-rich, source-bed deposition, resulting in the close proximity of source beds and reservoir facies that may fringe or overlie the basin. Examples of hydrocarbon-charged reservoirs that were sourced by an intrashelf basin include the Miocene Bombay High field, offshore India; the giant Jurassic (Arab-D) and Cretaceous (Shuaiba) reservoirs of the Arabian Shelf; the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland trend, South Florida basin; and the Permian-Pennsylvanian reservoirs surrounding the Tatum basin in southeastern New Mexico.

  7. Clinical trials in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  8. Seismic Structure of India from Regional Waveform Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.

    2003-12-01

    We use a neighborhood adaptive grid search procedure and reflectivity synthetics to model regional distance range (500-2000~km) seismograms recorded in India and to determine the variation in the crust and uppermost mantle structure across the subcontinent. The portions of the regional waveform which are most influenced by the crust and uppermost mantle structure are the 10-100~s period Pnl and fundamental mode surface waves. We use the adaptive grid search algorithm to match both portions of the seismogram simultaneously. This procedure results in a family of 1-D path average crust and upper mantle velocity and attenuation models whose propagation characteristics closely match those of the real Earth. Our data set currently consist of ˜20 seismograms whose propagation paths are primarily confined to the Ganges Basin in north India and the East Dharwar Craton of south India. The East Dharwar Craton has a simple and uniform structure consisting of a 36+/-2 km thick two layer crust, and an uppermost mantle with a sub-Moho velocity of 4.5~km/s. The structure of northern India is more complicated, with pronounced low velocities in the upper crustal layer due to the large sediment thicknesses in the Ganges basin.

  9. Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.

    PubMed

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

    2013-09-01

    A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae.

  10. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India. PMID:27293984

  11. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India.

  12. Relief and climate in South Asia: the influence of the western ghats on the current climate pattern of peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnell, Yanni

    1997-09-01

    The 1500-km-long Western Ghats mountain barrier of peninsular India interacts with the southwest monsoon in a manner which bears heavily on the exceptionally varied climate pattern of the Deccan. Karnataka Province alone concentrates five of the six major climate types of the entire Indian Union. This review explores the interactions between atmospheric structure over South Asia and relief and discusses the efficiency with which the passive margin uplift, second only to the Himalayan barrier, acts as a climatic gatekeeper to the subcontinent. Particular attention is given to rainfall patterns and regimes. These are revealed by a variety of statistical classification and mapping techniques, and the analysis is guided by the steep environmental gradient observed on the immediate backslope of the Ghats, where annual totals can drop from 6000 to 600 mm in ca. 80 km. This is strongly reflected in the landform, soil, vegetation and cropping patterns and raises the question of the relationship between the uplift history of the mountain barrier at geological time-scales, the history of the South Asian monsoon circulation and the stability and diversity of the climatic pattern as seen today. The tightly arranged suite of bioclimatic regions also provides a unique geographical backdrop to the agricultural diversity of South India, rarely found on such a scale in other monsoon contexts of the Tropics.

  13. Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in India.

    PubMed

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M

    2013-09-01

    A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, Karnataka, India was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[India: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae. PMID:24426275

  14. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  15. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P. K.; Chauhan, S.; Oza, M. P.

    2016-08-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with detecting the trend of run-off over the mainland of India, during a time period of 35 years, from 1971-2005 (May-October). Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of estimated run-off was done by taking into account different analysis windows such as cell, medium and major river basins, meteorological sub-divisions and elevation zones across India. It was estimated that out of the average 1012.5 mm of rainfall over India (considering the study period of 35 years), 33.8% got converted to surface run-off. An exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an R 2 of 0.97 and RMSE of 8.31 mm. The run-off trend analysed using the Mann-Kendall test revealed that a significant pattern exists in 22 medium, two major river basins and three meteorological sub-divisions, while there was no evidence of a statistically significant trend in the elevation zones. Among the medium river basins, the highest positive rate of change in the run-off was observed in the Kameng basin (13.6 mm/yr), while the highest negative trend was observed in the Tista upstream basin (-21.4 mm/yr). Changes in run-off provide valuable information for understanding the region's sensitivity to climatic variability.

  16. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, S; Jain, Jithesh; Simon, Sequiera Peter; Battur, Hemanth; Supreetha, S; Haridas, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. Materials & Methods: An epidemiological study was was carried out on 220 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding Oral health at Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. Results: The findings of our study revealed that subject’s blood group O (65.8) and Rh positive (73.33%) had a greater propensity for periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed blood groups and Rh factor can act as a determinant of periodontitis. How to cite this article: Vivek S, Jain J, Simon SP, Battur H, Supreetha S, Haridas R. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):30-34. PMID:24155617

  17. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  18. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  19. Physiological studies in young Eucalyptus stands in southern India and their use in estimating forest transpiration

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.M.; Rosier, P.T.W.; Murthy, K.V.

    1992-12-31

    Stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and leaf area index were measured in adjacent plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis at Puradal, near Shimoga, Karnataka, southern India. The data were collected in a range of climatic conditions during a two year period immediately following plantation establishment. Physiological differences between the two species were small and confined largely to leaf area index. Stomatal conductance was highest in the post-monsoon period and declined to minimum values immediately prior to the onset of the monsoon, with the lowest conductances observed after the plantations had been established for more than one year. Stomatal conductance, leaf area index and above-canopy meteorological data were combined in a multi-layer transpiration model and used to calculate hourly values of transpiration from the two species. Rates of transpiration up to 6 mm d{sup {minus}1} were estimated for the post-monsoon period but fell to below 1 mm d{sup {minus}1} prior to the monsoon.

  20. Vasculitic neuropathy in elderly: A study from a tertiary care university hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Anish; Nagappa, Madhu; Mahadevan, Anita; Taly, Arun B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical, electrophysiological, and histopathological profile of vasculitic neuropathy in elderly subjects aged 65 years or more. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Departments of Neurology and Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Patients and Methods: Elderly subjects, diagnosed vasculitic neuropathy by nerve biopsy over one decade, were studied. Results: The cohort consisted of 46 subjects. Symptom duration was 21.54 ± 33.53 months. Onset was chronic in majority (82.6%). Key features included paresthesias (89%), weakness (80%), sensory loss (70%), wasting (63%), and relapsing-remitting course (6.5%). Most Common clinico-electrophysiological patterns were distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy - 19, mononeuritis multiplex - 9, and asymmetric sensorimotor neuropathy - 10. Diagnosis of vasculitis was not suspected before biopsy in 31 (67.3%). Nerve biopsy revealed definite vasculitis - 12, probable - 10, and possible - 24. Treatment included immunomodulatory agents (41), symptomatic medications only (9), and antiretroviral therapy (1). Twenty-four patients were followed up for mean period of 6.5 months. Outcome at last follow-up was improved (13), unchanged (8), and worsened (3). Conclusion: Vasculitis is an important, treatable cause of neuropathy in elderly. Nerve biopsy should be used judiciously for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:27570382

  1. Surgical Site Infections Due to Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Latha; Sakthivel, Sulochana; Sasidar, A.R.; Muralidaran; Venkatachalam, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapidly growing Mycobacteria are increasingly recognized, nowadays as an important pathogen that can cause wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. We herein describe unrelated cases of surgical site infection caused by Rapidly growing Mycobacteria (RGM), seen during a period of 12 months. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients underwent operations by different surgical teams located in diverse sections of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Karnataka, India. All patients presented with painful, draining subcutaneous nodules at the infection sites. Purulent material specimens were sent to the microbiology laboratory. Gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used for direct examination. Culture media included blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar, Sabourauds agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for Mycobacteria. Isolated microorganisms were identified and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard microbiologic procedures. Results: Mycobacterium fortuitum and M.chelonae were isolated from the purulent drainage obtained from wounds by routine microbiological techniques from all the specimens. All isolates analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were sensitive to clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin but were variable to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tobramycin. Conclusion: Our case series highlights that a high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained for patients presenting with protracted soft tissue lesions with a history of trauma or surgery as these infections not only cause physical but also emotional distress that affects both the patients and the surgeon. PMID:25954616

  2. How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern India.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  3. Health care of female outpatients in south-central India: comparing public and private sector provision.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jagdish; Cleland, John

    2004-11-01

    The object of this study was to compare components of quality of care provided to female outpatients by practitioners working in the private and public sectors in Karnataka State, India. Consultations conducted by 18 private practitioners and 25 public-sector practitioners were observed for 5 days using a structured protocol. Private practitioners were selected from members of the Indian Medical Association in a predominantly rural sub-district of Kolar District. Government doctors were selected from a random sample of hospitals and health centres in three sub-districts of Mysore District. A total of 451 private-sector and 650 public-sector consultations were observed; in each sector about half involved a female practitioner. The mean length of consultation was 2.81 minutes in the public sector and 6.68 minutes in the private sector. Compared with public-sector practitioners, private practitioners were significantly more likely to undertake a physical examination and to explain their diagnosis and prognosis to the patient. Privacy was much better in the private sector. One-third of public-sector patients received an injection compared with two-thirds of private patients. The mean cost of drugs dispensed or prescribed were Rupees 37 and 74 in public and private sectors, respectively. Both in terms of thoroughness of diagnosis and doctor-patient communication, the quality of care appears to be much higher in the private than in the public sector. However, over-prescription of drugs by private practitioners may be occurring. PMID:15459165

  4. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-01

    The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibotec. Beginning with zidovidine in 1987, all the drugs are available in the developed countries. In India, about 30 ARVs are available as generics manufactured by Aurobindo, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Cipla Limited, Goa; Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra; Hetero Drugs, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Daman; Matrix Laboratories, Nashik, Maharashtra; Ranbaxy, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh; and Strides Arcolab, Bangalore, Karnataka. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up in 1992 by the Govt. of India provides free ARVs to HIV positive patients in India since 2004. The drugs available in India include both single drugs and FDCs covering both first line and second line ARVs. Even while there are claims of stabilization of the disease load, there is still huge gap of those who require ARVs as only about 150,000 PLHA receive the ARVs from the Govt. and other sources. Access to ARVs therefore is still a cause of serious concern ever since India became fully Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)-complaint in 2005. Therefore, the Indian pharmaceutical companies cannot make generics for those for drugs introduced post-2005 due to product patent regime. Other concerns include heat stable

  5. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-19

    The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibotec. Beginning with zidovidine in 1987, all the drugs are available in the developed countries. In India, about 30 ARVs are available as generics manufactured by Aurobindo, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Cipla Limited, Goa; Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra; Hetero Drugs, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Daman; Matrix Laboratories, Nashik, Maharashtra; Ranbaxy, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh; and Strides Arcolab, Bangalore, Karnataka. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up in 1992 by the Govt. of India provides free ARVs to HIV positive patients in India since 2004. The drugs available in India include both single drugs and FDCs covering both first line and second line ARVs. Even while there are claims of stabilization of the disease load, there is still huge gap of those who require ARVs as only about 150,000 PLHA receive the ARVs from the Govt. and other sources. Access to ARVs therefore is still a cause of serious concern ever since India became fully Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)-complaint in 2005. Therefore, the Indian pharmaceutical companies cannot make generics for those for drugs introduced post-2005 due to product patent regime. Other concerns include heat stable

  6. Near-Vertical Moho Reflections Under the Hanoi Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, T. V.; Harder, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    Surface expression of the Red River fault, a major strike-slip fault originating from the India-Eurasian collision, terminates as a large pull-apart basin in northern Vietnam. The onshore part is called the Hanoi basin and is an extension of the larger offshore Song Hong basin. Rifting in these basins began early Eocene with inversion in the late Miocene and continued subsidence today. Gravity studies indicate crustal thinning under the Hanoi basin, however both the Hanoi and Song Hong basins are in near isostatic balance resulting in relatively small gravity anomalies from large crustal-scale features. Hence, seismic methods would seem to be a more appropriate method for studying crustal structure in this situation. In January 2008 we shot the first deep crustal seismic lines in Southeast Asia in and near the Hanoi basin. Crustal seismic experiments in densely populated areas are challenging because of the high cultural noise levels and the lack of available space for shotpoints. This experiment however produced an unusually strong near-vertical reflection from the Moho under the Hanoi basin as well as a number of other arrivals. Analyses of these arrivals indicate the crust is 27 km thick, thinner than estimated from gravity data. They also show the Moho is a complex reflector with a high impedance contrast.

  7. VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

    2011-01-01

    Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

  8. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  9. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  10. Biosimilars in India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-09-01

    Biosimilars have been defined as biotech drugs that have been shown to have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to the original product. The past decade has seen a significant increase in interest in these products from the biotech industry. Major developments have occurred with respect to establishing a regulatory path for approval of these products as well as in our understanding of how the different quality attributes of a biosimilar impact its safety and efficacy. India is globally regarded to have great potential to become a significant player in development and commercialization of biosimilars. This short communication aims to provide a brief discussion on where India is with respect to development and commercialization of biosimilars, major challenges it faces, and finally the significant role that proteomics can play in establishing analytical comparability of biosimilars.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  11. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  12. Morphotectonic study of the Brahmaputra basin using geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Sarma, Jogendra; Acharjee, Shukla; murgante, Beniamino

    2013-04-01

    The Brahmaputra River basin occupies an area of 580,000 km2 lying in Tibet (China), Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. It is bounded on the north by the Nyen-Chen-Tanghla mountains, on the east by the Salween River basin and Patkari range of hills, on the south by Nepal Himalayas and the Naga Hills and on the west by the Ganga sub-basin. Brahmaputra river originates at an elevation of about 5150 m in south-west Tibet and flows for about 2900 km through Tibet (China), India and Bangladesh to join the Ganga.. The Brahmaputra River basin is investigated to examine the influence of active structures by applying an integrated study on geomorphology, morphotectonics, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using topographic map, satellite data, SRTM, and seismic data. The indices for morphotectonic analysis, viz. basin elongation ratio (Re) indicated tectonically active, transverse topographic symmetry (T = 0.018-0.664) indicated asymmetric nature, asymmetric factor (AF=33) suggested tilt, valley floor width to valley height ratio (Vf = 0.0013-2.945) indicated active incision and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf = 1.11-1.68) values indicated active tectonics in the area. A great or major earthquake in the modern times, in this region may create havoc with huge loss of life and property due to high population density and rapidly developing infrastructure. Keywords: .Morphotectonic, Brahmaputra river, earthquake

  13. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  14. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  15. Revisiting the stratigraphy of the Mesoproterozoic Chhattisgarh Supergroup, Bastar craton, India based on subsurface lithoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Arunangshu; Ray, Ranjan Kumar; Tewari, Dinesh; Ingle, Vijay Kumar; Sahoo, Bikram Kumar; Y Khan, M. W.

    2014-04-01

    In the last 10 years, several teams of geologists from different institutions in India and abroad have vigorously investigated the Chhattisgarh basin (Bastar craton, India). Based on the new results and the lithologs of more than 350 water wells, resistivity and gamma-ray logs, and extensive geological traverses, we present a revised geological map, relevant cross sections, a new comprehensive stratigraphic column and a discussion of the new findings. Major outcomes of this revision are: (1) confirming the existence of two sub-basins (Hirri and Baradwar) and two depocentres; (2) establishing the age of the basin to be essentially Mesoproterozoic; (3) discarding the `unclassified Pandaria Formation' and classifying the package of Pandaria rock units into Chandi, Tarenga, Hirri and Maniari formations in the Hirri sub-basin; (4) accepting the `group' status of the Singhora Group and the newly proposed Kharsiya Groups in the Baradwar sub-basin; (5) establishing an intrabasinal correlation of formations; (6) reappraising the thicknesses of the different formations; and (7) finding that the geometry of the basin is `bowl-shaped', which is compatible with a sag model for the origin and evolution of the basin.

  16. A study on occupational asthma among workers of silk filatures in South India

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Giriyanna; Vijayeendra, Anagha Manakari; Sarkar, Nivedita; Shivalingaiah, Anwith Huluvadi; Shah, Ankita; Ashwathnarayana, Abhiram Gopal; Narayanaswamy, Huliraj; Nagaraj, Chitra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The production of silk is a multidimensional and multistep process involving exposure of workers to allergens at work place. The silk allergen has been implicated in the development of bronchial asthma. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of occupational asthma (OA) and to identify sensitization to silk allergen and among workers in silk filature units. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in silk filature units of Ramanagara (Silk City) in Karnataka, South India, for a period of 6 months. One hundred and twenty workers of silk filature units who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited into the study group. For comparison, a control group comprising of 120 individuals not working in silk filature units was constituted. All the subjects were interviewed using the standardized International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (IUATLD) Questionnaire and subjected to the skin prick test, which used the extracts of silk allergen. Results: The study group comprised of 35 males and 85 females, whereas the control group comprised of 58 males and 62 females. The prevalence of occupational asthma among workers in silk filatures was 20.83%. It was observed that 35.83% of those in the study group and 20.83% of those in the control group were found to be sensitive to silk allergen. This difference was statistically significant (χ2= 6.64; P < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a high burden of sensitization to silk allergen and occupational asthma among silk filature workers in South India. PMID:25568600

  17. Biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires in the Deccan Plateau, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V Krishna; Badarinath, K V S; Eaturu, Anuradha

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires constitute one of the most serious environmental problems in several forested regions of India. In the Indian sub-continent, relatively few studies have focused on the assessment of biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires at a landscape scale and the spatial aspects of these relationships. In this study, we used fire count data sets from satellite remote sensing data covering 78 districts over four different states of the Deccan Plateau, India, for assessing the underlying causes of fires. Spatial data for explanatory variables of fires pertaining to topography, vegetation, climate, anthropogenic and accessibility factors have been gathered corresponding with fire presence/absence. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of fires as a function of the explanatory variables. Results for fire area estimates suggested that, of the total fires covering 47,043km(2) that occurred during the year 2000 for the entire Indian region, 29.0% occurred in the Deccan Plateau, with Andhra Pradesh having 13.5%, Karnataka 14.7%, Kerala 0.1%, and Tamilnadu 1.15%. Results from the logistic regression suggest that the strongest influences on the fire occurrences were the amount of forest area, biomass densities, rural population density (PD), average precipitation of the warmest quarter, elevation (ELE) and mean annual temperature (MAT). Among these variables, biomass density (BD) and average precipitation of the warmest quarter had the highest significance, followed by others. These results on the best predictors of forest fires can be used both as a strategic planning tool to address broad scale fire risk concerns, and also as a tactical guide to help forest managers to design fire mitigation measures at the district level.

  18. Dry spell characteristics over India based on IMD and APHRODITE datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushama, L.; Ben Said, S.; Khaliq, M. N.; Nagesh Kumar, D.; Laprise, R.

    2014-12-01

    Selected characteristics of dry spells and associated trends over India during the 1951-2007 period is studied using two gridded datasets: the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of the water resources (APHRODITE) datasets. Two precipitation thresholds, 1 and 3 mm, are used to define a dry day (and therefore dry spells) in this study. Comparison of the spatial patterns of the dry spell characteristics (mean number of dry days, mean number of dry spells, mean and maximum duration of dry spells) for the annual and summer monsoon period obtained with both datasets agree overall, except for the northernmost part of India. The number of dry days obtained with APHRODITE is larger for this region compared to IMD, which is consistent with the smaller precipitation for the region in APHRODITE. These differences are also visible in the spatial patterns of mean and maximum dry spell durations. Analysis of field significance associated with trends, at the level of 34 predefined meteorological subdivisions over the mainland, suggests better agreement between the two datasets in positive trends associated with number of dry days for the annual and summer monsoon period, for both thresholds. Important differences between the two datasets are noted in the field significance associated with the negative trends. While negative trends in annual maximum duration of dry spells appear field significant for the desert regions according to both datasets, they are found field significant for two regions (Punjab and South Interior Karnataka) for the monsoon period for both datasets. This study, in addition to providing information on the spatial and temporal patterns associated with dry spell characteristics, also allows identification of regions and characteristics where the two datasets agree/disagree.

  19. Chondrites isp. indicating late paleozoic atmospheric anoxia in Eastern Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic sandstone-mudstone-coal succession of the Barakar Formation (early Permian) manifests a transition from lower braided-fluvial to upper tide-wave influenced, estuarine setting. Monospecific assemblage of marine trace fossil Chondrites isp. in contemporaneous claystone beds in the upper Barakar succession from two Gondwana basins (namely, the Raniganj Basin and the Talchir Basin) in eastern peninsular India signifies predominant marine incursion during end early Permian. Monospecific Chondrites ichnoassemblage in different sedimentary horizons in geographically wide apart (~400 km) areas demarcates multiple short-spanned phases of anoxia in eastern India. Such anoxia is interpreted as intermittent falls in oxygen level in an overall decreasing atmospheric oxygenation within the late Paleozoic global oxygen-carbon dioxide fluctuations. PMID:24616628

  20. Chondrites isp. Indicating Late Paleozoic Atmospheric Anoxia in Eastern Peninsular India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic sandstone-mudstone-coal succession of the Barakar Formation (early Permian) manifests a transition from lower braided-fluvial to upper tide-wave influenced, estuarine setting. Monospecific assemblage of marine trace fossil Chondrites isp. in contemporaneous claystone beds in the upper Barakar succession from two Gondwana basins (namely, the Raniganj Basin and the Talchir Basin) in eastern peninsular India signifies predominant marine incursion during end early Permian. Monospecific Chondrites ichnoassemblage in different sedimentary horizons in geographically wide apart (~400 km) areas demarcates multiple short-spanned phases of anoxia in eastern India. Such anoxia is interpreted as intermittent falls in oxygen level in an overall decreasing atmospheric oxygenation within the late Paleozoic global oxygen-carbon dioxide fluctuations. PMID:24616628

  1. Equine influenza outbreak in India (2008-09): virus isolation, sero-epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Nitin; Bera, B C; Singh, B K; Shanmugasundaram, K; Gulati, B R; Barua, Sanjay; Vaid, R K; Gupta, A K; Singh, R K

    2010-07-14

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in India in June, 2008 after a gap of two decades. The outbreak started from Jammu and Kashmir (Katra), northern state of India and spread to the other parts of the country affecting equines in 11 states. The virus (H3N8) was isolated from nasal swabs obtained from clinical cases in various locations in the country including Katra (Jammu and Kashmir), Mysore (Karnataka) and Ahmedabad (Gujarat) using embryonated chicken eggs. The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test titration with standard serum and by sequencing of full-length haemagglutinin (HA) gene and partial sequence of neuraminidase (NA) gene. Paired serum samples (n=271) showing more than fourfold rise in antibody titres tested from 11 states confirmed equine influenza. Serum samples (n=2517) of equines from 13 states of the country screened by HI test revealed 687 (26.85%) samples positive for antibodies to EI (H3N8). Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene confirmed the virus to be closely related to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in American lineage. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence of HA gene with EIV isolates from various lineages showed substitutions in the antigenic regions C and D. HA1 gene sequence had highest amino acid identity to A/eq/Gansu/7/08 and A/eq/Hubei/6/08 isolates from China and Inner-Mongolia isolate, while the complete HA gene sequence was closest to A/eq/A/eq/Newmarket/5/03, A/eq/Bari/05 and A/eq/Kentucky/05/02 isolates. Recent outbreaks of Mongolia, China and India by clade 2 EI viruses imply their predominance in Asia in addition to Europe.

  2. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  3. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  4. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  5. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  6. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  7. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  8. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  9. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  10. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  11. Descriptive Epidemiology of Factors Associated with HIV Infections Among Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men in South India

    PubMed Central

    Lorway, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Reza-Paul, Sushena; du Plessis, Elsabé; McKinnon, Lyle; Thompson, Laura H.; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Men and transgender women who have sex with men (MTWSM) continue to be an at-risk population for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Identification of risk factors and determinants of HIV infection is urgently needed to inform prevention and intervention programming. Methods: Data were collected from cross-sectional biological and behavioral surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to HIV infection. Sociodemographic, sexual history, sex work history, condom practices, and substance use covariates were included in regression models. Results: A total of 456 participants were included; HIV prevalence was 12.4%, with the highest prevalence (26%) among MTWSM from Bellary District. In bivariate analyses, district (P = 0.002), lack of a current regular female partner (P = 0.022), and reported consumption of an alcoholic drink in the last month (P = 0.004) were associated with HIV infection. In multivariable models, only alcohol use remained statistically significant (adjusted odds ratios: 2.6, 95% confidence intervals: 1.2–5.8; P = 0.02). Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV continues to be high among MTWSM, with the highest prevalence found in Bellary district. PMID:27058882

  12. Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of Western China as example of partitioned retro-arc foreland basin system

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Zuchang, X.; Carroll, A.; McKnight, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China, occupy a retro-arc foreland position with respect to the southern Eurasian convergent continental margin. Yet these basins differ in many ways from retro-arc foreland basins in other parts of the world. In North America, for instance, the Cretaceous Rocky Mountain foreland basin overlies basement that has been an integral part of cratonal North America since the Precambrian. The region had a long early Paleozoic history as a divergent continental margin and was later modified by relatively modest continental growth through accretionary tectonics. Once established in the Mesozoic, the Rocky Mountain foreland basin was a structurally simple, large, integrated basin, with the exception of the Laramide time-space segment of the foreland system. In contrast, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basins of Xinjiang are markedly partitioned, reflecting the process and architecture of major tectonic accretion from the Paleozoic through the collision of India in the Tertiary. The stage was set for a partitioned Mesozoic foreland with the Paleozoic suturing of the Siberia and Tarim cratons and intervening terranes. Although the margins of these blocks were deformed and uplifted during collision, their interiors persisted as depocenters into the foreland basin phase during the Mesozoic. The foreland basins of western China apparently represent poorly documented end members in the spectrum of retro-arc foreland basins. The Chinese examples occur in a region characterized by extreme continental growth through tectonic accretion. Reactivation of structural trends inherited from pre-foreland history were key factors in segmentation of the foreland.

  13. Epilepsy surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P

    2011-10-01

    Modern epilepsy started in India in 1995 at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Trivandrum and at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. At both centres the attempt was to get the program going with patients having surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes -who could be evaluated with non invasive investigations. The mainstay of the evaluation was a good quality epilepsy specific MRI and video EEG coupled with a SPECT study and a neuropsychological evaluation. Concordance of the focus on all investigations was critical to a good outcome. There were several problems on the way - but they were managed keeping in consideration our local needs and requirements. Intraoperative electocorticography was done and good outcomes attained. The critical determinants of success were the formation of a team with various interdisciplinary specialists and a strong will to succeed. PMID:22069424

  14. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  15. Mass spectrometry in India.

    PubMed

    Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2012-01-01

    This review emphasizes the mass spectrometry research being performed at academic and established research institutions in India. It consists of three main parts covering the work done in organic, atomic and biological mass spectrometry. The review reveals that the use of mass spectrometry techniques started in the middle of the 20th century and was applied to research in the fields of organic, nuclear, geographical and atomic chemistry. Later, with the advent of soft and atmospheric ionization techniques it