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Sample records for basin karnataka india

  1. Environmental tritium (³H) and hydrochemical investigations to evaluate groundwater in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, P; Somashekar, R K

    2011-02-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the activity of natural radionuclides ((3)H) and hydrochemical parameters (viz., pH, EC, F(-), NO(3)(-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) in the groundwater used for domestic and irrigation purposes in the Varahi and Markandeya river basins to understand the levels of hydrochemical parameters in terms of the relative age(s) of the groundwater contained within the study area. The recorded environmental (3)H content in Varahi and Markandeya river basins varied from 1.95 ± 0.25T.U. to 11.35 ± 0.44T.U. and 1.49 ± 0.75T.U. to 9.17 ± 1.13T.U. respectively. Majority of the samples in Varahi (93.34%) and Markandeya (93.75%) river basins being pre-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river inflowing/sea water intrusion. The EC-Tritium and Tritium-Fluoride plots confirmed the existence of higher total dissolved solids (SEC > 500 μS/cm) and high fluoride (MAC > 1.5 mg/L) in groundwater of Markandeya river basin, attributed to relatively longer residence time of groundwater interacting with rock formations and vice versa in case of Varahi river basin. The tritium-EC and tritium-chloride plots indicated shallow and deep circulating groundwater types in Markandeya river basin and only shallow circulating groundwater type in Varahi river basin. Increasing Mg relative to Ca with decreasing tritium indicated the influence of incongruent dissolution of a dolomite phase. The samples with high nitrate (MAC > 45 mg/L) are waters that are actually mixtures of fresh water (containing very high nitrate, possibly from agricultural fertilizers) and older 'unpolluted' waters (containing low nitrate levels), strongly influenced by surface source.

  2. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS.

    PubMed

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S

    2016-04-01

    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  3. Palaeoweathering, composition and tectonics of provenance of the Proterozoic intracratonic Kaladgi-Badami basin, Karnataka, southern India: Evidence from sandstone petrography and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukanta; Rai, A. K.; Chaki, Anjan

    2009-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data on the sandstones of the Proterozoic intracratonic Kaladgi-Badami basin, southern India are presented to elucidate the palaeoweathering pattern, and composition and tectonics of their provenance. The Kaladgi-Badami basin, hosting the Kaladgi Supergroup, occupies an E-W trending area. The Supergroup unconformably overlies Archaean basement TTG gneisses, granites and greenstones, comprises a cyclic arenite-pelite-carbonate association and is divided into the Bagalkot and Badami Groups. The immature arkosic character of the basal Saundatti Quartzite Member (Bagalkot Group) containing fresh and angular feldspars, along the northern margin of the basin, suggests that during the initial stage of deposition, this part of the basin received sediments from a restricted, uplifted and less weathered source dominated by K-rich granites occurring to the north. In contrast, the Saundatti Quartzite along the southern margin displays a mostly mature, quartz-rich character with less abundant but severely weathered feldspars, and higher SiO 2 and CIA but lower Al 2O 3, TiO 2, Rb, Sr, Ba, K 2O, K 2O/Na 2O, Zr/Ni and Zr/Cr. This is interpreted in terms of a tectonically stable, considerably weathered mixed source (Archaean gneisses, granites and greenstones) along the southern fringe of the basin. The highly mature (quartz arenite) Muchkundi Quartzite Member (also of the Bagalkot Group), occurring higher up in the succession, exhibits minor but severely altered feldspars, and higher SiO 2, Na 2O, CIA, Cr and Ni with lower K 2O, Al 2O 3, TiO 2 and K 2O/Na 2O. This reflects that with the passage of time the source evolved to a uniform, extensively weathered, tectonically stable peneplained provenance which consisted of less evolved TTG gneisses and greenstones. This was followed by closure, deformation and upliftment of the basin hosting the Bagalkot Group and subsequent deposition of the Badami Group. Sandstone Members of this younger Group (Cave

  4. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of skin diseases in Hyderabad Karnataka region, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Policepatel, Shivakumar Singh; Manikrao, Vidyasagar Gunagambhire

    2013-01-01

    Objective To document traditional medicinal plants knowledge used in treating skin diseases at Hyderabad Karnataka Region. Methods The information on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases was gathered from traditional herbal healers and other villagers through interviews. Results A total of 60 plants species belonging to 57 genera and 34 families were found useful and herewith described them along with the method of drug preparation, mode of administration, probable dosage and duration of treatment. Several new findings on the traditional rural practices were reported. Conclusions The present study revealed that the Hyderabad Karnataka rural people is primarily dependent on medicinal plants for treating skin diseases.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality in Ghataprabha command area, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, N; Purandara, B K; Kumar, Bhism

    2011-07-01

    The studies related to assessment of groundwater quality of Gokak, Mudhol Biligi and Bagalkot taluks of Ghataprabha command area, Belgaum District, Karnataka (India) were carried out during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to evaluate its suitability for domestic and irrigation purpose. The samples were collected from 42 locations (including 25 open wells) during pre-monsoon (May, 2007) and post-monsoon (November, 2007) seasons. The samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, carbonates, bicarbonates, alkalinity, chlorides, sulphates, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphates, nitrates, iron, manganese and fluorides. Based on the concentration of TDS, about 47 % of the samples were found within the permissible limits both for drinking and irrigation, 43% of the samples were useful only for irrigation and 10% of the samples were unfit for drinking and irrigation. Similarly during post-monsoon about 61% of the samples were within the permissible limits both for drinking and irrigation, 31% of the samples were useful only for irrigation and 8 % of the samples unfit for drinking and irrigation. Based on the irrigation water classification, it is understood that, the area falls under low to very high salinity zone for both seasons. The values of sodium absorption ratio indicate that all the samples fall under the category of low, medium and high sodium hazards. The Piper trilinear diagram shows that 60% fall under Na(2+)--K(2+)--HCO3- and Na(2+)-- K(2+)--Cl(-)--SO4(2-) types and rest 40% of the samples fall under Ca(2+)--Mg(2+)--HCO(3-) and Ca(2+)--Mg(2+)--Cl(-)--SO4(2) types. According to U.S.Salinity Laboratory Classification, water belongs to medium salinity to very high salinity and low sodium to high sodium water.

  6. Management of Private-Aided Higher Education in Karnataka, India: Lessons from an Enduring Public-Private Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2005-01-01

    The Grant-in-Aid (GIA) higher education sector in Karnataka, India, is examined as an example of a well-established public-private partnership (PPP). Interviews with senior officials in the Government of Karnataka, and in two contrasting Regions, centred around Gulbarga and Mysore, together with visits to GIA and private-unaided (PUA) colleges…

  7. India--Karnataka: Secondary Education and The New Agenda for Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    Karnataka (India) recorded impressive growth in the 1990s, with state income growing at 8% per annum, driven largely by expansion of the industrial and service sectors. However, this impressive performance has not reduced rural poverty levels or regional disparities to a great extent. This report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in…

  8. Use of ICT in College Libraries in Karnataka, India: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, B. T. Sampath; Biradar, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose; The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of information communication technology (ICT) in 31 college libraries in Karnataka, India by investigating the ICT infrastructure, current status of library automation, barriers to implementation of library automation and also librarians' attitudes towards the use of ICT.…

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mumps Virus Isolated from Karnataka State, India

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Chowdhury, Deepika T.; Hamde, Venkat S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the first whole-genome sequence of mumps virus isolated from a two-year-old girl with bilateral parotitis from a Chikkahallivana village in the Davangere district of Karnataka State, India. The genome of the Davangere mumps isolate was 15,384 bp in length and identical to previously published mumps virus (MuV) genomes from India. BLAST results show 99.1% identity with previously sequenced genotype C viruses isolated from the states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. PMID:28082488

  10. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296

  11. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Aim The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. Materials and methods The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean’s index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p < 0.05). Bivariate analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affected prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) on χ2 were entered into multiple logistic regressions to assess their independent effects. Results In this study, we analyzed risk factors for both prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Conclusion Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. How to cite this article Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District

  12. Mineralogy of agricultural soil of selected regions of South Western Karnataka, Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Smitha, P G; Byrappa, K; Ranganathaiah, C

    2015-07-01

    Agricultural soils of selected regions of Southwestern Karnataka, Peninsular India, were subjected to systematic mineralogical characterization along with the study of soil physical properties. Physical properties such as soil texture and micro porosity were studied using particle size analyses and positron annihilation lifetime analysis (PALS) technique, respectively. The latter was used to analyze micro porosity of agricultural soil. Both major and minor minerals were identified and confirmed by some analytical techniques like thin section study, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Heavy metal pollution in water and sediments in the Kabini River, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Taghinia Hejabi, Azadeh; Basavarajappa, H T; Karbassi, A R; Monavari, S M

    2011-11-01

    The River Kabini in Karnataka, India carries natural and anthropogenic pollutants, mainly heavy metal concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn which are released from industrial effluents, agricultural return flows and domestic sewage. Kabini, which is a tributary of the Cauvery, drains through the industrial area at Nanjangud, Karnataka, India. Heavy metals were determined in waters and sediment (2 μm) of Kabini River. In the present investigation, chemical partitioning studies was carried out to know the association of base metals with various sedimentary phases. The concentrations of heavy metals are higher in loosely bonded fraction than the other studied fractions. Furthermore, the degree of sediment contamination was assessed by geochemical index. It should be pointed out that Cu and Cr show the highest pollution intensity. Cluster analysis was used to know about the inter correlation amongst the studied metals. It is evident that higher concentrations of metals are found in the vicinity of industrial effluents. The concentrations of Cr followed by Zn and Ni are rather higher than the maximum background values in the Kabini River sediment. This is especially true at the influx of paper mill effluents into the River.

  14. Description of a new genus and three species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Devi, O K Rema; Srinivasa, Y B

    2014-06-10

    A new genus of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), Noyesencyrtus Singh gen. nov. (type species N. brachyoculus Singh sp. nov.), associated with insects inhabiting fruiting bodies of wood-decaying fungi, and two new species, Psyllaephagus kundapurensis Singh sp. nov. and Ooencyrtus hayatii Singh sp. nov., are described from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

  15. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants.

  16. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part six--Kundapur, Karnataka and Kannur, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2006-12-01

    Mosquitoes of 26 species belonging to 16 subgenera and 11 genera were recorded in the Kundapur mangroves of Karnataka, and 17 species belonging to 11 subgenera and 7 genera were recorded in the mangroves of Kannur, Kerala along the west coast of India. Genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Heizmannia, Lutzia, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Tripteroides, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina. Species common to both mangrove forests were Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, An. jamesi, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. gelidus, Cx. infantulus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. sitiens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Oc. wardi, Ur. atra, and Ve. luguhris. Tree holes and swamp pools were the common larval habitats, with more species occurring in tree holes in Kundapur than in Kannur. Adults of Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, Ar. aureolineatus, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. sitiens, Ma. uniformis, and Ve. lugubris bloodfed on humans.

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  18. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; John, Jacob; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mavinapalla, Seema; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed Ibrahim; Dalati, M H N; Durgesh, B H; Safadi, Rima A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females (p < 0.05) (Table 5). Also, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all the variables according to age (Table 6). Out of 24 variables, only ULTc predicts the gender. The reliability of the derived discriminant function was assessed among study subjects; 100% of males and females were recognized correctly. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study validates the existence of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton as early as 6.5 years of age. There is a need for further research to determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba) population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India.

  19. Unfree markets: socially embedded informal health providers in northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    George, Asha; Iyer, Aditi

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of informal health markets in marginalised regions are relevant to policy discourse in India, but are poorly understood. We examine how informal health markets operate from the viewpoint of informal providers (those without any government-recognised medical degrees, otherwise known as RMPs) by drawing upon data from a household survey in 2002, a provider census in 2004 and ongoing field observations from a research site in Koppal district, Karnataka, India. We find that despite their illegality, RMPs depend on government and private providers for their training and referral networks. Buffeted by unregulated market pressures, RMPs are driven to provide allopathic commodities regardless of need, but can also be circumspect in their practice. Though motivated by profit, their socially embedded practice at community level at times undermines their ability to ensure payment of fees for their services. In addition, RMPs feel that communities can threaten them via violence or malicious rumours, leading them to seek political favour and social protection from village elites and elected representatives. RMPs operate within negotiated quid pro quo bargains that lead to tenuous reciprocity or fragile trust between them and the communities in which they practise. In the context of this 'unfree' market, some RMPs reported being more embedded in health systems, more responsive to communities and more vulnerable to unregulated market pressures than others. Understanding the heterogeneity, nuanced motivations and the embedded social relations that mark informal providers in the health systems, markets and communities they work in, is critical for health system reforms.

  20. Tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus from Bangalore, India, Appears to be a Recombinant Begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Maxwell, Douglas P

    2002-06-01

    ABSTRACT The genome of Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) from Bangalore, India, a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus, was cloned (pIND9) and sequenced. The circular DNA of 2,759 nucleotides (U38239) is organized similarly to that of other begomoviruses with monopartite genomes. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of pIND9 with other tomato-associated begomoviruses from India (Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus [ToLCBV, Z48182]) and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-Severe (ToLCNdV-Svr, U15015) showed moderate DNA sequence identities (82 to 87%) between capsid protein (CP) genes but low identities (66 to 67%) for the intergenic regions and the replication-associated protein (Rep) genes (75 to 81% identity). Phylogenetic trees generated with nucleotide sequences of the Rep and CP genes of 26 begomoviruses indicated that this ToLCV is distinct from other begomoviruses and that it may be a recombinant virus derived from at least three different viral lineages. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) inoculated with the cloned DNA monomer of ToLCV (pIND9) via particle bombardment developed leaf curling and yellowing symptoms. The virus was transmitted by Bemisia tabaci biotype B from tomatoes infected via particle bombardment to healthy tomatoes and by sap inoculation from infected tomatoes to tomato, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. This ToLCV is a distinct member of the genus Begomovirus from India that differs from the previously characterized Tomato leaf curl Sadasivanagar virus isolate Bangalore 1 (L12739), ToLCBV (Z48182), ToLCBV isolate Bangalore 4 (AF165098), and the bipartite ToLCNdV (U15015, U15016). Thus, this ToLCV is named Tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus (ToLCKV).

  1. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  2. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  3. Streptomyces tritolerans sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Syed, Dastager G; Agasar, Dayanand; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun; Lee, Jae-Chan; Park, Dong-Jin; Xu, Li-Hua; Tian, Xin-Peng; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

    2007-11-01

    A Gram-positive, nonmotile, moderately halophilic, alkali and thermotolerant strain designated DAS 165(T), was isolated from a dry land soil sample from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. The isolate produced yellow substrate mycelia and gray aerial mycelia on most tested media. Strain DAS 165(T) showed growth in the presence of 5 to 7% NaCl and at 45 degrees C. The DNA G + C content was 69.7%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis together with these characteristics consistently assigned strain DAS 165(T) to the genus Streptomyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DAS 165(T) was most closely related to S. tendae ATCC 19812(T) (D 63873) with a sequence similarity of 99.6% (three nucleotide differences out of 1,517). Strain DAS 165(T) formed a distinct clade based on analysis of the almost complete sequence and 120-nucleotide variable gamma region of the 16S rRNA gene. Despite the high sequence similarity, strain DAS 165(T) was phenotypically different from S. tendae ATCC 19812(T). DNA-DNA hybridization between these strains was 47% showing that strain DAS 165(T) is a distinct genomic species. Phenetic and genetic results support the classification of strain DAS 165(T) as a new species, for which the name S. tritolerans is proposed, with strain DAS 165(T) as the type strain (=DSM 41899(T )= CCTCCAA 206013(T)).

  4. Decentralization and decision space in the health sector: a case study from Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Parab, Suraj; Kotte, Sandesh; Latha, N; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2016-03-01

    Various attempts have been made in India with respect to decentralization, most significantly the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India (1993) which provided the necessary legal framework for decentralization to take place. However, the outcome has been mixed: an evaluation of the impact of decentralization in the health sector found virtually no change in health system performance and access to health services in terms of availability of health personnel or improvement in various health indicators, such as Infant Mortality Rates or Maternal Mortality Ratio. Subsequently, there has been a conscious effort under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)-launched in 2005-to promote decentralization of funds, functions and functionaries to lower levels of government; and Karnataka had a head-start since devolution of all 29 functions prescribed by the 73rd Amendment had already taken place in the state by the late 1990s. This study presents the findings of an on-going research effort to build empirical evidence on decentralization in the health sector and its impact on system performance. The focus here is on analyzing the responses of health personnel at the district level and below on their perceived 'Decision Space'-the range of choice or autonomy they see themselves as having along a series of functional dimensions. Overall, the data indicate that there is a substantial gap between the spirit of the NRHM guidelines on decentralization and the actual implementation on the ground. There is a need for substantial capacity building at all levels of the health system to genuinely empower functionaries, particularly at the district level, in order to translate the benefits of decentralization into reality.

  5. PGE mineralization in the late Archaean iron-rich mafic-ultramafic Hanumalapur Complex, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alapieti, T. T.; Devaraju, T. C.; Kaukonen, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    An unusually thick sulfur-poor mineralized zone enriched in platinum-group elements (PGE) is described in the Hanumalapur Complex, Shimoga District, Karnataka State, India. This promising occurrence was discovered in the early 1990s and the best samples at the time of writing have yielded Pt+Pd concentrations in excess of six ppm. The western part of the area concerned belongs to the late Archaean Dharwar Super Group (3000-2500 Ma), while the eastern part is occupied predominantly by a granite-gneiss terrain ˜3000 Ma in age. Ten mafic-ultramafic complexes which host interesting vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite occurrences are encountered in the western part, one of which is the Hanumalapur Complex. The PGE mineralized zone in this complex may be divided into four mineralogically distinctive types, which are, in descending order of PGE content: 1) a silicate-hosted Pd type, 2) a silicate-hosted Pt type, 3) a base-metal sulfide-hosted Pd type, and 4) an oxide-hosted PGE type. The genesis of the mineralization is somewhat unclear at this point of investigation, especially because of complete re-crystallization, but the evidence gathered so far suggests something different than a traditional orthomagmatic model requiring magma mixing processes and resulting in sulfide immiscibility. This is backed-up by the general lack of base metal sulfides in favor of chromite, although pure chlorite-amphibole and chlorite-albite-epidote-amphibole rocks may contain significant PGE concentrations regardless of the amount of chromite. The PGM textures show little evidence of hydrothermal alteration and remobilization, but the PGE mineralogy itself displays some characteristics of fluid action, as it seems that there are some OH-bearing Pt and Pd minerals present.

  6. Some Less Known Ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and coorg districts, Karnataka, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, R. D.; Singh, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    Present communication deals with 51 less known uses belonging to 39 medicinal plants which are being used traditionally in Karnataka, and are not well known for its said efficacies for curing respective disorders. Each use has been given under correct botanical name, family, local name, locality in particular district and finally the collection number PMID:22557008

  7. Profile of Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha -308 G/A Gene Polymorphism in Psoriatic Patients in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Deepa; Chowdappa, Chaitra; Gurumurthy, Rajesh; Kutty, A.V. Moideen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) gene -308G/A polymorphism (rs1800629) are associated with psoriasis in several populations worldwide. Presently, there is no literature on the status of this polymorphism in the South Indian population. Aim To determine the profile of TNFα -308G/A polymorphism among psoriatic patients. Materials and Methods This case-control study involved 74 patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris (PsV) and 74 age and gender matched healthy individuals. Patients were recruited from the Department of Dermatology of R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Tamaka, Kolar, Karnataka, India, from March 2014 to March 2016. TNFα -308G/A polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results The frequency of TNFα -308A allele 7.4% among psoriatic and 8.8% among non-psoriatic individuals. The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.82). Conclusion Our results indicate that TNFα gene -308G/A polymorphism is not a significant marker for the risk of developing PsV among South Indian (Karnataka) psoriatic patients.

  8. Mosquito records from a hot and dry climatic area experiencing frequent outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis, Bellary district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, P C; Jamgaonkar, A V

    2008-03-01

    Mosquito species occurring in Bellary district, Karnataka, India were surveyed for Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile virus (WNV) from 2001 to 2003. A total of 37 mosquito species in 6 genera were recovered from larval and adult habitats. Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were represented by 11 species each, Mansonia by 2 species, and Armigeres and Lutzia by a single species. A total of 68,506 mosquitoes belonging to 20 species were collected at dusk. Most (74.6%) were Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and occurred in 2 peaks of abundance in February (304 per man hour density [PMHD]) and October (465 PMHD). The mosquito fauna of Bellary district is not diverse, possibly because of the hot and dry climatic conditions in the area.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and smoking among tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care centre in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Jali, M V; Mahishale, V K; Hiremath, M B; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Nagaraja, S B; Isaakidis, P

    2013-11-04

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and smoking are risk factors for adverse outcomes in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). In a tertiary care hospital at Belgaum in the South Indian State of Karnataka, all TB patients aged ≥18 years consecutively diagnosed from February to September 2012 were evaluated for DM and smoking. Of 307 TB patients, 35.5% were found to have DM, 9.8% were current smokers, and 3.6% had DM and were also smokers. Measures to assess and address both these factors need to be taken into account during TB treatment.

  10. HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay M V; Singarajipura, Anil; Naik, Balaji; Guddemane, Deepak K; Patel, Yogesh; Shastri, Suresh; Kumar, Sunil; Deshmukh, Rajesh; Rewari, B B; Harries, Anthony David

    2017-03-01

    For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [active tuberculosis (TB), pregnant women, children <5years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which has received increased attention is "HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB". In this study, we assess the proportion of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients eligible for ART in Karnataka State (population 60million), India. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data of HIV-infected presumptive TB patients diagnosed in May 2015 abstracted from national TB and HIV program records. Of 42,585 presumptive TB patients, 28,964 (68%) were tested for HIV and 2262 (8%) were HIV positive. Of the latter, 377 (17%) had active TB. Of 1885 "presumptive TB patients without active TB", 1100 (58%) were already receiving ART. Of the remaining 785 who were not receiving ART, 617 (79%) were assessed for ART eligibility and of those, 548 (89%) were eligible for ART. About 90% of "HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB" were eligible for ART. This evidence supports a public health approach of starting all "HIV-infected presumptive TB patients without TB" on ART irrespective of CD4 count in line with global thinking about 'test and treat'.

  11. Larvivorous fish in wells target the malaria vector sibling species of the Anopheles culicifacies complex in villages in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K; Tiwari, S N; Sathyanarayan, T S; Sampath, T R R; Sharma, V P; Nanda, Nutan; Joshi, Hema; Adak, T; Subbarao, S K

    2005-02-01

    Malaria was a major problem in a sericulture area of Karnataka, south India, where Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and A. fluviatilis s.l. were considered to be the main vectors. Sibling species complexes of these two species were analysed in three ecologically different villages. Among A. culicifacies, only sibling species A and B were found. In Puram, a village with 22 wells, species A predominated; species B predominated in a village with four wells and a stream, and in a village with a stream and no wells. Poecilia reticulata fish were introduced into all wells and streams in the villages, and after one year no vectors were found in Puram, and all, or nearly all, A. culicifacies were species B in the other two villages. All A. fluviatilis belonged to the sibling species T. Blood meal analysis indicated that a few of the A. culicifacies collected had fed on humans while all the A. fluviatilis had fed on bovines. Before the introduction of fish, the annual parasite incidence for malaria was high in Puram, but much lower in the other two villages. From 1998 (over one year after release of fish) until 2003, no malaria cases were detected in the three villages.

  12. Dutiful daughters: HIV/AIDS, moral pragmatics, female citizenship and structural violence among Devadasis in northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad; Lorway, Robert; Chevrier, Claudyne; Dutta, Sumit; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Roy, Anu; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mishra, Sharmistha; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Becker, Marissa

    2017-01-19

    Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies. In this article, drawing on critical theoretical perspectives, secondary historical sources and in-depth interviews, we unravel wider social, cultural and political economic complexities surrounding the lives of Devadasis, and specifically illuminate the moral pragmatics that shed light on their entry into sex trade and vulnerability to HIV. Findings from this research are extremely important since while much is known about Devadasis in social sciences and humanities, relatively little is known about the complexities of their lives within public health discourses related to HIV. Our work has direct implications for ongoing HIV prevention and health promotion efforts in the region and beyond.

  13. Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C

    2014-03-01

    An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed.

  14. Prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma of tongue in and around Davangere, Karnataka, India: A retrospective study over 13 years

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, M.; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Basandi, Praveen S.; Madhushankari, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the frequency and distribution of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) involving tongue among patients by studying biopsy specimens obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, during the past 13 years. Methodology: Data for the study were retrieved from the case records of patients. Analyzed clinical variables included age, sex, anatomical site, and histological diagnosis. Results: Of the 369 squamous cell carcinoma involving head and neck region, we found 52 biopsies reported exclusively involving tongue. Lateral border of the tongue was most commonly involved (43 cases, 82.7%), followed by base of tongue and posterior part of tongue. The patient were affected over a wide range of 27–80 years with mean age of 55.75 years and peak incidence was seen in the fourth and fifth decades of life, with the male: female ratio of 1.7:1. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of OSCC involving tongue showed a definite geographic variation when compared with a study done in other parts of the world. PMID:26538904

  15. Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka state, India.

    PubMed

    Sadashivaiah, C; Ramakrishnaiah, C R; Ranganna, G

    2008-09-01

    Tumkur Taluk is located in the southeastern corner of Karnataka state between 13 degrees 06'30'' to 13 degrees 31' 00'' North latitude and 76 degrees 59' 00'' to 77 degrees 19' 00'' East Longitude. The Taluk spreads over an area of 1043 sq.km falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 269 stations during pre-monsoon and 279 locations during post-monsoon of the year 2006, and were subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type during both pre- and post-monsoon seasons of the year 2006, based on hydro-chemical facies. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard and USSL diagram.

  16. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1).

  17. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K. Ullas; Kumar, N. Samba; Karanth, Krithi K.; Goswami, Varun R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out ‘detection—non-detection’ surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km2 (SE = 847 km2) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need to

  18. Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin under two agro climatic zones in the state of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M

    2012-04-01

    Residue dynamics of fenamidone and mancozeb on gherkin was evaluated at two different agro climatic zones i.e. at Bangalore (Zone-1) and Dharwad (Zone-2) in the state of Karnataka, India. Two treatments of the combination formulation (fenamidone 10% + mancozeb 50%) were given at the standard dose 150 + 750 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose 300 + 1,500 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of fenamidone were 0.467 and 0.474 mg kg(-1) at Zone-1 and 2, respectively from standard dose treatment. From double dose treatment they were 0.964 and 0.856 mg kg(-1), respectively. Fenamidone residues persisted for 15 and 10 days and dissipated with the half-life of 4 and 3 days at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residue deposits on gherkin were 0.383 and 0.428 mg kg(-1) from standard dose and 0.727 and 0.626 mg kg(-1) from double dose treatment at Zone-1 and 2, respectively. Mancozeb residues dissipated with the half-life of 2 and 1 day, respectively. Residues of both fenamidone and mancozeb dissipated faster at Zone-2 compared to Zone-1. The limit of quantification of fenamidone and mancozeb were 0.02 and 0.1 mg kg(-1), respectively in both gherkin and soil. Residues of fenamidone and mancozeb in soil collected on the 20th day from the 2 locations were found to be below quantifiable limit of both fungicides.

  19. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K Ullas; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, Krithi K; Goswami, Varun R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2) landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2) (SE = 847 km(2)) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2) of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2) or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need

  20. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses’ knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  1. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses' knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  2. Comparative efficacy of two poeciliid fish in indoor cement tanks against chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti in villages in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC) campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura) in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda) in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia) and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia). In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each) gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067). Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%), and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index) in all villages in the one-week period (p < 0.001). In the one-month period, the impact was most sustained in Domatmari (OR 1.58, p < 0.001) then Srinivaspura (OR 0.45, p = 0.063) and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067). After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03%) in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05). We conclude

  3. Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K A; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Gadgil, Madhav

    2005-12-31

    The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as riparian land use type, the rarefied richness was higher than that of streams with natural evergreen forests and grasslands. The streams with scrub lands and iron ore mining as the riparian land use had the lowest rarefied richness. Within a landscape, the streams with the natural riparian vegetation had similar community composition. However, streams with natural grasslands as the riparian vegetation, had low diversity and the community composition was similar to those of paddy fields. We discuss how stream insect assemblages differ due to varied riparian land use patterns, reflecting fundamental alterations in the functioning of stream ecosystems. This understanding is vital to conserve, manage and restore tropical riverine ecosystems.

  4. Impact of riparian land use on stream insects of Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka state, India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, K.A.; Sivaramakrishnan, K.G.; Gadgil, Madhav

    2005-01-01

    The impact of riparian land use on the stream insect communities was studied at Kudremukh National Park located within Western Ghats, a tropical biodiversity hotspot in India. The diversity and community composition of stream insects varied across streams with different riparian land use types. The rarefied family and generic richness was highest in streams with natural semi evergreen forests as riparian vegetation. However, when the streams had human habitations and areca nut plantations as riparian land use type, the rarefied richness was higher than that of streams with natural evergreen forests and grasslands. The streams with scrub lands and iron ore mining as the riparian land use had the lowest rarefied richness. Within a landscape, the streams with the natural riparian vegetation had similar community composition. However, streams with natural grasslands as the riparian vegetation, had low diversity and the community composition was similar to those of paddy fields. We discuss how stream insect assemblages differ due to varied riparian land use patterns, reflecting fundamental alterations in the functioning of stream ecosystems. This understanding is vital to conserve, manage and restore tropical riverine ecosystems. PMID:17119631

  5. Policy Implications of the Distribution of Public Subsidies on Health and Education: The Case of Karnataka, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahal, Ajay

    2005-01-01

    This article has two primary objectives. The first objective is to assess the manner in which public subsidies for health and education are distributed among people of different socioeconomic standing in the Indian state of Karnataka. The second purpose is to highlight the policy lessons that follow from it. In undertaking these tasks, the author…

  6. Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Mahajanakatti, Arpitha Badarinath; Grandhi, Nisha Jayaprakash; Prasanna, Akshatha; Sen, Ballari; Sharma, Narasimha; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses prudent elucidation of microbial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of the fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India. Water samples were collected from ten hotspots during the year 2011-2012. The physiochemical characteristics and microbial count of water samples collected from most of the hotspots exhibited greater biological oxygen demand and bacterial count especially coliforms in comparison with control samples (p ≤ 0.01). The antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using 48 antibiotics against the bacterial isolates by disk-diffusion assay. The current study showed that out of 848 bacterial isolates, 93.51% (n = 793) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to most of the current generation antibiotics. Among the major isolates, 96.46% (n = 273) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to 30 antibiotics and they were identified to be Escherichia coli by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Similarly, 93.85% (n = 107), 94.49% (n = 103), and 90.22% (n = 157) of the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance to 32, 40, and 37 antibiotics, and they were identified to be Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas trivialis, and Shigella sonnei, respectively. The molecular studies suggested the prevalence of bla TEM genes in all the four isolates and dhfr gene in Escherichia coli and Sh. sonnei. Analogously, most of the other Gram-negative bacteria were found to be multidrug-resistant and the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the water samples were found to be methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first study elucidating the bacterial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, Karnataka, India.

  7. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI =  2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  8. Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of Northeastern Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Reshmi; Siddayya; Patil, S.G.; Sarkar, Atanu; Dadapeer, H.J.; Yendigeri, Saeed; Ahmed, Rishad; Das, Kusal K.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in the Mangalur greenstone belt of Karnataka, India. Arsenic contents in water, hair, nail, soil and food were measured by FI-HG-AAS. Elemental analyses of soils were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Of 59 tube-well water samples, 79% had As above 10 μg L−1 (maximum 303 μg L−1). Of 12 topsoil samples, six were found to contain As greater than 2000 mg kg−1 possibly indicating the impact of mine tailings on the area. All hair and nail samples collected from 171 residents contained elevated As. Arsenical skin lesions were observed among 58.6% of a total 181 screened individuals. Histopathological analysis of puncture biopsies of suspected arsenical dermatological symptoms confirmed the diagnosis in 3 out of 4 patients. Based on the time-course of arsenic-like symptoms reported by the community as well as the presence of overt arsenicosis, it is hypothesized that the primary route of exposure in the study area was via contaminated groundwater; however, the identified high As content in residential soil could also be a significant source of As exposure via ingestion. Additional studies are required to determine the extent as well as the relative contribution of geologic and anthropogenic factors in environmental As contamination in the region. This study report is to our knowledge one of the first to describe overt arsenicosis in this region of Karnataka, India as well as more broadly an area with underlying greenstone geology and historic mining activity. PMID:23228450

  9. Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of Northeastern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Reshmi; Siddayya; Patil, S G; Sarkar, Atanu; Dadapeer, H J; Yendigeri, Saeed; Ahmed, Rishad; Das, Kusal K

    2013-11-15

    This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in the Mangalur greenstone belt of Karnataka, India. Arsenic contents in water, hair, nail, soil and food were measured by FI-HG-AAS. Elemental analyses of soils were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Of 59 tube-well water samples, 79% had As above 10 μg L(-1) (maximum 303 μg L(-1)). Of 12 topsoil samples, six were found to contain As greater than 2000 mg kg(-1) possibly indicating the impact of mine tailings on the area. All hair and nail samples collected from 171 residents contained elevated As. Arsenical skin lesions were observed among 58.6% of a total 181 screened individuals. Histopathological analysis of puncture biopsies of suspected arsenical dermatological symptoms confirmed the diagnosis in three out of four patients. Based on the time-course of As-like symptoms reported by the community as well as the presence of overt arsenicosis, it is hypothesized that the primary route of exposure in the study area was via contaminated groundwater; however, the identified high As content in residential soil could also be a significant source of As exposure via ingestion. Additional studies are required to determine the extent as well as the relative contribution of geologic and anthropogenic factors in environmental As contamination in the region. This study report is to our knowledge one of the first to describe overt arsenicosis in this region of Karnataka, India as well as more broadly an area with underlying greenstone geology and historic mining activity.

  10. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Methods Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Results Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and

  11. Maternal and Newborn Health in Karnataka State, India: The Community Level Interventions for Pre-Eclampsia (CLIP) Trial’s Baseline Study Results

    PubMed Central

    Bellad, Mrutynjaya B.; Vidler, Marianne; Honnungar, Narayan V.; Mallapur, Ashalata; Ramadurg, Umesh; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bannale, Shashidhar; Kavi, Avinash; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Lee, Tang; Li, Jing; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2017-01-01

    Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)–Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India. The prospective population-based survey was conducted in eight clusters in Belgaum and Bagalkot districts in Karnataka State from 2013–2014. Data collection was undertaken by adapting the Maternal and Newborn Health registry platform, developed by the Global Network for Women’s and Child Health Studies. Descriptive statistics were completed using SAS and R. During the period of 2013–2014, prospective data was collected on 5,469 pregnant women with an average age of 23.2 (+/-3.3) years. Delivery outcomes were collected from 5,448 completed pregnancies. A majority of the women reported institutional deliveries (96.0%), largely attended by skilled birth attendants. The maternal mortality ratio of 103 (per 100,000 livebirths) was observed during this study, neonatal mortality ratio was 25 per 1,000 livebirths, and perinatal mortality ratio was 50 per 1,000 livebirths. Despite a high number of institutional deliveries, rates of stillbirth were 2.86%. Early enrollment and close follow-up and monitoring procedures established by the Maternal and Newborn Health registry allowed for negligible lost to follow-up. This population-level study provides regional rates of maternal and newborn

  12. Impact of health insurance for tertiary care on postoperative outcomes and seeking care for symptoms: quasi-experimental evidence from Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a government insurance programme covering tertiary care for the poor in Karnataka, India—Vajpayee Arogyashree Scheme (VAS)—on treatment seeking and postoperative outcomes. Design Geographic regression discontinuity. Setting 572 villages in Karnataka, India. Participants 3478 households in 300 villages where VAS was implemented and 3486 households in 272 neighbouring matched villages ineligible for VAS. Intervention A government insurance programme that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Main outcome measure Seeking treatment for symptoms, posthospitalisation well-being, occurrence of infections during hospitalisation and need for rehospitalisation. Results The prevalence of symptoms was nearly identical for households in VAS-eligible villages compared with households in VAS-ineligible villages. However, households eligible for VAS were 4.96 percentage points (95% CI 1 to 8.9; p=0.014) more likely to seek treatment for their symptoms. The increase in treatment seeking was more pronounced for symptoms of cardiac conditions, the condition most frequently covered by VAS. Respondents from VAS-eligible villages reported greater improvements in well-being after a hospitalisation in all categories assessed and they were statistically significant in 3 of the 6 categories (walking ability, pain and anxiety). Respondents eligible for VAS were 9.4 percentage points less likely to report any infection after their hospitalisation (95% CI −20.2 to 1.4; p=0.087) and 16.5 percentage points less likely to have to be rehospitalised after the initial hospitalisation (95% CI −28.7 to −4.3; p<0.01). Conclusions Insurance for tertiary care increased treatment seeking among eligible households. Moreover, insured patients experienced better posthospitalisation outcomes, suggesting better quality of care received. These results suggest that there

  13. Understanding the role of peer group membership in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Prakash, Ravi; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Haranahalli, Mohan; Blanchard, Andrea; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In Karnataka state, South India, we analyzed the role of membership in peer groups in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs). Data from three surveys conducted in Karnataka, a behavioral tracking survey and two rounds of integrated biological and behavioral assessments (IBBAs), were analyzed. Using propensity score matching, we examined the impact of group membership on selected outcomes, including condom use, experience of violence, access to entitlements, and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. Focus group discussions were conducted with the FSWs to better understand their perceptions regarding membership in peer groups. Peer group members participating in the IBBAs had a lower prevalence of gonorrhea and/or chlamydia (5.2 vs 9.6%, p <0.001), and of syphilis (8.2 vs 10.3%, p <0.05), compared to non-members. The average treatment effect for selected outcome measures, from the propensity score matching, showed that FSWs who were members of any peer group reported significantly less experience of violence in the past six months, were less likely to have bribed police to avoid trouble in the past six months, and were more likely to have obtained at least one formal identification document in the past five years, compared to non-members. In focus group discussions, group members indicated that they had more confidence in dealing with situations of forced sex and violence. Including community mobilization and peer group formation in the context of HIV prevention programing can reduce HIV-related risk and vulnerability among FSWs. PMID:23745630

  14. Frontline Health Service Providers’ Perspectives on HIV Vaccine Trials among Female Sex Workers and Men Who Have Sex with Men in Karnataka, South India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shamshad; Ramesh, B. M.; Doshi, Monika; Becker, Marissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little qualitative research is available on the role of frontline health service providers (FHSPs) in the implementation of clinical trials, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study about the perspectives of FHSPs on future HIV vaccine trials involving female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in three districts of Karnataka, India. In particular, we explore FHSPs’ knowledge of and views on clinical trials in general, and examine their potential willingness to play a role if such trials were introduced or implemented in the region. Methods A field team of four researchers from Karnataka—two of whom self-identified with FSW or MSM communities (“community researchers”) and two with backgrounds in social work—conducted in-depth interviews with FHSPs. Including community researchers in the study helped to build rapport with FSW and MSM participants and facilitate in-depth discussions. A coding scheme for transcribed and translated data was developed using a framework analysis approach. Data was then analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent codes. Results Over half of FHSPs demonstrated limited knowledge or understanding of clinical trials. Despite reported skepticism around the testing of HIV vaccines in developing countries and concerns around potential side effects, most FHSPs strongly advocated for the implementation of HIV vaccine clinical trials in Karnataka. Further, most FHSPs expressed their willingness to be involved in future HIV vaccine clinical trials in varying capacities. Conclusion Given that FHSPs are often directly involved in the promotion of health and well-being of FSWs and MSM, they are well-positioned to play leadership, ethical, and communicative roles in future HIV vaccine trials. However, our findings reveal a lack of awareness of clinical trials among FHSP participants, suggesting an important area for capacity building and

  15. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Goitre among 6-12-year-old Children in a Rural Area of Karnataka in South India.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Bhanu; Suman, G; Hemanth, T; Shivaraj, N S; Murthy, N S

    2016-01-01

    In India, endemic goitre is present in sub-Himalayan region and in pockets in states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat. Being a public health problem amenable for prevention, the assessment of prevalence of endemic goitre in an area helps in understanding whether the preventive strategies under National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) have any impact on the control of endemic goitre. Hence, the current study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and factors associated with iodine deficiency goitre among 6-12-year-old children in a rural area in south Karnataka. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 838 children, using a questionnaire adopted from Iodized Salt Program Assessment Tool and the tools prescribed by WHO for goitre survey. The prevalence of goitre in the study area was 21.9% (95% CI 19.2-24.8). There was higher prevalence of goitre among those having salt iodine <15 ppm than those with >15 ppm (P = 0.01; OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.10-2.29). In 10% of the children, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was assessed and prevalence was higher among those with <100 μg/l of UIE than those with normal UIE, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.8, OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.62-2.96). Multiple logistic regression revealed that gender (P = 0.002; OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.21-2.35) was an independent variable associated with goitre. The study area was found to be moderately endemic for goitre based on the WHO criteria. Higher prevalence of goitre was found to be still associated with consumption of low iodized salt (<15 ppm) necessitating emphasis on monitoring of salt iodine levels in the study area. Though NIDDCP is being implemented since five decades in India, the burden of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) is still high demanding further impetus to the monitoring systems of the programme.

  16. Severity of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs among 12- to 15-Year-Old School Children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ≤ 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ≥ 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment. PMID:20613919

  17. STUDY ON RADON CONCENTRATION AT THE WORK PLACES OF MYSURU, BENGALURU AND KOLAR DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA STATE, SOUTH INDIA.

    PubMed

    Ningappa, C; Hamsa, K S; Reddy, K Umesha; Niranjan, R S; Rangaswamy, D R; Sannappa, J

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny inside the working place depend on the activity of radionuclides in the soil, building materials, atmospheric conditions, construction of the building, type of work and ventilation condition. Radon is a radioactive noble gas, and it is emanated from (226)Ra present in earth crest and building material. Based on the type of work, construction of the building and ventilation condition, concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny have been measured in 60 workplaces at 10 locations of Mysuru, Bengaluru and Kolar districts of Karnataka state using Solid-State Nuclear Track Detector technique. From the study, variations of radon, thoron and their progeny have been observed with the nature of work.

  18. The burden of headache disorders in India: methodology and questionnaire validation for a community-based survey in Karnataka State.

    PubMed

    Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Rajesh, Kavita; Subbakrishna, D Kumaraswamy; Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars J

    2012-10-01

    Primary headache disorders are a major public-health problem globally and, possibly more so, in low- and middle-income countries. No methodologically sound studies of prevalence and burden of headache in the adult Indian population have been published previously. The present study was a door-to-door cold-calling survey in urban and rural areas in and around Bangalore, Karnataka State. From 2,714 households contacted, 2,514 biologically unrelated individuals were eligible for the survey and 2,329 (92.9 %) participated (1,103 [48 %] rural; 1,226 [52 %] urban; 1,141 [49 %] male; 1,188 [51 %] female; mean age 38.0 years). The focus was on primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and medication-overuse headache. A structured questionnaire administered by trained lay interviewers was the instrument both for diagnosis (algorithmically determined from responses) and burden estimation. The screening question enquired into headache in the last year. The validation study compared questionnaire-based diagnoses with those obtained soon after through personal interview by a neurologist in a random sub-sample of participants (n = 381; 16 %). It showed high values (> 80 %) for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for any headache, and for specificity and negative predictive value for migraine and TTH. Kappa values for diagnostic agreement were good for any headache (0.69 [95 % CI 0.61-0.76]), moderate (0.46 [0.35-0.56]) for migraine and fair (0.39 [0.29-0.49]) for TTH. The survey methodology, including identification of and access to participants, proved feasible. The questionnaire proved effective in the survey population. The study will give reliable estimates of the prevalence and burden of headache, and of migraine and TTH specifically, in urban and rural Karnataka.

  19. Predictors and Timing of ATT Initiation among HIV-TB Patients at ART Centers of Karnataka, India: Two Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. Objectives To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Methods Patients registered at sixteen ART centres in Karnataka, from October through December 2009 formed the study cohort and were followed till December 2011. Results A total of 604 HIV-TB patients were registered. Follow-up (a) at the end of one year had shown 63.6% (377)patients with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (b) at the end of second year, 55.6% (336)patients were alive on ART treatment. The variables male, smear negative TB, CD4 count less than 50cells per cumm and unfavorable TB outcome were significantly associated with unfavorable ART treatment outcome. Conclusions The programmes need to review the existing strategies and strengthen HIV-TB collaborative activities for timely treatment initiation with intensive monitoring of HIV-TB patients on treatment. PMID:26394397

  20. Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: a community survey.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Amitesh; Ganesan, Sailakshmi; Shenoy, U V; Narayanan, E

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India), where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41) subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably) muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.

  1. Pursuing Authenticity From Process to Outcome in a Community-Based Participatory Research Study of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Vulnerability in North Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Sangha, Chaitanya AIDS Tadegattuva Mahila; Nair, Sapna G.; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Srikantamurthy, H.S.; Ramanaik, Satyanaryana; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Bruce, Sharon Gail

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research has been seen to hold great promise by researchers aiming to bridge research and action in global health programs and practice. However, there is still much debate around whether achieving authenticity in terms of in-depth collaboration between community and academic partners is possible while pursuing academic expectations for quality. This article describes the community-based methodology for a qualitative study to explore intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work, or female sex workers, and their male partners in Karnataka, South India. Developed through collaborative processes, the study methodology followed an interpretive approach to qualitative inquiry, with three key components including long-term partnerships, knowledge exchange, and orientation toward action. We then discuss lessons learned on how to pursue authenticity in terms of truly collaborative processes with inherent value that also contribute to, rather than hinder, the instrumental goal of enhancing the quality and relevance of the research outcomes. PMID:27378133

  2. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  3. An Estimation of Mortality Risks among People Living with HIV in Karnataka State, India: Learnings from an Intensive HIV/AIDS Care and Support Programme

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold; Halli, Shiva S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Indian context, limited attempts have been made to estimate the mortality risks among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We estimated the rates of mortality among PLHIV covered under an integrated HIV-prevention cum care and support programme implemented in Karnataka state, India, and attempted to identify the key programme components associated with the higher likelihood of their survival. Methods Retrospective programme data of 55,801 PLHIV registered with the Samastha programme implemented in Karnataka state during 2006–11 was used. Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to estimate the ten years expected survival probabilities and Cox-proportional hazard model was used to examine the factors associated with risk of mortality among PLHIV. We also calculated mortality rates (per 1000 person-year) across selected demographic and clinical parameters. Results Of the total PLHIV registered with the programme, about nine percent died within the 5-years of programme period with an overall death rate of 38 per 1000 person-years. The mortality rate was higher among males, aged 18 and above, among illiterates, and those residing in rural areas. While the presence of co-infections such as Tuberculosis leads to higher mortality rate, adherence to ART was significantly associated with reduction in overall death rate. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that increase in CD4 cell counts and exposure to intensive care and support programme for at least two years can bring significant reduction in risk of death among PLHIV [(hazard ratio: 0.234; CI: 0.211–0.260) & (hazard ratio: 0.062; CI: 0.054–0.071), respectively] even after adjusting the effect of other socio-demographic, economic and health related confounders. Conclusion Study confirms that while residing in rural areas and presence of co-infection significantly increases the mortality risk among PLHIV, adherence to ART and improvement in CD4 counts led to significant reduction in their mortality risk

  4. Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S

    2014-11-25

    Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of surveyed

  5. Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Ch.; Pattar, Manohar G.

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC50) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms. PMID:21808550

  6. Maxillofacial Trauma in Central Karnataka, India: An Outcome of 95 Cases in a Regional Trauma Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Rajay A. D.; Bharani, Shiva; Hammannavar, Reshma; Ingle, Sumit P.; Shah, Ankit G.

    2012-01-01

    Materials and Methods A 6-year retrospective analysis of 111 patients treated for maxillofacial fractures in Davangere, Karnataka from January 2004 to December 2009 was performed. Variables like age, gender, occupation, type of fracture and mechanism of injury, concomitant injury, mode of treatment, and complications were recorded and assessed. Results Men between 21 and 30 years were mostly affected (male-to-female ratio = 10:1; age range = 17.60 years; mean 31.7 ± 9.8 [standard deviation]). Most fractures were caused by road traffic accidents (RTAs; 74.7%), followed by interpersonal violence (IPV; 15.8%), falls (4.2%), industrial hazards and animal attacks (2.1% each), and self-inflicted injury (1.1%). Forty-two cases were isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures. The total number of facial fractures documented was 316, of which 222 were purely related to the ZMC; however, 11 were confined only to the midface. Fifty-three cases had concomitant lower jaw fractures, totaling 83. Ophthalmic injuries occurred in 30.52% of cases. Ninety-two cases were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), and three cases were managed conservatively. The complication rate observed was 25.26%. Conclusion RTA continues to be the chief etiological factor in maxillofacial injury with males being affected predominantly. IPV and falls next contribute significantly to the incidence of such injuries. Concomitant injuries, however, require prompt recognition and appropriate management. ORIF still remains the mainstay of treatment; however, fixation devices are constantly being improved upon in an attempt to reduce immobilization time thereby facilitating early return to function with minimal morbidity. Nevertheless, future advances in maxillofacial trauma diagnosis and management are likely to reduce associated morbidity. PMID:24294402

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25538349

  8. Complications related to blood donation: A multicenter study of the prevalence and influencing factors in voluntary blood donation camps in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajat Kumar; Periyavan, Sundar; Dhanya, Rakesh; Parmar, Lalith G.; Sedai, Amit; Ankita, Kumari; Vaish, Arpit; Sharma, Ritesh; Gowda, Prabha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated from 01-04-2011 to 01-08-2014 in Karnataka. Uniform protocols for donor selection, predonation preparation, counseling, postdonation care, and refreshments were used. The postdonation complications were recorded on a form immediately, after they were observed. Results: We observed 995 (3.2%) complications in 30,928 whole blood donations. Of these 884 (2.86%) mild, 77 (0.25%) moderate, and 5 (0.02%) severe complications were observed. Local symptoms (blood outside vessels, pain, and allergy) contributed 1.0%, and generalized symptoms (vasovagal reaction) contributed 2.2% to all the complications. Conclusion: We observed 322 complications for every 10,000 donations. Since 27 out of every 10000 experience moderate and severe complication, the readiness to manage complications is crucial. Women donors, young donors, and donors with a lower weight are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing complications, highlighting the need for specific guidelines for the management of higher risk donor groups. Complications varied significantly between various blood banks. Predonation hydration was effective in limiting complications with generalized symptoms. We recommend a robust donor hemovigilance program for voluntary blood donation for monitoring complications and enable assessment of effectiveness and implementation of appropriate interventions. PMID:27011671

  9. Retention in pre-antiretroviral treatment care in a district of Karnataka, India: how well are we doing?

    PubMed

    Shankar, D; Kumar, A M V; Rewari, B; Kumar, S; Shastri, S; Satyanarayana, S; Ananthakrishnan, R; Nagaraja, S B; Devi, M; Bhargava, N; Das, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Centre de traitement antirétroviral (ART) du district de Tumkur dans l'état de Karnataka, Inde. Il n'y a pas de document publié sur les perdus de vue avant le traitement ART en Inde.Objectif : Evaluer la proportion de perdus de vue (définis comme l'absence de visite au centre d'ART dans l'année suivant l'enregistrement) et les variables sociodémographiques et immunologiques qui y sont associées.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte impliquant une revue des dossiers médicaux des patients adultes infectés par le VIH (âge ⩾15 ans) enregistrés en soins pré-ART entre janvier 2010 et juin 2012.Résultats : Sur 3238 patients enregistrés, 2519 (78%) étaient éligibles pour le traitement ART tandis que 719 (22%) ne l'étaient pas. Quatre de ces derniers ont été transférés. Parmi les 715 individus enrôlés en soin pré-ART, 290 (41%) ont été perdus de vue. Les facteurs associés avec le fait d'être perdus de vue en analyse multivariée incluaient la tranche d'âge ⩾45 ans, un niveau d'instruction faible, le célibat, le stade 3 ou 4 de l'OMS et la résidence en milieu rural.Conclusion : Près de quatre individus sur 10 en soins pre-ART ont été perdus de vue dans l'année suivant leur enregistrement. Ceci requiert une attention urgente. L'analyse de cohorte en routine du programme national devrait inclure les patients en soins pré-ART afin d'améliorer la revue des cas, leur suivi et leur supervision. Une recherche qualitative ultérieure afin de cerner les raisons des pertes de vue est nécessaire pour concevoir les interventions futures.

  10. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Methods: Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for

  11. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India.

  12. Girl, woman, lover, mother: towards a new understanding of child prostitution among young Devadasis in rural Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Treena Rae

    2007-06-01

    The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers.

  13. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence

  14. The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.

    PubMed

    Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

    1982-01-01

    The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as

  15. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  16. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2015-11-01

    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection.

  17. Effectiveness of Onsite Nurse Mentoring in Improving Quality of Institutional Births in the Primary Health Centres of High Priority Districts of Karnataka, South India: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Janet; Mony, Prem; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Rao, Suman; Thomas, Annamma; S, Rajaram; Kar, Arin; N, Swaroop; B M, Ramesh; H L, Mohan; Fischer, Elizabeth; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. Methods All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. Results Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better

  18. Mapping subtrappean sediments and delineating structure with the aid of heliborne time domain electromagnetics: Case study from Kaladgi Basin, Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, M.; Markandeyulu, A.; Chaturvedi, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of subtrappean sediments is a complex geological problem attempted by many interpreters applying different geophysical techniques. Variations in thickness and resistivity of traps and underlying sediments, respectively, results in considerable uncertainty in the interpretation of geophysical data. It is proposed that the transient electromagnetic technique is an effective geophysical tool for delineation of the sub-trappean sediments, due to marked resistivity contrast between the Deccan trap, and underlying sediments and/or basement. The northern margin of the Kaladgi basin is covered under trap. A heliborne time domain electromagnetic survey was conducted to demarcate the basin extent and map the sub-trappean sediments. Conductivity depth transformations were used to map the interface between conductive trap and resistive 'basement'. Two resistivity contrast boundaries are picked: the first corresponds to the bottom of the shallow conductive unit interpreted as the base of the Deccan Volcanics and the second - picked at the base of a deeper subsurface conductive zone - is interpreted as the weathered paleo-surface of the crystalline basement. This second boundary can only be seen in areas where the volcanics are thin or absent, suggesting that the volcanics are masking the EM signal preventing deeper penetration. An interesting feature, which shows prominently in the EM data but less clearly imaged in the magnetic data, is observed in the vicinity of Mudhol. The surface geology interpreted from satellite imagery show Deccan trap cover around Mudhol. Modelling of TDEM data suggest the presence of synclinal basin structure. The depth of penetration of the heliborne TDEM data is estimated to be approximately 350 m for the study area. This suggests that heliborne TDEM could penetrate significant thicknesses of conductive Deccan trap cover to delineate structure below in the Bagalkot Group.

  19. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  20. Tribes in Karnataka: Status of health research

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Subarna; Hegde, Harsha V.; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Upadhya, Vinayak; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.

    2015-01-01

    The south Indian State of Karnataka, once part of several kingdoms and princely states of repute in the Deccan peninsula, is rich in its historic, cultural and anthropological heritage. The State is the home to 42,48,987 tribal people, of whom 50,870 belong to the primitive group. Although these people represent only 6.95 per cent of the population of the State, there are as many as 50 different tribes notified by the Government of India, living in Karnataka, of which 14 tribes including two primitive ones, are primarily natives of this State. Extreme poverty and neglect over generations have left them in poor state of health and nutrition. Unfortunately, despite efforts from the Government and non-Governmental organizations alike, literature that is available to assess the state of health of these tribes of the region remains scanty. It is however, interesting to note that most of these tribes who had been original natives of the forests of the Western Ghats have been privy to an enormous amount of knowledge about various medicinal plants and their use in traditional/folklore medicine and these practices have been the subject matter of various scientific studies. This article is an attempt to list and map the various tribes of the State of Karnataka and review the studies carried out on the health of these ethnic groups, and the information obtained about the traditional health practices from these people. PMID:26139788

  1. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  2. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Lippert, P. C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine, P. V.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates pro- duced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 +/- 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya be- tween approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 +/- 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"- Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  3. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Lippert, Peter C; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H

    2012-05-15

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"-Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  4. Rifting to India-Asia Reactivation: Multi-phase Structural Evolution of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. J.; Bladon, A.; Clarke, S.; Najman, Y.; Copley, A.; Kloppenburg, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Barmer Basin, situated within the West Indian Rift System, is an intra-cratonic rift basin produced during Gondwana break-up. Despite being a prominent oil and gas province, the structural evolution and context of the rift within northwest India remains poorly understood. Substantial subsurface datasets acquired during hydrocarbon exploration provide an unrivalled tool to investigate the tectonic evolution of the Barmer Basin rift and northwest India during India-Asia collision. Here we present a structural analysis using seismic datasets to investigate Barmer Basin evolution and place findings within the context of northwest India development. Present day rift structural architectures result from superposition of two non-coaxial extensional events; an early mid-Cretaceous rift-oblique event (NW-SE), followed by a main Paleocene rifting phase (NE-SW). Three phases of fault reactivation follow rifting: A transpressive, Late Paleocene inversion along localised E-W and NNE-SSW-trending faults; a widespread Late Paleocene-Early Eocene inversion and Late Miocene-Present Day transpressive strike-slip faulting along NW-SE-trending faults and isolated inversion structures. A major Late Eocene-Miocene unconformity in the basin is also identified, approximately coeval with those identified within the Himalayan foreland basin, suggesting a common cause related to India-Asia collision, and calling into question previous explanations that are not compatible with spatial extension of the unconformity beyond the foreland basin. Although, relatively poorly age constrained, extensional and compressional events within the Barmer Basin can be correlated with regional tectonic processes including the fragmentation of Gondwana, the rapid migration of the Greater Indian continent, to subsequent collision with Asia. New insights into the Barmer Basin development have important implications not only for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration but the temporal evolution of northwest India.

  5. Variations in the total water storage in the major river basins of India from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, V. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Swenson, S.

    2008-12-01

    We present an estimate of total water storage variations of the major river basins of India during the period of 2002 to mid 2008 from modelling of time-variable gravity field observed by GRACE satellite by utilising the scheme of Swenson and Wahr, (2002). The largest annual volume change is observed over the upper Ganga basin, followed by the lower Gnaga basin and the Yamuna basin of northern India. Basins of northern India show a declining trend of water storage over this time period, whereas the Godavari basin, the largest basin of central south India, as well as basins in central India show similar seasonal variations but increasing trends. It is interesting to note that these trends are prevalent over a decadal time period of ground water level and therefore the trend observed from GRACE data can be extrapolated backward. If these trends are sustained over a long time period, northern India and Bangladesh will lead to a major water crisis

  6. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia

    PubMed Central

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lippert, Peter C.; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2012-01-01

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India–Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic “Greater India” promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North–South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma “India”–Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The “hard” India–Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25–20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography. PMID:22547792

  7. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, HL; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Ramesh, BM; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte H; Heise, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (four districts) (2005 to 2011) and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS) (16 districts) (2007 to 2011) were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1) changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2) associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. Results 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS) (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, p<0.001), being arrested in the past year [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.57 (0.35, 0.93), p=0.025] and being beaten in the past six months by a non-partner (clients, police, pimps, strangers, rowdies) [AOR 0.69 (0.49, 0.95), p=0.024)] (IBBA). The proportion drinking alcohol (during the past week) also fell significantly (32.5% in 2005, 24.9% in 2008, 16.8% in 2011; p<0.001). Violence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months) and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15), p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12), p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week) [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53), p<0.001; AOR 2.79 (1.93, 4.04), p<0.001, respectively], reduced condom self-efficacy with clients [AOR 0.36 (0.27, 0.47), p<0.001; AOR 0.62 (0.39, 0.98), p=0.039, respectively], symptomatic STI (during the past

  8. Rift basins in western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects with special reference to Kutch basin

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S.K.

    1982-10-01

    The western continental margin of India can be classed as a divergent or passive margin. The western continental shelf is an extensive carbonate bank (Bombay offshore basin) passing into clastic sediments on the north and south. Three craton-margin embayed basins-Kutch, Cambay, and Narmada- in the northern part of the shelf, are filled predominantly with clastic sediments. These basins occupy grabens bounded by faults diverging seaward. The grabens were formed by three rift systems along major Precambrian tectonic trends. The rifting developed sequentially from north to south around the Saurashtra horst. Kutch basin was formed in the Early Jurassic, followed by Cambay basin in Early Cretaceous time, and the Narmada in the Late Cretaceous. It appears that these rifting events occurred at successive stages during the northward migration of the Indian plate after its break from Gondwanaland in Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. It is inferred that these rift basins opened up successively as a result of the counterclockwise drift of the Indian craton. Bombay offshore and Cambay are two major oil-producing basins in the western margin. These basins are characterized by high geothermal gradients attributed to the shallowness of the mantle in this region. Oil has not been found in KUtch basin, which is mainly an onshore Mesozoic basin. The basin basin depocenter shifted offshore at the northwestern part of the continental shelf where the shelf is wide.

  9. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  10. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1

  11. A Wintertime Aerosol Model for the Ganga Basin, Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2006-05-01

    An aerosol model has been developed using mass size distributions of various chemical components measured at Kanpur (an urban location in the Ganga basin, GB, in Northern India) and applied to estimate the radiative effects of the aerosols over the entire GB during the winter season for the first time. The number size distribution of various species was derived from the measured mass concentration and the optical properties were calculated using OPAC model. The anthropogenic contribution to the total extinction was found to be more than 90%. The relative contribution of various species to the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 0.5 μm are in the following order, (NH2)2SO4 (AS, 37%), nitrate (N, 28%), other salts (S, mainly NaCl and KCl, 19%), dust (9%) and black carbon, BC (7%). Contribution of AS, N, S to the observed AOD decreases with wavelength and that of dust increases with wavelength, whereas, BC contribution remains almost same. The extinction coefficient strongly depends on the relative humidity (RH), as the scattering by fine mode fraction (contributing 88% to the total extinction) is enhanced at high ambient RH. The spectral variation of absorption coefficient indicates that the most likely source of BC (as BC is the dominant absorbing species) in this region is fossil- fuel. The spectral variation of single scattering albedo (SSA) in the fine and coarse mode fractions and that of asymmetry parameter suggests that the internal mixing is more likely scenario, although the possibility of external mixing can not be ruled out. If the RH is lowered by ~20%, BC contribution to the AOD increases by ~3.5%, which implies that the RH is a strong controlling factor of the aerosol forcing. The mean shortwave clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface forcing over Kanpur are -13±3 and -43±8 W m-2. Extending the TOA and surface efficiency over the entire GB, the mean TOA and surface forcing become -9±3 and -25±10 W m-2. This results in high atmospheric

  12. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  13. Local Wave Propagation in the Kachchh Basin, India: Synergy With the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, C. A.; Kang, D.; Bodin, P.; Horton, S.

    2002-12-01

    Aftershocks of the Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake are used to infer velocity structure and the nature of wave propagation within the Kachchh Basin, India. The data were collected from a joint MAEC/ISTAR deployment of seismographs within 3 weeks of the main event and from existing broadband stations in the region under the India Meteorological Department. Waveforms are available from events that span the entire thickness of the crust and display a variety of wave propagation effects due to low-velocity near-surface site structure and larger structure of the Mesozoic Kachchh basin. These effects include near-site, high frequency reverberations in P and S waves, Sp and Ps mode conversions, PL waves within the Mesozoic basin, basin S multiples, and surface waves. Surface wave group velocity dispersion yields estimates of basin shear wave velocity, and when coupled to analysis of large observed Sp conversions, give a migrated image of stratigraphy within the Banni plains that agrees favorably with published stratigraphy. Identification of basin structure effects allows constraints to be placed on aftershock source depths that are needed in evaluating standard earthquake locations. Structure models are used to construct Green's functions for determining source parameters through waveform modeling. Although stations of the aftershock network were situated on a variety of sites that varied from consolidated Mesozoic bedrock to unconsolidated recent sediments, all stations show major wave propagation effects due to basin fill that must be included in source parameter estimation. These effects seen in India have many similarities to wave propagation effects observed within the Mississippi embayment from microearthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) of the central U.S. Joint waveform studies are motivating new ways of understanding wave propagation and source processes within both areas.

  14. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.

    2016-12-01

    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  15. Trend analysis of rainfall time series for Sindh river basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sarita; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The study of precipitation trends is critically important for a country like India whose food security and economy are dependent on the timely availability of water such as 83 % water used for agriculture sector, 12 % for industry sector and only 5 % for domestic sector. In this study, the historical rainfall data for the periods 1901-2002 and 1942-2002 of the Sindh river basin, India, were analysed for monthly, seasonal and annual trends. The conventional Mann-Kendall test (MK) and Mann-Kendall test (MMK), after the removal of the effect of all significant autocorrelation coefficients, and Sen's slope estimator were used to identify the trends. Kriging technique was used for interpolating the spatial pattern using Arc GIS 9.3. The analysis suggested significant increase in the trend of rainfall for seasonal and annual series in the Sindh basin during 1901-2002.

  16. Implementing blended learning into the academic programs of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D

    2014-06-01

    Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India, is established by an Act of Karnataka State Legislature in the year 1996. Its mandate is to provide training and development in health sciences sector. This University has done pioneering work in the field of curriculum designing for all the health sciences courses offered by the affiliated institutions. In this regard, it has taken lead among all the health sciences universities in India. With student strength of more than one lakh, it has now become a necessity to explore all the possible technological options, so as to provide a comprehensive education to the students. In this context, a proposal has been submitted to the executive head of the University to implement the Blended Learning Program.

  17. Heavy metal transport in the hindon river basin, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K; Sharma, M K

    2006-01-01

    Total mass transfers of heavy metal in dissolved and particulate form has been determined in the downstream section of river Hindon, an important tributary of river Yamuna (India). The contribution of different point sources to the river Hindon has also been assessed. The river Kali has the largest contribution to the river Hindon. The highest metal loads were related to the highest flow of the river and thereby increased both by surface runoff and sediment resuspension. The contribution of monsoon months to the total transported load was also calculated and it was observed that monsoon months contributes more than 40% of total loading annually for all the metals. The metal fluxes from the river Hindon were compared with other rivers of Indian sub-continent.

  18. The astronomical significance of megalithic stone alignments at Vibhuthihalli in northern Karnataka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya

    2010-03-01

    A megalithic site at Vibhuthihalli in Karnataka, India, contains alignments of stones that are arranged in a square pattern with rows and columns showing a diagonal arrangement. Such structures are non-sepulchral, and although their purpose is not clear it has been suggested that they have astronomical significance. We investigated this possibility and our observations showed that the rows of stones point to the direction of equinoctial sunrise and sunset. lt is likely that calendrical events were monitored at this site.

  19. Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin, Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, T. R.; Sudharma, K. V.; Hameed, A. Shahul

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotope composition of precipitation from Pamba River basin, Kerala, India, is evaluated to understand the role of spatial and temporal variations on rainwater isotope characteristics. Physiographically different locations in the basin showed strong spatial and temporal variations. δ 18O varied from -7.63 to -1.75 ‰ in the lowlands; from -9.32 to -1.94 ‰ in the midlands and from -11.6 to -4.00 ‰ in the highlands. Local Meteoric Water Lines (LMWL) for the three regions were determined separately and an overall LMWL for the whole of the basin was found to be δ 2H = 6.6 (±0.4) δ 18 O+10.4 (±2.0). Altitude effect was evident for the basin (0.1 ‰ for δ 18O and 0.8 ‰ for δ 2H per 100 m elevation), while the amount effect was weak. The precipitation formed from the marine moisture supplied at a steady rate, without much isotopic evolution in this period may have masked the possible depletion of heavier isotopes with increasing rainfall. Consistently high d-excess values showed the influence of recycled vapour, despite the prevailing high relative humidity. The oceanic and continental vapour source origins for the south-west and north-east monsoons were clearly noted in the precipitation in the basin. Rayleigh distillation model showed about 30% rainout of the monsoon vapour mass in the basin.

  20. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    NGHP-01 yielded evidence of gas hydrate from downhole log and core data obtained from all the sites in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, the Mahanadi Basin, and in the Andaman Sea. The site drilled in the Kerala–Konkan Basin during NGHP-01 did not yield any evidence of gas hydrate. Most of the downhole log-inferred gas hydrate and core-recovered gas hydrate were characterized as either fracture-filling in clay-dominated sediments or as pore-filling or grain-displacement particles disseminated in both fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Geochemical analyses of gases obtained from sediment cores recovered during NGHP-01 indicated that the gas in most all of the hydrates in the offshore of India is derived from microbial sources; only one site in the Andaman Sea exhibited limited evidence of a thermogenic gas source. The gas hydrate petroleum system concept has been used to effectively characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in the offshore of India.

  1. Schistura phamhringi, a new stone loach from Chindwin Basin in Manipur, India (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Shangningam, Bungdon; Lokeshwor, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2014-04-09

    Schistura phamhringi, new stone loach, is described from Dutah Stream, tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin basin), near Larong Village, Chandel District, Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique combination of characters: 6-7 black saddles, each continued on both flanks forming broad diamond-shaped black bars with narrow ventral margin; bars superimposed on a grey stripe along lateral line; upper lip with numerous melanophores; black basicaudal bar arc-shaped; complete lateral line; and prominent oar-like suborbital flap on male.

  2. The record of India-Asia collision preserved in Tethyan ocean basin sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Yani; Jenks, Dan; Godin, Laurent; Boudagher-Fadel, Marcelle; Bown, Paul; Horstwood, Matt; Garzanti, Eduardo; Bracialli, Laura; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the understanding of crustal deformation processes, since, for example, it impacts on calculations regarding the amount of convergence that needs to be accommodated by various mechanisms. In this research we use sediments originally deposited in the Tethyan ocean basin and now preserved in the Himalayan orogeny to constrain the timing of collision. In the NW Himalaya, a number of workers have proposed a ca 55-50 Ma age for collision along the Indus suture zone which separates India from the Kohistan-Ladakh Intraoceanic Island arc (KLA) to the north. This is based on a number of factors including the age of youngest marine sediments in the Indus suture (e.g. Green et al. 2008), age of eclogites indicative of onset of Indian continental subduction (e.g. de Sigoyer et al. 2000), and first evidence of detritus from north of the suture zone deposited on the Indian plate (e.g. Clift et al. 2002). Such evidence can be interpreted as documenting the age of India-Asia collision if one takes the KLA to have collided with the Asian plate prior to its collision with India (e.g. Petterson 2010 and refs therein). However, an increasing number of workers propose that the KLA collided with Asia subsequent to its earlier collision with India, dated variously at 85 Ma (Chatterjee et al. 2013), 61 Ma (Khan et al. 2009) and 50 Ma (Bouilhol et al. 2013). This, plus the questioning of earlier provenance work (Clift et al. 2002) regarding the validity of their data for constraining timing of earliest arrival of material north of the suture deposited on the Indian plate (Henderson et al. 2011) suggests that the time is right for a reappraisal of this topic. We use a provenance-based approach here, using combined U-Pb and Hf on detrital zircons from Tethyan ocean basin sediments, along with petrography and biostratigraphy, to identify first arrival of material from north of the Indian plate to arrive on the Indian continent, to constrain

  3. Geologic, geomorphic and hydrologic framework and evolution of the Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Thomas, William A.

    2009-03-01

    The Bengal basin, the largest fluvio-deltaic sedimentary system on Earth, is located in Bangladesh and three eastern states of India. Sediment accumulates in the basin from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna (GBM) river systems and is dispersed into the Bay of Bengal, forming the largest submarine fan in the world. The basin is located in the Himalayan foreland at the junction of the Indian, Eurasian, and Burmese plates. The basin is bounded by the Indian craton on the west and the Indo-Burmese fold belts on the east. It can be broadly divided into a stable shelf and a foredeep separated by a deep seismic hinge zone. Basin sediments overlie Gondwanan basement and vary in thickness from a few kilometers on the stable shelf to more than 16 km in the foredeep. The basin was initiated at the breakup of Gondwanaland in the late Mesozoic and evolved through the formation of the proto-GBM delta to the present delta starting around 10.5 Ma. The stratigraphy of the different parts of the basin differs considerably, because of contrast in depositional history within the several sub-basins that were produced by intra-plate tectonic activities associated with ongoing Himalayan orogeny. The present-day geomorphology is dominated by the extensive Holocene GBM floodplain and delta. The vertical succession of the deltaic plain can be classified into five units on the basis of differences in grain size, which reflect differing depositional environments. The initiation of the modern GBM delta at the onset of the Pleistocene glacial maximum and its evolution to the present configuration are intricately related to Holocene fluvio-dynamic processes, eustatic sea-level changes, and tectonic movements. The sedimentology and mineralogy of the different parts of the basin reflect differences in sediment provenance. The mineralogy is dominated by detrital quartz, some feldspar, and minor amounts of carbonates; illite and kaolinite are the main clay minerals. The basin has profuse

  4. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2015-08-28

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  6. Upper Cisuralian palynology and palaeoclimate of Manuguru area Godavari basin, India and their global correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Pauline Sabina; Jha, Neerja

    2014-10-01

    The Permian system of the Palaeozoic Erathem is divided into three series, the Early Permian Cisuralian Series, the Middle Permian Guadalupian Series, and the Late Permian Lopingian Series. The Cisuralian Series encompasses the Asselian to Kungurian stages which constitute the basal part of the Gondwana supersequence I. In India, they are represented lithostratigraphically by the Talchir, Karharbari, and Barakar formations. This paper presents the palynological results from the Barakar Formation of the Upper Cisuralian Series from Manuguru which lies in the southeastern part of the Godavari basin. The succession studied comprises 35 subsurface samples from bore hole 1007 represented by clay, shale, sandstone, and coal. The palynofloras in this sequence have a homogenous composition demonstrating that not many significant floral changes took place through the considered stratigraphic range. The entire sequence is characterized by the dominance of nonstriate bisaccate genus Scheuringipollenites and sub-dominance of striate bisaccate genus Faunipollenites(= Protohaploxypinus). The other pollen genera among the nonstriate bisaccates are Rhizomaspora, Primuspollenites, Ibisporites, and Platysaccus. The striate bisaccates include Striatites, Striatopodocarpites, and Stroterosporites. The taeniate taxa are represented by Lueckisporites and Lunatisporites. The common monosaccate genera include Caheniasaccites, Potoniesporites, and Barakarites. Spores are less common and include Latosporites, Brevitriletes, Horriditriletes, Microbaculispora, and Callumispora. They characterize the palynofloral composition of the Lower Barakar Formation. The correlation of this assemblage with some of the biostratigraphic palynozones proposed previously for the Cisuralian sequences of the Paraná Basin of South America, Kalahari Karoo Basin of South Africa, Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, East Africa as well as palynoassemblages from South Victoria Land and Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and

  7. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  8. Glacier fluctuation using Satellite Data in Beas basin, 1972-2006, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Shruti; Ramanathan, A. L.; Linda, Anurag

    2012-10-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as sensitive indicators for regional climate change. Very few studies have been conducted to investigate the long term deglaciation status in the Himalaya. In the present study, glaciers in the Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, India were mapped by interpretation of various glacio-morphological features using the Landsat and IRS images. The mapping of 224 glaciers during the period 1972-2006 reveals that the glacier cover reduced from 419 to 371 km2, witnessing approximately 11.6% deglaciation in the Beas basin. A higher rate of retreat of the glaciers was observed during 1989-2006 as compared to the retreat during 1972-1989. Also, the loss has been more prominent in the glaciers with an areal extent of 2-5 km2. The number of glaciers increased from 224 to 236 due to fragmentation in this period. The average elevation of the ablation zone basin showed an upward shift from 3898 m (1972) to 4171 m (2006) which may be a consequence of a shift in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reflecting imbalance.

  9. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: Regional modeling analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  10. Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

    2014-04-01

    The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other

  11. Gas Hydrate Deposits in the Cauvery-Mannar Offshore Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of geophysical and coring data from Mahanadi and Krishna-Godavari offshore basins, eastern continental margin of India, has established the presence of gas hydrate deposits; however, other promising petroliferous basins are relatively unexplored for gas hydrates. A collaborative program between GSI/MoM and CSIR-NIO was formulated to explore the Cauvery-Mannar offshore basin for gas hydrate deposits (Fig. 1a). High quality multi-channel reflection seismics (MCS) data were acquired with 3,000 cu. in airgun source array and 3 km long hydrophone streamer (240 channels) onboard R/V Samudra Ratnakar for gas hydrate studies. Other geophysical data such as gravity, magnetic and multibeam data were also acquired along with seismic data.After routine processing of seismic data, the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) are observed in the central and north-eastern part of the survey area. The BSRs are identified based on its characteristic features such as mimicking the seafloor, opposite polarity with respect to the seafloor and crosscutting the existing geological layers (Fig. 1b). At several locations, seismic signatures associated with free gas such as drop in interval velocity, pull-down structures, amplitude variation with offset (AVO) and attenuation are observed below the BSRs which confirm the presence of free gas in the study area. Acoustic chimneys are observed at some locations indicating vertical migration of the free gas. The observed seismic signatures established the presence of gas hydrates/free gas deposits in Cauvery-Mannar basin. Interestingly, BSRs appear to be distributed along the flanks of submarine canyon indicating the influence of geomorphology on the formation and distribution of gas hydrates.

  12. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%.

  13. A new species of Psilorhynchus (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae) from the Chindwin basin of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shangningam, Bungdon; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Psilorhynchus chakpiensis, new species, is described from the Chakpi River, Chindwin basin in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters: a dome-shaped rostral cap with horizontally arranged pointed tubercles, 1-2 rows of prominent globular papillae behind the upper lip, three unbranched and nine branched dorsal-fin rays, 30-31 lateral-line scales, head width 74-83% HL, and characteristic colour bands on the dorsal and caudal fins. It is distinguished from all congeners in having a caudal-fin pattern consisting of two black bars, one incomplete bar near the base of the upper lobe, and a complete bar across the centre of the fin, traversing from the upper to the lower margin of the fin.

  14. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  15. Evaporation Ponds or Recharge Structures ? the Role of Check Dams in Arkavathy River Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeremiah, K.; Srinivasan, V.; R, A.

    2014-12-01

    "Watershed development" has been the dominant paradigm for water management in India for the last two decades. Current spending on watershed development programmes rivals spending on large dams. In practice, watershed development involves a range of soil and water conservation measures including building check dams, gully plugs, contour bunds etc. Despite their dominance in water management paradigms, relatively little empirical data exists on these structures. Importantly, even though the benefits of individual watershed structures are recognized, the cumulative impact of building hundreds of such structures on hydrologic partitioning of a watershed remains unknown. We investigated the role of check dams in two small milli-watersheds in the Arkavathy River basin in South India. We conducted a comprehensive census of all check dams in the two milli-watersheds with a total area of 26 sq km. 40 check dams (representing a density of 1.35/sq km of watershed area) were geotagged, photographed, measured and their condition was recorded. We then selected twelve check dams and monitored the water stored using capacitance sensors. We also set up Automatic Weather Stations in each watershed. Inflows, evaporation and infiltration were calculated at each site to evaluate how check dams alter hydrologic partitioning in the watershed as a whole.

  16. Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2009-05-01

    Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results.

  17. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  18. Climate change impact on forest cover and vegetation in Betwa Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmate, S. S.; Pandey, Ashish; Kumar, Dheeraj; Pandey, R. P.; Mishra, S. K.

    2014-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of climate change (described in terms of temperature and rainfall) on forest cover and vegetation (described in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) in the Betwa river basin, a tributary of River Yamuna in Central India. Temperature and rainfall data of 18 stations, forest cover and vegetation (derived using 5 years data from Landsat images employing ERDAS Imagine and ArcGIS) were used in the analysis. The effect of climate change was studied for both the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. In this study, the simple regression method was used to evaluate their relationship. In pre-monsoon season, temperature and forest cover analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6876 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.5751. Further, in post-monsoon season analysis rainfall and forest cover shows regression coefficient value of 0.8417 and, temperature and vegetation analysis shows regression coefficient value of 0.6854. The study reveals that, in pre-monsoon season temperature was significantly related with forest cover and vegetation. In post-monsoon season rainfall exhibited positive response to forest cover and, temperature exhibited negative response to vegetation in the Betwa river basin.

  19. Katrol Formation, Kutch, India: Varying interactions between eustasy and basin subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, P.K.; Seth, A.; Sarkar, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Local tectonics, which control sedimentation pattern eustasy, and sedimentation rate, are additional determinants for ultimate stratigraphy. The marine terrigenous Katrol Formation (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian), Kutch, India, illustrates their interplay at the passive margin of the Indian plate at its northwestern end. Recurrence of thick black shale is the signal of three major events of basin subsidence. Deepening was accompanied by ocean-bottom current activity, volcanic outpourings, and igneous intrusions, followed by deposition of tempestites (tsunami products ) and turbidites. Abundant synsedimentary extensional faults of various scales, their episodic reactivations, footwall collapse, detachment of laterally contiguous blocks, intrabasinal mass flows of unconsolidated sediments that disturbed and extruded undersurface sediments due to seismic seiches, truncated submarine fans-all attest to the instability of the depositional platform. Gradual relaxation in the rate of basin subsidence enabled the ongoing global eustatic fall, coupled with accelerated sedimentation to leave its record in the development of three regressive subsequences. Despite mass wasting of nearshore sediments into the offshore through storm and turbidity current transport the global trend of regression eventually controlled the stratigraphic scenario. Regressive phases when sufficiently prolonged led to the establishment of tidal and beach regimes. Stenohaline nektonic ammonites dwindled and suffered mass extinction at the end of the Tithonian when global regression attained its acme. The record of enfaunal activity, however, presents reverse trends, decreasing with intensification of local tectonism. The whole gamut of sedimentologic, paleontologic, and stratigraphic history of the Katrol Formation is apparently calibrated against the changing balance between global and local tectonics.

  20. Estimating Glacier Retreat through Satellite Based Observation In the Beas Basin, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Shruti; Ramanathan, Al.; Linda, Anurag

    2010-05-01

    Glaciers are now well recognized as the most reliable indicators of climate (IPCC, 2007), more particularly in the regions where there is an acute paucity in the availability of meteorological database. Subsequently it can be said that monitoring the glaciers is important to assess the overall reservoir health (Kulkarni et al., 2007). Almost negligible studies have been conducted to investigate the deglaciation status in the Indian Himalaya. A change detection analysis of the areal cover of glaciers in the Beas basin, India with the aid of remote sensing techniques in the present study concludes that the Beas basin has witnessed a loss of about 22.49 km2in the last four decades which is about 22% of the area. Another major aspect of this study is the noticeable retreat of the glaciers in the period 1972-1989. The glaciers in the Beas basin show larger area loss in this period as compared to the loss in area during the 1990s and later. Thus, it can be said that in spite of the alarming scenario of a continued recession of the glaciated terrain in the Beas basin, the pace of retreat has been observed to slow down after the 1990s. The loss has been more significant in the glaciers comprising of the area of 2-5 km2range as compared to the other categories. Glaciers in the area range more than 5 km2and less than 2 km2show less variation reflecting not much of significant loss. The total number of glaciers increased in the period of last four decades although not very significantly, indicating fragmentation. The glaciers in the range 0.5-2 km2 show a higher tendency towards fragmentation. The average elevation of the glaciers in the basin underwent an upward shift from 4565 m in the year 1972 to 4629 m in the year 2006 which is a reason for concern. The gradual upward shifting of contours over a period of almost four decades can be a consequence of a shift in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) which has been constantly moving upwards showing a retreat of glaciers in the

  1. The collision of South China with NW India to join Gondwanaland in the Cambrian: Provenance constraints from foreland basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The paleogeographic position of the South China Block (SCB) during the early Paleozoic is important for understanding its affinity with Gondwanaland and addressing potential tectonic trigger for both the early Paleozoic Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and similar-aged orogenic events along Gondwanan margins. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Cambrian sandstones/metasandstones from the southwestern SCB reveal a predominant population at 1100¬-950 Ma, and zircon Hf-O isotopic results suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth for the source provenance (ca. 3.0 Ga, ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.0 Ga), with major crustal reworking at 0.58-0.50 Ga. This provenance record is distinctly different from the known tectonomagmatic record of the SCB, but matches well with the provenance record of Cambrian sandstones and Cambro-Ordovician tectonomagmatic events in the NW Indian Himalaya. Such a provenance linkage between the two continents appears to have started from the Ediacaran. We thus propose that the SCB likely collided with NW India during the assembling of Gondwanaland between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian. The collisional event propagated to eastern Himalaya during Cambro-Ordovician time as South China rotated relative to India to close the remnant ocean, causing the Cambro-Ordovician North India orogeny (also known as the Kurgiakh orogeny) along the Himalaya, as well as the intraplate Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny (>460-415 Ma) in South China. This collisional event also generated two peripheral foreland basins on both the Indian Gondwanaland and the South China sides. The foreland basin on the South China side (the Nanhua foreland basin), started as a failed Neoproterozoic continental rift, and appears to have experienced two stage of development. During the first stage between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian, the basin likely shared the same detrital sources as the foreland basin in NW India, with sediments predominantly derived from the East Africa orogen and the

  2. Comparing land use change and climate change as drivers of hydrological change in the Upper Ganges basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying how land use changes and climate change affect hydrological components is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. The Upper Ganges river basin (India) experiences almost every year monsoon flooding (for instance: summer 2013 floods over northern India). Studies have shown that there is evidence of strong coupling between the land surface (soil moisture) and atmosphere (precipitation) in North India which means that regional climate variations and changes in landscape are influencing the temporal dynamics of land-atmosphere interactions. This study aims to quantify how land use changes and climate change affect the hydrological response of the Upper Ganges (UG) river basin. High-resolution historic land cover maps for northern India were developed, based on satellite imagery, for the years from 1984 to 2010. Future scenarios of land cover were produced for year 2035 using Markov chain analysis. Climate change scenarios were derived from downscaled CIMP5 data from 16 participating models. The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was dynamically coupled with the crop model InfoCrop to allow for dynamic representation of crop growth. The coupled system was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data and run under different future land cover and climate change scenarios, to obtain hydrological projections for the UG basin. We investigate the impact of seasonal and inter-annual land use changes as well as the impact of climate change by calculating annual variations in hydrological components (stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture) during the simulation period. Significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes arise under future land cover and climate change scenarios pointing towards a severe increase in high extremes of flow. The changes in all examined hydrological components are greater in the combined land use and climate change scenario

  3. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  4. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  6. Documenting channel features associated with gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, offshore India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.S.; Shankar, U.

    2011-01-01

    During the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 in 2006 significant sand and gas hydrate were recovered at Site NGHP-01-15 within the Krishna-Godavari Basin, East Coast off India. At the drill site NGHP-01-15, a 5-8m thick interval was found that is characterized by higher sand content than anywhere else at the site and within the KG Basin. Gas hydrate concentrations were determined to be 20-40% of the pore volume using wire-line electrical resistivity data as well as core-derived pore-fluid freshening trends. The gas hydrate-bearing interval was linked to a prominent seismic reflection observed in the 3D seismic data. This reflection event, mapped for about 1km2 south of the drill site, is bound by a fault at its northern limit that may act as migration conduit for free gas to enter the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) and subsequently charge the sand-rich layer. On 3D and additional regional 2D seismic data a prominent channel system was imaged mainly by using the seismic instantaneous amplitude attribute. The channel can be clearly identified by changes in the seismic character of the channel fill (sand-rich) and pronounced levees (less sand content than in the fill, but higher than in surrounding mud-dominated sediments). The entire channel sequence (channel fill and levees) has been subsequently covered and back-filled with a more mud-prone sediment sequence. Where the levees intersect the base of the GHSZ, their reflection strengths are significantly increased to 5- to 6-times the surrounding reflection amplitudes. Using the 3D seismic data these high-amplitude reflection edges where linked to the gas hydrate-bearing layer at Site NGHP-01-15. Further south along the channel the same reflection elements representing the levees do not show similarly large reflection amplitudes. However, the channel system is still characterized by several high-amplitude reflection events (a few hundred meters wide and up to ~1km in extent) interpreted as gas

  7. Seismic imaging of a fractured gas hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari Basin offshore India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.S.; Kumar, P.; Sathe, A.V.; Cook, A.

    2010-01-01

    Gas hydrate was discovered in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin during the India National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 1 at Site NGHP-01-10 within a fractured clay-dominated sedimentary system. Logging-while-drilling (LWD), coring, and wire-line logging confirmed gas hydrate dominantly in fractures at four borehole sites spanning a 500m transect. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data were subsequently used to image the fractured system and explain the occurrence of gas hydrate associated with the fractures. A system of two fault-sets was identified, part of a typical passive margin tectonic setting. The LWD-derived fracture network at Hole NGHP-01-10A is to some extent seen in the seismic data and was mapped using seismic coherency attributes. The fractured system around Site NGHP-01-10 extends over a triangular-shaped area of ~2.5 km2 defined using seismic attributes of the seafloor reflection, as well as " seismic sweetness" at the base of the gas hydrate occurrence zone. The triangular shaped area is also showing a polygonal (nearly hexagonal) fault pattern, distinct from other more rectangular fault patterns observed in the study area. The occurrence of gas hydrate at Site NGHP-01-10 is the result of a specific combination of tectonic fault orientations and the abundance of free gas migration from a deeper gas source. The triangular-shaped area of enriched gas hydrate occurrence is bound by two faults acting as migration conduits. Additionally, the fault-associated sediment deformation provides a possible migration pathway for the free gas from the deeper gas source into the gas hydrate stability zone. It is proposed that there are additional locations in the KG Basin with possible gas hydrate accumulation of similar tectonic conditions, and one such location was identified from the 3D seismic data ~6 km NW of Site NGHP-01-10. ?? 2010.

  8. Origin and Distribution Of Glacial Lakes: A Case Study In Tista Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are experiencing retreat due to changes in the temperature and precipitation pattern. Retreating glaciers depending upon the underlying bed topography can cause lake formation near terminus. Therefore formation and draining of lakes in the glaciated terrain of Himalaya is commonly observed. However, few lakes became stable under suitable geomorphologic conditions and grow sufficiently large to threaten population and infrastructure in downstream. In this investigation changes in glacial lakes in Tista basin were studied using satellite images for a period between 1989 and 2010. The Tista basin in Sikkim covers approximately 7096 sq km area and the total glaciated area is 501± 29 sq km. During the period of investigation the lake area is increased from 6.6 ± 0.8 km2 to 9.6 ± 1.1 km2 due to formation of new lakes and also due to expansion of existing lake. Out of 23 lakes, 16 showed variable increase in area. We have also observed formation of stable proglacial lake due to coalescence of small supra glacial lakes on Changsang and South Lhonak Glacier. The size of lake near South Lhonak Glacier was increased from 18 to 126 ha from 1978 to 2014 (Figure). Therefore detail field investigations were carried out to understand volume and extent of ice in end moraine. The water volume was estimated as 53 million m3 using bathymetric survey and ice at the core of terminal moraines was mapped using resistivity survey. These investigations suggests a possibility of catastrophic outburst flood, if moraine dam breached under extreme weather conditions. Therefore, mitigation strategy is needed to improve safety of people living in the region. In addition, numerous remote sensing based investigations have mapped more than 300 lakes in the glaciated terrain in India, therefore, a national program to monitor glacier lakes and strategy to mitigate possible disaster is needed. Figure: Expansion of the lake near South Lhonak glacier from year 1990 to 2014.

  9. Anisotropic P-wave velocity analysis and seismic imaging in onshore Kutch sedimentary basin of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Laxmidhar; Khare, Prakash; Sarkar, Dipankar

    2011-08-01

    The long-offset P-wave seismic reflection data has observable non-hyperbolic moveout, which depend on two parameters such as normal moveout velocity ( Vnmo) and the anisotropy parameter( η). Anisotropy (e.g., directional dependence of velocity at a fixed spatial location in a medium) plays an important role in seismic imaging. It is difficult to know the presence of anisotropy in the subsurface geological formations only from P-wave seismic data and special analysis is required for this. The presence of anisotropy causes two major distortions of moveout in P-wave seismic reflection data. First, in contrast to isotropic media, normal-moveout (NMO) velocity differs from the vertical velocity; and the second is substantial increase of deviations in hyperbolic moveout in an anisotropic layer. Hence, with the help of conventional velocity analysis based on short-spread moveout (stacking) velocities do not provide enough information to determine the true vertical velocity in a transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axis (VTI media). Therefore, it is essential to estimate the single anisotropic parameter ( η) from the long-offset P-wave seismic data. It has been demonstrated here as a case study with long-offset P-wave seismic data acquired in onshore Kutch sedimentary basin of western India that suitable velocity analysis using Vnmo and η can improve the stacking image obtained from conventional velocity analysis.

  10. Ichnofabric analysis of the Tithonian shallow marine sediments (Bhadasar Formation) Jaisalmer Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Bhawanisingh G.; Saklani, Rajendra Dutt

    2014-08-01

    The shallow marine sedimentary sequence of the Jaisalmer Basin exhibits one of the important and well-developed Tithonian sedimentary outcrops for western India. The ichnology and ichnofabric of the lower part of Bhadasar Formation (i.e., Kolar Dongar Member) belonging to Tithonian age are presented and discussed. The Kolar Dongar Member represents a shallow marine succession that contains 16 ichnotaxa: Ancorichnus ancorichnus, Conichnus conicus, Gyrochorte comosa, cf. Jamesonichnites heinbergi, Imponoglyphus kevadiensis, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Monocraterion tentaculatum, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Palaeophycus tubularis, P. bolbiterminus, Phycodes palmatus, Planolites beverleyensis, Rhizocorallium isp., Rosselia rotatus, R. socialis, and Teichichnus rectus. The ichnofabric analysis divulges five distinct ichnofabrics, each typifying distinct depositional environment within shallow marine conditions. The ichnofabric Ophiomorpha 1 with syn-sedimentary faulting exemplifies high energy conditions typical of lower shoreface environment, whereas the Ophiomorpha 2 ichnofabric typifies upper shoreface environment. The Ancorichnus ichnofabric reflects lower offshore condition of deposition. The high ichnodiversity Ancorichnus- Rosselia ichnofabric is indicative of inner shelf conditions, while low ichno-diversity Teichichnus ichnofabric indicates prevalence of low energy brackish bay environment. Thus, Tithonian Kolar Dongar Member indicates depositional environment ranging from shoreface to offshore to inner shelf and finally to brackish bay environment.

  11. Effects of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes on the hydrology of the Upper Ganges basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades India has undergone substantial environmental change. The expansion of agricultural land area to meet the demand of a rapidly increasing population and the increasing intensification of groundwater extractions have led to an alarming drop in the water table levels. The recent floods over northern India have raised concerns about how the regional climate variations and human induced changes in landscape are influencing the temporal dynamics of climate-surface-groundwater interactions. Earlier work by the authors developed high-resolution land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery, for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. These maps were used to drive the distributed version of the land surface model JULES in order to investigate the impact of inter-annual land cover changes in the hydrology of the Upper Ganges (UG) river basin in India. However, JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Since 60% of the study area is occupied by agriculture, the model was improved with routines that allow for dynamic representation of crop growth. The parametrization was done for the two main crops of the UG basin (wheat and rice), allowing for 2 cropping seasons per year. The impact of seasonal and inter-annual land cover changes was investigated by calculating variations in hydrological components such as stream flow, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The results show that the seasonal cycle is changing a lot when crop growth is taken into account, whereas annual fluxes do not change much. The dynamic coupling of land-surface schemes and crop models is an essential step toward the analysis of future changes of water resources in India caused by climate change, land use change, and potential interactions between both. This is a prerequisite for constructing decision support tools for regional land-use planning and management.

  12. Basement configuration of the West Bengal sedimentary basin, India as revealed by seismic refraction tomography: its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodara, N.; Rao, V. Vijaya; Sain, Kalachand; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.; Murty, A. S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the sedimentary thickness, structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin is attempted using pseudo 3-D configuration derived from the first arrival seismic refraction data. Velocity images of the West Bengal basin are derived using traveltime tomography along four profiles. The models are assessed for their reliability through chi-squares estimates, rms residual, traveltime fit, rays traced through the models and resolution by checkerboard tests. Tomographic images depict smooth velocity variations of Recent, Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of velocity 1.8-4.3 km s-1 deposited over the Rajmahal trap of 4.8 km s-1 velocity and the basement (5.9 km s-1) down to a maximum depth of 16 km. The present study indicates a south-easterly dip of basin as evidenced from the pseudo 3-D configuration. The basement depth along the seismic profiles varies from 1 to 16 km depending on its location in the basin. It is shallow in the north & west and deep in the east & south. The depth of the basement on the stable shelf of the basin in the west gently increases to about 8 km and dips to a maximum depth of 16 km in the deep basin part within a short distance in the east. The study identifies a regional feature, known as the Shelf break or the Hinge zone, where stable Indian shield ends and a sharp increase in sediment thickness occurs. The Hinge zone may represent the relict of continental and proto-oceanic crustal boundary formed during the rifting of India from Antarctica. The regional gravity map of the Bengal basin prepared in this study clearly brings out the Hinge zone with a linear gravity high that is compatible with seismic data. Presence of Shelf break/Hinge zone and Rajmahal volcanism in the basin suggests the influence of rifting of India from the combined Antarctica-Australia at ˜130 Ma due to mantle plume activity on the structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin. These features along with the elevated rift shoulder are in agreement with the

  13. Basement configuration of the West Bengal sedimentary basin, India as revealed by seismic refraction tomography: its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodara, N.; Rao, V. Vijaya; Sain, Kalachand; Prasad, Asssrs; Murty, Asn

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYUnderstanding the sedimentary thickness, structure and tectonics of the West Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> is attempted using pseudo 3-D configuration derived from the first arrival seismic refraction data. Velocity images of the West Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> are derived using traveltime tomography along four profiles. The models are assessed for their reliability through chi-squares estimates, rms residual, traveltime fit, rays traced through the models, and resolution by checkerboard tests. Tomographic images depict smooth velocity variations of Recent, Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of velocity 1.8-4.3 km/s deposited over the Rajmahal trap of 4.8 km/s velocity and the basement (5.9 km/s) down to a maximum depth of 16 km. The present study indicates a south-easterly dip of <span class="hlt">basin</span> as evidenced from the pseudo 3-D configuration. The basement depth along the seismic profiles varies from 1 km to 16 km depending on its location in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. It is shallow in the north & west and deep in the east & south. The depth of the basement on the stable shelf of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the west gently increases to about 8 km and dips to a maximum depth of 16 km in the deep <span class="hlt">basin</span> part within a short distance in the east. The study identifies a regional feature, known as the Shelf break or the Hinge zone, where stable Indian shield ends and a sharp increase in sediment thickness occurs. The Hinge zone may represent the relict of continental and proto-oceanic crustal boundary formed during the rifting of <span class="hlt">India</span> from Antarctica. The regional gravity map of the Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> prepared in this study clearly brings out the Hinge zone with a linear gravity high that is compatible with seismic data. Presence of Shelf break / Hinge zone and Rajmahal volcanism in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> suggests the influence of rifting of <span class="hlt">India</span> from the combined Antarctica-Australia at ˜130 Ma due to mantle plume activity on the structure and tectonics of the West Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span>. These features along with the elevated rift shoulder are in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCHyd..99...31M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JCHyd..99...31M"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>) and Eastern (Meghna sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E.; Hasan, Md. Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> within the <span class="hlt">basin</span> have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, Nadia, <span class="hlt">India</span>; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO3 water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (pe: + 5 to - 2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH4, Fe, Mn, NO3-, NH4+, SO42-) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18164513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18164513"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>) and Eastern (Meghna sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E; Hasan, Md Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra</p> <p>2008-07-29</p> <p>Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> within the <span class="hlt">basin</span> have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, Nadia, <span class="hlt">India</span>; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO(3) water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (p(e): +5 to -2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH(4), Fe, Mn, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-)) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JESS..122.1495D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JESS..122.1495D"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana <span class="hlt">basin</span>, central <span class="hlt">India</span>: Evidence for syn-sedimentary subsidence and faulting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhanam, K.; Kumar, P. Senthil; Mysaiah, D.; Prasad, P. Prabhakara; Seshunarayana, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Gondwana sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the Indian Shield preserve a rich record of tectonic, sedimentary and volcanic processes that affected Gondwanaland. The Gondwana rocks were deposited in the linear rift <span class="hlt">basins</span> that were formed during Permian-Cretaceous time, similar to their neighbours in Australia, Africa and Antarctica. In this study, we illustrate how Gondwana tectonics affected the Sohagpur Gondwana <span class="hlt">basin</span> that occurs at the junction of the Mahanadi and Son-Narmada rift systems in the central <span class="hlt">India</span>, through a high-resolution seismic reflection study along six profiles, covering the central part of the Sohagpur <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The study reveals (1) ˜1000 m thick, gently dipping Barakar Formation, (2) thick coal seams at a depth of 350-550 m, and (3) NNW-SSE to NW-SE striking steeply dipping normal faults defining rift geometry. These results indicate that the Sohagpur <span class="hlt">basin</span> contains a thick Lower Gondwana sedimentary succession with a high potential of coal resources and were affected by extensional tectonics. The rift structure in the study area is a syn- to post-sedimentary deformational structure that was formed arguably in response to tectonics that pervasively affected Gondwanaland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6317V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6317V"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical weathering and arsenic enrichment in aquifer of Brahmaputra River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, adjoining Eastern Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verma, Swati; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Mahanta, Chandan; Choudhury, Runti</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Arsenic (As) enrichment in the shallow aquifers of Brahmaputra river <span class="hlt">basin</span> (BRB), mostly located in the Indian state of Assam, has not been known for a long time. So far, very limited number of studies has been done to understand the geological and geochemical processes controlling groundwater chemistry and evolution in the BRB. The present study interprets the groundwater solute chemistry, hydrogeochemical evolution, As enrichment and aquifer characterization in BRB with special reference to two geologically distinct regions in upper Assam, <span class="hlt">India</span>. These regions consist of the northern (N) region (located along the Eastern Himalayas) and southern (S) region (near Indo-Burma Range) of the Brahmaputra <span class="hlt">basin</span> which shows distinct tectonic settings and sediments provinces in the Himalayas orogenic belt. Shallow alluvial aquifers of the northern part are mainly composed of grey/brown sand (fine, medium and course) and light grey clay however aquifers of southern part mainly composed of black/dark grey clay and fine grey sands. Aquifers of S-region are severely contaminated with dissolved As (maximum 0.45 mg/L) in comparison to the northern aquifers (maximum: 0.18 mg/L). However, both areas have similar reducing, postoxic environments with high concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), and saturation index calculations suggest that As is liberated primarily by reductive dissolution of metal oxides. Major mineralogical compositions of the aquifer sediments analysed by FESEM/EDX, XRD and thin section which indicate the major presence of Fe-oxide and oxyhydroxides, mica (muscovite and biotite), feldspar, pyroxene, abundance of quartz and some clay minerals whereas clay highly present in sediments of S-aquifers. The major-ion composition shows that groundwater composition is mainly Ca2+-HCO3- and Ca2+-Na+-HCO3 in N-region while S-region part is dominated by Na+-Ca2+-HCO3- hydrochemical facies. Molar ratios and thermodynamic calculations show that groundwater composition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...64M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...64M"><span id="translatedtitle">Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, West Bengal, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In <span class="hlt">India</span>, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9..583R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9..583R"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during Late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, NW <span class="hlt">India</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Important concerns about the consequences of climate change for <span class="hlt">India</span> are the potential impact on tropical cyclones and the monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch <span class="hlt">Basin</span>) as an indicator of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the Late Oligocene warming period (~27-24 Ma). Direct proxies providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system in the Early Miocene. The vast shell concentrations comprise a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deep to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished each recording a relative storm wave base depth. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore mollusks, corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclind foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinaceans; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. Vertical changes in these skeletal associations give evidence of gradually increasing tropical cyclone intensity in line with third-order sea level rise. The intensity of cyclones over the Arabian Sea is primarily linked to the strength of the Indian monsoon. Therefore and since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the Late Oligocene, the longer-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the Late Oligocene global warming (~24 Ma).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.670..115K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.670..115K"><span id="translatedtitle">Landform development in a zone of active Gedi Fault, Eastern Kachchh rift <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Rastogi, B. K.; Morthekai, P.; Dumka, Rakesh K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>An earthquake of 2006 Mw 5.7 occurred along east-west trending Gedi Fault (GF) to the north of the Kachchh rift <span class="hlt">basin</span> in western <span class="hlt">India</span> which had the epicenter in the Wagad upland, which is approximately 60 km northeast of the 2001 Mw 7.7 earthquake site (or epicenter). Development of an active fault scarp, shifting of a river channel, offsetting of streams and uplift of the ground indicate that the terrain is undergoing active deformation. Based on detailed field investigations, three major faults that control uplifts have been identified in the GF zone. These uplifts were developed in a step-over zone of the GF, and formed due to compressive force generated by left-lateral motion within the segmented blocks. In the present research, a terrace sequence along the north flowing Karaswali river in a tectonically active GF zone has been investigated. Reconstructions based on geomorphology and terrace stratigraphy supported by optical chronology suggest that the fluvial aggradation in the Wagad area was initiated during the strengthening (at ~ 8 ka) and declining (~ 4 ka) of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The presence of younger valley fill sediments which are dated ~ 1 ka is ascribed to a short lived phase of renewed strengthening of ISM before present day aridity. Based on terrace morphology two major phases of enhanced uplift have been estimated. The older uplift event dated to 8 ka is represented by the Tertiary bedrock surfaces which accommodated the onset of valley-fill aggradation. The younger event of enhanced uplift dated to 4 ka was responsible for the incision of the older valley fill sediments and the Tertiary bedrock. These ages suggest that the average rate of uplift ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 mm/yr during the last 9 ka implying active nature of the area.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ..tmp...48V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HydJ..tmp...48V"><span id="translatedtitle">Why seawater intrusion has not yet occurred in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is greatest when aquifers are overexploited or when recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The Kaluvelli-Pondicherry sedimentary <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Tamil Nadu (<span class="hlt">India</span>) presents both these characteristics. Groundwater levels in the Vanur aquifer can reach 50 m below sea level at less than 20 km inland. This groundwater depletion is due to an exponential increase in extraction for irrigation over 35 years. No seawater intrusion has yet been detected, but a sulphate-rich mineralization is observed, the result of upward vertical leakage from the underlying Ramanathapuram aquifer. To characterize the mechanisms involved, and to facilitate effective water management, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been applied to a quasi-3D hydrogeological model, NEWSAM. Recharge had been previously quantified through the inter-comparison of hydrological models, based on climatological and surface-flow field measurements. Sensitivity tests on parameters and boundary conditions associated with the sea were performed. The resulting water balances for each aquifer led to hypotheses of (1) an offshore fresh groundwater stock, and (2) a reversal and increase of the upward leakage from the Ramanathapuram aquifer, thus corroborating the hypothesis proposed to explain geochemical results of the previous study, and denying a seawater intrusion. Palaeo-climate review supports the existence of favourable hydro-climatological conditions to replenish an offshore groundwater stock of the Vanur aquifer in the past. The extent of this fresh groundwater stock was calculated using the Kooi and Groen method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..236T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..236T"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river <span class="hlt">basin</span> scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern <span class="hlt">India</span>, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24052238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24052238"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the <span class="hlt">basin</span> revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..329T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..329T"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery-Palar <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Eastern Continental Margin of <span class="hlt">India</span> based on seismic and potential field modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Twinkle, D.; Rao, G. Srinivasa; Radhakrishna, M.; Murthy, K. S. R.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Cauvery-Palar <span class="hlt">basin</span> is a major peri-cratonic rift <span class="hlt">basin</span> located along the Eastern Continental Margin of <span class="hlt">India</span> (ECMI) that had formed during the rift-drift events associated with the breakup of eastern Gondwanaland (mainly <span class="hlt">India</span>-Sri Lanka-East Antarctica). In the present study, we carry out an integrated analysis of the potential field data across the <span class="hlt">basin</span> to understand the crustal structure and the associated rift tectonics. The composite-magnetic anomaly map of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> clearly shows the onshore-to-offshore structural continuity, and presence of several high-low trends related to either intrusive rocks or the faults. The Curie depth estimated from the spectral analysis of offshore magnetic anomaly data gave rise to 23 km in the offshore Cauvery-Palar <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The 2D gravity and magnetic crustal models indicate several crustal blocks separated by major structures or faults, and the rift-related volcanic intrusive rocks that characterize the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The crustal models further reveal that the crust below southeast Indian shield margin is ˜36 km thick and thins down to as much as 13-16 km in the Ocean Continent Transition (OCT) region and increases to around 19-21 km towards deep oceanic areas of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The faulted Moho geometry with maximum stretching in the Cauvery <span class="hlt">basin</span> indicates shearing or low angle rifting at the time of breakup between <span class="hlt">India</span>-Sri Lanka and the East Antarctica. However, the additional stretching observed in the Cauvery <span class="hlt">basin</span> region could be ascribed to the subsequent rifting of Sri Lanka from <span class="hlt">India</span>. The abnormal thinning of crust at the OCT is interpreted as the probable zone of emplaced Proto-Oceanic Crust (POC) rocks during the breakup. The derived crustal structure along with other geophysical data further reiterates sheared nature of the southern part of the ECMI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41C2604C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41C2604C"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure and magnetic lineation along two geo-traverses from western continental margin of <span class="hlt">India</span> to Eastern Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, NW Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaubey, A. K.; Anshu, A.; Sreejith, K.; Pandey, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Shipborne gravity and magnetic data along two parallel geo-traverses spanning from western continental margin of <span class="hlt">India</span> to off Seychelles are used to delineate crustal structure and magnetic pattern of major structural features - western continental margin of <span class="hlt">India</span>, Laxmi <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Laxmi Ridge, Arabian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, slow spreading Carlsberg Ridge and Eastern Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The seismically constrained gravity models along the geo-traverses suggest considerable variation in crustal thickness - about 38 km on continental shelf of western <span class="hlt">India</span> to about 4 km of the Eastern Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The Eastern Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is characterized by thin oceanic crustal thickness (~3 to 4 km) as compared to its conjugate Arabian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> where thickness varies from 5 to 6 km. The magnetic anomalies along the geo-traverse reveal three distinct zones: (i) a zone of relative high frequency short wavelength younger anomalies over the axial parts of the Carlsberg Ridge, (ii) a zone of well developed Early Tertiary magnetic anomalies in both the Arabian and Eastern Somali <span class="hlt">basins</span>, and (iii) relative magnetic quiet zone, between the above two zones, representing a hiatus in spreading. Based on the results, we present a comparative analysis of crustal configuration and magnetic pattern of major structural features of the study area and discuss its tectonic evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H53H1528M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H53H1528M"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption in a tropical river <span class="hlt">basin</span> (Swarna River), Southwestern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muguli, T.; Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Audry, S.; Riotte, J.; Braun, J.; Chadaga, M.; Shankar HN, U.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Chemical weathering in river <span class="hlt">basins</span> forms the key process to study the global climate change on a long term scale due to its association with the carbon sequestration. Water samples from a west flowing tropical river (Swarna River) of Southern <span class="hlt">India</span> were collected for a period of two years to study the chemical weathering process and to quantify the weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption rates in the river <span class="hlt">basin</span>. In addition, the major ion chemistry of Swarna River is studied for the first time on a spatial and temporal (monthly) scale to decipher the factors (lithology, precipitation/ discharge, temperature, slope and physical weathering) controlling the chemical weathering process. Swarna River originates in Western Ghats at an altitude of 1100 m above mean sea level and flows westwards draining Peninsular Gneiss and Dharwar Schist to join the Arabian Sea near Udupi. The river <span class="hlt">basin</span> receives annual rainfall of 4500 mm and experiences warm climate with average temperature of 30°C. Major ion composition and radiogenic strontium isotopic composition measured in the Swarna river water reflects the influence of silicate rocks in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The river water chemistry is found to be least affected by anthropogenic impact; however, the effect of evaporation is observed on few samples during the peak dry season. The atmospheric inputs and carbonate contributions to the river water are corrected to estimate the silicate weathering rate (SWR) and the associated carbon-dioxide consumption rate (CCR) using local rainwater and bed rock composition respectively. The SWR and CCR in the Swarna river <span class="hlt">basin</span> are estimated to be 46 tons/km2/yr and 4.4 x 10^5 mol/km2/yr respectively. This estimation is observed to be relatively higher than the recently reported SWR and CCR in the adjacent larger Nethravati river <span class="hlt">basin</span> (Gurumurthy et al., 2012). The increased rate could be attributed to the relatively higher precipitation in the Swarna river <span class="hlt">basin</span> than the lithological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.B42A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.B42A..03S"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi Proxy Approach to Discriminate Groundwater Vulnerability to Contamination: Thirumanimuttar Sub <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, South <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Murugesan, V.; Gopinath, S.; Hydrogeochemistry Group</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The study area Thirumanimuttar sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> is one of the major tributaries of river Cauvery in southern part of <span class="hlt">India</span>, facing serious problem both in quality and quantity due to the increasing in demand associated with rapid population growth, agricultural and industrial activities. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected from bore wells for Pre monsoon (PRM) and Post monsoon (POM) seasons to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution and related geochemical process. The water is neutral to alkaline in nature with an average pH of 7.37. Higher electrical conductivity (EC) were noted in western and mid-downstream parts of the study area. Higher NO3- observed during POM due to the action of anthropogenic process. The piper plot reveals the dominance of Na- Cl and Na- HCO3, mixed Ca - Na - HCO3, mixed Ca - Mg - HCO3 and Ca - SO4 facies. The (Ca +Mg) vs TZ+ plot reveals higher Ca and Mg due to silicate weathering from aquifers. Saturation index of silicate, carbonate and fluoride minerals indicates oversaturation and equilibrium state. Groundwater samples were also analysed for stable isotopes [Oxygen (18O), Hydrogen (2H or Deuterium)] and trace elements like Al, Ni and Pb. The study reveals groundwater undergone evaporation prior infiltration. The d-excess of the groundwater varied between -4.89 to 10.08 ‰ indicating water undergone strong evaporation during recharge. The isotope ratios signify ionic increases along groundwater flow path. The water type's classified 5 distinct groups with low EC and highly depleted isotopes to very high EC with enriched stable isotopic composition indicating longer residing groundwater. Trace element study indicates Al, Ni and Pb exceeding acceptable limit by WHO, 1994. The spatial plot shows higher Cr due to textile dyeing units. Residual Sodium Carbonate value indicates samples not suitable for irrigation purposes. Higher sodium percentage is noted during PRM. Higher sodium adsorption ratio observed during POM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.432..363Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.432..363Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the collision and the pre-collision tectonic configuration between <span class="hlt">India</span> and Asia from detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry studies in the lower Indus <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Guillot, Stéphane; Roddaz, Martin; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Métais, Grégoire; Carter, Andrew; Marivaux, Laurent; Solangi, Sarfraz H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the timing of <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding the evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen and its role in global climate, oceanic chemistry, and ecological evolution. Despite much active research, the basic pre-collision tectonic configuration and the timing of terminal <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia suturing remain debated. For example, debates regarding when and how the intervening Kohistan-Ladakh arc was sutured with <span class="hlt">India</span> and Asia still remain elusive; some models propose the arc collided with Asia at about 100 Ma, with <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision at ca. 55 Ma, whilst a newer model proposed the arc's collision with <span class="hlt">India</span> at 50 Ma and subsequently with Asia at 40 Ma. Another example is the recent proposition that an oceanic Greater <span class="hlt">India</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> separated the Tethyan Himalaya microcontinent from the remaining Indian plate until 20- 25 Ma with the consumption of this oceanic <span class="hlt">basin</span> marking the final collision at this time. These controversies relate to whether the commonly documented 50 Ma contact represents the terminal <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia suturing or the amalgamation between various arcs or microcontinents with <span class="hlt">India</span> or Asia. Here we present an integrated provenance study of geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry on the late Cretaceous-Pleistocene sediments from the lower Indus <span class="hlt">basin</span> on the Indian plate. The detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track data show a reversal in sediment source from a pure Indian signature to increasing inputs from the suture zone and the Asian plate between the middle Paleocene and early Oligocene. The Nd and Sr isotopes narrow down this change to 50 Ma by revealing input of Asian detritus and the establishment of a Nd & Sr isotopic pattern similar to the present-day Indus Fan by 50 Ma, with no significant variations up section, contrary to what might be expected if later major collisions had occurred. Our isotopic data indicate that Greater <span class="hlt">India</span> was occupied by a fluvial-deltaic system, analogous to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038540"><span id="translatedtitle">Microhealth insurance and the risk coping strategies for the management of illness in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>: a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savitha, B; K B, Kiran</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Risk coping strategies adopted by the households in the event of illness depends on the accessibility to healthcare financing mechanisms including health insurance. The empirical evidence on the effect of microhealth insurance (MHI) on the risk coping strategies of the households is scarce. This paper evaluates the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Program, a nongovernmental organization-initiated MHI scheme and the risk coping strategies of households faced with medical illness in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state, <span class="hlt">India</span>. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we collected data from 416 insured households, 366 newly insured households and 364 uninsured households in randomly selected 10 taluks in three districts of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state, <span class="hlt">India</span>. We hypothesized that insured individuals rely less on ex post risk coping strategies (borrowing, use of savings and sale of assets) compared with uninsured and newly insured individuals. Our hypothesis was tested using logistic and linear regression analysis. A significant difference among insured, uninsured and newly insured individuals was found for borrowing but not in the use of savings or sale of assets. A positive impact of MHI on illness-induced borrowing (both incidence and amount) was evident. The evidence from this study reinforces the role of MHI as a pivotal financing alternative to out-of-pocket expenditure in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25509950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25509950"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial quality of lakes around Dharwad City, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bagade, N S; Belagali, S L</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Water being an essential component of food chain of living beings is contaminated day-by-day in the increasing order due to public apathy and improper management of water sources like lakes, reservoirs and ponds. The microbiological studies of Kelageri, Nuggikeri, Navalur, Neerasagar and Salakinakoppa lakes located around Dharwad were carried out with respect to total plate count (TPC),Total Fungal count (TFC) and total Coliform. They are highly contaminated with bacterial species like fecal Coliforms, E. coli, Bacillus species, Actinomycetes, Monococcus sps, Streptococcus sps. and Fungal sps like Pencilium, Fusarium, Mucor , Rhizopus, Yeast cells. The results indicate that the lakes except Neerasagar lake were considered to be unfit for drinking purpose due to the excess of anthropogenic activities, inflow of water through widespread agricultural land and stream, where the dairy industry, poultry, brick manufacturing unit, animal husbandry are maintained. The extent of pollution of water depends upon the dense population of these microorganisms which vary in rainy, winter and summer seasons. The presence of Fecal Streptococcal species viz., S. fecalis, S. equinus, S. faecium, S. bovis, S. avium, indicate the fecal pollution with seasonal variations throughout the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26044433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26044433"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain KG-4, Isolated from Soil Samples Collected from Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawar, Chhavi; Aggarwal, Ramesh K</p> <p>2015-06-04</p> <p>We report here the 5.58-Mb draft genome of Pseudomonas putida strain KG-4 obtained from the oil fields of the Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Andhra Pradesh, <span class="hlt">India</span>. The genome sequence is expected to facilitate identification and understanding of genes associated with hydrocarbon metabolism, which can help in developing strategies for managing oil spills and bioremediation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472842"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus rhodochrous Strain KG-21, a Soil Isolate from Oil Fields of Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawar, Chhavi; Aggarwal, Ramesh K</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Here, we present the 6.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain KG-21, a soil isolate from the oil fields of Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Andhra Pradesh, <span class="hlt">India</span>. This genomic resource may help in the identification of the gene(s) involved in hydrocarbon degradation and their possible deployment for bioremediation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H41E0856K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H41E0856K"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of SCS CN Method for Runoff Estimation with Field Observed Regression Analysis Results in Venna <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Central <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katpatal, Y. B.; Paranjpe, S. V.; Kadu, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Effective Watershed management requires authentic data of surface runoff potential for which several methods and models are in use. Generally, non availability of field data calls for techniques based on remote observations. Soil Conservation Services Curve Number (SCS CN) method is an important method which utilizes information generated from remote sensing for estimation of runoff. Several attempts have been made to validate the runoff values generated from SCS CN method by comparing the results obtained from other methods. In the present study, runoff estimation through SCS CN method has been performed using IRS LISS IV data for the Venna <span class="hlt">Basin</span> situated in the Central <span class="hlt">India</span>. The field data was available for Venna <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The Land use/land cover and soil layers have been generated for the entire watershed using the satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS). The Venna <span class="hlt">basin</span> have been divided into intercepted catchment and free catchment. Run off values have been estimated using field data through regression analysis. The runoff values estimated using SCS CN method have been compared with yield values generated using data collected from the tank gauge stations and data from the discharge stations. The correlation helps in validation of the results obtained from the SCS CN method and its applicability in Indian conditions. Key Words: SCS CN Method, Regression Analysis, Land Use / Land cover, Runoff, Remote Sensing, GIS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H11D1371J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H11D1371J"><span id="translatedtitle">Parameter Identification and Uncertainty Analysis for Visual MODFLOW based Groundwater Flow Model in a Small River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Eastern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jena, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The overexploitation of groundwater resulted in abandoning many shallow tube wells in the river <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Eastern <span class="hlt">India</span>. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, <span class="hlt">basin</span>-scale modelling of groundwater flow is essential for the efficient planning and management of the water resources. The main intent of this study is to develope a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study <span class="hlt">basin</span> using the Visual MODFLOW package and successfully calibrate and validate it using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were adopted as two criteria during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE and R2 values of groundwater flow model for calibration and validation periods were in acceptable range. Also, the MCMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4862630','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4862630"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, South-Western <span class="hlt">India</span> during the Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B.; S., Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) <span class="hlt">India</span> have preserved abundance of organic—rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub—coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba <span class="hlt">Basin</span> have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon—lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0–3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river <span class="hlt">basins</span> during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of <span class="hlt">India</span>. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW <span class="hlt">India</span>. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27163658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27163658"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical Peat and Peatland Development in the Floodplains of the Greater Pamba <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, South-Western <span class="hlt">India</span> during the Holocene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumaran, Navnith K P; Padmalal, Damodaran; Limaye, Ruta B; S, Vishnu Mohan; Jennerjahn, Tim; Gamre, Pradeep G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Holocene sequences in the humid tropical region of Kerala, South-western (SW) <span class="hlt">India</span> have preserved abundance of organic-rich sediments in the form of peat and its rapid development in a narrow time frame towards Middle Holocene has been found to be significant. The sub-coastal areas and flood plains of the Greater Pamba <span class="hlt">Basin</span> have provided palaeorecords of peat indicating that the deposits are essentially formed within freshwater. The combination of factors like stabilized sea level and its subsequent fall since the Middle Holocene, topographic relief and climatic conditions led to rapid peat accumulation across the coastal lowlands. The high rainfall and massive floods coupled with a rising sea level must have inundated > 75% of the coastal plain land converting it into a veritable lagoon-lake system that eventually led to abrupt termination of the forest ecosystem and also converted the floodplains into peatland where accumulation of peat almost to 2.0-3.0 m thickness in coastal lowlands and river <span class="hlt">basins</span> during the shorter interval in the Middle Holocene. Vast areas of the coastal plains of Kerala have been converted into carbon rich peatland during the Middle Holocene and transforming the entire coastal stretch and associated landforms as one of the relatively youngest peatlands in the extreme southern tip of <span class="hlt">India</span>. Unlike the uninterrupted formation of peatlands of considerable extent during the Holocene in Southeast Asia, the south Peninsular Indian region has restricted and short intervals of peatlands in the floodplains and coastal lowlands. Such a scenario is attributed to the topographic relief of the terrain and the prevailing hydrological regimes and environmental conditions as a consequence of monsoon variability since Middle Holocene in SW <span class="hlt">India</span>. Considering the tropical coastal lowlands and associated peatlands are excellent repositories of carbon, they are very important for regional carbon cycling and habitat diversity. The alarming rate of land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II8...37B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II8...37B"><span id="translatedtitle">A Revised Glacier Inventory of Bhaga <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Himachal Pradesh, <span class="hlt">India</span> : Current Status and Recent Glacier Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birajdar, F.; Venkataraman, G.; Bahuguna, I.; Samant, H.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Himalayan glaciers show large uncertainty regarding their present and future state due to their sensitive reaction towards change in climatic condition. Himalayan glaciers are unique as they are located in tropical, high altitude regions, predominantly valley type and many are covered with debris. The great northern plains of <span class="hlt">India</span> sustain on the perennial melt of glaciers meeting the water requirements of agriculture, industries, domestic sector even in the months of summer when large tracts of the country go dry. Therefore, it is important to monitor and assess the state of snow and glaciers and to know the sustainability of glaciers in view of changing global scenarios of climate and water security of the nation. Any information pertaining to Himalayan glaciers is normally difficult to be obtained by conventional means due to its harsh weather and rugged terrains. Due to the ecological diversity and geographical vividness, major part of the Indian Himalaya is largely un-investigated. Considering the fact that Himalayan glaciers are situated in a harsh environment, conventional techniques of their study is challenging and difficult both in terms of logistics and finances whereas the satellite remote sensing offers a potential mode for monitoring glaciers in long term. In order to gain an updated overview of the present state of the glacier cover and its changes since the previous inventories, an attempt has been made to generate a new remotesensing- derived glacier inventory on 1:50,000 scale for Bhaga <span class="hlt">basin</span> (N32°28'19.7'' - N33°0'9.9'' ; E76°56'16.3'' - E77°25'23.7'' ) Western Himalaya covering an area of 1695.63 km2. having 231 glaciers and occupying glacierized area of 385.17 ±3.71 km2. ranging from 0.03 km2. to 29.28 km2. Glacier inventory has been carried out using high resolution IRS P6 LISS III data of 2011, ASTER DEM and other ancillary data. Specific measurements of mapped glacier features are the inputs for generating the glacier inventory data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2693491','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2693491"><span id="translatedtitle">Neonatal care in rural <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in <span class="hlt">India</span>. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) program being implemented in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) could enable more women to be reached. With careful tailoring of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3990D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3990D"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic control on Pleistocene <span class="hlt">basin</span>-filling processes and landscape evolution: the intermontane Kangra <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, NW Sub-Himalaya, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The growth of a collisional mountain belt like the Himalaya is dynamically coupled both to tectonics and climate and can result in strong temporal variations in the delivery of sediment to intermontane <span class="hlt">basins</span> and the foreland. Orogenic critical taper models have been helpful to explain the processes controlling the evolution of mountain fronts in such settings. Rapid and voluminous sediment accumulations might destabilize the orogenic wedge and force architectural re-organization by outward propagation of the deformation front, while <span class="hlt">basin</span> evacuation can induce out-of-sequence-thrusting to return the wedge to a critical taper. Structural reentrants along the Himalayan front are promising locations to study sediment delivery, storage, and sediment-evacuation mechanisms, as those areas commonly expose extensive transiently stored foreland-<span class="hlt">basin</span> sediments. The Kangra re-entrant in the NW Sub-Himalaya hosts intermontane valley fills of Pleistocene age, eroded from the Dhauladhar Range. The sediments were unconformably deposited on top of Neogene foreland-<span class="hlt">basin</span> sediments (i.e. the Siwaliks) in the hanging wall of the NW-SE striking Jwalamukhi Thrust. This major sediment accumulation phase appears to have preceded a phase of sediment evacuation in the course of episodic re-incision into the fill unit, which carved a series of fill-terrace levels. Angular unconformities, differential fluvial incision, tilted fluvial terraces, drainage re-organization, and steepened river segments in the hanging wall of the Jwalamukhi Thrust indicate post-depositional shortening and uplift in the Kangra re-entrant. From this evidence, we infer a primary importance of the Jwalamukhi Thrust in controlling the Quaternary sediment deposition in the Kangra re-entrant - however, we cannot exclude the influence of climate as the main trigger for sediment aggradation and subsequent excavation. However, knickpoints and steep river-channel gradients crossing other tectonic structures within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..785A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..785A"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of trends in streamflow and its linkages with rainfall and anthropogenic factors in Gomti River <span class="hlt">basin</span> of North <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abeysingha, N. S.; Singh, Man; Sehgal, V. K.; Khanna, Manoj; Pathak, Himanshu</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Trend analysis of hydro-climatic variables such as streamflow, rainfall, and temperature provides useful information for effective water resources planning, designing, and management. Trends in observed streamflow at four gauging stations in the Gomti River <span class="hlt">basin</span> of North <span class="hlt">India</span> were assessed using the Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope for the 1982 to 2012 period. The relationships between trends in streamflow and rainfall were studied by correlation analyses. There was a gradual decreasing trend of annual, monsoonal, and winter seasonal streamflow ( p < 0.05) from the midstream to the downstream of the river and also a decreasing trend of annual streamflow for the 5-year moving averaged standardized anomalies of streamflow for the entire <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The declining trend in the streamflow was attributed partly to the increased water withdrawal, to increased air temperature, to higher population, and partly to significant reducing trend of post monsoon rainfall especially at downstream. Upstream gauging station showed a significant increasing trend of streamflow (1.6 m3/s/year) at annual scale, and this trend was attributed to the significant increasing trend of catchment rainfall (9.54 mm/year). It was further evident in the significant coefficient of positive correlation ( ρ = 0.8) between streamflow and catchment rainfall. The decreasing trend in streamflow and post-monsoon rainfall especially towards downstream area with concurrent increasing trend of temperature indicates a drying tendency of the Gomti River <span class="hlt">basin</span> over the study period. The results of this study may help stakeholders to design streamflow restoration strategies for sustainable water management planning of the Gomti River <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinPe.110..247R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinPe.110..247R"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic lamproite dykes from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western Cuddapah <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, southern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Atiullah; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Samarendra; Nanda, Purnendu; Chahong, Ngazimpi; Lehmann, B.; Rao, K. V. S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report mineral chemistry and whole-rock major and trace-element geochemistry for a recent find of Mesoproterozoic (~1.4 Ga) lamproites from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western part of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, southern <span class="hlt">India</span>. The Garledinne lamproites occur as WNW-ESE-trending dykes that have undergone varying degree of pervasive silicification and carbonate alteration. Nevertheless, their overall texture and relict mineralogy remain intact and provide important insights into the nature of their magmas. The lamproite dykes have porphyritic to weakly porphyritic textures comprising pseudomorphed olivine macrocrysts and microphenocrysts, titanian phlogopite microphenocrysts, spinel having a compositional range from chromite to rarely magnesiochromite, Sr-rich apatite and niobian rutile. The Garledinne and other Cuddapah <span class="hlt">Basin</span> lamproites (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) collectively lack sanidine, clinopyroxene, potassic richterite, and titanite and are thus mineralogically distinct from the nearby Mesoproterozoic lamproites (Krishna and Ramadugu) in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern <span class="hlt">India</span>. The strong correlation between various major and trace elements coupled with high abundances of incompatible and compatible trace elements imply that alteration and crustal contamination have had a limited effect on the whole-rock geochemistry (apart from K2O and CaO) of the Garledinne lamproites and that olivine fractionation played an important role in their evolution. The Garledinne lamproites represent small-degree partial melts derived from a refractory (previously melt extracted) peridotitic mantle source that was subsequently metasomatised (enriched) by carbonate-rich fluids/melts within the garnet stability field. The involvement of multiple reservoirs (sub-continental lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere) has been inferred in their genesis. The emplacement of the Garledinne lamproites is linked to extensional events, across the various</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED41A3454M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED41A3454M"><span id="translatedtitle">Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Northeast <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mock, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast <span class="hlt">India</span>. These dams can generate 43% of <span class="hlt">India</span>'s assessed hydropower potential to sustain <span class="hlt">India</span>'s growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast <span class="hlt">India</span> provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast <span class="hlt">India</span>, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11179715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11179715"><span id="translatedtitle">Permian, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous palynofloral assemblages from subsurface sedimentary rocks in Chuperbhita Coalfield, Rajmahal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tripathi, A</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>The results of a palynological analysis of the sedimentary sequence of Borehole RCH-151, Chuperbhita Coalfield, Rajmahal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Bihar are presented here. The borehole penetrated the Rajmahal Formation (comprising two traps sandwiching an intertrappean bed), the thinly represented Dubrajpur Formation and in its lower part, the Coal Measures. The coal-bearing interval is associated with Scheuringipollenites barakarensis, Faunipollenites varius, Densipollenites indicus, Gondisporites raniganjensis and Densipollenites magnicorpus Assemblage Zones. The presence of these biostratigraphic units indicates correlation with the Barakar Formation (Early Permian) and the Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations (both Late Permian). This is the first record, in the Chuperbhita Coalfield, of Late Permian strata, which appear to represent a condensed sequence. Prior to the present study, the Permian succession was thought to have been associated entirely with the Barakar Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation yielded a distinct spore-pollen assemblage (in association with the first report of dinoflagellate, Phallocysta), which is assigned to the newly identified Callialasporites turbatus palynozone of latest Early to early Middle Jurassic age. The diverse spore-pollen flora of the intertrappean bed (Rajmahal Formation) incorporates several age marker taxa, viz. Undulatisporites, Leptolepidites, Klukisporites, Ruffordiaspora, and Coptospora. The assemblages from intertrappean beds are correlated with the Ruffordiaspora australiensis palynozone of Australia. Thus the palynodating indicates Permian, latest Early to early Mid-Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age for the strata studied. This is the first record of definite Jurassic microfossils from the non-marine sequence of Rajmahal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PApGe.163.1583G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PApGe.163.1583G"><span id="translatedtitle">Coda Q in the Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Western <span class="hlt">India</span> Using Aftershocks of the Bhuj Earthquake of January 26, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, S. C.; Kumar, Ashwani; Shukla, A. K.; Suresh, G.; Baidya, P. R.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Q C -estimates of Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in western <span class="hlt">India</span> have been obtained in a high frequency range from 1.5 to 24.0 Hz using the aftershock data of Bhuj earthquake of January 26, 2001 recorded within an epicentral distance of 80 km. The decay of coda waves of 30 sec window from 186 seismograms has been analysed in four lapse time windows, adopting the single backscattering model. The study shows that Q c is a function of frequency and increases as frequency increases. The frequency dependent Q c relations obtained for four lapse-time windows are: Q c =82 f 1.17 (20 50 sec), Q c =106 f 1.11 (30 60 sec), Q c =126f 1.03 (40 70 sec) and Q c =122f 1.02 (50 80 sec). These empirical relations represent the average attenuation properties of a zone covering the surface area of about 11,000, 20,000, 28,000 and 38,000 square km and a depth extent of about 60, 80, 95, 110 km, respectively. With increasing window length, the degree of frequency dependence, n, decreases marginally from 1.17 to 1.02, whereas Q 0 increases significantly from 82 to 122. At lower frequencies up to 6 Hz, Q c -1 of Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is in agreement with other regions of the world, whereas at higher frequencies from 12 to 24 Hz it is found to be low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17180415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17180415"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Cuddalore district, South <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>The Lower Ponnaiyar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> forms an important groundwater province in South <span class="hlt">India</span> constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=public+AND+transport&pg=2&id=EJ845685','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=public+AND+transport&pg=2&id=EJ845685"><span id="translatedtitle">Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> State, South <span class="hlt">India</span>. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...145..116Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...145..116Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Trend and concentration characteristics of precipitation and related climatic teleconnections from 1982 to 2010 in the Beas River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, Yixing; Xu, Chong-Yu; Chen, Haishan; Li, Lu; Xu, Hongliang; Li, Hong; Jain, Sharad K.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Beas River, located in the Western Himalayan mountainous regions in <span class="hlt">India</span>, is one of the major tributaries of the Indus River. However, recent changes of precipitation and related climatic teleconnections in this river <span class="hlt">basin</span> have rarely been investigated yet. In this study, the trend and concentration characteristics of precipitation during1982-2010 are investigated by using Mann-Kendall trend test and two kinds of concentration indices. The climatic teleconnections are explored with the help of cross correlation, wavelet transform and composite analysis, revealing the relationship of precipitation with climatic indices of Indian summer monsoon (ISM), El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The results indicate that: (1) Precipitation of most of the stations increased in the monsoon season while precipitation of all the stations decreased in the non-monsoon seasons. As a result, the annual precipitation of the majority of the stations was on the decrease. (2) A general increase in the precipitation Gini coefficient and precipitation concentration degree (PCD) was detected. Moreover, the precipitation concentration period (PCP) is mainly within the period from May to August, and more PCP occurred in the monsoon months recently. (3) The relationship between monsoon precipitation and ISM is not significant in the Beas River <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The relationship between precipitation and ENSO in winter is less significant than in the monsoon season, and the relationship of monsoon/winter precipitation with IOD is not as evident as that with ENSO. Besides, ENSO and NAO play important roles in the changes of monsoon and winter precipitation in the Beas River <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V53D3144Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V53D3144Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetostratigraphic Record of the Early Evolution of the Southwestern Tian Shan Foreland <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (Ulugqat Area), Interactions with Pamir Indentation and <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia Collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, W.; Wang, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Tian Shan range is an inherited intracontinental structure reactivated by the far-field effects of <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision. A growing body of thermochronology and magnetostratigraphy datasets shows the range grew through several tectonic pulses since ~25 Ma, however the early Cenozoic history remains poorly constrained. Particularly enigmatic is the time-lag between the Eocene <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision and the Miocene onset of Tian Shan exhumation. This peculiar period is potentially recorded along the southwestern Tian Shan piedmont. There, recently dated late Eocene marine deposits of the proto-Paratethys epicontinental sea transition to continental foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> sediments of unknown age. We provide magnetostratigraphic dating of these continental sediments from the 1700-m-thick Mine section integrated with previously published detrital apatite fission track and U/Pb zircon ages. The most likely correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale indicates an age span from 20.8 to 13.3 Ma with a marked accumulation rate increase at 19-18 Ma. This implies the entire Oligocene period is missing between the last marine and first continental sediments, as suggested by previous southwestern Tian Shan results. This differs from the southwestern Tarim <span class="hlt">basin</span> where Eocene marine deposits are continuously overlain by late Eocene-Oligocene continental sediments. This supports a simple evolution model of the western Tarim <span class="hlt">basin</span> with Eocene-Oligocene foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> activation to the south related to northward thrusting of the Kunlun Shan, followed by early Miocene activation of northern foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> related to overthrusting of the south Tian Shan. Our data also support southward propagation of the Tian Shan piedmont from 20-18 Ma that may relate to motion on the Talas Fergana Fault. The coeval activation of a major right-lateral strike-slip system allowing indentation of the Pamir Salient into the Tarim <span class="hlt">basin</span>, suggest far-field deformation from the <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision zone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2894Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2894Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the collision and the pre-collision tectonic configuration between <span class="hlt">India</span> and Asia from detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry studies in the lower Indus <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Guillot, Stephane; Roddaz, Martin; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Metais, Gregoire; Carter, Andrew; Marivaux, Laurent; Solangi, Sarfraz</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The timing of <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia suturing in the Western Himalaya is complex, with the relative timings of collision between the Indian plate and Asian plate with the Kohistan Island arc and a proposed Tethyan Himalayan microcontinent, debated. Here we present an integrated provenance study of geochronology, thermochronology, and geochemistry on the late Cretaceous-Pleistocene sediments from the lower Indus <span class="hlt">basin</span> on the Indian plate. The detrital zircon U-Pb and fission track data show a reversal in sediment source from a pure Indian signature to increasing inputs from the suture zone and the Asian plate between the middle Paleocene and early Oligocene. The Nd and Sr isotopes narrow down this change to 50 Ma by revealing input of Asian detritus and the establishment of a Nd & Sr isotopic pattern similar to that of the present-day Indus Fan by 50 Ma, with no significant variations up section, contrary to what might be expected if later major collisions had occurred. Our isotopic data indicate that since 50 Ma, Greater <span class="hlt">India</span> was occupied by a fluvial-deltaic system, analogous to the present-day Indus and named as the Paleo-Indus, which has been transporting Asian detritus southward across the suture zone and Kohistan-Ladakh arc. This suggests that no other ocean <span class="hlt">basins</span> were located between <span class="hlt">India</span> and Asia after this time in this region. Our data require that in the west, the <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision was accomplished by ˜50 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4843287','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4843287"><span id="translatedtitle">Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Siddanna, Sunitha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. Aim The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methods A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. Results The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. Conclusion PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for. PMID:27134901</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21169338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21169338"><span id="translatedtitle">Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state (<span class="hlt">India</span>), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552076"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate analysis of groundwater resources in Ganga-Yamuna <span class="hlt">basin</span> (<span class="hlt">India</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sargaonkar, Aabha P; Gupta, Apurba; Devotta, Sukumar</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Groundwater quality data on physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal concentrations in three cities (Faridabad, Allahabad and Varanasi) in Ganga-Yamuna <span class="hlt">basin</span> was subjected to multivariate analysis (MVA) using SPSS. The factors extracted showed high loading (> 0.3) of various parameters, such as Cl, conductivity, TDS, hardness, Na, Mg, and SO4, indicating contamination due to leaching of pollutants. Major manifest variable associated with these factors is the unorganized solid waste dumping practiced in all the cities. Bacterial contamination of hand pump samples in Allahabad is attributed to surface water-groundwater interaction. The factor with high loading of Ca and F is indicative of geological conditions of the region. Wells in Yamuna river sub-watershed exhibit less freshwater recharge, which is attributed to surface water pollution and sediment deposition in the river. Thus, the methodology for hydrogeological analysis is useful to identify critical water quality issues and possible sources of pollution in river <span class="hlt">basins</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24432546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24432546"><span id="translatedtitle">Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in <span class="hlt">India</span>. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05). All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1+ and 3+ age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2+ and 7+ age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424667"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic, irrigational, and industrial purposes: a case study from Thirumanimuttar river <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Tamilnadu, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Prasanna, M V</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Thirumanimuttar sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> forms an important groundwater province in south <span class="hlt">India</span>, facing serious deficiency in both quality and quantity of groundwater due to increased demand associated with rapid population explosion, agricultural growth and industrial activities. A total of 194 groundwater samples were collected and 15 water quality parameters were analyzed using standard procedures. Na( + ), Cl( - ), Ca(2 + ), HCO(-)(3), Mg(2 + ) and SO(2-)(4) concentration ions are more dominant in both seasons. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity was observed good correlation with Na( + ), Cl( - ), HCO(-)(3), Ca(2 + ), Mg(2 + ), Cl( - ), PO(3-)(4) and NO(-)(3) ions indicating dominance of plagioclase feldspar weathering, anthropogenic input and over drafting of groundwater irrespective of seasons. The Hill-Piper diagram indicates alkaline earths exceed the alkalis, an increase of weak acids was noted during both the seasons. For assessing the groundwater for irrigation suitability parameters like total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index, and sodium percentage are also calculated. Permanent hardness was noted in higher during both the seasons due to discharge of untreated effluents and ion exchange process. The RSC indicates 56% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes in both seasons, if continuously used will affect the crop yield. From the results, nearly 72% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.117..269S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.117..269S"><span id="translatedtitle">Inversions for earthquake focal mechanisms and regional stress in the Kachchh Rift <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, western <span class="hlt">India</span>: Tectonic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, A. P.; Zhao, L.; Kumar, Santsoh; Mishra, Smita</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>More than a decade after the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake in western <span class="hlt">India</span>, aftershocks up to MW 5.0 are still continuing around the rupture zone in the Kachchh Rift <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Over the years, some surrounding faults in the region have been activated, and a transverse fault generated an MW 5.1 earthquake in 2012. Most of the earthquakes occur in the lower crust at depths between 15 and 35 km. We have determined focal mechanism solutions of 47 earthquakes (MW 3.2-5.1) that were recorded by a 60-station broadband network during 2007-2014 within an area of 50 km radius of the 2001 main shock. South dipping nodal planes in most of the solutions correlate well with the active faults. The earthquakes near the epicenter of the 2001 main shock primarily show reverse-faulting mechanisms. The surrounding earthquakes in the area, however, show predominantly strike-slip mechanisms. The P axes of the earthquakes mostly oriented in north-south, and the T axes in east-west. However, the orientations of the P and T axes exhibit more complexity near the source area of the main shock. Stress field inversion of the solutions yields a dominant north-south compression, which is consistent with the ambient tectonic stress field owing to the northward movement of the Indian Plate with respect to the Eurasian Plate. The geodetic measurements are in reasonable agreement with our results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JESS..124...17S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JESS..124...17S"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of temperature parameters over Sutlej river <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Dharmaveer; Glupta, R. D.; Jain, Sanjay K.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The annual and seasonal trend analysis of different surface temperature parameters (average, maximum, minimum and diurnal temperature range) has been done for historical (1971-2005) and future periods (2011-2099) in the middle catchment of Sutlej river <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. The future time series of temperature data has been generated through statistical downscaling from large scale predictors of CGCM3 and HadCM3 models under A2 scenario. Modified Mann-Kendall test and Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) chart have been used for detecting trend and sequential shift in time series of temperature parameters. The results of annual trend analysis for period of 1971-2005 show increasing as well as decreasing trends in average ( T Mean), maximum ( T Max), minimum ( T Min) temperature and increasing trends in Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) at different stations. But the annual trend analysis of downscaled data has revealed statistically significant (95% confidence level) rising trends in T Mean, T Max, T Min and falling trend in DTR for the period 2011-2099. The decreasing trend in DTR is due to higher rate of increase in T Min compared to T Max.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JESS..124..843S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JESS..124..843S"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical downscaling and projection of future temperature and precipitation change in middle catchment of Sutlej River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Dharmaveer; Jain, Sanjay K.; Gupta, R. D.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Ensembles of two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CGCM3 and HadCM3, are used to project future maximum temperature ( T Max), minimum temperature ( T Min) and precipitation in a part of Sutlej River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, northwestern Himalayan region, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Large scale atmospheric variables of CGCM3 and HadCM3 under different emission scenarios and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research reanalysis datasets are downscaled using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Variability and changes in T Max, T Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model are presented for future periods: 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. The study reveals rise in annual average T Max, T Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 for CGCM3 model as well as under A2 and B2 scenarios for HadCM3 model in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Increase in mean monthly T Min is also observed for all months of the year under all scenarios of both the models. This is followed by decrease in T Max during June, July August and September. However, the model projects rise in precipitation in months of July, August and September under A1B and A2 scenarios of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model for future periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GGG....18...52B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GGG....18...52B"><span id="translatedtitle">Controls on evolution of gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">basin</span>, offshore <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badesab, F.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Peketi, A.; Mohite, K.; Sangode, S. J.; Deenadayalan, K.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we integrate environmental magnetic, sedimentological, and geochemical records of sediment core of Hole NGHP-01-10D overlying methane hydrate deposits to decipher the controls on the evolution of fracture-filled gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Four distinct sedimentary units have been identified, based on the sediment magnetic signatures. An anomalous zone of enhanced magnetic susceptibility (Unit III: 51.9-160.4 mbsf) coinciding with the gas hydrate bearing intervals is due to the presence of magnetite-rich detrital minerals brought-in by the river systems as a result of higher sedimentation events in K-G <span class="hlt">basin</span> and has no influence over hydrate formation. A strong to moderate correlation between magnetite concentration and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) content indicates significant influence of sulfidization on the magnetic record and could be further exploited as a proxy to decipher paleo-H2S seepage events. Analysis of high-resolution seismic, bathymetry, and sub-bottom profiler data reveals the existence of a regional fault system in K-G <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The opening and closing dynamics of the faults facilitated the migration and trapping of required gas concentrations resulting in accumulation of gas hydrates at the studied site. The seismic data provides support to the rock-magnetic interpretations. The observed variations in magnetic and geochemical properties have resulted from the episodic flow of methane and sulfide-enriched fluids through the fracture-filled network formed as a result of shale-tectonism. Our study demonstrated the potential of using an enviro-magnetic approach in combination with other proxies to constrain the evolution of gas-hydrate system in marine environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAESc..23..407K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAESc..23..407K"><span id="translatedtitle">A multistorey sandstone complex in the Himalayan Foreland <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, NW Himalaya, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Rohtash; Sangode, Satish J.; Ghosh, Sumit K.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Ten parallel stratigraphic sections (1500-1800 m thick) spread over an area of >400 km 2 in Dehra Dun sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> (DSB) of the Himalayan Foreland Belt (HFB) were studied to understand the anatomy of one of the largest (900-1200 m thick) fluviatile Multistorey Sandstone Complexes (MSC) of the world using fluvial geometry, compositional data and magnetic fabrics over a magnetostratigraphically controlled master section. The multistorey sandstone complex, between 10-5 Ma representing the Middle Siwalik sub-Group, comprises of grey, medium- to fine-grained lithic arenites to lithic greywacke and records tectonic and/or climatic episodes. Three main facies associations are recognised: sandstone-mudstone, sandstone, and conglomerate-sandstone that represent fluvial fan deposit. Palaeocurrent data show radial palaeoflow pattern with major palaeodrainage towards the southern quadrant. The magnetic fabric studies suggest three major tectonic pulses. The first pulse at ˜8.7 Ma resulted in the development of major depocenter for the MSC, the second pulse at ˜7.65 Ma enhanced the sedimentation and progradation, while the third pulse at ˜6.5 Ma records overlapping earlier fluvial fan by another coarse grained piedmont alluvial fan. Thrust movement in the northern fold belt, basement lineaments and rate of <span class="hlt">basin</span> subsidence controlled the lateral and vertical facies distribution and palaeodrainage. The sedimentation pattern of the multistorey complex is characterised by mainly sheet flood deposits of laterally avulsing unconfined braided rivers and resembles to the modern megafan sedimentation in the Ganga <span class="hlt">Basin</span> to the south.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25522499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25522499"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River <span class="hlt">basin</span> Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23033646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23033646"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of light gaseous hydrocarbons of the surface soils of Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lakshmi, M; Rasheed, M A; Madhavi, T; Kalpana, M S; Patil, D J; Dayal, A M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Several techniques are used for the exploration of hydrocarbons, of which; the geochemical techniques involving the microbiological technique use the principle of detecting the light hydrocarbon seepage activities for indication of sub-surface petroleum accumulations. Asurvey was carried out to characterize the light gaseous hydrocarbons seeping in oil and gas fields of Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">basin</span> ofAndhra Pradesh. Aset of 50 sub-soil samples were collected at depths of about 3 m for geochemical analyses and 1m for microbiological analysis. The microbial prospecting studies showed the presence of high bacterial population for methane 2.5 x 10(2) to 6.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1), propane 1x10(2) to 8.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) in soil samples. The adsorbed soil gas analysis showed the presence of moderate to low concentrations of methane (26 to 139 ppb), ethane (0 to 17 ppb), propane (0 to 8 ppb), butane (0 to 5 ppb) and pentane (0 to 2 ppb) in the soil samples of the study area. Carbon isotope analysis for methane ('13C1) ranging from -36.6 to -22.7 per hundred Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) suggests these gases are of thermogenic origin. Geo-microbial prospecting method coupled with adsorbed soil gas and carbon isotope ratio analysis have thus shown good correlation with existing oil/gas fields of Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T31E..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T31E..03H"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratigraphic and provenancial evidence for recognition of an underfilled foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> in central Himalaya: implication for timing of <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia initial collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, X.; Wang, J.; Jansa, L.; Wu, F.; Yu, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Himalayan peripheral foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> developed when <span class="hlt">India</span> and Asia collided. Previous studies in the Himalayan foreland were mostly concentrated on Neogene continental clastic sedimentation in sub-Himalaya or Paleogene shallow marine sedimentation along Pakistan, <span class="hlt">India</span>, and Nepal in Lesser Himalaya. The lack of early stage of underfilled, deep-water facies in the Himalayan foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> is intriguing, because classic peripheral foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span> involves generally a progression from “underfilled” (deep-water flysch facies), to “overfilled” (continental facies) stage. In this study, we present a new model of an early (underfilled) Himalayan foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span>, through stratigraphic, sedimentologic and provenance analysis of Upper Cretaceous - Lower Paleogene deposits at the Zhepure Mountain, southern Tibet. Four main conclusions were achieved: 1) Detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data indicated that sediments of both the Eocene Enba Formation and overlying Zhaguo Formation have mainly sourced from rocks of the Trans-Himalaya, with minor contribution from the Tethyan Himalaya. The first arrival of orogenic detritus occurred around 50.6 Ma (P8, Zhu et al., 2005), when the siliclastic sediments of Enba Formation were deposited. 2) The Paleocene-Early Eocene Zhepure Shan Formation represents establishment of a stable carbonate ramp, which began with deposition of oolitic bars at high-energy shoals, and progressively changed to a typical open marine ramp environment (Willems et al., 1996). This carbonate ramp is interpreted to develop on the northern flank of the peripheral forebulge of the underfilled Himalayan foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span>, analogous to carbonate build-ups that occupy submarine forebulges in many other collisional foreland regions such as Alps, Papua New Guinea, Pyrenees, and Arabian Gulf. 3) The Zhepure Shanpo Formation (middle Maastrichtian - Lower Danian) and the overlying Jidula Formation (Upper Danian) show an overall shallowing-upward trend from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2232P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2232P"><span id="translatedtitle">Ichnofossil from the Cambrian succession of Parahio Valley, Spiti <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>: Their stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pandey, Shivani; Parcha, Suraj Kumar</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Spiti <span class="hlt">Basin</span> exposes an excellent section of Neoproterozoic- Cretaceous rocks in the Tethyan Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh. The diverse assemblage of ichnofossils is present in the Cambrian succession of Parahio Valley in the Spiti <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. In the present study nineteen ichnofossils are reported from the Cambrian succession of Parahio Valley. The ichnofossils includes Bergaueria, Chondrites, Cruziana, Didymaulichnus, Dimorphichnus, Diplichnites, Helminthorhaphe, Merostomichnites, ?Monocraterion, Monomorphichnus, Nereites, Palaeopascichnus, Palaeophycus, Phycodes, Planolites, Rusophycus, Skolithos, Scolicia, Treptichnus etc. along with annelid worm, burrow and scratch marks. The described ichnofossil assemblage indicates that the ichnocenosis is dominated by a high behavioral diversity ranging from suspension to deposit feeders. It seems that the ichnofauna present in the Cambrian succession of this section were mostly produced by trilobite and arthropods, whereas some of them were produced by crustacean, priapulid worm, polychaetes and polyphyletic vermiforms. The distribution pattern of ichnofossils shows increase in taxonomic and morphological diversity up in the section. It further indicates that the availability of nutrients significantly increased their abundance as well as spatial distribution during Cambrian. The presence of Chondrites, Treptichnus, and Phycodes at the basal part of the Cambrian indicates shallow to deep environment with anaerobic condition. Whereas, the complex forms like Rusophycus, Cruziana, Monomorphichnus and Nereites represent shelf to slope environment. The appearance of Skolithos in the upper part reflects well oxygenated high energy condition. The environmental changes in the Parahio Valley during Cambrian period was distinctly marked by an anaerobic to aerobic condition and by a faunal change from endobenthic, soft - bodied, deposit feeders to epibenthic grazers. The present ichnofossils indicates that these sediments were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4709700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4709700"><span id="translatedtitle">Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, and Phytotoxicity of Tannery Effluent Discharged into Palar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roy, Suki; Nagarchi, Lubbnaz; Das, Ishita; Mangalam Achuthananthan, Jayasri; Krishnamurthy, Suthindhiran</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ambur, a town located on the banks of Palar River, is considered one of the most polluted areas in <span class="hlt">India</span> and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. The present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (TE) on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. The phytotoxic effects of TE tested on Allium cepa and Lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, protein, and chlorophyll content. Moreover, TE induced chlorosis and tissue necrosis in Nostoc muscorum at low concentration (10%). TE has also negative impact on ecofriendly microorganisms, Bacillus thuringiensis, Rhizobium etli, and Aspergillus terreus which play an important role in the nutrition of plant growth. The genotoxicity of TE was investigated in human leukocytes which showed interference with normal mitotic division with subsequent cell lysis. It also intervened with the normal replication process and induced micronucleus formation in the healthy leukocyte. 5% concentration of TE has been revealed to be toxic to erythrocytes. From this study TE found in the Palar River of Ambur has adverse effects on all the three levels of organisms in ecosystem even at lower concentrations. PMID:26839546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099955"><span id="translatedtitle">Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in West Bengal, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghosal, U; Sikdar, P K; McArthur, J M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater in the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is badly polluted by arsenic (As) which adversely affects human health. To provide low-As groundwater for As mitigation, it was sought across 235 km(2) of central West Bengal, in the western part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. By drilling 76 boreholes and chemical analysis of 535 water wells, groundwater with <10 µg/L As in shallow aquifers was found under one-third of a study area. The groundwater is in late Pleistocene palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of weathered brown sand that are capped by a palaeosol of red clay. The aquifers form two N-S trending lineaments that are bounded on the east by an As-polluted deep palaeo-channel aquifer and separated by a shallower palaeo-channel aquifer. The depth to the top of the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers is mostly between 35 and 38 m below ground level (mbgl). The palaeo-interfluvial aquifers are overlain by shallow palaeo-channel aquifers of gray sand in which groundwater is usually As-polluted. The palaeosol now protects the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers from downward migration of As-polluted groundwater in overlying shallow palaeo-channel aquifers. The depth to the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of 35 to 38 mbgl makes the cost of their exploitation affordable to most of the rural poor of West Bengal, who can install a well cheaply to depths up to 60 mbgl. The protection against pollution afforded by the palaeosol means that the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers will provide a long-term source of low-As groundwater to mitigate As pollution of groundwater in the shallower, heavily used, palaeo-channel aquifers. This option for mitigation is cheap to employ and instantly available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BASINS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (<span class="hlt">BASINS</span>) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSG....77...62T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSG....77...62T"><span id="translatedtitle">Inversion of calcite twin data, paleostress reconstruction and multiphase weak deformation in cratonic interior - Evidence from the Proterozoic Cuddapah <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tripathy, Vikash; Saha, Dilip</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Paleostress orientations from mechanically twinned calcite in carbonate rocks and veins in the neighborhood of large faults were investigated to comment on the nature of weak upper crustal stresses affecting sedimentary successions within the Proterozoic Cuddapah <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Application of Turner's P-B-T method and Spang's Numerical dynamic analysis on Cuddapah samples provided paleostress orientations comparable to those derived from fault-slip inversion. Results from the neighborhood of E-W faults cutting through the Paleoproterozoic Papaghni and Chitravati groups and the Neoproterozoic Kurnool Group in the western Cuddapah <span class="hlt">basin</span>, reveal existence of multiple deformation events - (1) NE-SW σ3 in strike-slip to extensional regime along with an additional event having NW-SE σ3, for lower Cuddapah samples; (2) compressional/transpressional event with ESE-WNW or NNE-SSW σ1 mainly from younger Kurnool samples. Integrating results from calcite twin data inversion, fault-slip analysis and regional geology we propose that late Mesoproterozoic crustal extension led to initial opening of the Kurnool sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, subsequently influenced by weak compressional deformation. The dynamic analysis of calcite twins thus constrains the stress regimes influencing <span class="hlt">basin</span> initiation in the southern Indian cratonic interior and subsequent <span class="hlt">basin</span> inversion in relation to craton margin mobile belts and plausible global tectonic events in the Proterozoic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..802S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..802S"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing approach to study morphotectonic influences on hydrogeoenvironment accross yamuna river <span class="hlt">basin,India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Amit; Shashtri, Satyanarayan; Singh, Chander Kumar; Singh, Ravi; Mukherjee, Saumitra</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Changes in groundwater as well as surface water resources have been mainly attributed as anthropogenic in origin (particularly in case of depleting groundwater levels) but focus still exists on underlying natural processes (such as tectonic activity) that play a major role in shaping the hydrogeoenvironment in a long run. Structural changes associated with tectonic activity mainly affect the subsurface features associated with any terrain, affecting the flow and accumulation of water, which ultimately affects the groundwater recharge. Such activity also affects the subsurface geochemical composition. Studying these effects is not easy as the changes associated can be very subtle, spread over a large landscape. Present study aimed at studying the influences of active faulting episodes (that change the overall physical landscape) on the whole of geological environment pertaining to the water resource in a hard rock area that is located in vicinity of an active fault passing through Yamuna river <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The study area falls between 76.990 E to 78.000 E and 28.240 N to 28.450 N. The study area, however, is not selected and bound by administrative boundaries but the topography and geomorphic structural units reflective of possible tectonic activity. It is a part of river Yamuna <span class="hlt">basin</span> (with alluvial/colluvial deposits spreading across) that intersects rocks that have undergone multiple folding. Methodology included identification of sites suitable for other geophysical investigations (resistivity and magnetic surveys) through utilization of satellite images. Structural lineaments were identified with help of satellite data and their orientation with respect to each other was observed. Possible neotectonic activity (supported with study of microtremor spectra) and the seismogenic potentiality of lineaments identified was established. Terrain modeling was done to identify landform features and associated effects of tectonic activity. Hyperspectral Data was used for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A11C0133M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A11C0133M"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Properties Of Mineral Dust Particles Mixed With Black Carbon In Indo-Ganges <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Northern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishra, S. K.; Tripathi, S. N.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p> non spherical shapes such as concentric spheres, spheroids, ellipsoids and layered rectangular bar, and various combinations of spheres and spheroids attached externally (maximum up to three). References Clarke, A. D., et al. (2004), Size distributions and mixtures of dust and black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow: Physiochemistry and optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15S09. Dey, S., et al. (2008), On the mixing state of aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic <span class="hlt">basin</span>, northern <span class="hlt">India</span>, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03808. Draine, B. T., and P. J. Flatau (2004), User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1, http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0409262v2. Lau, K. M., et al. (2006), Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by aerosol direct forcing: the role of the Tibetan Plateau., J. Climate, 26, 855-864. Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., accepted. Sokolik, I. N., and O. B. Toon (1999), Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 9423- 9444. Tripathi S. N., et al. (2005), Aerosol black carbon radiative forcing at an industrial city in Northern <span class="hlt">India</span>, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(8), L08802. class="ab'></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApWS..tmp..123V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApWS..tmp..123V"><span id="translatedtitle">Design flow duration curves for environmental flows estimation in Damodar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verma, Ravindra Kumar; Murthy, Shankar; Verma, Sangeeta; Mishra, Surendra Kumar</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this study, environmental flows (EFs) are estimated for six watersheds of Damodar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (DRB) using flow duration curve (FDC) derived using two approaches: (a) period of record and (b) stochastic approaches for daily, 7-, 30-, 60-day moving averages, and 7-daily mean annual flows observed at Tenughat dam, Konar dam, Maithon dam, Panchet dam, Damodar bridge, Burnpur during 1981-2010 and at Phusro during 1988-2010. For stochastic FDCs, 7-day FDCs for 10, 20-, 50- and 100-year return periods were derived for extraction of discharge values at every 5% probability of exceedance. FDCs derived using the first approach show high probability of exceedance (5-75%) for the same discharge values. Furthermore, discharge values of 60-day mean are higher than those derived using daily, 7-, and 30-day mean values. The discharge values of 95% probability of exceedance (Q95) derived from 7Q10 (ranges from 2.04 to 5.56 cumec) and 7Q100 (ranges from 3.4 to 31.48 cumec) FDCs using the second approach are found more appropriate as EFs during drought/low flow and normal precipitation years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437269"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater potential zoning of a peri-urban wetland of south Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, Pradip K</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Demand for groundwater for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid increase in population. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the groundwater potential of different areas, especially in a fragile wetland ecosystem to select appropriate sites for developing well fields to minimize adverse environmental impacts of groundwater development. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW)--a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. The subsurface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades, and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to scouring action of past channels. The groundwater in the study area is being over-extracted at the rate of 65 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Overlay analysis in Geographic Information System platform using multiple criteria such as water quality index, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity, and depth to piezometric surface reveals that in and around ECW, there are five groundwater potential zones. About 74% of the aquifer of this area shows very poor to medium groundwater potential. Management options such as minimization of groundwater abstraction by introducing the treated surface water supply system and the implementation of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge in high-rise buildings and industries are suggested for different potential zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2101R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.2101R"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclone trends constrain monsoon variability during late Oligocene sea level highstands (Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, NW <span class="hlt">India</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Climate change has an unknown impact on tropical cyclones and the Asian monsoon. Herein we present a sequence of fossil shell beds from the shallow-marine Maniyara Fort Formation (Kachcch <span class="hlt">Basin</span>) as a recorder of tropical cyclone activity along the NW Indian coast during the late Oligocene warming period (~ 27-24 Ma). Proxy data providing information about the atmospheric circulation dynamics over the Indian subcontinent at this time are important since it corresponds to a major climate reorganization in Asia that ends up with the establishment of the modern Asian monsoon system at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The vast shell concentrations are comprised of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous assemblages indicating storm-generated sediment transport from deeper to shallow water during third-order sea level highstands. Three distinct skeletal assemblages were distinguished, each recording a relative storm wave base. (1) A shallow storm wave base is shown by nearshore molluscs, reef corals and Clypeaster echinoids; (2) an intermediate storm wave base depth is indicated by lepidocyclinid foraminifers, Eupatagus echinoids and corallinacean algae; and (3) a deep storm wave base is represented by an Amussiopecten bivalve-Schizaster echinoid assemblage. These wave base depth estimates were used for the reconstruction of long-term tropical storm intensity during the late Oligocene. The development and intensification of cyclones over the recent Arabian Sea is primarily limited by the atmospheric monsoon circulation and strength of the associated vertical wind shear. Therefore, since the topographic boundary conditions for the Indian monsoon already existed in the late Oligocene, the reconstructed long-term cyclone trends were interpreted to reflect monsoon variability during the initiation of the Asian monsoon system. Our results imply an active monsoon over the Eastern Tethys at ~ 26 Ma followed by a period of monsoon weakening during the peak of the late</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21A0799H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21A0799H"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the implications of baseline climate uncertainty on simulated water yield within the Himalayan Beas river <span class="hlt">basin</span> in NW <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Adeloye, A.; Ojha, C. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the impacts of the changing water cycle on future water resources and society is one of the most important issues surrounding anthropogenic climate change, especially in regions with limited adaptive capacity or highly water-dependent economies. One such region is the north western Himalayan region of <span class="hlt">India</span>, where supplementary irrigation is used in the non-monsoon seasons and where over 90% of the population are reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods. This paper focuses on the transboundary 12,560km2 Beas catchment in Himachal Pradesh, which is one of the case study catchments of the Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change in Indian agriculture (MICCI) project of the UK NERC Changing Water Cycle Programme. However, understanding of the impacts of changes in the water cycle in such regions is dependent on the quality of available observational climate datasets- a challenge given the relative paucity of ground-based observations in mountainous terrains. River flows in the Beas, which support both irrigation and hydropower, are highly seasonal, being dependent on the Indian Monsoon augmented by seasonal snow and ice melt from the Himalayas. This paper describes the uncertainty in simulating water yield in the Beas catchment, using the HySim hydrological model, associated with the use of a diverse range of public domain and governmental observed and derived precipitation and evapo-transpiration datasets (including gridded ground-based data from the Indian Meteorological Department; TRMM, NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and the APHRODITE project). For example, <span class="hlt">basin</span> annual average precipitation (2000-07) ranges from 1476 mm/yr (CFSR), 2093mm/yr (APHRODITE) to 2357 mm/yr (TRMM), whilst <span class="hlt">basin</span> annual average reference evapotranspiration ranges from 1320 mm/yr (with a minimum to maximum sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> range of 136-4680 mm/yr) using the Priestley Taylor to 2296 mm/yr (190-6954 mm/yr) with Penman-Monteith. The selection of datasets affects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PApGe.164..135M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PApGe.164..135M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sediment Thicknesses and Qs vs. Qp Relations in the Kachchh Rift <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Gujarat, <span class="hlt">India</span> Using Sp Converted Phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandal, Prantik</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Delineation of the top sedimentary structure and its Qs vs. Qp relationship using the travel-time difference of direct S and converted Sp phase is key to understanding the seismic hazard of any sedimentary <span class="hlt">basin</span> area. We constructed filtered displacement waveforms from local ETNA Episensor acceleration recordings as well as local velocity recordings of aftershocks of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake recorded by the Kachchh seismological network of the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, <span class="hlt">India</span> during 2001 2004. Stations are within 15 70km of epicenters, and the resulting displacement waveforms are generally simple, displaying prominent P, Sp, and S wave pulses. Particle motion of P and S waves suggest near-vertical raypaths consistent with preliminary depth estimates. The direct S wave on the horizontal component is characterized by lower frequency content than the converted Sp phase on the vertical component. This difference in frequency content between S and Sp phases can be explained in terms of different attenuation effects for P and S waves in the unconsolidated sediments. The Sp phase is generated by S-to-P phase conversion at the base of Mesozoic sediments of the Kachchh <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Travel-time inversion (VELEST) of 2565 P and 2380 S arrivals from 658 well located aftershocks recorded at 8 14 three-component local seismic stations led to 1 D velocity models indicated very slow sediments in the upper 0 2 km depth range (Vp: 2.92 km/s and Vs: 0.90 km/s) and an increasing trend of velocities with depth at 2 40 km depth. The estimated sediment thicknesses beneath 12 accelerograph and 6 seismograph sites from the estimated velocity model and the travel-time difference between S and converted Sp phases reaches a maximum of (1.534 ± 0.117) km beneath Bandri (near the location of 2001 Bhuj mainshock) and attains a minimum sediment thickness of (0.858 ± 0.104) km beneath Ramvav and Burudia. The spectral ratios between Sp and S from 159 three</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1028972.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1028972.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Educational Services for Tibetan Students with Disabilities Living in <span class="hlt">India</span>: A Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barnes, Britany; Gibb, Gordon S.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Prater, Mary Anne</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This case study describes services for students with disabilities at Karuna Home in Bylakuppe, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, a residential facility established to address the needs of individuals whose parents are primarily Tibetan immigrants. Interview, observation, and document review data collected over three months were used to describe and explain…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.263...88A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.263...88A"><span id="translatedtitle">C, O, Sr and Nd isotope systematics of carbonates of Papaghni sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, Andhra Pradesh, <span class="hlt">India</span>: Implications for genesis of carbonate-hosted stratiform uranium mineralisation and geodynamic evolution of the Cuddapah <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Absar, Nurul; Nizamudheen, B. M.; Augustine, Sminto; Managave, Shreyas; Balakrishnan, S.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Cuddapah <span class="hlt">basin</span> (CB) is one of a series of Proterozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> that overlie the Archaean cratons of <span class="hlt">India</span>, and contains a unique stratiform carbonate-hosted uranium mineralisation. In the present work, we discuss stable (C, O) and radiogenic (Nd, Sr) isotope systematics of carbonates of the Papaghni sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> in order to understand uranium ore forming processes and geodynamic evolution of the CB. Uranium mineralised dolomites (UMDs) of the basal Vempalle Formation show a significantly lighter (~ 1.5‰) C-isotope signature compared to that of open-marine stromatolitic sub-tidal facies, suggesting input of isotopically lighter carbon through in situ remineralisation of organic matter (OM). This implies deposition in a hydrologically-restricted, redox-stratified lagoonal <span class="hlt">basin</span> wherein exchange with open oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was limited. Persistent bottom water anoxia was created and maintained through consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) by decaying OM produced in oxidised surface water zone. Significantly more radiogenic εNd(t) of UMD (- 6.31 ± 0.54) compared to that of Dharwar upper crust (- 8.64 ± 3.11) indicates that dissolved constituents did not originate from the Dharwar craton, rather were derived from more juvenile exotic sources - possibly from a continental arc. Dissolved uranyl ions (U+ 6) were introduced to the <span class="hlt">basin</span> through fluvial run-off and were reduced to immobile uranous ions (U+ 4) at the redox interface resulting in precipitation of pitchblende and coffinite. Carbonate horizons of upper Vempalle Formation and Tadpatri Formation show progressively more radiogenic Nd isotope compositions signifying increased juvenile arc contribution to the Papaghni sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> through time, which is also corroborated by the presence of younger zircons (1923 ± 22 Ma) in Pulivendla quartzites. We propose that the Papaghni sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> opened as a back-arc extensional <span class="hlt">basin</span> at ~ 2 Ga as a result of westerly-directed subduction of oceanic crust</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4765248','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4765248"><span id="translatedtitle">Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">India</span> being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Result: Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18–30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems. PMID:26957808</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..331...12B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..331...12B"><span id="translatedtitle">Compositional variability of glauconites within the Upper Cretaceous Karai Shale Formation, Cauvery <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>: Implications for evaluation of stratigraphic condensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Santanu; Bansal, Udita; Pande, Kanchan; Meena, S. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A detailed mineral chemical investigation of glauconite within the condensed section deposits of the Cretaceous Karai Shale Formation, Cauvery <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> reflects a wide spectrum in chemical composition related to origin and evolution in different substrates, stratigraphic condensation, and post-depositional alteration. Fe- and Mg-rich glauconite, comprising up to 60% of the sedimentary rocks, occurs as replaced forms of fecal pellets, as infillings within pores and chambers of bioclasts including those of foraminifera, ostracoda, bryozoa, and algae, and as altered forms of mica exhibiting vermiforms. Authigenic precipitation of K- and Fe-poor glauconite, followed by addition of Fe and K into the lattice and concomitant release of Al and Si explains the origin of glauconite pellets and infillings; the origin of glauconite vermiforms in partly degraded mica involves only the second stage of Fe and K addition. Glauconite pellets and vermiforms exhibit sharply defined alteration zones along peripheries to form rims, and in proximity to cracks or cleavages with reduced K2O and Fe2O3 (total) and enhanced Al2O3 and SiO2, related to late-stage meteoric water actions. Cores of glauconite pellets and unaltered zones of vermiforms reflect 'evolved' characteristics with > 6% K2O, typical of a condensed section, while other glauconite varieties occurring at the same stratigraphic level exhibit 'slightly evolved' nature, not consonant with stratigraphic condensation. Increasing abundance of glauconite pellets from the bottom to the top of the transgressive systems tract, accompanied by slight increase in K2O within their cores, reflects the effect of stratigraphic condensation on the evolution of glauconite. High Fe2O3 (total) content of glauconite in the Karai Shale Formation may be related to upwelling, although the Fe may be contributed partly by the biotite substrate. Mössbauer spectroscopy of glauconites reveals significant total Fe substitution in both tetrahedral and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012832','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012832"><span id="translatedtitle">Metasediments of the deep crustal section of Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Devaraju, T. C.; Laajoki, K.; Wodeyar, B. K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A review of the rocks of supracrustal origin in the amphibolite and granulite facies terrane in southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> was presented. In addition to introducing the metasediments in the field area of the workshop, a review was presented of the common occurrence of metasediments in amphibolite and granulite facies rocks worldwide. Models of granulite metamorphism must include a mechanism for the burial of these sediments to the depths recorded by the geobarometers in granulite metamorphism in addition to their reexposure at the surface. Unfortunately, the common occurrence of supracrustals in granulite facies rocks, sometimes with remarkably little deformation was deemed significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963651"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological Spectrum of Basal Cell Carcinoma in Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lobo, Flora Dorothy; Naik, Ramdas; Khadilkar, Urmila Niranjan; Kini, Hema; Kini, Ullal Anand</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide, which appears over sun-exposed skin as slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Many phenotypic presentations are possible. BCCs are more common in males and tend to occur in older people. Majority is found on the head and neck. Many histopathological subtypes have been defined including nodular, micronodular, cystic, superficial, pigmented, adenoid, infiltrating, sclerosing, keratotic, infundibulocystic, metatypical, basosquamous and fibroepitheliomatous. Mixed patterns are common. Aim The aim was to study morphological spectrum of BCC in a tertiary care hospital in southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 100 cases of BCCs reported in the Department of Pathology over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014. Results The mean age of presentation was 62 years. There was slight female preponderance (56%). The most common location was face (65%) and the most common presentation was ulceration (45%). Of the 100 BCCs, 50% were nodular, 13% infiltrating, 6% basosquamous, 4% superficial, 3% keratotic, 3% multinodular and 1% mixed. Conclusion BCC, besides being the commonest cutaneous cancer, is also known for its numerous histological patterns which are shown to have prognostic implications. This study reveals the frequency of the various histological patterns of BCC in southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, where it has been rarely studied before. PMID:27504291</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766606"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 was Responsible for a Cholera Outbreak in 2013 in Bagalkot, North <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Roy, Subarna; Parande, Mahantesh V; Telsang, M; Seema, M H; Parande, Aisha V; Mantur, Basappa G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cholera is a major cause of illness in the developing world. During the monsoon season, small sporadic clusters of cholera cases are reported on an annual basis in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. During the monsoons of 2013, there was a cholera outbreak in Badami, a remote area of Bagalkot district in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. The multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was found to be responsible for this outbreak. On 5 August 2013, a 30-year-old woman presented with severe dehydration and watery diarrhea at the Aganwadi Health Centre in Badami. A total of 49 suspected cholera cases were reported, with an attack rate of 3.5%. The V. cholerae isolates exhibited resistance to a wide range of drugs, including ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, carbenicillin, and third generation cephalosporins, and showed reduced susceptibility to third generation fluoroquinolones. All of the cephalosporin-resistant V. cholerae strains produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. All V. cholerae O1 isolates harbored virulent genes (ctxA, ctxB, tcpA El Tor, Tox S, VPI, ToxT, ToxR, ToxRS, ace, zot, and tcpP) and were found to be genetically similar as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cholera outbreak in the district of Bagalkot. The resistance of V. cholerae to commonly used antimicrobial drugs is becoming a major public health concern in the region as clinicians are left with a limited choice of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+Trade+AND+Organization&pg=6&id=EJ805201','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+Trade+AND+Organization&pg=6&id=EJ805201"><span id="translatedtitle">Privatisation Policies and Postprivatisation Control Devices in <span class="hlt">India</span>'s Higher Education: Evidence from a Regional Study and Implications for Developing Countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Narayana, M. R.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article focuses on economic analysis of privatisation policies and postprivatisation control devices in <span class="hlt">India</span>'s higher education. As a case study, the experiences of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> State in collegiate education under general higher education are emphasised. A change in public financing, rather than a shift of public ownership and management to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823388','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823388"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying appropriate-use criteria to cardiac revascularisation in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sood, Neeraj; Ugargol, Allen P; Barnes, Kayleigh; Mahajan, Anish</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives The high prevalence of coronary heart disease and dramatic growth of cardiac interventions in <span class="hlt">India</span> motivate an evaluation of the appropriateness of coronary revascularisation procedures in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Although, appropriate-use criteria (AUC) have been used to analyse the appropriateness of cardiovascular care in the USA, they are yet to be applied to care in <span class="hlt">India</span>. In our study, we apply AUC to cardiac care in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, compare our results to international applications of AUC, and suggest ways to improve the appropriateness of care in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Setting Data were collected from the Vajpayee Arogyashree Scheme, a government-sponsored health insurance scheme in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. These data were collected as part of the preauthorisation process for cardiac procedures. Participants The final data included a random sample of 600 patients from 28 hospitals in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, who obtained coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention between 1 October 2014 and 31 December 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures We obtained our primary baseline results using a random imputation simulation to fill in missing data. Our secondary outcome measure was a best case–worst case scenario where missing data were filled to give the lowest or highest number of appropriate cases. Results Of the cases, 86.7% (CI 0.837% to 0.892%) were deemed appropriate, 3.65% (CI 0.023% to 0.055%) were inappropriate and 9.63% (CI 0.074% to 0.123%) were uncertain. Conclusions The vast majority of cardiac revascularisation procedures performed on beneficiaries of a government-sponsored insurance programme in <span class="hlt">India</span> were found to be appropriate. These results meet or exceed levels of appropriate use of cardiac care in the USA. PMID:27029773</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HydJ....8..494S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000HydJ....8..494S"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Andhra Pradesh, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, southern Andhra Pradesh state, <span class="hlt">India</span>, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338055"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospects for a self-sustainable sewage treatment system: a case study on full-scale UASB system in <span class="hlt">India</span>'s Yamuna River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu; Onodera, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The government of <span class="hlt">India</span> decided to launch a project to implement 16 full-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors (with a total capacity of 598,000 m(3)/d) in the Yamuna River <span class="hlt">basin</span> under its Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). A polishing pond called the Final Polishing Unit (FPU) was utilized for post-treatment. This paper evaluates the sewage treatment efficiency of the combined system of full-scale UASB reactors and polishing ponds under Indian climatic conditions. Results have shown that the effluent from the sewage treatment plants (STPs) investigated failed to comply with applicable discharge standards in terms of BOD, SS, and fecal coliform removal. Therefore, it is proposed that such proper operation and maintenance as removing excess sludge and scum be conducted in order to increase treatment efficiency. Moreover, trained and experienced workers are also required to operate and maintain the systems, along with a scientific approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26249924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26249924"><span id="translatedtitle">A new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from South <span class="hlt">India</span>, with keys to Indian members of the subgenus Gomphostilbia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anbalagan, Sankarappan; Balachandran, Chellapandian; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Kannan, Mani; Dinakaran, Sundaram; Krishnan, Muthukalingan</p> <p>2015-06-24</p> <p>A new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) cauveryense sp. n., is described based on adult female, adult male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Kushalanagar, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, South <span class="hlt">India</span>. This new species is placed in the decuplum subgroup of the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Keys to the species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia reported from <span class="hlt">India</span> are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316303','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316303"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropometry and Prevalence of Common Health Problems among School Going Children in Surathkal, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Airody, Sathyajith Karanth; Mahale, Ramnath; SR, Ravikiran; Shetty, Suresh; Rao, Aarathi R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aims: To measure the anthropometric data of school children and to compare with the CDC and Agarwal centile Growth charts. The prevalence of thinness, stunting, overweight and obesity were estimated. Children were also screened for hypertension, refractory errors, dental problems, skin disease and other abnormalities. Design: Study was conducted in November in a central school in Surathkal, Dakshina Kannada, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. All children from nursery up to 10th standard were screened. Materials and Methods: Weight and Height were measured using standard equipment and plotted on CDC and Agarwal Charts. BMI was calculated and plotted on both charts. Blood Pressure (BP) was taken using mercury sphygmomanometer by a trained nurse. Vision was tested using Snellens chart by refractionist. Dental evaluation was done by dentist. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test and Student’s unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. A statistical package SPSS version 17.0 were used. p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Total 755 children were screened. Among these 392 (51.9%) were females and 363 (48.1%) were males. Eighty five (11.3%) children had short stature and 283 (37.5%) had under nutrition when plotted on CDC chart. Values were lower when plotted on Agarwal charts. Thinness was more prevalent than obesity and overweight. Majority were normotensive though hypertension was noted in 6(0.8%) children and prehypertension in 14(1.9%).112 children (16.3%) had undetected refractory error. Common skin disease noted was T.Versicolor in 27 children. Common dental problem noted was Caries teeth (22.9%). Conclusion: Weight and height were below the CDC centile charts. Under nutrition was more prevalent than overweight and obesity. Majority were normotensive. High prevalence of undetected refractory error and caries teeth were noted. Prevalence of skin disease was low. PMID:25653997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004HydJ...12..197S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004HydJ...12..197S"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, southern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.</p> <p></p> <p>A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, in southern <span class="hlt">India</span>. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16838692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16838692"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of SEBAL approach and MODIS time-series to map vegetation water use patterns in the data scarce Krishna river <span class="hlt">basin</span> of <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmad, M D; Biggs, T; Turral, H; Scott, C A</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated land is one of the most useful indicators to explain whether the water is used as "intended". In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to compute actual ET from a Landsat7 image of December 29, 2000 for diverse land use in the Krishna <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span>. SEBAL ETa varies between 0 to 4.7 mm per day over the image and was quantified for identified land use classes. Seasonal/annual comparison of ETa from different land uses requires time series images, processed by SEBAL. In this study, the Landsat-derived snapshot SEBAL ETa result was interpreted using the cropping calendar and time series analysis of MODIS imagery. The wastewater irrigated area in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> has the highest ETa in the image, partly due to its advanced growth stage compared to groundwater-irrigated rice. Shrub and forests in the senescence phase have similar ETa to vegetable/cash crops, and ETa from grasslands is a low 0.8 mm per day after the end of the monsoon. The results indicate that wastewater irrigation of fodder and rice is sufficient to meet crop water demand but there appears to be deficit irrigation of rice using groundwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.455...49D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.455...49D"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision in north Pakistan: Insight from the U-Pb detrital zircon provenance of Cenozoic foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Lin; Qasim, Muhammad; Jadoon, Ishtiaq A. K.; Khan, Muhammad Asif; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Baral, Upendra; Yue, Yahui</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The northernmost exposures of sub-Himalayan Cenozoic strata in the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial region of north Pakistan comprises the Paleocene-Eocene marine strata in the lower part and Oligocene-Miocene nonmarine strata in the upper part. This study provides the detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Cenozoic strata in this area. The strong resemblance of U-Pb age spectra of Paleocene Hangu, Lockhart and Patala formations with those of Himalayan strata indicate an Indian plate provenance. The first appearance of <100 Ma detrital zircon U-Pb ages within the lower most part of the Early Eocene Margalla Hill Limestone indicates a shift from an Indian to Asian provenance. Geologic mapping shows the existence of a disconformity between the lower and upper most part of the Patala Formation, which is interpreted to have been formed by the migration of a flexural forebulge through this region. We consider the upper most part of the Patala Formation to have been deposited within the distal foredeep of the foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The Indian to Asian provenance shift and the presence of a possible foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> forebulge provide strong evidence that <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision was underway in northern Pakistan at ca. 56-55 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..229T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..229T"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in <span class="hlt">India</span> over the last century. The Upper Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening <span class="hlt">India</span>'s water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43I1676H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43I1676H"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of future change in streamflow through identification of its association with precipitation in Mahanadi <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> under data scarce scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>H, V.; Gusain, A.; Mohanty, M. P.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.; G, S. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is evident that change in climate alters the distribution of rainfall at different spatial and temporal scales all over the world. Quantification of change in streamflow through an understanding of the changes in rainfall pattern is challenging, particularly under data scarce situation. In order to accomplish this goal, we studied the statistical association between observed rainfall and streamflow in a large river <span class="hlt">basin</span>, prone to various hydrologic extremes, particularly floods and droughts. One of the flood prone river <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span>, Mahanadi <span class="hlt">basin</span> (covering an area of 0.14 million sq. km.) was selected and divided into number of sub-catchments. A set of statistical relationships between regional rainfall and streamflow for each sub-catchment was derived, which was assumed to be remained unaltered in future time period. Based on a comprehensive literature survey, 7 GCMs were selected for rainfall projection, which were reported as suitable particularly for the Indian subcontinent. General Circulation Models (GCMs) can be used to enumerate rainfall by considering various predictors such as temperature, humidity, wind velocity, geo-potential height etc. However, the difficulty lies in the coarser resolution of GCMs output, which ultimately restricts their application at a regional scale. Under such circumstances, downscaling techniques are used to project the rainfall at a required finer catchment scale. In the current study, a well recognized statistical downscaling technique utilizing classification and regression tree, and kernel regression was used. For validating purpose, the statistically derived streamflows were compared with the streamflow outputs simulated through the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The proposed methodology for assessment of changing pattern of streamflow under data scarce situation will be useful for sustainable management of water resources and future flood characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17018172','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17018172"><span id="translatedtitle">Female autonomy as a contributing factor to women's HIV-related knowledge and behaviour in three culturally contrasting States in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Factors contributing to <span class="hlt">India</span>'s vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in <span class="hlt">India</span>: Kerala (n=2884), <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of <span class="hlt">India</span>, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033881','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033881"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the development of Proterozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> in central <span class="hlt">India</span> from 40Ar/39Ar analysis of authigenic glauconitic minerals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Conrad, J.E.; Hein, J.R.; Chaudhuri, A.K.; Patranabis-Deb, S.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Deb, G.K.; Beukes, N.J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Ages of some key stratigraphic sequences in central Indian Proterozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> are based predominantly on lithostratigraphic relationships that have been constrained by only a few radioisotopic dates. To help improve age constraints, single grains of glauconitic minerals taken from sandstone and limestone in two Proterozoic sequences in the Pranhita-Godavari Valley and the Chattisgarh <span class="hlt">basin</span> were analyzed by the 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating method. Analysis of the age spectra distinguishes between ages that are interpreted to reflect the time of glauconite formation, and anomalous ages that result from inherited argon or postcrystallization heating. The analyses indicate an age of 1686 ± 6 Ma for the Pandikunta Limestone and 1566 ± 6 Ma for the Ramgundam Sandstone, two units in the western belt of Proterozoic sequences in Pranhita-Godavari Valley. Glauconite from the Chanda Limestone, in the upper part of this sequence, contains inherited 40Ar but is interpreted to reflect an age of ca. 1200 Ma. Glauconite from the Somanpalli Group in the eastern belt of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley gives an age of 1620 ± 6 Ma. In the Chattisgarh <span class="hlt">basin</span>, glauconite from two units gives disturbed ages that suggest a period of regional heating in the Chattisgarh <span class="hlt">basin</span> at ca. 960–1000 Ma. These new ages indicate that these sequences are 200–400 m.y. older than previously recognized, which has important implications for geochemical studies of Mesoproterozoic ocean redox conditions in addition to providing important constraints on regional tectonics and lithostratigraphy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...41P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...41P"><span id="translatedtitle">GIS based quantitative morphometric analysis and its consequences: a case study from Shanur River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Maharashtra <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pande, Chaitanya B.; Moharir, Kanak</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A morphometric analysis of Shanur <span class="hlt">basin</span> has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. These techniques are found relevant for the extraction of river <span class="hlt">basin</span> and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Hence, from the study, it is concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM data of 30 m resolution) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool used in morphometric analysis and evaluation of linear, slope, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The combined outcomes have established the topographical and even recent developmental situations in <span class="hlt">basin</span>. It will also change the setup of the region. It therefore needs to analyze high level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of water resource developmental plan and land resource development plan. The Shanur drainage <span class="hlt">basin</span> is sprawled over an area of 281.33 km2. The slope of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> varies from 1 to 10 %, and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The main stream length ratio of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> is 14.92 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton (Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361, 1945), Miller (A quantitative geomorphologic study of drainage <span class="hlt">basin</span> characteristics in the clinch mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee Columbia University, Department of Geology, Technical Report, No. 3, Contract N6 ONR 271-300, 1953), and Strahler (Handbook of applied hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1964). GIS based on analysis of all morphometric parameters and the erosional development of the area by the streams has been progressed well beyond maturity and lithology is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4800535','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4800535"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectrum of Sickle Cell Diseases in Patients Diagnosed at a Tertiary Care Centre in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> with Special Emphasis on their Clinicohaematological Profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lokanatha, Hemalata; Ramachandrappa, Rajashekar Murthy G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Sickle cell disease is a monogenic disorder with considerable clinical diversity and Sickle haemoglobin is responsible for wide spectrum of disorders which vary with respect to severity of anaemia, frequency of crises and duration of survival. As they are confused with many other clinically aggressive disorders, precision in diagnosis is essential both to proper clinical management and subsequent genetic counselling. Hence, this study was taken up in order to diagnose these conditions and administer suitable counselling measures to minimise the incidence of sickle cell disease in the future. Aim The aim of this study was to identify the spectrum of all Sickle cell diseases diagnosed at a tertiary care centre in Bangalore, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> who presented over a period of five years from 2009 to 2013 and also to screen the parents and siblings of the patients for their carrier status. Materials and Methods We reviewed 26 cases of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and also 38 parents & 10 siblings of these children for their carrier status. Haemoglobin electrophoreses was performed by using alkaline gel method, followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography when needed. Results A total of 26 children diagnosed with SCD were enrolled in the study. Most common entity was Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA), followed by sickle thalassaemia and Sickle Cell Trait (SCT). Commonest clinical presentation was fever and pallor. Amongst the parents and siblings, sickle cell trait was the most common entity followed by thalassaemia trait. One interesting case of HbSE disease was encountered, which is a rare entity in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Conclusion This study brings out the total spectrum of SCDs in a tertiary care centre in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, with more emphasis on screening of the parents and siblings for their carrier status. PMID:27042470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27394311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27394311"><span id="translatedtitle">New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade</p> <p>2016-03-03</p> <p>Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state, south <span class="hlt">India</span>. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from <span class="hlt">India</span> and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from <span class="hlt">India</span> viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApWS..tmp...88S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApWS..tmp...88S"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater arsenic contamination from parts of the Ghaghara <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>: influence of fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary morphostratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shah, Babar Ali</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A groundwater arsenic (As) distribution in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts of Uttar Pradesh is shown in the entrenched channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. Tubewell water samples were analysed for As through flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system. About 38, 61, and 42 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As >10 µg/l (WHO guideline). Moreover, 15, 45, and 26 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As above 50 µg/l. About 86, 69, and 35 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, are from shallow depth (21-45 m), and it is worth noticing that 47 % As-contaminated (As >10 µg/l) tubewells in these three districts are located within the depth of 10-35 m in Holocene Newer Alluvium aquifers. The high content of As (7.11 mg/kg) is measured in suspended river sediments of the Ghaghara River. Most of the As-contaminated villages in the Ghaghara <span class="hlt">Basin</span> are located close to abandoned or present meander channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. In contrast, tubewells in Faizabad, Ayodhya, and Nawabganj towns are As-safe because of their positions on the Pleistocene Older Alluvium upland surfaces. Quaternary geomorphology plays an important role in groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ghaghara <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The sources of groundwater arsenic are geogenic and perennial mountainous rivers in the Ghaghara <span class="hlt">Basin</span> supplied high sediment loads. The arsenic in groundwater of Ghaghara <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is getting released from associated sediments which were likely deposited from the Himalayas. The process of release of groundwater arsenic is reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4799512','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4799512"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of a few variant dental features in children aged 11–16 years in Davangere, a city in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poornima, P.; Kirthiga, M.; Sasalwad, Shilpa; Nagaveni, N. B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Context: Variations in morphology of shape of teeth have always been of interest to dentists from ancient times. But to our surprise, till date, no studies related to the prevalence of dental features have been conducted in any part of the world. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of a few variant dental features in a group of children aged from 11 to 16 years in the city of Davangere that belongs to the state of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted where children aged 11–16 years were selected (both girls and boys) and type III clinical examination was done. They were checked for the following features – Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped maxillary 2nd molar, 5-cusped maxillary 1st molar, 4-cusped mandibular 1st molar, 5-cusped mandibular 2nd molar, cusp 6 present in mandibular 1st molar, and 7-cusped mandibular 1st molar. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: Around 99.3% of the school children examined had at least one of the dental variations that were examined in relation to the shape of teeth. Conclusions: This study definitely provides us with baseline data, but further epidemiological studies are required to determine the prevalence of the above mentioned dental anomalies. PMID:27051217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.2067D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.2067D"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical weathering in the Krishna <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Western Ghats of the Deccan Traps, <span class="hlt">India</span>: Rates of basalt weathering and their controls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, A.; Krishnaswami, S.; Sarin, M. M.; Pande, K.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Rates of chemical and silicate weathering of the Deccan Trap basalts, <span class="hlt">India</span>, have been determined through major ion measurements in the headwaters of the Krishna and the Bhima rivers, their tributaries, and the west flowing streams of the Western Ghats, all of which flow almost entirely through the Deccan basalts. Samples ( n = 63) for this study were collected from 23 rivers during two consecutive monsoon seasons of 2001 and 2002. The Total dissolved solid (TDS) in the samples range from 27 to 640 mg l -1. The rivers draining the Western Ghats that flow through patches of cation deficient lateritic soils have lower TDS (average: 74 mg l -1), whereas the Bhima (except at origin) and its tributaries that seem to receive Na, Cl, and SO 4 from saline soils and anthropogenic inputs have values in excess of 170 mg l -1. Many of the rivers sampled are supersaturated with respect to calcite. The chemical weathering rates (CWR) of "selected" <span class="hlt">basins</span>, which exclude rivers supersaturated in calcite and which have high Cl and SO 4, are in range of ˜3 to ˜60 t km -2 y -1. This yields an area-weighted average CWR of ˜16 t km -2 y -1 for the Deccan Traps. This is a factor of ˜2 lower than that reported for the Narmada-Tapti-Wainganga (NTW) systems draining the more northern regions of the Deccan. The difference can be because of (i) natural variations in CWR among the different <span class="hlt">basins</span> of the Deccan, (ii) "selection" of river <span class="hlt">basin</span> for CWR calculation in this study, and (iii) possible contribution of major ions from sources, in addition to basalts, to rivers of the northern Deccan Traps. Silicate weathering rates (SWR) in the selected <span class="hlt">basins</span> calculated using dissolved Mg as an index varies between ˜3 to ˜60 t km -2 y -1, nearly identical to their CWR. The Ca/Mg and Na/Mg in these rivers, after correcting for rain input, are quite similar to those in average basalts of the region, suggesting near congruent release of Ca, Mg, and Na from basalts to rivers. Comparison of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51H1485B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51H1485B"><span id="translatedtitle">Bias correction of satellite precipitation products for flood forecasting application at the Upper Mahanadi River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Eastern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beria, H.; Nanda, T., Sr.; Chatterjee, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>High resolution satellite precipitation products such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), etc., offer a promising alternative to flood forecasting in data scarce regions. At the current state-of-art, these products cannot be used in the raw form for flood forecasting, even at smaller lead times. In the current study, these precipitation products are bias corrected using statistical techniques, such as additive and multiplicative bias corrections, and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA) with <span class="hlt">India</span> Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation product,obtained from gauge-based rainfall estimates. Neural network based rainfall-runoff modeling using these bias corrected products provide encouraging results for flood forecasting upto 48 hours lead time. We will present various statistical and graphical interpretations of catchment response to high rainfall events using both the raw and bias corrected precipitation products at different lead times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JESS..123..351P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JESS..123..351P"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments of Ariyalur Group, Cauvery <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">India</span>: An appraisal to Paleocurrent directions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papanna, G.; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Periasamy, V.; Nagendra, R.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Oriented samples of sediments from Ariyalur Group, Cauvery <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, south <span class="hlt">India</span>, were studied for low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to unravel the magnetic fabrics and paleocurrent directions. The results of AMS parameters of the sediments indicate primary depositional fabrics for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu sandstone formations and secondary fabric for Kallankurichchi limestone formation. The obtained low degree of anisotropy ( P j ), oblate shape AMS ellipsoid and distribution of maximum ( K 1) and minimum ( K 3) susceptibility axes on equal area projection confirm the primary sedimentary fabric for Sillakkudi, Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations. In the case of ferruginous, lower arenaceous, Gryphaea limestone and upper arenaceous limestone beds of Kallankurichchi Formation have recorded more than one fabric. The observed AMS parameters like shape factor ( T) (prolate to oblate), q value and random distribution of minimum ( K 3) and maximum ( K 1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established that K 1 AMS axis of biotite mineral could represent the flow direction. The established paleocurrent direction for Sillakkudi is NW-SE direction while Ottakovil and Kallamedu Formations recorded NE-SW direction. Overall the paleoflow directions observed for Ariyalur Group is NE-SW to NW-SE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816519S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816519S"><span id="translatedtitle">Documenting human transformation and establishing the reference condition of large river systems using Corona images: a case study from the Ganga River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, Rajiv; Pipil, Shobhit; Carbonneau, Patrice; Galiatsatos, Nikolaos</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> in northern <span class="hlt">India</span> is one of the most populous river <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the world with nearly half a billion inhabitants. In the post-independence era, population expansion and human interventions have left the ecosystem of the Ganga in a severely damaged state with dwindling water levels, pollution due to human activity and natural sediment transport severely perturbed by dams and barrages. Fortunately, there is a growing recognition by the policy managers in <span class="hlt">India</span> that the restoration of the Ganga to a healthier status, closer to its original unperturbed state, would set a strong foundation to future, greener, economic growth in Northern <span class="hlt">India</span>. However, given the past six decades of fast development, efforts to restore the Ganga to its original condition are faced with a fundamental question: What was the original state of the Ganga? Answering this question will require some knowledge of the former course of the Ganga and of the farming and urban density of the surrounding plains before the impacts of human disturbance could be felt. We have made use of the Corona spy satellite program that collected a large number of earth observation photos in the 1960s. These photos, now declassified, offer us a unique view of the Ganga at the very early stages of intense development and thus before the worst ecological damages occurred. However, actual usage of these images poses significant technical challenges. In the design of the Corona cameras, very high resolution comes at the cost of complex distortions. Furthermore, we have no information on the exact position and orientation of the satellite at the time of image acquisition so an accurate reprojection of the image into conventional map coordinates is not straightforward. We have developed a georectification process based on polynomial transformation to achieve a positional accuracy of ±20m for the area of our interest. Further, We have developed an object-based classification method that uses both texture and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22156124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22156124"><span id="translatedtitle">Field survey of pollutants discharged from different types of residential area in the Yamuna River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyamoto, A; Sakurai, K; Hiraide, R; Minamiyama, M; Fujiki, O</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Ganges River, one of the most heavily populated and urbanized river <span class="hlt">basins</span> in Asia, is polluted by increasing wastewater influent and water-borne diseases are caused in the metropolitan area. This study focused on the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges. We determined the pollutant load per unit of urban area classified by the income of the residents to help design an appropriate sewerage system. In addition, a simple method of estimating runoff pollutant load was examined using data on pollutant load per unit and runoff coefficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012884','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012884"><span id="translatedtitle">The transition from an Archean granite-greenstone terrain into a charnockite terrain in southern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Condie, K. C.; Allen, P.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>In southern <span class="hlt">India</span>, it is possible to study the transition from an Archean granite-greenstone terrain (the <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> province) into high grade charnockites. The transition occurs over an outcrop width of 20-35 km and appears to represent burial depths ranging from 15 to 20 km. Field and geochemical studies indicate that the charnockites developed at the expense of tonalites, granites, and greenstones. South of the transition zone, geobarometer studies indicate burial depths of 7-9 kb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGE.....9..595C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGE.....9..595C"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of nuclear magnetic resonance logs for evaluating low-resistivity reservoirs: a case study from the Cambay <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Rima; Datta Gupta, Saurabh; Farooqui, M. Y.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Low-resistivity pay sands have been identified in four wells, namely: AM-7, AM-8, TA-1 and TA-5, which penetrate the Eocene pay-IV (EP-IV) sand unit of the Kalol formation in the Cambay <span class="hlt">basin</span>. These wells are located near the Dholka and Kanwara oilfields in the Cambay <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs of the low-resistivity reservoirs from these four wells and to determine the petrophysical properties more accurately than conventional logs have done. The thickness of low-resistivity sand varies from 5 to 17 m in the wells under the study area. The formation has been characterized by a high surface area; thus irreducible water saturation (Swi) is high. The resistivity of these pay zones varies from 1 to 8 Ωm and the total NMR porosity ranges from 15% to 50%. The free fluid porosity ranges from 2% to 5% in wells TA-1 and TA-5 and 12-20% in wells AM-7 and AM-8. The Timur-Coates/SDR model derived that the permeability of the low-resistivity reservoir ranges from 0.8 to 1.5 md in wells TA-1 and TA-5 and 10-110 md in wells AM-7 and AM-8.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27536533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27536533"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River <span class="hlt">basin</span> of <span class="hlt">India</span>: a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River <span class="hlt">basin</span> were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22469809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22469809"><span id="translatedtitle">Petro-mineralogical Studies of the Paleoproterozoic Phosphorites in the Sonrai <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Lalitpur District, Uttar Pradesh, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dar, Shamim A. Khan, K. F.; Khan, Saif A.; Khan, Samsuddin; Masroor Alam, M.</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>The Paleoproterozoic phosphorites constitute an economically significant component of the Sonrai <span class="hlt">basin</span> of Lalitpur district. These are associated with ferruginous shale, ironstone, limestone and quartz breccia. Petro-mineralogical studies of samples of the phosphorites, using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, reveal that the collophane (carbonate-fluorapatite) is the dominant phosphate mineral. Calcite, dolomite, quartz, mica and haematite are the dominant gangue constituents. The phosphate minerals occur as oolites mutually replaced by carbonate and silica. The presence of iron oxides has been found in most of the thin sections. There is meagre evidence of organic matter in the form of filaments of microbial phosphate laminae in the samples of phosphorite. The mineral assemblages, their texture and various forms in these phosphorites may be due to some environmental vicissitudes followed by replacement processes and biogenic activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13G0742H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13G0742H"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change Impacts on Water and Crop Yields in the Glacial Dominated Beas River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Ojha, C. S. P. S.; Adeloye, A. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Himalayan valleys are confronting severe climate change related issues (floods in summer, flash flood and landslides, water scarcity in higher altitudes) because of fluctuating monsoon precipitation and increasing seasonal temperatures. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is applied to the River Beas <span class="hlt">basin</span>, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. The Beas is regionally significant as it holds two giant dams, one which annually diverts 4700 Mm3 of water to a nearby <span class="hlt">basin</span>. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for Daily River flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). We then applied the models within a scenario-neutral framework to develop hydrological and crop yield Impact Response Surfaces (IRS) for future changes in annual temperature and precipitation for the region from AR5. Future Q10 and Q90 daily flows indicate amplified 'flash flood' situations and increased low flows, respectively, with increasing temperatures due to increased snowmelt from retreating glaciers. Under existing crop and irrigation management practices, the IRS show decreasing and increasing crop yields for summer (monsoon) and winter (post monsoon) crops, respectively, with rising temperature. Climate change scenario studies shows that, the sensitivity of winter (post monsoon) crop yields to precipitation increases with increasing temperature. The paper will consider the implications of the research for future agricultural water resource management and the potential of adaptation to offset yield losses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25647791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25647791"><span id="translatedtitle">Human health risk assessment via drinking water pathway due to metal contamination in the groundwater of Subarnarekha River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Groundwater samples were collected from 30 sampling sites throughout the Subarnarekha River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> for source apportionment and risk assessment studies. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant spatial variation with some of the metals like As, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se exceeding the drinking water standards at some locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) outcome of four factors that together explained 84.99 % of the variance with >1 initial eigenvalue indicated that both innate and anthropogenic activities are contributing factors as source of metal in groundwater of Subarnarekha River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) and cancer risk by ingestion for adult and child, and it was indicated that Mn was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. The carcinogenic risk of As for adult and child was within the acceptable cancer risk value of 1 × 10(-4). The largest contributors to chronic risks were Mn, Co and As. Considering the geometric mean concentration of metals, the hazard index (HI) for adult was above unity. Considering all the locations, the HI varied from 0.18 to 11.34 and 0.15 to 9.71 for adult and child, respectively, suggesting that the metals posed hazard by oral intake considering the drinking water pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..11.6843T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..11.6843T"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling a land surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Land surface models are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land surface-atmosphere coupling over <span class="hlt">India</span> and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the land surface model JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parameterised it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges river <span class="hlt">basin</span> (<span class="hlt">India</span>). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm m-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 7-14 mm m-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm m-1, depending on different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESS...18.4223T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESS...18.4223T"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling a land-surface model with a crop growth model to improve ET flux estimations in the Upper Ganges <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsarouchi, G. M.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Land-Surface Models (LSMs) are tools that represent energy and water flux exchanges between land and the atmosphere. Although much progress has been made in adding detailed physical processes into these models, there is much room left for improved estimates of evapotranspiration fluxes, by including a more reasonable and accurate representation of crop dynamics. Recent studies suggest a strong land-surface-atmosphere coupling over <span class="hlt">India</span> and since this is one of the most intensively cultivated areas in the world, the strong impact of crops on the evaporative flux cannot be neglected. In this study we dynamically couple the LSM JULES with the crop growth model InfoCrop. JULES in its current version (v3.4) does not simulate crop growth. Instead, it treats crops as natural grass, while using prescribed vegetation parameters. Such simplification might lead to modelling errors. Therefore we developed a coupled modelling scheme that simulates dynamically crop development and parametrized it for the two main crops of the study area, wheat and rice. This setup is used to examine the impact of inter-seasonal land cover changes in evapotranspiration fluxes of the Upper Ganges River <span class="hlt">basin</span> (<span class="hlt">India</span>). The sensitivity of JULES with regard to the dynamics of the vegetation cover is evaluated. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the changes introduced after coupling it with the crop model. Evapotranspiration fluxes, which are significantly different between the original and the coupled model, are giving an approximation of the magnitude of error to be expected in LSMs that do not include dynamic crop growth. For the wet season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 7.5 to 24.4 mm month-1, depending on different precipitation forcing. For the same season, in the coupled model, the monthly Mean Error's range is reduced to 5.4-11.6 mm month-1. For the dry season, in the original model, the monthly Mean Error ranges from 10 to 17 mm month-1, depending on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H24B..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H24B..04S"><span id="translatedtitle">Monsoon Harvests: Assessing the Impact of Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Subsistence-Level Agriculture in the Gundar <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steiff, M.; Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Lack of consistent water availability for irrigated agriculture is recognized as one of the primary constraints to meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals to alleviate hunger, and in semi-arid landscapes such as those of southern <span class="hlt">India</span>, which are characterized by high intra-annual variability in rainfall, provision of capabilities for seasonal storage is recognized to be one of the key strategies towards alleviating water scarcity problems and ensuring food security. Although the issue of increased storage can be addressed by centralized infrastructure projects such as large-scale irrigation systems and dams, an alternative is the "soft path" approach, in which existing large-scale projects are complemented by small-scale, decentralized solutions. Such a decentralized approach has been utilized in southern <span class="hlt">India</span> for thousands of years in the form of village rainwater harvesting tanks or ponds, providing a local and inherently sustainable approach to providing sufficient water for rice cultivation. Over the last century, however, large-scale canal projects and groundwater pumping have replaced rainwater harvesting as the primary source of irrigation water. But with groundwater withdrawals now exceeding recharge in many areas and water tables continuing to drop, many NGOs and government agencies are advocating for a revival of the older rainwater harvesting systems. Questions remain, however, regarding the limits to which rainwater harvesting can provide a solution to decades of water overexploitation. In the present work, we have utilized secondary data sources to analyze the linkages between the tank irrigation systems and the village communities that depend on them within the Gundar <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of southern Tamil Nadu. Combining socioeconomic data with information regarding climate, land use, groundwater depletion, and tank density, we have developed indicators of sustainability for these systems. Using these indicators, we have attempted to unravel the close</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.U44A..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.U44A..03B"><span id="translatedtitle">Vestiges of the Kerguelen Plume in the Sylhet Traps, NE <span class="hlt">India</span>: Reconstructing a 800km diameter plume head in the Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> aligned with the Ninetyeast Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basu, A. R.; Ghatak, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The 117Ma Sylhet Traps, exposed on the southern edge of the Shillong Plateau in northeastern <span class="hlt">India</span>, are separated from the Rajmahal Traps ~550km to the west by the Gangetic-Brahmaputra alluvium of the Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span>. On the basis of the similar age of eruption, the Sylhet and Rajmahal Traps are correlated. We provide an isotope tracer study of the Sylhet Traps and relate them with the Rajmahal Traps, Kerguelen Plateau basalts and associated volcanic rocks in the Southern Indian Ocean, including the Ninetyeast Ridge. We report Nd-Sr-Pb-isotopic and multiple trace element data for 18 discrete and consecutive lava flows from two sections of the Sylhet Traps. Thirteen of these lavas are from the Cherrapunji-Shella (CH) Bazaar section and five from the Mawsynram-Balot (MB) section. In major, trace elements and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes, most of the Sylhet lavas show similarity with the Rajmahal Traps, Bunbury basalts and lavas from the Naturaliste and parts of the Kerguelen Plateau. The combined geochemical data and their correlation with the Rajmahal Traps, Bunbury basalts, and some Kerguelen Plateau lavas, imply a relatively primitive Kerguelen plume source for the CH section basalts. We propose the average 117Ma composition of this plume source to be: ɛNd(I)=1.9, 87Sr/86Sr(I)=0.7046, with relatively flat rare earth element patterns, similar to the primitive mantle source for ODP sites 1138, 1141 and 1142 on the Kerguelen Plateau. The Nd-Sr-isotopic data for the Sylhet basalts are modeled with two end members, a ~18% partial melt of an uncontaminated plume member and a contaminant represented by the granulites of the Eastern Ghats Belt. Most of the Sylhet lavas are close to the proposed plume end-member, with less than 10% of the lithospheric granulite component. The contaminated Sylhet basalts reflect as much as 20% of the granulite component. We suggest the incorporation of the lower continental crustal contaminant in the Kerguelen plume-derived melt by thermal erosion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2763667','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2763667"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of Goiter in Rural Area of Belgaum District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kamath, R; Bhat, Vinod; Rao, RSP; Das, Acharya; KS, Ganesh; Kamath, Asha</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background: To determine the prevalence of goiter and to study the factors influencing goiter among people of the rural community in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state, a community based study. Setting and Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out to find out the prevalence of goiter in a rural community of Belgaum district. The study was conducted by house-to-house survey for a period of one month. Materials and Methods: Two villages (Handiganur and Gundwad) were selected randomly from Belgaum and Raibag taluks of Belgaum district. All the family members in each household were examined for the presence of goiter using WHO criteria. Iodine content of the salt sample obtained from each household was estimated by using spot testing kits. Information regarding the determinants of goiter was collected and recorded in a pre tested proforma. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical packages. Results: The prevalence of goiter among rural population was found to be 16.6%. Goiter of grade 1 was 15.7% and that of grade 2 was 0.9%. Prevalence among males and females were 7.2% and 21.8%, respectively. The prevalence of goiter was highest among adolescents. Estimation of iodine content in the salt sample revealed that 50% of samples had adequate iodine content (≥15 ppm). Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis revealed that females of the age group 10-49 years were independently associated with goiter. Conclusion: Prevalence of goiter was relatively high and therefore constituted a public health problem in this region. PMID:19876455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916797','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916797"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036978','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036978"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas hydrate saturations estimated from fractured reservoir at Site NGHP-01-10, Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>During the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-Ol), one of the richest marine gas hydrate accumulations was discovered at Site NGHP-01-10 in the Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate at this site is primarily controlled by the presence of fractures. Assuming the resistivity of gas hydratebearing sediments is isotropic, th?? conventional Archie analysis using the logging while drilling resistivity log yields gas hydrate saturations greater than 50% (as high as ???80%) of the pore space for the depth interval between ???25 and ???160 m below seafloor. On the other hand, gas hydrate saturations estimated from pressure cores from nearby wells were less than ???26% of the pore space. Although intrasite variability may contribute to the difference, the primary cause of the saturation difference is attributed to the anisotropic nature of the reservoir due to gas hydrate in high-angle fractures. Archie's law can be used to estimate gas hydrate saturations in anisotropic reservoir, with additional information such as elastic velocities to constrain Archie cementation parameters m and the saturation exponent n. Theory indicates that m and n depend on the direction of the measurement relative to fracture orientation, as well as depending on gas hydrate saturation. By using higher values of m and n in the resistivity analysis for fractured reservoirs, the difference between saturation estimates is significantly reduced, although a sizable difference remains. To better understand the nature of fractured reservoirs, wireline P and S wave velocities were also incorporated into the analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7522V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7522V"><span id="translatedtitle">Why hasn't a seawater intrusion yet happened in the Kaluvelli-Pondicherry <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">India</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, Aude; Violette, Sophie</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Worldwide, coastal aquifers are threatened by seawater intrusion. The threat is even bigger when those aquifers are overexploited, for example for irrigation, or when their recharge is low due to a semi-arid or arid climate. The sedimentary <span class="hlt">basin</span> studied here presents both this characteristics, and water level records in the main aquifer can be as low as 30m below MSL. Though, no seawater intrusion has been monitored yet. To understand why, and because a good knowledge of a system hydrodynamic is a necessary step to an efficient water management strategy, hydrogeological numerical modelling of this multi-layered system has been conducted. Existing and acquired geological and hydrodynamic data have been implemented into a quasi-3D hydrogeological model performed with NEWSAM code. Recharge had been previously quantified through the intercomparison of hydrological models, based on surface flow field measurements. During the hydrogeological modelling, sensitivity tests on parameters, and on the nature of the boundary condition with the sea, led to the hypothesis of an offshore freshwater stock. Extension of this fresh groundwater stock has been calculated thanks to Groen approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..129S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..129S"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAESc..42.1097P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAESc..42.1097P"><span id="translatedtitle">Ichnofossils and their significance in the Cambrian successions of the Parahio Valley in the Spiti <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Tethys Himalaya, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parcha, S. K.; Pandey, Shivani</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The Spiti <span class="hlt">Basin</span> exposes well preserved Cambrian successions in the Tethys Himalaya. The present ichnofossil assemblage is reported from the Debsakhad Member of the Kunzum La Formation. The ichnofossils includes the ichnogenera Bergaueria, Chondrites, Cruziana, Didymaulichnus, Dimorphichnus, Diplichnites, Helminthorhaphe, Merostomichnites, ?Monocraterion, Monomorphichnus, Nereites, Palaeopascichnus, Palaeophycus, Phycodes, Planolites, Rusophycus, Skolithos, Scolicia, Treptichnus, etc. along with annelid worm, burrow and scratch marks. These ichnogenera can be assigned to cubichnial, repichnial, pascichnial to fodinichnial behaviors. The ichnofossils reported from this section provide evidence regarding the developmental patterns during the early phase of life. In absence of trilobites, the present assemblage of ichnofossils is very significant in assigning the age of the Debsakhad Member. The abundance of ichnofossils in sandstone, siltstone and in shale beds indicate that the ichnocenosis is dominated by a high behavioral diversity ranging from the suspension to deposit feeders. Three lithofacies were observed in this section, they show a vertical disposition, which further reflects general upward coarsening trend. Ichnofossils are mostly produced by arthropods along with crustacean, polychaetes and polyphyletic vermiforms. Due to the paucity of body fossil, as well as microbiota in the lowermost beds of the Debsakhad Member, the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary could not be demarcated. However, the presence of Treptichnus and Phycodes can be considered as a horizon marker for the beginning of Lower Cambrian in this section.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApWS..tmp...83K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApWS..tmp...83K"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate statistical evaluation of heavy metals in the surface water sources of Jia Bharali river <span class="hlt">basin</span>, North Brahmaputra plain, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khound, Nayan J.; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess the quality of surfacewater sources in the Jia Bharali river <span class="hlt">basin</span> and adjoining areas of the Himalayan foothills with respect to heavy elements viz. (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) by hydrochemical and multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). This study presents the first ever systematic analysis on toxic elements of water samples collected from 35 different surface water sources in both the dry and wet seasons for a duration of 2 hydrological years (2009-2011). Varimax factors extracted by principal component analysis indicates anthropogenic (domestic and agricultural run-off) and geogenic influences on the trace elements. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 35 surfacewater sources into three statistically significant clusters based on the similarity of water quality characteristics. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of complex data sets, and in water quality assessment, identification of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective surfacewater quality management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CEJG....3...12S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CEJG....3...12S"><span id="translatedtitle">The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Gujarat, Western <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahay, Vinay K.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Gujarat, Western <span class="hlt">India</span>, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), T max and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OGeo....3...12S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OGeo....3...12S"><span id="translatedtitle">The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Gujarat, Western <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahay, Vinay</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Gujarat, Western <span class="hlt">India</span>, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), Tmax and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23.1573R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HydJ...23.1573R"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating aquifer recharge in fractured hard rock: analysis of the methodological challenges and application to obtain a water balance (Jaisamand Lake <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rohde, Melissa M.; Edmunds, W. Mike; Freyberg, David; Sharma, Om Prakash; Sharma, Anupma</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Groundwater recharge is an important metric for sustainable water management, particularly in semi-arid regions. Hard-rock aquifers underlie two-thirds of <span class="hlt">India</span> and appropriate techniques for estimating groundwater recharge are needed, but the accuracy of such values is highly uncertain. The chloride mass balance (CMB) method was employed to estimate annual groundwater recharge rates in a monsoon-dependent area of Jaisamand Lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Rajasthan, which contains the Gangeshwar watershed. A monitoring program was established within the watershed during summer 2009, with local participation for the collection of rainfall and groundwater samples. Groundwater recharge was estimated spatially over a 3-year period with pre-monsoon and post-monsoon datasets. Recharge rates estimated using the CMB method were then compared to those estimated using the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method. Specific yield was 0.63 % and assumed to be homogenous across the watershed. The average recharge rate derived from the WTF method (31 mm/year) was higher than that derived from the CMB method (24.3 mm/year). CMB recharge rates were also applied to obtain a water balance for the watershed. CMB recharge rates were used to estimate annual groundwater replenishment and were compared with estimates of groundwater withdrawal using Landsat imagery. Over the 2009-2011 study period, groundwater demand was about seven times greater than the estimated groundwater renewal of 5.6 million cubic meters. This analysis highlights the challenges associated with estimating groundwater recharge in fractured hard-rock aquifers, and how renewable groundwater-resource estimates can be used as a metric to promote sustainable water use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SedG..301..133S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SedG..301..133S"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow subsurface stratigraphy and alluvial architecture of the Kosi and Gandak megafans in the Himalayan foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, Rajiv; Ahmad, Jawed; Gaurav, Kumar; Morin, Guillaume</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The Kosi and the Gandak are two major Himalayan tributaries of the Ganga River in the north Bihar plains <span class="hlt">India</span>. With a large hinterland in the Nepal Himalaya, both these rivers have generated megafans in the plains over the Quaternary time scale. Both these rivers are known to be highly dynamic and sediment-charged. A few conceptual models and limited field data suggested that these megafans have produced thick sand sheets over Late Quaternary period but these ideas have remained speculative and there is no data on the size and dimension of these sand bodies. This paper attempts to reconstruct the subsurface stratigraphy and alluvial architecture for the upper ~ 100 m of the megafans based on electrical resistivity soundings, borehole data and drill cores. Alluvial architecture of the Kosi megafan shows significant variability from proximal to medial parts of the fan in terms of sediment grain size and layer thicknesses. While the medial part shows ~ 20-30 m thick medium to coarse sand sheets which are laterally stacked, the proximal part of the fan has a dominantly gravel unit below ~ 15 m depth that is underlain and overlain by medium to coarse sand units. Further, the medial fan also shows significant vertical and lateral variability in alluvial stratigraphy. The near-surface (< 20 m depth) deposits from the Kosi megafan have pockets of clay and silt within large amalgamated sand bodies whereas the shallow sub-surface (50-100 m depth) sediments are largely sandy and devoid of clay and silt pockets. Alluvial architecture of the Gandak megafan shows two major lithounits; the upper fan succession has a higher stacking density of smaller sand bodies perhaps reflecting the migratory behavior of the river whereas the lower succession shows narrow but thick sand fills reflecting incised channels. The western part of the Gandak megafan has more abundant sand bodies compared to the eastern side of the river along both transects. There are no significant differences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22..207R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22..207R"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27708188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27708188"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>Historically, malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span> was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in <span class="hlt">India</span>; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within <span class="hlt">India</span>, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span> is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span> describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Haryana, and Odisha.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5201217','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5201217"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C.; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K.; Valecha, Neena</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Historically, malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span> was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in <span class="hlt">India</span>; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within <span class="hlt">India</span>, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span> is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span> describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Haryana, and Odisha. PMID:27708188</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23360009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23360009"><span id="translatedtitle">Floristic diversity of regenerated tree species in Dipterocarp forests in Western Ghats of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The research was focused on exploring the structure, diversity and form of regeneration process of the Dipterocarp forests in Western Ghats in relation to environmental factors. Eight populations in the distribution range of Dipterocarp forests were selected. In each population 32 plots of 2mx2m were laid down randomly. Atotal of 1243 seedlings < or = 10 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) belonging to 99 species and 48 families were recorded. The number of regenerated tree species was found to be high in the populations of Mudigere (40), Sakleshpura (40) and Makuta (39), which are characterized by favorable locality factors and lower disturbances. The highest similarity index in species composition was recorded between the populations of Sampaje in Kodagu district and Gundya in Dakshina Kannada (60%) whereas the lowest similarity index was observed between the population of Sringeri in Chikmagalore and Sampaje (53%) and Gundya and Makuta (35%) in Kodagu district. Dipterocarpus indicus was found to be dominant among the regenerated tree species in all the sites studied except Gundy and Sampaje. The frequencies of regeneration classes (seedlings, saplings, poles and adult trees) were shaped as inverse J curve indicating the normal regeneration pattern under the present disturbance. The average disturbance of litter collection, grazing, fire, weeds and canopy opening were significant among different populations (p < or = 0.05). Negative correlation was observed between disturbance and species richness, number of individuals and density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19603276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19603276"><span id="translatedtitle">Alteration in hematology of Labeo rohita under stress of pollution from Lakes of Bangalore, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zutshi, Bela; Prasad, S G Raghu; Nagaraja, R</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Blood is an indicator of physiological condition of an animal. Therefore, a field study was conducted to investigate the hematological parameters of wild population of rohu, Labeo rohita (Ham). The following aspects were evaluated in blood: hemoglobin content, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values, and in plasma: cholesterol, protein, and glucose levels. For this purpose, rohu fish of varying sizes and weights were sampled from Hebbal (receiving a storm water drain) and Chowkalli lake (received domestic sewage and industrial effluents from various sources and was more polluted than Hebbal lake). It revealed noticeable differences in hemoglobin content, RBC and WBC count, and PCV and MCHC values. Severe anemia can be marked by a significant decrease in RBC count (p < 0.5), hemoglobin content, and PCV and MCHC values, whereas an increase in leukocyte count and MCV values were observed in fish from Chowkalli lake. Fish from lake B had fewer RBC and low concentration of serum protein and cholesterol. Serum concentration of glucose showed initial higher levels and then low concentration (900-1,500 g) in fish from lake B when compared to lake A. The variation in values of different parameters can be attributed to exposure of fish to various types of pollutants present mainly in the Chowkalli lake which receives heavy metals, synthetic detergents, petroleum products, and other acid and alkali substances from the nearby local industries. Other observations of these fish include dark body color and aggressive nature of fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682406"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on radionuclides in granite quarries of Bangalore rural district, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ningappa, C; Sannappa, J; Karunakara, N</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Studies on natural radiation levels and radionuclides were carried out extensively in the environment of granite quarries of Kanakapura, Ramanagara Taluks and Bidadi Hobli in Bangalore rural District and Bangalore city. The indoor and outdoor gamma exposure rate in air was measured using an environmental dosemeter, and it is converted into absorbed dose using suitable conversion factor. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in rock samples and also in soil samples were measured using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The results reveal that the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in rocks are found to be vary from 32.2 to 163.6, 128.3 to 548.6 and 757.4 to 1418.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 93.2, 306.2 and 1074.4 Bq kg(-1). Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples were found to vary from 32.4 to 55.2, 39.9 to 214.3 and 485.4 to 1150.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively, with corresponding arithmetic mean values of 40.7, 93.1 and 750.4 Bq kg(-1). The average activity levels of all these radionuclides are above the global average. This is consistent with the geological and geo-chemical significance of the rocks of the area under investigation. The results of these systematic investigations are discussed in detail and compared with the literature values represented for other environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EnMan..57..189K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EnMan..57..189K"><span id="translatedtitle">Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karanth, Krithi K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km2 landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617145"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on diversity of lichen, Pyxine cocoes to air pollution in Bhadravathi town, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Danesh, Naveen; Puttaiah, E T; Basavarajappa, B E</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Air pollution induced climate change affecting the pigmentation and diversity of lichen, Pyxine cocoes were monitored around the industrial area and traffic area of Bhadravthi using European guidelines. The obtained data has been discussed and results compared with data from that of Kuvempu University campus (control). From the present study, it was evident that the air pollutants emitted from the two major industries and other small scale industries affected the total chlorophyll (0.16 mg g(-1)) and carotene pigments (0.11 mg g(-1)) in Pyxine cocoes, as well as their diversity (approx 13) on two plants (M. indica and P. pinnata) in the vicinity of the industrial area. Further, as a result of vehicular pollution at traffic area resulted in the deterioration of total chlorophyll (0.11 mg g(-1)), carotene pigments (0.07 mg g(-1)) and diversity (approx. 17) of Pyxine cocoes compared to control site. The present study has thrown light on lichens sensitivity to the air pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012825','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012825"><span id="translatedtitle">Gneiss-charnockite-granite connection in the archaean crust of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> Craton, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ananthaiyer, G. V.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>It is explained that the big picture of the Indian crust contains essentially three components: (1) the upper crust, which is composed of platformal sedimentary sequences (including banded iron formations), (2) the middle crust, which is represented by the Peninsular gneiss, and (3) the deep crust, which is composed predominantly of charnockites. The charnockitization controversy was addressed by stating that CO2 is absolutely not essential for charnockite formation, and it is suggested rather that molecular hydrogen movements play an important role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319143"><span id="translatedtitle">Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karanth, Krithi K</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km(2) landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23813305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23813305"><span id="translatedtitle">Pesticide tolerant Azotobacter isolates from paddy growing areas of northern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chennappa, Gurikar; Adkar-Purushothama, C R; Suraj, Umdale; Tamilvendan, K; Sreenivasa, M Y</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A total of 14 Azotobacter strains were isolated from different paddy cultivating soils with pH ranging from 6.5 to 9.5 by using serial dilution agar plate method. The strains were Gram negative, rod shaped, cyst forming and developed brown to black colored colonies, which were glistening, smooth, slimy on Ashby's agar plates. Biochemically they were positive for biochemical tests namely, indole production, citrate, catalase, carbohydrate fermentation and Voges-Proskauer test. Further, sequence analysis of PCR amplicons obtained from these cultures revealed the presence of five different Azotobacter species viz., Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter salinestris, Azotobacter sp., Azotobacter nigricans subsp. nigricans and Azotobacter tropicalis. Phylogenetically these strains were grouped into two distinct clusters. These strains were tested for their ability to grow on a media containing four different pesticides such as pendimethalin, glyphosate, chloropyrifos and phorate, which are commonly used for the paddy. Out of 14 strains tested, 13 strains were able to grow on a media containing herbicides such as pendimethalin, glyphosate and insecticides like chloropyrifos and phorate. However, five Azotobacter strains were able to grow at higher concentration of 5% pesticides, without affecting their growth rate. Further, the effect of pesticides on the indole acetic acid (IAA) production by Azotobacter strains was also estimated. Azotobacter-16 strain was found to produce 34.4 μg ml(-l) of IAA in a media supplemented with 1,000 mg of tryptophan and 5% of pendimethalin. Present study reveals that species of Azotobacter are able to grow and survive in the presence of pesticides and no significant effects were observed on the metabolic activities of Azotobacter species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129276','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129276"><span id="translatedtitle">Ankyloglossia Among Children of Regular and Special Schools in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>: A Prevalence Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>VAZ, Anna C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Tongue-tie (more formally known as ankyloglossia) is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum, which may restrict the mobility of the tongue tip impairing its ability to fulfil its functions. Ankyloglossia is uncommon, but not rare. Incidence figures reported in the literature vary widely, ranging from 0.02% to 4.8%. Incidences of upto 10.7% have been reported. Since the literature provides no uniformity of information with regard to the incidence of tongue tie. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of tonguetie in general population and mentally challenged population, measure the grades of tongue-tie and also to determine the relations of gender with tongue-tie. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred school children in the age group of 9-17 years were examined for the presence of tongue-tie, 350 from regular schools and 350 from special schools. The presence of tongue-tie was evaluated, measured and graded into grades 1 to 5 according to KOTLOW’s method and data subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Significantly higher incidence of 16.4% population having tongue-tie was identified, of which 18.57% were from general schools and 13.71% from special schools but the differences were not statistically significant. Males showed greater incidence than females and grades I, II, III were more predominantly seen than grade IV, but the differences were not significant statistically. Conclusion: Diagnostic criteria and definitive classifying systems are needed to allow for further comparative studies. PMID:25121061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26767178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26767178"><span id="translatedtitle">Intensified tuberculosis case finding amongst vulnerable communities in southern <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reddy, K K; Ananthakrishnan, R; Jacob, A G; Das, M; Isaakidis, P; Kumar, A M V</p> <p>2015-12-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> mainly uses passive case finding to detect tuberculosis (TB) patients through the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP). An intensified case finding (ICF) intervention was conducted among vulnerable communities in two districts of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> during July-December 2013; 658 sputum smear-positive TB cases were detected. The number of smear-positive cases detected increased by 8.8% relative to the pre-intervention period (July-December 2012) in intervention communities as compared to an 8.6% decrease in communities without the ICF intervention. ICF activities brought TB services closer to vulnerable communities, moderately increasing TB case detection rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816907B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816907B"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> and Bangladesh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> (<span class="hlt">India</span> and Bangladesh) have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focused on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in areas of southeastern Bangladesh and West Bengal. Drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlying a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43--tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42- and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43--tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43--tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitoring of hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling studies illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional predominantly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..436S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..436S"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-cost, open access flood inundation modelling with sparse data: A case study of the Lower Damodar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanyal, J.; Carbonneau, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In developed nations, flood monitoring and management benefits from a range of high-cost modern data and methods such as high resolution terrain data and digital elevation models, cloud penetrating radar data which defines flood extents and advanced computer modelling software. However, in developing countries, such resources are rarely available. The situation is further compounded by the fact that developing countries often have higher population densities which are even more vulnerable to flood hazards. This paper addresses these issues and presents a methodology for flood modelling which is accessible within the resource constraints which are typical in developing countries. A 20 Km flood prone reach of the lower Damodar River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Northern <span class="hlt">India</span> has been selected as the study area. This area has been subjected to inundation 4 times during the last 6 years due to water released from a network of upstream reservoirs during intense monsoon rainfall events. Within the study site, topographic data from three sources was available. First, we used SRTM data. Second, 40 cross-sections were surveyed with differential GPS and a handheld depth sounder. These data were corrected and their datum adjusted to that of the SRTM DEM with the precise point positioning (PPP) system freely available from Natural Resources Canada. Third, low-cost Cartosat-1 stereo images were used to produce a DEM with Leica Photogrammetry Suite. The elevation points derived from Cartosat-1 images were then manually edited in a 3D stereo viewing environment to represent the narrow but hydraulically significant features, such as the embankments, roads, smaller depressions and merged with the surveyed points for the channel. The SRTM data over the featureless farmland was also made bare-earth and merged with the rest of the mass points to create a hybrid point cloud. The RMSE of this hybrid terrain data was found to be 1.1 m as compared to 2.4 m for the original SRTM DEM. TELEMAC2D, an open</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJEaS.102.1321A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJEaS.102.1321A"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonality in low latitudes during the Oxfordian (Late Jurassic) reconstructed via high-resolution stable isotope analysis of the oyster Actinostreon marshi (J. Sowerby, 1814) from the Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, western <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Pandey, Dhirendra K.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>A high-resolution stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) analysis of a specimen of the oyster Actinostreon marshi (J. Sowerby, 1814) from the Lower Oxfordian of the Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in western <span class="hlt">India</span> was used to reconstruct average seasonal temperatures over a consecutive time interval of 10 years. The recorded temperatures during this period varied around a mean of 13 °C (maximum: 15.1 °C; minimum: 11.4 °C) with a generally low seasonality between 1 and 3 °C. Such weak seasonal changes can be expected from a subtropical palaeolatitude between 25° and 30°S. However, the low average temperatures are in contrast to studies on broadly contemporaneous fossils from Europe and the southern Malagasy Gulf which point to much warmer conditions in these areas. It is therefore proposed that the low temperatures in the Kachchh <span class="hlt">Basin</span> are caused by upwelling currents which influenced the north-western coast of <span class="hlt">India</span> during the Late Jurassic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP31D0854S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP31D0854S"><span id="translatedtitle">U-Pb detrital zircon ages to determine the provenance signature of late Quaternary paleo-channel systems in the western Indo-Gangetic <span class="hlt">basin</span>, northwest <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, A.; Carter, A.; Gupta, S.; Sinha, R.; Murray, A. S.; Buylaert, J.; Thomsen, K.; Jain, M.; Paul, D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>An extensive set of paleo-river channels are present in the shallow subsurface of the alluvial plains of the western Indo-Gangetic <span class="hlt">basin</span> in northwest <span class="hlt">India</span> as evidenced by the analysis of satellite imagery. There has been considerable interest in paleochannels in the doab between the present-day courses of the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers in particular because of the hypothesized relationship between the distribution of Harappan settlements and paleo-river courses. Specifically, the Ghaggar-Hakra paleo-channel has been the focus of attention because of the occurrence of archaeological Harappan sites along its course. Several studies link the end of the Harappan urban phase ~3500 BP to paleo-river drying or drainage diversion. However, no detailed scientific study has been done to establish the sub-surface stratigraphy and/or the provenance of alluvial sediments of the Ghaggar-Hakra paleo-channel. Some of the major questions are: (1) What is the provenance of the sediments that form the paleo-channels?; (2) Do they represent major Himalayan-sourced paleo-rivers or smaller rivers derived from the frontal Himalayan ranges? We investigated the provenance of river sediments retrieved through core-drilling, down to ~50 m depth, along three transects across the paleo-valleys on the Ghaggar and Sutlej plains. Drill core litho-stratigraphy shows ~20-25 m thick micaceous coarse- to medium-sand bodies at variable depths below ~10 m. U-Pb detrital zircon ages were determined for the fluvial sand bodies, in five drill-cores, using the LA-ICPMS technique available at University College of London. We selected 3-7 number of samples from each core and performed heavy mineral separation to extract zircon grains, which were then dated by U-Pb technique. Further to establish provenance links we determined the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from modern river sands along this sector of the Himalayan front, i.e., the major Himalayan rivers such as the modern Sutlej, the Yamuna, and the Ganges</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51G1105P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51G1105P"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources and distribution of organic matter in the tropical (Peninsular) river <span class="hlt">basin</span> of Central <span class="hlt">India</span>: Lignin phenol and stable isotopic compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Y.; Shirodkar, P. V.; Zhang, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the sources and pathways of organic matter in tropical river <span class="hlt">basin</span> of peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span> is important towards its coastal biogeochemical changes under existing densely populated economic zone. Present study highlights multi proxy investigations using TOC, C/N ratios, stable isotopes, and lignin phenol compositions in spatially well-distributed samples of TSM, river sediments, and agricultural soil collected during flood season from Godavari River, the largest peninsular river draining into the Bay of Bengal. Total organic carbon (TOC) content of the main river stream varies from upper reaches (av. 0.63%) to mid reaches (av. 1.69%) to the deltaic region (av. 1.45%) with similar distributions in the tributaries in the upstream (av. 0.7%) and in the mid stream (av.1.7%). The TOC values do not show significant correlation with grain sizes of river or tributary sediments. The (C/N) atom ratios of river sediments varies from the upper reaches (av. ~13.5) to the deltaic region (av. ~18), while in the TSM (C/N) atom ratios from upstream (av. ~13) to mid region (av. 8) to the deltaic region (av. 10). This pertains to the degraded soil characteristics and nitrogen rich plant detritus from rain forest and agricultural fields of the middle reaches. The δ13C of river sediments varies from upstream (av. - 22%) to mid stream (av. -25.2%) to the deltaic region (av. -24.6%), with a similar variation in upper tributary (av. -20%) and lower tributary (av. -25.4%). The value indicates C3 plant contribution in the middle and lower riches and contribution from mixture of C4 plant in the upper reaches climatic properties and agriculture. Total Lignin-phenol (λ8 mg/100mgOC) of river sediments varies from the upper reaches (av. 3.6) to mid stream (av. 2.83) to the deltaic region (av. 2.5); with lower values (av. 1.9) in tributaries corresponds to the distinct geographical setup and land usage. The ratio between syringyl phenols to vanillin phenols (S/V) is ≈ 1 and cinnamyl</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22527465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22527465"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metals partitioning in sediments of the Kabini River in South <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hejabi, Azadeh Taghinia; Basavarajappa, H T</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments of the Kabini River, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> was studied to determine the association of metal with various geochemical phases by sequential extraction. The variations of heavy metal concentration depend on the lithology of the river <span class="hlt">basin</span> and partly on anthropogenic activities. The Kabini River sediments are dominated by Sargur supracrustals with amphibolites, gneisses, carbonates, and ultrabasic rocks weathering into gneissic and serpentine soils carrying a natural load of cationic heavy metals. The source of heavy metals in the Kabini riverbed sediments is normally envisaged as additional inputs from anthropogenic over and above natural and lithogenic sources. Geochemical study indicates the metals under study were present mostly in the least mobilizable fraction in the overlying water and it is concluded that heavy metals in these sediments are to a great extent derived from multisource anthropogenic inputs besides geochemical background contributions The results show that lead and chromium have higher potential for mobilization from the sediment due to higher concentration at the exchangeable ion and sulfide ion bounded, also Cu and Pb have the greatest percentage of carbonate fraction, it means that the study area received inputs from urban and industrial effluents. Association of the Fe with organic matter fraction can be explained by the high affinity of these elements for the humic substances. Further, Zn and Ni reveal a significant enrichment in sediment and it is due to release of industrial wastewater into the river. These trace metals are possible contaminants to enter into aquatic and food chain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16556494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16556494"><span id="translatedtitle">Cultural characteristics, morphology, and variation within Claviceps africana and C. sorghi from <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muthusubramanian, Venkateshwaran; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Rajaram Reddy, Daram; Tooley, Paul W</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Sorghum ergot in <span class="hlt">India</span> is caused by Claviceps africana and C. sorghi. The distributions of these two species in <span class="hlt">India</span> is not known. Eighty-nine sorghum ergot isolates were cultured from young sphacelia obtained from male sterile sorghum plants artificially inoculated using inoculum collected in the field. Based on cultural characteristics, the isolates were separated into two groups which differed distinctly in the morphology of their sphacelia, conidia, and sclerotia. Marked differences also were observed in rates of secondary conidial production and disease spread between the groups. In combination with molecular evidence, our results confirm that the isolates placed in Group I represent C. africana and Group II isolates represent C. sorghi. C. africana was found to be widely distributed in all sorghum growing areas of <span class="hlt">India</span>. The species first described as occuring in <span class="hlt">India</span>, C. sorghi, appears to be restricted to a few locations in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12158002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12158002"><span id="translatedtitle">Girl prostitution in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mukhopadhyay, K K</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in <span class="hlt">India</span> and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H13A1308G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H13A1308G"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of Stream Flow in Ungauged <span class="hlt">Basins</span> - a Comprehensive Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganti, R.; Agarwal, V.; Shetty, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>It is well established that critical information on stream-flow is essential in reducing uncertainties in planning and design of various water resource projects. Lack of data, at the desired spatial and temporal resolution, poses an enormous challenge in developing meaningful prediction models. Powerful techniques like Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling provide reasonably accurate prediction models, however development of such models require substantial amount of past data. Currently, empirical equations developed across the span of several hundred years are used on a regionalized basis. These equations are usually very simple, allowing for easy application, however not very accurate. This limited accuracy can be attributed to the use of noisy data and inclusion of only limited stream-flow variables. This study is an attempt to process noisy data and incorporate catchment variables to improve the accuracy of existing relationships whilst maintaining their simplicity. This study presents a comprehensive framework starting from data-processing to data-analysis that enables the development of regionalized empirical equations. A case-study has been presented for the sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> in "Dakshina Kannada" (Coastal <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>). Firstly, the data has first been processed to remove any outliers and estimate missing values, by replacing missing values with the average values of the neighboring entries for discrete data-sets or by using Least Square principles (LS) for continuously distributed date. Secondly, the existing models have been improved based on the processed dataset obtained through Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA). Further, utilizing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) other important parameters have been identified. All these parameters have then been included to arrive at an "improved regionalized relationship". Finally, the improved regionalized relationships have been evaluated for their performance based on the Correlation Coefficient and Standard Error</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.111..254V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.111..254V"><span id="translatedtitle">Detrital zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic composition from foreland sediments of the Assam <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, NE <span class="hlt">India</span>: Constraints on sediment provenance and tectonics of the Eastern Himalaya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vadlamani, Ravikant; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wei-Qiang</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Synorogenic Palaeogene-Neogene sediments of the Assam foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span>, were derived by erosion of adjacent crustal and orogenic sources following the Greater <span class="hlt">India</span>-Eurasia collision since ∼55 Ma. To constrain source sediment influx, and its relation to Himalayan tectonics, from pre- to post-collision time, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and their Hf isotopic compositions were carried out. The varying detrital zircon spectral patterns analyzed from the Paleogene Jaintia, Barail and Neogene Surma and Tipam Groups, with sediment petrography, track source sediment derived from cratonic <span class="hlt">India</span>, Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths and the eastern Himalaya. These sources are tested against Cenozoic paleopositions proposed for the northeastward motion of the Indian plate. Precollisional cratonic detritus to Middle to Late Eocene Sylhet Formation shifted to Tethyan Himalaya and arc sources of the Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths to Late Eocene Kopili and Barail Formations, consistent with the proposed paleoposition proximal to the Indus-Yarlung suture. This Sylhet-Kopili Formation transition, within the Jaintia Group, reflects one of the earliest Himalayan hinterland exhumation stages during the Late Eocene. Major shift in provenance to Higher Himalayan Crystalline and arc detritus is recorded from the Surma Group, constraining Mid Miocene Himalayan tectonic exhumation from the eastern Himalaya. Late Miocene Tipam Group preserves sediment of Higher Himalayan Crystalline detritus, ophiolite and likely Lesser Himalayan rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740624','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740624"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of Anaemia among Postnatal Mothers in Coastal <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhagwan, Darshan; Kumar, Ashwini; Kamath, Asha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Postpartum is the most neglected period in reproductive cycle of woman. Prevalence of anaemia in developing countries ranges from 50-95%. Aim To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among postnatal mothers. Setting and design A community based cross-sectional study among recently delivered mothers residing in field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methods The study sample included 401 respondents who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation from all rural health centres. Data was collected by personal interviews followed by haemoglobin estimation by indirect cyanomethaemoglobin method. Results The prevalence of postnatal anaemia was 26.5% (Anaemia = Hb<12gm/dl). There were no cases of severe anaemia. Postnatal anaemia was predominantly seen in mothers of age < 20 years and half of the mothers with inter-pregnancy intervals less than two years were found to be anaemic. Illiteracy was identified as a significant variable (OR=11.23, 95% CI = 1.90-65.08) for postpartum anaemia. Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia was significantly lower in the present study; however sustained efforts have to be made to further lower the prevalence of postnatal anaemia in order to promote the health and well-being of women. PMID:26894096</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028572','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028572"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological Patterns of Intracranial Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ravindra, Ramdurg Shashank; Karnappa, Andola Sainath</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction An “Intra-cranial space occupying lesion” (ICSOL)is defined as a mass lesion in the cranial cavity with a diverse aetiology like benign or malignant neoplasm, inflammatory or parasitic lesion, haematoma, or arterio-venous malformation. Central nervous system neoplasms represent a unique, heterogenous population of neoplasms constituting 1.9% of all malignant tumours in <span class="hlt">India</span>. A broad spectrum of non-neoplastic conditions can mimic a brain tumour, both clinically and radiologically and these patients undergo biopsy. In such cases, the pathologist can readily differentiate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic imitators. Aim The present study attempts to provide preliminary data on morphological patterns of intracranial lesions in North <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> region and to study clinicopathological spectrum with correlation of radiological findings of ICSOL. Special emphasis is made on the utility of special stains and IHC markers in CNS tumours. Materials and Methods This retrospective and prospective descriptive study was performed on biopsy specimen of ICSOL received from Departmnet of Neurosurgery, Basaveshwar Teaching Hospital, Kalaburgi. The study period was from January 2012 to June 2013 retrospectively and July 2013 to June 2015 prospectively. All specimens were preserved in 10% formalin and allowed to fix for 24 hours. The haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the CNS lesions were obtained by routine processing and paraffin embedding. Special stains and IHC were done wherever appropriate. Results Sixty two cases of CNS lesions were studied, of which 12 (19.4%) cases were non neoplastic with six (50%) being cystic lesions and four (33.4%) were cerebral abscess. The neoplastic lesions comprised of 50 (80.6%) cases, which included 48 (96%) primary and two (4%) metastatic lesions. Among primary tumours, gliomas constituted the largest category of 24 (50%) cases with 16.7% being Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and pilocytic astrocytomas each, followed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T41D..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T41D..05S"><span id="translatedtitle">Broken foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the <span class="hlt">India</span>-Eurasia collision zone and in the central Andes: tectonic, geomorphic and sedimentologic similarities (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strecker, M. R.; Bookhagen, B.; Hilley, G. E.; Kirby, E.; Sobel, E. R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Deformation in broken forelands may be accommodated far into the foreland by reactivation of crustal anisotropies, producing steep, but short-wavelength topography. The discontinuous nature of this deformation and potentially rapid rock uplift rates relative to those within fold-and-thrust belts favors sediment ponding behind active mountain ranges built atop reactivated geologic structures. In the realm of the greater Indo-Eurasian collision zone the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and China or the Qilian Shan comprise such settings, where ongoing shortening excises and uplifts basement blocks and eventually compartmentalizes a formerly contiguous foreland. In the Qilian Shan and ranges of NE Tibet, an early Tertiary foreland was disrupted by diachronous range growth and formation of isolated <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Reconnection to external base level did not occur until Quaternary time. The Argentine Santa Barbara and Pampean ranges are examples of such environments in a non-collisional orogen. Here, several generations of transient <span class="hlt">basin</span> fills were deposited and re-excavated in intermontane <span class="hlt">basins</span> that are near the headwaters of rivers currently draining the broken foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> system. Despite differing settings, there similarities between <span class="hlt">basins</span> in both environments, including: (1) multiple episodes of filling and excavation; (2) steep precipitation gradients; and, (4) highly disparate and diachronous deformation and uplift. Comparison of <span class="hlt">basin</span> histories from the Andes and Central Asia suggests that these characteristics are the consequence of similar factors. First, deformation is typically localized along inherited crustal zones of weakness and the evolving topographic load above the reactivated faults. The high-angle structures produce large amounts of uplift for a given increment of shortening, facilitating rapid removal of cover sediments and exposing resistant lithologies. Second, transient <span class="hlt">basin</span> fills typically occur where moisture-laden winds are prevented from reaching the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28004522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28004522"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual Infection with Bluetongue Virus Serotypes and First-Time Isolation of Serotype 5 in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hemadri, D; Maan, S; Chanda, M M; Rao, P P; Putty, K; Krishnajyothi, Y; Reddy, G H; Kumar, V; Batra, K; Reddy, Y V; Maan, N S; Reddy, Y N; Singh, K P; Shivachandra, S B; Hegde, N R; Rahman, H; Mertens, P P C</p> <p>2016-12-21</p> <p>Bluetongue is endemic in <span class="hlt">India</span> and has been reported from most Indian states. Of late, the clinical disease is most frequently seen in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (erstwhile Andhra Pradesh state), Tamil Nadu and <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. Our analysis of diagnostic samples from bluetongue outbreaks during 2010-2011 from the state of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> identified bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 5 (BTV-5) for the first time in <span class="hlt">India</span>. One of the diagnostic samples (CH1) and subsequent virus isolate (IND2010/02) contained both BTV-2 and BTV-5. Segment 2 (seg-2) sequence data (400 bp: nucleotides 2538-2921) for IND2010/02-BTV5, showed 94.3% nucleotide identity to BTV-5 from South Africa (Accession no. AJ585126), confirming the virus serotype and also indicating that Seg-2 was derived from a Western topotype, which is in contrast to serotype 2, that belongs to an Eastern topotype. BTV-5 has been recently reported from Africa, China, French islands and the Americas. Although the exact source of the Indian BTV-5 isolate is still to be confirmed, recent identification of additional exotic serotypes in <span class="hlt">India</span> is of real concern and might add to the severity of the disease seen in these outbreaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25316205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25316205"><span id="translatedtitle">Religion, Spirituality, or Existentiality in Bad News Interactions: The Perspectives and Practices of Physicians in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martis, Lawrence; Westhues, Anne</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A qualitative study was conducted to identify the role of religion, spirituality, or existentiality in clinical interactions. Grounded theory design was used to generate narrative data from 27 physicians working in four teaching hospitals in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Physicians reported that they explored religious, spiritual, and existential beliefs and practices of patients, along with other psychosocial and disease aspects, to assess their tolerance to bad news, to make decisions about delivering it, and to address the distress that might emerge from receiving bad news. They also reported taking recourse to religious or spiritual practices to cope with their own stress and feelings of failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012884','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012884"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural patterns in high grade terrain in parts of Tamil Nadu and <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Detailed geological mapping in parts of Tamil Nadu and <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> has brought out vast areas occupied by highly deformed charnockite and high grade gneisses. These areas, similar to high grade shield terrains in other parts of the world have the impress of extensive tectonic reworking multideformation and polymetamorphism and are closely associated with layered ultramafics, shelf type sediments and different igneous events. In North Arcot and Charmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu and Kollegal taluk in Mysore district in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, charnockite is intensely cofolded with a supracrustal succession of layered ultramafics, pyroxene granulite, pink granolites, magnetite quartzite and khondalites. These areas have undergone five phases of deformation, five generations of basic dyke activities, four phases of migmatisation and two periods of metallogeny. Geochronological data ranges from 2900 m.y. to 750 m.y. In working out the tectanostratigraphy of the above areas the basic dykes of different generations have served as major time markers. In addition, the persistent strike continuity of linear bands of pyroxene granulite, pink granolite and magnetite quartzite has been of great utility in using them as structural markers for bringing out the complex structural history in these areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35.2963C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35.2963C"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of <span class="hlt">India</span>-Eurasia convergence partitioning between the Bhutan Himalaya and the Shillong Plateau: New evidences from foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> deposits along the Dungsam Chu section, eastern Bhutan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coutand, Isabelle; Barrier, Laurie; Govin, Gwladys; Grujic, Djordje; Hoorn, Carina; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Najman, Yani</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Shillong Plateau is a unique basement-cored uplift in the foreland of the eastern Himalaya that accommodates part of the <span class="hlt">India</span>-Eurasia convergence since the late Miocene. It was uplifted in the late Pliocene to 1600 m, potentially inducing regional climatic perturbations by orographically condensing part of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitations along its southern flank. As such, the eastern Himalaya-Shillong Plateau-ISM is suited to investigate effects of tectonics, climate, and erosion in a mountain range-broken foreland system. This study focuses on a 2200 m thick sedimentary section of the Siwalik Group strategically located in the lee of the Shillong Plateau along the Dungsam Chu at the front of the eastern Bhutan Himalaya. We have performed magnetostratigraphy constrained by vitrinite reflectance and detrital apatite fission track dating, combined with sedimentological and palynological analyses. We show that (1) the section was deposited between 7 and 1 Ma in a marginal marine deltaic transitioning into continental environment after 5 Ma, (2) depositional environments and paleoclimate were humid with no major change during the depositional period indicating that the orographic effect of the Shillong Plateau had an unexpected limited impact on the paleoclimate of the Bhutanese foothills, and (3) the diminution of the flexural subsidence in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and/or of the detrital input from the range is attributable to a slowdown of the displacement rates along the Main Boundary Thrust in eastern Bhutan during the latest Miocene-Pleistocene, in response to increasing partitioning of the <span class="hlt">India</span>-Eurasia convergence into the active faults bounding the Shillong Plateau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..472..216K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..472..216K"><span id="translatedtitle">The rain-runoff response of tropical humid forest ecosystems to use and reforestation in the Western Ghats of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Bonell, Michael; Venkatesh, Basappa; Purandara, Bekal K.; Lele, Sharachchandra; Kiran, M. C.; Reddy, Veerabasawant; Badiger, Shrinivas; Rakesh, K. N.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>SummaryThe effects of forest degradation and use and establishment of tree-plantations on degraded or modified forest ecosystems at multi-decadal time-scales using tree-plantations on the streamflow response are less studied in the humid tropics when compared to deforestation and forest conversion to agriculture. In the Western Ghats of <span class="hlt">India</span> (Uttar Kannada, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> State), a previous soil hydraulic conductivity survey linked with rain IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) had suggested a greater occurrence of infiltration-excess overland within the degraded forest and reforested areas and thus potentially higher streamflow (Bonell et al., 2010). We further tested these predictions in Uttar Kannada by establishing experimental <span class="hlt">basins</span> ranging from 7 to 23 ha across three ecosystems, (1) remnant tropical evergreen Forest (NF), (2) heavily-used former evergreen forest which now has been converted to tree savanna, known as degraded forest (DF) and (3) exotic Acacia plantations (AC, Acacia auriculiformis) on degraded former forest land. In total, 11 <span class="hlt">basins</span> were instrumented (3 NF, 4 AC and 4 DF) in two geomorphological zones, i.e., Coastal and Up-Ghat (Malnaad) and at three sites (one Coastal, two Up-Ghat). The rainfall-streamflow observations collected (at daily and also at a 36 min time resolutions in the Coastal <span class="hlt">basins</span>) over a 2-3 year period (2003-2005) were analysed. In both the Coastal and Up-Ghat <span class="hlt">basins</span>, the double mass curves showed during the rainy season a consistent trend in favour of more proportion of streamflow in the rank order DF > AC > NF. These double mass curves provide strong evidence that overland flow is progressively becomes a more dominant stormflow pathway. Across all sites, NF converted 28.4 ± 6.41stdev% of rainfall into total streamflow in comparison to 32.7 ± 6.97stdev% in AC and 45.3 ± 9.61stdev% in DF. Further support for the above trends emerges from the quickflow ratio QF/Q for the Coastal <span class="hlt">basins</span>. There are much higher values for both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA418468','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA418468"><span id="translatedtitle">Western Pacific <span class="hlt">Basin</span>: A Climatological Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-08-29</p> <p>Heat) Low. From May to early October, this low anchors the eastern end of a broad, low-level thermal trough that extends from northwestern <span class="hlt">India</span> ...occasionally develops over <span class="hlt">India</span> during the northeast monsoon season because of cold surges from the western Himalayas. Even at its strongest, it is relatively...Pacific Ocean are 2-5 degrees below normal. These lower temperatures are linked to changes in the monsoon over <span class="hlt">India</span> and the western Pacific <span class="hlt">Basin</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AtmEn..43.5510R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AtmEn..43.5510R"><span id="translatedtitle">Emissions from <span class="hlt">India</span>'s transport sector: Statewise synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala</p> <p></p> <p>A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of <span class="hlt">India</span> in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In <span class="hlt">India</span>, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JAESc..21..613M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JAESc..21..613M"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow to deep-water deposition in a Cratonic <span class="hlt">basin</span>: an example from the Proterozoic Penganga Group, Pranhita Godavari Valley, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukhopadhyay, Joydip; Chaudhuri, Asru K.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>The unmetamorphosed Proterozoic succession dominated by deep-water lithographic limestone and shale in the western flank of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley is designated as the Penganga Group. The succession in different parts of the Valley includes the Pranhita Sandstone (25-400 m), the Chanda Limestone (300 m), and the Sat Nala Shale (>2000 m) in ascending order. The Pranhita Sandstone and the Chanda Limestone reveal considerable variations in the character of the stratal packages and depositional settings from Mancherial in the south to Adilabad in the north. The Sat Nala Shale in both southern and northern outcrop belts is completely devoid of sand. It is brown to purple in colour and resembles present-day deep-water mud deposits. In the Mancherial area, the Pranhita Sandstone consists of 25-400 m thick conglomerate, pebbly red arkose and quartzose sandstone succession of coastal alluvial fan to shallow shelf origin. The Chanda Limestone is micritic and locally includes interbedded lenses of cross-stratified quartzose sandstone in the lower part. The depositional milieu varies from shallow shelf to below wave base outer ramp carbonate platform. Around Adilabad, the Pranhita Sandstone (25 m) lacks the conglomerate-pebbly arkose association at the base and comprises only quartzose sandstone and shale of shoreface to muddy shelf settings. The Chanda Limestone is essentially micritic but, in contrast to the Mancherial area, includes several interbedded intervals of slope-related, autoclastic debris flow limestone conglomerates and calciturbidites, and represents deep, outer ramp to slope and <span class="hlt">basinal</span> settings. A predominantly deep-water micritic limestone and deep-water shale succession suggests that the Penganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> evolved to a vast, deep epicratonic sea connected to an open ocean. The absence of a coastal alluvial fan association at the lower part of the Pranhita Sandstone and presence of a slope to <span class="hlt">basinal</span> association in the Chanda Limestone in the northern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..200M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..200M"><span id="translatedtitle">An extended linear scaling method for downscaling temperature and its implication in the Jhelum River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Pakistan, and <span class="hlt">India</span>, using CMIP5 GCMs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahmood, Rashid; JIA, Shaofeng</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this study, the linear scaling method used for the downscaling of temperature was extended from monthly scaling factors to daily scaling factors (SFs) to improve the daily variations in the corrected temperature. In the original linear scaling (OLS), mean monthly SFs are used to correct the future data, but mean daily SFs are used to correct the future data in the extended linear scaling (ELS) method. The proposed method was evaluated in the Jhelum River <span class="hlt">basin</span> for the period 1986-2000, using the observed maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) of 18 climate stations and the simulated Tmax and Tmin of five global climate models (GCMs) (GFDL-ESM2G, NorESM1-ME, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, and CanESM2), and the method was also compared with OLS to observe the improvement. Before the evaluation of ELS, these GCMs were also evaluated using their raw data against the observed data for the same period (1986-2000). Four statistical indicators, i.e., error in mean, error in standard deviation, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient, were used for the evaluation process. The evaluation results with GCMs' raw data showed that GFDL-ESM2G and MIROC5 performed better than other GCMs according to all the indicators but with unsatisfactory results that confine their direct application in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Nevertheless, after the correction with ELS, a noticeable improvement was observed in all the indicators except correlation coefficient because this method only adjusts (corrects) the magnitude. It was also noticed that the daily variations of the observed data were better captured by the corrected data with ELS than OLS. Finally, the ELS method was applied for the downscaling of five GCMs' Tmax and Tmin for the period of 2041-2070 under RCP8.5 in the Jhelum <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">basin</span> would face hotter climate in the future relative to the present climate, which may result in increasing water requirements in public, industrial, and agriculture</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034132','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034132"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in agricultural cropland areas between a water-surplus year and a water-deficit year impacting food security, determined using MODIS 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques, in the Krishna river <span class="hlt">basin</span> (<span class="hlt">India</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Muralikrishna, I.V.; Velpuri, M.N.; Gangadhararao, P.T.; Dheeravath, V.; Biradar, C.M.; Nalan, S.A.; Gaur, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in cropland areas as a result of water availability using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques (SMTs). The study was conducted in the Krishna River <span class="hlt">basin</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span>, a very large river <span class="hlt">basin</span> with an area of 265 752 km2 (26 575 200 ha), comparing a water-surplus year (2000-2001) and a water-deficit year (2002-2003). The MODIS 250 m time-series data and SMTs were found ideal for agricultural cropland change detection over large areas and provided fuzzy classification accuracies of 61-100% for various land-use classes and 61-81% for the rain-fed and irrigated classes. The most mixing change occurred between rain-fed cropland areas and informally irrigated (e.g. groundwater and small reservoir) areas. Hence separation of these two classes was the most difficult. The MODIS 250 m-derived irrigated cropland areas for the districts were highly correlated with the Indian Bureau of Statistics data, with R2-values between 0.82 and 0.86. The change in the net area irrigated was modest, with an irrigated area of 8 669 881 ha during the water-surplus year, as compared with 7 718 900 ha during the water-deficit year. However, this is quite misleading as most of the major changes occurred in cropping intensity, such as changing from higher intensity to lower intensity (e.g. from double crop to single crop). The changes in cropping intensity of the agricultural cropland areas that took place in the water-deficit year (2002-2003) when compared with the water-surplus year (2000-2001) in the Krishna <span class="hlt">basin</span> were: (a) 1 078 564 ha changed from double crop to single crop, (b) 1 461 177 ha changed from continuous crop to single crop, (c) 704 172 ha changed from irrigated single crop to fallow and (d) 1 314 522 ha changed from minor irrigation (e.g. tanks, small reservoirs) to rain-fed. These are highly significant changes that will have strong impact on food</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP13A3583B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP13A3583B"><span id="translatedtitle">Greigite as a marker of paleo sulphate methane transition zone (SMTZ) in cold seep environment of Krishna-Godavari (KG) <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Bay of Bengal, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>B, F. K.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Mazumdar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Tammisetti, R.; Khalap, S. T.; Satelkar, N. P.; Mehrtens, T.; Rosenauer, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Rockmagnetic results and electron microscopic observations on a sediment core retrieved from a proven cold seep environment of Krishna-Godavari (KG) <span class="hlt">Basin</span> revealed an anomalously magnetically enhanced zone (17 - 23 mbsf) below the present-day SMTZ in the KG offshore <span class="hlt">basin</span>. This zone is characterized by higher SIRM / k, kARM / SIRM and kfd % values indicating the presence of fine grained superparamagnetic (SP) sized ferrimagnetic iron sulphides minerals such as greigite formed due to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Identification of such mineral phases and understanding the mechanism of their formation and preservation is of vital importance which could provide better understanding of the geochemical processes on the paleo - SMTZ. Magnetic concentrates extracted from this zone were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X- ray spectrometry. We observed two possible occurrences of magnetic phases within this sediment depths 17 - 23 mbsf. (a) authigenically formed SP sized ferrimagnetic inclusions of magnetite, pyrite and greigite within matrix of host siliceous grain, (b) poorly crystallized fine-grained magnetite with ill defined grain boundary possibily formed extracellulary by magnetotactic bacterias through biologically-induced mineralization. High methane fluxes as observed in this <span class="hlt">basin</span> provides suitable environment for the formation of greigite in the vicinity of SMTZ. We hypothesize that due to availability of residual iron and low supply of hydrogen sulphide caused by downwards diffusion lead to preservation of greigite. The occurence of greigite as inclusion within the host silicate matrix might explain its preservation in this zone in spite of intense pyritization. The greigite would otherwise be converted to stable-form pyrite. It is challenging to explain the origin of biologically produced magnetite within 17 - 23 mbsf as it is expected to dissolve in this zone due to intense pyritization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.tmp...86N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.tmp...86N"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic vis-a-vis sonic attenuation in gas hydrate bearing sediments of Krishna-Godavari <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Eastern Margin of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nittala, Satyavani; Sain, Kalachand; Nara, Damodara</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Seismic velocities in the sediments containing gas hydrates show a marked increase compared to the background, intuitively implying that there would be a reduction in the seismic attenuation (Q-1) of such sediments. However, the attenuation measurements carried out in the sonic frequency range from various gas hydrate provinces show that there is a notable increase in seismic attenuation within the gas hydrate layers and the results obtained are counter-intuitive. In the present work we try to compare the attenuation derived by applying frequency shift method to the multi-channel seismic (MCS) and sonic datasets at the same location in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The role of complex geology in attenuating the seismic signal is also studied by generating synthetic seismic data for different geologic models and by computing the corresponding attenuation. It has been found that the Q-1 obtained from the field seismic data compares well with the Q-1 computed for a simple layered geological model. The results indicate that the Q-1 (0.0029) from field seismic data is ∼4.3 times lower than Q-1 (0.0123-0.0125) obtained from the sonic data, implying that the thickness of the gas hydrate layer in the KG <span class="hlt">basin</span> is not sufficient enough to average the bulk properties. Our results also indicate that there could be substantial contribution of the pore scale interaction to the observed attenuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2557599','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2557599"><span id="translatedtitle">Changing trends in barriers to cataract surgery in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vaidyanathan, K.; Limburg, H.; Foster, A.; Pandey, R. M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Cataract is a major cause of blindness in Asia. Efforts in <span class="hlt">India</span> to provide cataract surgical services have had limited success in reaching the cataract-blind population. Earlier studies identified the major barriers to cataract surgery as poverty, lack of transportation or felt need, or sex related; and the critical barriers in rural areas as lack of awareness, difficult access, and cost. Compared with these earlier data, the results of the present study in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> State indicate a shift in the character of the barriers. They now appear to be more related to case selection and service provision. These shifts are analysed and alternative strategies to increase the uptake to cataract surgery are recommended. PMID:10083707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27875116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27875116"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward a Comprehensive Cure: Digital information and communication technology is helping to meet health care challenges in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sheet, Debdoot</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>How would you provide effective and affordable health care in a country of more than 1.25 billion where there are only 0.7 physicians for every 1,000 people [1]? The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) and the <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> Internet-Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP) service are two notable efforts designed to deliver care across <span class="hlt">India</span>, in both urban and rural areas and from the country?s flat plains to its rugged mountainous and desert regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JESS..118..355R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JESS..118..355R"><span id="translatedtitle">SCS-CN and GIS-based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramakrishnan, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Kusuma, K. N.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The Kali sub-watershed is situated in the semi-arid region of Gujarat, <span class="hlt">India</span> and forms a part of the Mahi River Watershed. This watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 900mm mainly between July and September. Due to high runoff potential, evapo-transpiration and poor infiltration, drought like situation prevails in this area from December to June almost every year. In this paper, augmentation of water resource is proposed by construction of runoff harvesting structures like check dam, percolation pond, farm pond, well and subsurface dyke. The site suitability for different water harvesting structures is determined by considering spatially varying parameters like runoff potential, slope, fracture pattern and micro-watershed area. GIS is utilised as a tool to store, analyse and integrate spatial and attribute information pertaining to runoff, slope, drainage and fracture. The runoff derived by SCS-CN method is a function of runoff potential which can be expressed in terms of runoff coefficient (ratio between the runoff and rainfall) which can be classified into three classes, viz., high (>40%), moderate (20-40%) and low (<20%). In addition to IMSD, FAO specifications for water harvesting/recharging structures, parameters such as effective storage, rock mass permeability are herein considered to augment effective storage. Using the overlay and decision tree concepts in GIS, potential water harvesting sites are identified. The derived sites are field investigated for suitability and implementation. In all, the accuracy of the site selection at implementation level varies from 80-100%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..824D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..824D"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleocene-Eocene foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> evolution in the Himalaya of southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for the age of initial <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ding, L.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks derived from the southern Lhasa terrane, sitting depositionally upon rocks of the northern Indian passive continental margin, provide an estimate of the age of initial contact between the continental parts of the Indian and Asian plates. We report sedimentological, sedimentary petrological, and geochronological data from Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene strata in the Sangdanlin section, located along the southern flank of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southern Tibet. This is probably the most proximal, and therefore the oldest, record of the <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision. These strata were deposited by high-density turbidity currents (or concentrated density flows) and suspension settling of pelagic biogenic debris in a deep-marine setting. An abrupt change from quartz-arenitic to feldspatholithic sandstone compositions marks the transition from Indian to Asian sediment provenance. The abrupt compositional change is accompanied by changes in U-Pb ages of detrital zircons diagnostic of a sediment provenance reversal, from Indian to Asian sources. The timing of the transition is bracketed between ~60 Ma and 58.5 ± 0.6 Ma by detrital zircon U-Pb ages and zircon U-Pb ages from a tuffaceous bed in the upper part of the section. In the context of a palinspastically restored regional paleogeographic framework, data from the Sangdanlin section combined with previously published data from the northern Tethyan Himalaya and the frontal Nepalese Lesser Himalaya and Subhimalaya suggest that a flexural wave migrated ~1300 km southward across what is now the Himalayan thrust belt from Paleocene time to the present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3044346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3044346"><span id="translatedtitle">Population-based study to estimate prevalence and determine risk factors of gallbladder diseases in the rural Gangetic <span class="hlt">basin</span> of North <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Unisa, Sayeed; Jagannath, Palepu; Dhir, Vinay; Khandelwal, Chiranjeeva; Sarangi, Lalatendu; Roy, Tarun Kumar</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background A high prevalence of gallbladder diseases (GBD) in Northern <span class="hlt">India</span> warranted a population survey into environmental risk factors. Methods In 60 villages of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar from 13 334 households, 22 861 persons aged >30 years were interviewed for symptoms of GBD, diet and environmental factors. Subsequently ultrasonography (US) was performed in 5100 and 1448 people with and without symptoms, respectively. Heavy metal and pesticide content in soil and water were estimated. Results US revealed a prevalence of GBD of 6.20%. GBD was more common in 5100 persons with symptoms (7.12%) compared with 1448 without (2.99%) (P < 0.05). Adjusted odds ratio (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] revealed a significantly increased risk of GBD in females >50, 1.703 (CI 1.292–2.245); multiparity 1.862 (CI 1.306–2.655) and a genetic history 1.564 (CI 1.049–2.334). An increased risk noted in males with diabetes was 4.271 (CI 2.130–8.566), chickpea consumption 2.546 (CI 1.563–4.146) and drinking unsafe water 3.835 (CI 2.368–6.209). Prevalence of gallstones was 4.15%; more in females 5.59% than males 1.99% (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis identified a positive correlation of nickel, cadmium and chromium in water with a high prevalence of GBD in adjacent villages in Vaishali district, Bihar. Conclusion A high risk of GBD was observed in older, multiparous women and men with diabetes, intake of chickpeas, unsafe water and villages with heavy metal water pollution. PMID:21241429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3666R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3666R"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary profile from oxbow lake as an archive for past productivity and vegetation changes: a case study from Ganges <span class="hlt">basin</span>, West Bengal, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakshit, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Sambit; Sanyal, Prasanta; Ambili, Anoop</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Isotope (δ13CSOM) and biomarker (lipid n-alkane) investigations has been carried out on three sedimentary profiles (ca. 1.8 m depth) collected from Mohanpur, West Bengal, <span class="hlt">India</span> with the aim of reconstructing paleovegetational and paleoproductivity changes. Satellite images reveal that the investigated sediments has been deposited in an oxbow lake setting of the river Ganges. The correlation of the three sedimentary profiles has been achieved using lithological and isotopic (δ13CSOM) marker layers. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the profile ranges from 0.9% to 0.1%. The isotopic analysis (δ13CSOM) shows values mostly fluctuating between -19.2o to -22o with a rapid excursions (~5) showing enriched δ13CSOMvalue (-14.2) observed at ca. 1.5 m depth. The biomarker studies of the profile reveals dominant preferences in short carbon chain (C14, C16, C18, C20) with a little preferences for higher chain (C29, C31, C33). Interestingly, n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth shows very high concentration in short chain n-alkanes. Since the lower chain n-alkane represents aquatic vegetation/productivity and higher chain indicates the terrestrial contribution, the data from the investigated sedimentary profile shows contribution mostly from aquatic vegetation with a little contribution from terrestrial plants. This inference has been further corroborated by δ13CSOMvalues (-19.2o to -22) of the sedimentary profile typical of mixed aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. Additionally, the enriched δ13CSOMvalue (-14.2) coupled with very high concentration of short chain n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth reveals intense lake eutrophication. The development of rigorous chronology and high resolution data set of additional analytical parameters (e.g., C/N, δ15N) will provide crucial paleoclimate data set from this unexplored setting of Indian summer monsoon domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900030429&hterms=osmium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dosmium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900030429&hterms=osmium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dosmium"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-Os, Rb-Sr, and O isotopic systematics of the Archean Kolar schist belt, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Richard J.; Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.; Rajamani, V.; Horan, Mary F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The Re-Os, Rb-Sr, and O isotopic compositions of mafic and ultramafic amphibolites, gold ores, and granitic gneisses of the circa 2700 Ma Kolar schist belt are reported which reveal at least two episodes of postmagmatic alteration that affected these systems. The Re-Os isotopic systematics of many of the belt rocks indicate that Os was introduced to the area via fluids that carried very radiogenic Os, probably from ancient crust. The Rb-Sr systematics of most of these rocks indicate that the alteration event probably occurred no later than the early Proterozoic. Samples of several komatiitic amphibolites have very Os-187-depleted compositions, indicating that open-system behavior also occurred at a much later time than the late Archean or early Proterozoic. The results suggest that the Re-Os system may have only limited utility for geochronologic applications in regions for which postcrystallization noble metal mineralization is evident.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102628"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae) from Western Ghats Region, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joshi, Rajesh K</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%), followed by alpha-humulene (17.3%), piperitenone oxide (8.5%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.0%) and E-beta-farnesene (5.9%). The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065 +/- 0.008-0.937 +/- 0.139 mg/mL, 0.468 +/- 0.069-3.333 +/- 0.527 mg/mL and 0.117 +/- 0.017-0.338 +/- 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be usefulness in the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292486"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistence and dissipation of quinalphos in/on cauliflower and soil under the semi arid climatic conditions of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Persistence and dissipation of quinalphos residues in/on cauliflower was studied after giving spray applications at 2 concentrations, i.e. recommended dose of 500 g a.i. ha(-1) and double the recommended dose of 1,000 g a.i. ha(-1). Residue analysis of cauliflower curds was carried out after the third spray over a period of 15 days. Initial residues of quinalphos on cauliflower from the two treatments were 1.19 and 1.842 mg kg(-1). The residues persisted up to 15 days from both the treatments. The residues of quinalphos dissipated from both treatments with the half-life of 4.8 and 5.3 days. Based on the persistence study and maximum residue limit value of 0.05 mg kg(-1) the safe pre-harvest interval was worked out as 17 and 22 days from treatment at the recommended and double the recommended dose, respectively. Analysis of soil samples was carried out on the 15th day of sampling and residues were found to be 0.013 and 0.044 mg kg(-1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3552221','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3552221"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocular Manifestations in Patients with HIV Infection/AIDS who were Referred from the ART Centre, Hassan, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Acharya, Pavana Krishnaraj; Venugopal, Kavitha Chikkanayakanahalli; Karimsab, Dada Peer; Balasubramanya, S</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Ocular involvement in HIV infection/AIDS is very common and it includes various clinical presentations which may be asymptomatic or atypical or they may be the initial manifestations of the underlying disease. The severity of these lesions increases as the immune competency decreases, leading to visual impairment or blindness. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the types of HIV associated ocular conditions and their effect on the vision in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods This cross sectional study was based on the patients with HIV infection/AIDS, who were referred to the Ophthalmic OPD, District hospital, Hassan. These patients were referred from the District ART Centre for a complete ophthalmic evaluation, irrespective of their immune status and the presence or absence of symptoms. All the patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included both anterior and posterior segment evaluation and colour vision assessment. Results Out of the 553 patients, 66% belonged to the age group of 21-40 years. 87% of the patients had a BCVA of >6/18, whereas 4.7% had very poor vision. 37.6% of the patients had ocular manifestations. Anterior segment, posterior segment and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations were seen in 7%, 9.94% and 5.79% of the patients respectively. The most common anterior segment manifestation was recurrent lid infections, while HIV microangiopathy was the most common posterior segment manifestation. The other unusual findings included an abnormal colour vision in 6.3% of the patients and bilateral lid retraction in 8.5% of the patients. Conclusion Since ocular manifestations are very common and as they can occur at any time during the course of HIV infection, an awareness on various patterns of the ocular disease and the screening of all the patients with HIV infection/AIDS is a must. PMID:23373045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941064"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater using major ion chemistry: a case study of Penna-Chitravathi river <span class="hlt">basins</span> in Southern <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reddy, A G S; Kumar, K Niranjan</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in the Penna-Chitravathi river <span class="hlt">basins</span> to identify and delineate the important geochemical processes which were responsible for the evolution of chemical composition of groundwater. The area is underlain by peninsular gneissic complex of Archaean age, Proterozoic meta-sediments, and strip of river alluvium. Groundwater samples were collected covering all the major hydrogeological environs in pre- and post-monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed for major constituents such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO2(-4), NO3-, and F-. The groundwater in general is of Na+-Cl-, Na+-HCO3-, Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3-, and Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- types. Na+ among cations and Cl- and/or HCO3- among anions dominate the water; Na+ and Ca2+ are in the transitional state with Na+ replacing Ca2+ and HCO3- Cl- due to physiochemical changes in the aquifer and water-rock interactions. The Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- HCO3- type water in one third samples suggest that ion exchange and dissolution processes are responsible for its origin. Change in storage of aquifer in a season does not influence the major geochemical makeup of groundwater. Gibbs plots indicate that the evolution of water chemistry is influenced by water-rock interaction followed by evapotranspiration process. The aquifer material mineralogy together with semiarid climate, poor drainage system, and low precipitation factors played major role in controlling groundwater quality of the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8...77N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8...77N"><span id="translatedtitle">Socio-economic vulnerability and sustainable development in context of Development vs. Conservation debate: A study of Bhagirathi <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Uttarakhand, <span class="hlt">INDIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nisha; Punia, M.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>mountain system bound to have a different path of development owing to its fragile ecological and geological setup. Any drastic and abrupt changes in this system can have repercussion beyond mitigation in form of natural disasters. Remote sensing can play a key role in risk assessment and management, particularly when a few simultaneous reasons coincide, for example, susceptibility to natural disaster and the urban sprawl, spreading over highly vulnerable regions. The present study furnish socioeconomic vulnerability mapping of the Bhagirathi <span class="hlt">basin</span> through computation of the Socio vulnerability Index (SoVI). SoVI correlates vulnerability to natural or anthropogenic disasters to socio - economic development and illustrates how developmental parameters alter equation of potential effect and recovery in event of a natural catastrophe in the study region. An analytical framework has been imparted to understand possible triggering factors of disasters. Built up area expansion; land use land cover change (LULCC) - deforestation, conversion of forested land into agricultural land and residential settlements, and dam project area; road network development; urbanization; population growth & migration and pilgrimage activities are major drivers which put burden on limited carrying capacity of the natural resources. A guideline for policy making has been presented for an integrated and wholesome development incorporating regional developmental aspiration of the people and ingredients of sustainable development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/india_kachchh','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/india_kachchh"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>: Kachchh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western <span class="hlt">India</span>. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/india_gujarat','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/india_gujarat"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>: Gujarat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... <span class="hlt">India</span>'s Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/india_bihar','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/india_bihar"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>: Bihar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of <span class="hlt">India</span>. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JESS..126...25S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JESS..126...25S"><span id="translatedtitle">Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son-Mahanadi <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, central <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Kamal Jeet; Murthy, Srikanta; Saxena, Anju; Shabbar, Husain</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>-Faunipollenites-Gondisporites assemblage zone of Tiwari and Tripathi (1992) of Late Permian (Lopingian) Raniganj Formation in Damodar <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The FAD's of Alisporites, Klausipollenites, Falcisporites, Arcuatipollenites pellucidus and Playfordiaspora cancellosa palynotaxa in this assemblage enhance the end Permian level of the Jhingurdah Top seam, as these elements are the key species to mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5320831','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5320831"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860013660&hterms=Precambrian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPrecambrian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860013660&hterms=Precambrian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPrecambrian"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Precambrian crustal evolution of south <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Early Precambrian sequence in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, South <span class="hlt">India</span> provides evidences for a distinct trend of evolution which differs from trends exhibited in many other Early Precambrian regions of the world. The supracrustal rock associations preserved in greenstone belts and as inclusions in gneisses and granulites suggest the evolution of the terrain from a stable to a mobile regime. The stable regime is represented by (1) layered ultramafic-mafic complexes, (2) orthoquartzite-basalt-rhyodacite-iron formation, and (30 ortho-quartzite-carbonate-Mn-Fe formation. The mobile regime, which can be shown on sedimentological grounds to have succeeded the stable regime, witnessed the accumulation of a greywacke-pillow basalt-dacite-rhyolite-iron formation association. Detrital sediments of the stable zone accumulated dominantly in fluvial environment and the associated volcanics are ubaerial. The volcanics of the stable regime are tholeiites derived from a zirconium and LREE-enriched sources. The greywackes of the mobile regime are turbidities, and the volcanic rocks possess continental margin (island-arc or back-arc) affinity; they show a LREE depleted to slightly LREE-enriched pattern. The evolution from a stable to a mobile regime is in contrast to the trend seen in most other regions of the world, where an early dominantly volcanic association of a mobile regime gives way upward in the sequence to sediments characteristic of a stable regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121803','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121803"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of Dental Caries Among Primary School Children of <span class="hlt">India</span> – A Cross-Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hiremath, Anand; Ankola, Anil V; Hebbal, Mamata; Mohandoss, Suganya; Pastay, Pratibha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction In <span class="hlt">India</span>, the trend indicates an increase in oral health problems especially dental caries, which has been consistently increasing both in prevalence and in severity. Children of all age groups are affected by dental caries. It becomes imperative to collect the data on prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs to provide preventive care. Aim To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs of 6-11years old Indian school children. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Sampling frame consisted of 6-11years old primary school children. Study sample consisted of 13,200 children selected from 10 talukas of Belgavi District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Clinical examination for dmft and DMFT was carried out in the school premises by five teams, each consisting of one faculty, three postgraduate students and five interns from the KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. The examiners were trained and calibrated by the principal investigator. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and t-test. Results The overall caries prevalence was 78.9%, mean dmft was 2.97±2.62 and mean DMFT was 0.17±0.53. The decayed teeth component was the principal component in both dmft and DMFT indices. The mean dmft in boys was higher compared to girls and it was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion This study provided us with the baseline data, using which treatment was provided to all the children screened. The children were provided treatment at the camp site/dental hospital/satellite centers and primary health care centers according to the facilities available. PMID:27891457</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976403','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976403"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Noronha, Tonita M.; Tophakhane, Raghavendra S.; Nadiger, Shobha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail) and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%). Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7%) was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%). Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. PMID:27559499</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.3704P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.3704P"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene aridification of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south <span class="hlt">India</span>, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032607','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032607"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene aridification of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south <span class="hlt">India</span>, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south <span class="hlt">India</span>. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......151R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......151R"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rao, P. Sharath Chandra</p> <p></p> <p>In <span class="hlt">India</span>, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, <span class="hlt">India</span> hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in <span class="hlt">India</span> (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4625326','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4625326"><span id="translatedtitle">Total and Free Fluoride Concentration in Various Brands of Toothpaste Marketed in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Siddanna, Sunitha</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background For fluoridated toothpaste to be effective in controlling dental caries, an adequate concentration of soluble fluoride must be available in the oral cavity. Aim To determine the total and free fluoride concentration in various brands of toothpaste marketed in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methods Three samples of 12 different toothpastes were purchased from supermarkets in Mysore city, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Toothpastes were analysed in duplicate using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. The concentration of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) were determined. Results Measured TF was consistent with that declared by the manufacturer in five products. Four toothpastes showed lower TF and two higher TF than declared. Most toothpastes exhibited TSF concentrations similar to the TF content except four samples that displayed considerably lower TSF than TF. Conclusion The measurement of total and free fluoride concentrations of toothpastes available in <span class="hlt">India</span> showed inhomogenities. Therefore there is a need for stringent regulatory control measures for the determination of fluoride content in toothpastes in developing country like <span class="hlt">India</span>. PMID:26557607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..710D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..710D"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential for early warning of maalria in <span class="hlt">India</span> using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.</p> <p></p> <p>Malaria is still a major public health problem in <span class="hlt">India</span> with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in <span class="hlt">India</span> Central peninsular region of <span class="hlt">India</span> is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in <span class="hlt">India</span> In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10621&hterms=Capital+Human&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCapital%2BHuman','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10621&hterms=Capital+Human&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCapital%2BHuman"><span id="translatedtitle">Delhi, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><p/> Delhi is the second largest metropolis in <span class="hlt">India</span>, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern <span class="hlt">India</span> along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, <span class="hlt">India</span>'s capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude. <p/> The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. <p/> The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27108749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27108749"><span id="translatedtitle">Quitline Activity in Rajasthan, <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Rakesh; Verma, Vinit; Mathur, Pankaj</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Quitline activity in Rajasthan, <span class="hlt">India</span> is a voluntary activity of Rajasthan Cancer Foundation (RCF) since April 2013. To kick-off, it took the benefit of the State Government- PIRAMAL SWASTHYA (PS)1 collaborative 104 Health Information Helpline that existed already in public-private partnership. It is a reactive quitline that helps callers through the counselors and nursing staff trained specifically through the weekly sessions held by the first author, the RCF resource on quitline. Besides structuring of the scripts for primary intervention and follow-ups after 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and a year, he also monitors calls, advices and coordinates with the supervisors to manage and analyze the data base, and reports to the PS lead at the Jaipur Center on overall performance and to plan strategic communication with the State Government on its outcomes. The quitline has limitations of its informal existence through a voluntary effort of RCF, no specific resource allocation, suboptimal data management, minimal awareness in the masses due to poor IEC (Information, Education and Communication; except its efforts made by RCF in last 1 year through the government-run State TV and City Radio) and staff shortage and its attrition due to lack of plan for career advancement. Despite these challenges in the year 2013, the quit line has registered a quit rate (for complete abstinence) of 19.93% amongst 1525 callers. The quit rate were 58.01% (304/ 524) among the responders at the 3rd follow-up at 18 months (in September 2014)2. In view of an increase in quit rate by 5- 9 times over the prevailing quit rate in the former ever daily users [both smokers and the users of smokeless tobacco (SLT)], efforts are being made by RCF in concurrence with PS to have this cost-effective model established formally with optimal resource allocation in collaboration with willing agencies (the State and Central Governments and the International Quitline Agencies) and its replication in 4 more states</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961952','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961952"><span id="translatedtitle">Palatoscopy: An adjunct to forensic odontology: A comparative study among five different populations of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Byatnal, Amit; Byatnal, Aditi; Kiran, A. Ravi; Samata, Y.; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Telagi, Neethu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: This study was conducted to analyze and identify differences in the palatal rugae patterns and to identify gender wise changes in the palatal rugae shapes in populations of five different states of <span class="hlt">India</span>. Study Design: Study was conducted in five different Indian states. 500 sample subjects from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were included. Rugae patterns with predominant shapes were analyzed and categorized according to different states and both genders, data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 15.0 and the results were obtained by Chi-square analysis. Results: “Wavy” type of palatal rugae pattern is the most predominant variant in five different study groups in both the genders. Conclusion: This study could identify variations in distribution of various palatal rugae pattern in five different states and confirmed the “wavy” type of palatal rugae patterns to be the most predominant variant in five different study groups. PMID:24678197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3017312','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3017312"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistence of Azoxystrobin in/on Grapes and Soil in Different Grapes Growing Areas of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gajbhiye, Vijay Tularam; Gupta, Suman; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Shashi Bala; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Yogesh</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in/on grapes when applied @ 150 g ai ha−1 (recommended dose) and 300 g ai ha−1 (double the recommended dose) in three grapes growing states of <span class="hlt">India</span>, namely <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in the year 2006–2007. A total of five sprays were given at an interval of about 15 days. Grapes and soil samples were collected after 5th spray, extracted and analysed by gas chromatography using electron capture detector. Half life of azoxystrobin on grapes varied from 5.4 to 11.2 days. Residues of azoxystrobin were much below the prescribed MRL (0.5 mg kg−1) after 21 days. The dissipation of azoxystrobin in soil followed first order rate kinetics with an average half life of 8.1 days at the recommended dose of application. PMID:21153804</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001297&hterms=urban+africa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bafrica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001297&hterms=urban+africa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bafrica"><span id="translatedtitle">Bombay, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on <span class="hlt">India</span>'s west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of <span class="hlt">India</span>,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of <span class="hlt">India</span>.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136778','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136778"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in <span class="hlt">India</span>: Implications for Grid Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi</p> <p>2014-06-17</p> <p>We analyze variability in load and wind generation in <span class="hlt">India</span> to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in <span class="hlt">India</span>, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3777283"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge, attitudes, and poultry-handling practices of poultry workers in relation to avian influenza in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kumar, Sudhir C.; Ramesh, Naveen; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Joseph, Bobby; Alle, Prashanth; Belani, Kumar G.; Osterholm, Michael T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The recent pandemics caused by highly pathogenic AIA (H5N1) in domestic poultry is currently rated phase 3 by the World Health Organization on the pandemicalert scale. Materials and Methods: A pretested and semistructured survey instrument was administered to both live bird market and poultry farm workers in two most populous cities in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> in South <span class="hlt">India</span> to collect data on demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practices among them. Results: The mean age was similar among both population groups (31.5 years). There was a higher level of biosecurity practices adopted in poultry farms compared with those adopted in live bird market. Knowledge regarding AI was acceptable but poorly correlated with actual biosecurity practices. Discussion: Live bird market and poultry farm workers have been identified as the weakest link in the prevention and control of the spread of AI in the two most populous cities studied in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. Conclusion: Risk reduction models of behavior change targeting these groups are important toward the control and prevention of AI spread. PMID:24082643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4161676','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4161676"><span id="translatedtitle">Government health insurance for people below poverty line in <span class="hlt">India</span>: quasi-experimental evaluation of insurance and health outcomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bendavid, Eran; Mukherji, Arnab; Wagner, Zachary; Nagpal, Somil; Mullen, Patrick</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To evaluate the effects of a government insurance program covering tertiary care for people below the poverty line in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, on out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Design Geographic regression discontinuity study. Setting 572 villages in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Participants 31 476 households (22 796 below poverty line and 8680 above poverty line) in 300 villages where the scheme was implemented and 28 633 households (21 767 below poverty line and 6866 above poverty line) in 272 neighboring matched villages ineligible for the scheme. Intervention A government insurance program (Vajpayee Arogyashree scheme) that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in about half of villages in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> from February 2010 to August 2012. Main outcome measure Out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Results Among households below the poverty line, the mortality rate from conditions potentially responsive to services covered by the scheme (mostly cardiac conditions and cancer) was 0.32% in households eligible for the scheme compared with 0.90% among ineligible households just south of the eligibility border (difference of 0.58 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.75; P<0.001). We found no difference in mortality rates for households above the poverty line (households above the poverty line were not eligible for the scheme), with a mortality rate from conditions covered by the scheme of 0.56% in eligible villages compared with 0.55% in ineligible villages (difference of 0.01 percentage points, −0.03 to 0.03; P=0.95). Eligible households had significantly reduced out-of-pocket health expenditures for admissions to hospitals with tertiary care facilities likely to be covered by the scheme (64% reduction, 35% to 97%; P<0.001). There was no significant increase in use of covered services, although the point estimate of a 44.2% increase approached significance (−5.1% to 90.5%; P=0.059). Both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/220124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/220124"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydropower potential of the Brahmaputra <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barman, R.K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The Brahmaputra has, on its tributaries, enormous hydropower potential of the order of 43,164 MW. Out of this huge potential, only 458.2 MW of power has so far been developed which constitutes less than 2 percent of the available potential. <span class="hlt">India`s</span> present power installation is 74,647 MW and the peak load demand projected for 2010 is 1,72,262 MW. By end of the Eighth Five Year Plan ending 1997, <span class="hlt">India</span> will face a peak power shortage of 25 percent. The paper presents the hydropower potential of the Brahmaputra <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the North Eastern Region of <span class="hlt">India</span>. Because of cheap cost of generation and having very little impact of environment, hydropower development in the North Eastern Region needs greater emphasis to meet the power demand of the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661771"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South <span class="hlt">India</span> Paper Mill (SIPM).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Shihua, Q I; Singh, Surendra; Belagali, S L</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South <span class="hlt">India</span> Paper Mill, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L( - 1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L( - 1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L( - 1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L( - 1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L( - 1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South <span class="hlt">India</span> Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855970','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855970"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K. A. V.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (<span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from <span class="hlt">India</span> and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country. PMID:27186559</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..193M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8..193M"><span id="translatedtitle">Multinomial Logistic Regression Predicted Probability Map To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618637"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In <span class="hlt">India</span>, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into <span class="hlt">India</span> in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern <span class="hlt">India</span>, peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span> and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664396','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664396"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rekha Sarma, Roshmi; Munsi, Madhushree; Neelavara Ananthram, Aravind</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world’s 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In <span class="hlt">India</span>, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into <span class="hlt">India</span> in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern <span class="hlt">India</span>, peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span> and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control. PMID:26618637</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2955006','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2955006"><span id="translatedtitle">Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in <span class="hlt">India</span>. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in <span class="hlt">India</span> for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012885','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012885"><span id="translatedtitle">New age data on the geological evolution of Southern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Paul N.; Chadwick, B.; Friend, C. R. L.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Moorbath, Stephen; Viswanatha, M. N.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Peninsular Gneisses of Southern <span class="hlt">India</span> developed over a period of several hundred Ma in the middle-to-late Archaean. Gneisses in the Gorur-Hassan area of southern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> are the oldest recognized constituents: Beckinsale et al. reported a preliminary Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 33558 + or - 66 Ma, but further Rb-Sr and Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron determinations indicate a slightly younger, though more precise age of ca 3305 Ma (R. D. Beckinsale, Pers. Comm.). It is well established that the Peninsular Gneisses constitute basement on which the Dharwar schist belts were deposited. Well-documented exposures of unconformities, with basal quartz pebble conglomerates of the Dharwar Supergroup overlying Peninsular Gneisses, have been reported from the Chikmagalur and Chitradurga areas, and basement gneisses in these two areas have been dated by Rb-Sr and Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron methods at ca 3150 Ma and ca 3000 Ma respectively. Dharwar supracrustal rocks of the Chitradurga schist belt are intruded by the Chitradurga Granite, dated by a Pb/Pb whole-rock isochron at 2605 + or - 18 Ma. These results indicate that the Dharwar Supergroup in the Chitradurga belt was deposited between 3000 Ma and 2600 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/140039','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/140039"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of transpiration from Eucalyptus plantations, <span class="hlt">India</span>, using deuterium tracing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Calder, I.R.; Swaminath, M.H.; Kariyappa, G.S.; Srinivasalu, N.V.; Murthy, K.V.; Mumtaz, J.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>Measurements of transpiration from individual trees in Eucalyptus plantations at four different sites in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, southern <span class="hlt">India</span>, are presented. These show large (as much as tenfold) differences in the transpiration between pre and post monsoon periods; a reflection of the effects of soil moisture stress in the pre monsoon periods. For trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) less than 10 cm the transpiration rate of individual trees is proportional to the square of the DBH. For trees which are not experiencing soil water stress the daily transpiration rate of individual trees, q, is well represented by the relation: q= (6.6 {+-} 0.3)g m{sup 3}d{sup {minus}1} where g (m{sup 2}) is the tree basal area. On a unit ground area basis the transpiration rate, expressed as a depth per day, is given by the relation: E{sub t}= (0.66 {+-} 0.03)G (mm d{sup {minus}1}) where G (m{sup 2} ha{sup {minus}1}) is the total basal area per hectare. For all the sites studied, although there is evidence for the mining of soil water as roots penetrate deeper depths in the soil each year, there is no evidence for direct abstraction from the watertable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india&pg=3&id=EJ968320','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india&pg=3&id=EJ968320"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">India</span> Connection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdul-Alim, Jamaal</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Even though lawmakers in <span class="hlt">India</span> don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in <span class="hlt">India</span> anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in <span class="hlt">India</span> as well. That's the consensus…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411811','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411811"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Flora in Chronic Periodontitis: Study at a Tertiary Health Care Center from North <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benachinmardi, Kirtilaxmi K; Nagamoti, Jyoti; Kothiwale, Shaila; Metgud, Sharada C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and Objective: Periodontitis is a major public health problem in <span class="hlt">India</span> with a prevalence of 60–80%. If untreated it acts as a risk factor for systemic diseases. Data on anaerobic periodontal microflora in the Indian population is very scarce. Hence, this study was undertaken to know the nature of oral microbiota in chronic periodontitis in this region of <span class="hlt">India</span> and also the semiquantitative study in pre- and post-treatment group and to determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern for aerobic isolates. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 cases. Material was collected from the subgingival pockets in patients with chronic periodontitis attending the Periodontology, Outpatient Department. Clinical samples were transported to the laboratory in fluid thioglycollate medium. Initially Gram's stain and Fontana stains were done. Aerobic, anaerobic, and microaerophilic culture were put up. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for aerobic isolates. Results: Sixty samples yielded 121 isolates of which 78.34% were polymicrobial, 11.66% were monomicrobial and oral commensals were grown in 10% cases. Out of 121 isolates 91.74% were anaerobic, 7.43% were aerobic and 0.83% were microaerophilic. Fusobacterium species was the most common isolate among anaerobes. Using “paired t-test” “P” value was significant indicating significant reduction in colony count after phase-I periodontal therapy. Conclusion: This study has shown that anaerobic bacteria are important cause of chronic periodontitis, along with aerobes and microaerophilic organisms. Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis, Porphyromonas spp and Prevotella intermedia are the most common anaerobic pathogens. Bacterial culture methods are still economical and gold standard. PMID:25949060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA475232','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA475232"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>-U.S. Relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-03</p> <p>United National Liberation Front (seeking an independent Manipur ) are among the groups at war with the central government. In April 2005, the U.S. State...established their bases in Bhutan. Major Indian army operations in late 2004 may have overrun Manipur separatist bases near the Burmese border. New...country’s south (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, and Maharashtra) and two in the northeast ( Manipur and Nagaland). According to USAID, these six</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225915','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225915"><span id="translatedtitle">Socio-Demographic and Other Risk Factors of Pre Eclampsia at a Tertiary Care Hospital, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>: Case Control Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gandhi, Sangeetha; Rao, Vishwas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aetiopathogenesis of this condition involves combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to determine the socio demographic and other risk factors of pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> among 100 cases of pre-eclampsia and 200 controls without pre eclampsia. Non probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the study subjects. Data was collected by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire which included information related to socio-demographic and other known risk factors of pre eclampsia. Primary data was collected by interviewing study subjects and secondary data of cases was obtained from case records. Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: Study subjects included 100 cases and 200 controls. Age of less than 20 y (OR=3.8), monthly income of less than Rs4000 (OR=6.8), age of menarche of less than 12 y (OR=13.1), family h/o pre eclampsia (OR=36.0), family h/o Diabetes (OR=44.9), family h/o hypertension (OR=16.7) and previous h/o PIH (OR=58.5) are found to be significant risk factors of pre eclampsia. Conclusion: The significant risk factors may be used for screening pre-eclampsia during registration of pregnancy. PMID:25386463</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-publications','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-publications"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BASINS</span> Publications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">BASINS</span> has been in use for the past 10 years, there has been limited modeling guidance on its applications for complex environmental problems, such as modeling impacts of hydro modification on water quantity and quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015547','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015547"><span id="translatedtitle">Rocky Mountain Tertiary coal-<span class="hlt">basin</span> models and their applicability to some world <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Flores, R.M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Tertiary intermontane <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States contain large amounts of coal resources. The first major type of Tertiary coal <span class="hlt">basin</span> is closed and lake-dominated, either mud-rich (e.g., North Park <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Colorado) or mud plus carbonate (e.g., Medicine Lodge <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Montana), which are both infilled by deltas. The second major type of Tertiary coal <span class="hlt">basin</span> is open and characterized by a preponderance of sediments that were deposited by flow-through fluvial systems (e.g., Raton <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Colorado and New Mexico, and Powder River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Wyoming and Montana). The setting for the formation of these coals varies with the type of <span class="hlt">basin</span> sedimentation, paleotectonism, and paleoclimate. The mud-rich lake-dominated closed <span class="hlt">basin</span> (transpressional paleotectonism and warm, humid paleoclimate), where infilled by sandy "Gilbert-type" deltas, contains thick coals (low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps of the prograding fluvial systems. The mud- and carbonate-rich lake-dominated closed <span class="hlt">basin</span> is infilled by carbonate precipitates plus coarse-grained fan deltas and fine-grained deltas. Here, thin coals (high ash and high sulfur) formed in swamps of the fine-grained deltas. The coarse-clastic, open <span class="hlt">basins</span> (compressional paleotectonism and warm, paratropical paleoclimate) associated with flow-through fluvial systems contain moderately to anomalously thick coals (high to low ash and low sulfur) formed in swamps developed in intermittently abandoned portions of the fluvial systems. These coal development patterns from the Tertiary Rocky Mountain <span class="hlt">basins</span>, although occurring in completely different paleotectonic settings, are similar to that found in the Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Permian intermontane coal <span class="hlt">basins</span> in China, New Zealand, and <span class="hlt">India</span>. ?? 1989.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2566693','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2566693"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of reproductive ill-health to the overall burden of perceived illness among women in southern <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhatia, J.; Cleland, J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To investigate women's perceptions of the overall burden of illness among a sample of women in southern <span class="hlt">India</span>. METHODS: A community-based sample of 421 young married women in a subdistrict about 70 kilometres from Bangalore, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> State, <span class="hlt">India</span>, were interviewed monthly for one year. At each visit, information on the symptoms of all forms of illness they had experienced was elicited with the aid of a checklist. Details were obtained on the durations of episodes of illness and on health-seeking behaviour and costs. The symptoms were subsequently coded in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). FINDINGS: Reproductive ill-health accounted for half of all illness-days and for 31% of total curative health expenditure. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study estimated that 27.4% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Indian women aged 15-44 years were attributable to reproductive ill-health. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that this dimension of morbidity, when measured in terms of women's subjective experiences, makes a larger contribution to the burden of illness than that suggested by the DALY approach. This lends justification to the high priority attached to reproductive ill-health in <span class="hlt">India</span>. PMID:11731815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..965M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..965M"><span id="translatedtitle">Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of the Askot klippe, Kumaun, northwest <span class="hlt">India</span>: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonics, <span class="hlt">basin</span> evolution and associated metallogeny of the northern Indian cratonic margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandal, Subhadip; Robinson, Delores M.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Khanal, Subodha; Das, Oindrila; Bose, Sukhanjan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Throughout the Himalayan thrust belt, klippen of questionable tectonostratigraphic affinity occur atop Lesser Himalayan rocks. Integrated U-Pb ages, Hf isotopic, and whole rock trace element data establish that the Askot klippe, in northwest <span class="hlt">India</span>, is composed of Paleoproterozoic lower Lesser Himalayan rocks, not Greater Himalayan rocks, as previously interpreted. The Askot klippe consists of 1857 ± 19 Ma granite-granodiorite gneiss, coeval 1878 ± 19 Ma felsic volcanic rock, and circa 1800 Ma Berinag quartzite, representing a small vestige of a Paleoproterozoic (circa 1850 Ma) continental arc, formed on northern margin of the north Indian cratonic block. Detrital zircon from Berinag quartzite shows ɛHf1850 Ma values between -9.6 and -1.1 (an average of -4.5) and overlaps with ɛHf1850 Ma values of the Askot klippe granite-granodiorite gneiss (-5.5 to -1.2, with an average of -2.7) and other Paleoproterozoic arc-related Lesser Himalayan granite gneisses ( -4.8 to -2.2, with an average of -4.0). These overlapping data suggest a proximal arc source for the metasedimentary rocks. Subchondritic ɛHf1850 Ma values (-5.5 to -1.2) of granite-granodiorite gneiss indicate existence of a preexisting older crust that underwent crustal reworking at circa 1850 Ma. A wide range of ɛHf1850 Ma values in detrital zircon (-15.0 to -1.1) suggests that a heterogeneous crustal source supplied detritus to the northern margin of <span class="hlt">India</span>. These data, as well as the presence of a volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit within the Askot klippe, are consistent with a circa 1800 Ma intra-arc extensional environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34..875G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Tecto..34..875G"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic interactions between <span class="hlt">India</span> and Arabia since the Jurassic reconstructed from marine geophysics, ophiolite geology, and seismic tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaina, Carmen; Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Gondwana breakup since the Jurassic and the northward motion of <span class="hlt">India</span> toward Eurasia were associated with formation of ocean <span class="hlt">basins</span> and ophiolite obduction between and onto the Indian and Arabian margins. Here we reconcile marine geophysical data from preserved oceanic <span class="hlt">basins</span> with the age and location of ophiolites in NW <span class="hlt">India</span> and SE Arabia and seismic tomography of the mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The North Somali and proto-Owen <span class="hlt">basins</span> formed due to 160-133 Ma N-S extension between <span class="hlt">India</span> and Somalia. Subsequent convergence destroyed part of this crust, simultaneous with the uplift of the Masirah ophiolites. Most of the preserved crust in the Owen <span class="hlt">Basin</span> may have formed between 84 and 74 Ma, whereas the Mascarene and the Amirante <span class="hlt">basins</span> accommodated motion between <span class="hlt">India</span> and Madagascar/East Africa between 85 and circa 60 Ma and 75 and circa 66 Ma, respectively. Between circa 84 and 45 Ma, oblique Arabia-<span class="hlt">India</span> convergence culminated in ophiolite obduction onto SE Arabia and NW <span class="hlt">India</span> and formed the Carlsberg slab in the lower mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The NNE-SSW oriented slab may explain the anomalous bathymetry in the NW Indian Ocean and may be considered a paleolongitudinal constraint for absolute plate motion. NW <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia collision occurred at circa 20 Ma deforming the Sulaiman ranges or at 30 Ma if the Hindu Kush slab north of the Afghan block reflects intra-Asian subduction. Our study highlights that the NW <span class="hlt">India</span> ophiolites have no relationship with <span class="hlt">India</span>-Asia motion or collision but result from relative <span class="hlt">India</span>-Africa/Arabia motions instead.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5865273','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5865273"><span id="translatedtitle">Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>The Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span> is a large intracratonic <span class="hlt">basin</span> in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by <span class="hlt">basin</span> wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span> consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264281','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264281"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of yoga therapy on physical and psychological quality of life of perimenopausal women in selected coastal areas of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nayak, Gayathry; Kamath, Asha; Kumar, Pratap N.; Rao, Anjali</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Perimenopausal period is characterized by a continuous decline in ovarian function due to which women are vulnerable to various physical and psychological symptoms affecting their quality of life. Currently these symptoms are managed by hormone replacement therapy. However, hormonal therapy can cause complications including malignancy which has resulted in search for various alternative therapies to improve the quality of life (QOL). Yoga is one such alternative therapy shown to enhance the QOL at all stages of human life associated with the chronic illness. There are very few scientific studies regarding the effect of yoga on perimenopause and in this study we investigated the effects of yoga therapy on physical and psychological symptoms using the standardized questionnaire. Objective: To study the effect of yoga therapy on physical, psychological, vasomotor and sexual symptoms of perimenopause. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective non-randomized control study of 216 perimenopausal women with 12 weeks of intervention. The subjects were divided in two groups with either yoga therapy [n = 111] or exercise [n = 105] as the interventional tool. The symptoms control and QOL before and after intervention in both the groups were assessed by using the menopausal QOL questionnaire. Results: The perimenopausal symptoms in all the four domains were improved by yoga therapy, thus significantly improving the overall QOL compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of yoga therapy in managing the distressing perimenopausal symptoms. It is easy, safe, non-expensive alternative therapy helping the well-being of perimenopausal women and must be encouraged in the regular management of perimenopausal symptoms. PMID:25540568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27166040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27166040"><span id="translatedtitle">A sporadic outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteremia in pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in coastal <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, South <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Antony, Beena; Cherian, Elizabeth Varkey; Boloor, Rekha; Shenoy, K Varadraj</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is a significant opportunistic pathogen in hospitalized and immunocompromised patients, particularly in cystic fibrosis. It is widely distributed in natural habitats such as soil and water and frequently encountered in nosocomial outbreaks due to contaminated disinfectants and medical devices. However reports on outbreaks due to this organism are lacking from the Indian subcontinent. We report here a sporadic outbreak due to BCC which occurred in the pediatric Intensive Care Unit of our institute, the probable source being contaminated distilled water. The isolate from three babies and environmental sources including distilled water were identical and confirmed as BCC. Strict infection control measures were instituted to prevent the spread of infection. This report highlights the potential role of B.cepacia in causing sporadic outbreaks especially in ICUs, associated with water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4319299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4319299"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral manifestation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patil, Neelkant; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Babaji, Prashant; Ramesh, Dnsv; Jhamb, Kshitij; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a highly lethal, progressively epidemic viral infection characterized by profound impairment of the immune system. Oral manifestations are common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected AIDS patients, and are usually the first indicator of symptom and disease progression. The main objective of the current study was to compare the prevalence of oral manifestations in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) with those, not on HAART therapies. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 patients diagnosed as human immune virus sero-positive. These patients were divided equally into two groups (50 each); Group I patients on HAART and Group II patients who were not on HAART. Information regarding age, sex and cluster of differentiation 4 cell count was obtained from the medical records. Oral examination was done, and findings were recorded by using internationally accepted presumptive clinical criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square statistical test. Results: The presence of oral manifestations was significantly decreased in subjects on HAART (32%) compared to those who are not on HAART (56%). The most common oral lesions detected in patients on HAART were increased oral hyper-pigmentation (14%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (8%), non-specific ulcerations (4%), pseudo-membranous candidiasis (2%), periodontitis (2%) and xerostomia (2%), whereas in non HAART oral hyperpigmentation (10%), pseudo-membranous candidiasis (8%), angular cheilitis (4%), and erythematous candidiasis (4%) and Periodontitis (14%) were more prevalent. Conclusion: The number and severity of oral manifestation decreased, and even there was a change in the type of oral manifestations on HAART, which may be because of the improvement in immunity gained by the therapy. PMID:25713484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Brics&id=EJ1045713','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Brics&id=EJ1045713"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>'s Higher Education Challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Altbach, Philip G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span>, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. <span class="hlt">India</span>'s higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NaPho...5..440P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NaPho...5..440P"><span id="translatedtitle">Photonics in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pal, Bishnu</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> has long been active in the field of photonics, dating back to famous scientists such as Raman and Bose. Today, <span class="hlt">India</span> is home to numerous research groups and telecommunications companies that own a sizeable amount of the fibre-optic links installed around the globe.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27394315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27394315"><span id="translatedtitle">A reassessment of Melanophidium Günther, 1864 (Squamata: Serpentes: <br />Uropeltidae) from the Western Ghats of peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span>, with the description of a new species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gower, David J; Giri, Varad; Captain, Ashok; Wilkinson, Mark</p> <p>2016-03-04</p> <p>A new species of the uropeltid snake genus, Melanophidium Günther, 1864 is described based on a series of eight specimens. Melanophidium khairei sp. nov. is the fourth species described in the genus, and the first for 144 years. Superficially M. khairei sp. nov. resembles M. punctatum Beddome, 1871 in being piebald and punctate (and it was previously misidentified as M. punctatum), but in many scalation characters it more closely resembles M. wynaudense (Beddome, 1863). The new species occurs in southern Maharashtra, Goa, and northern <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, in the Western Ghats region of peninsula <span class="hlt">India</span>. It is the most northerly member of its genus. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for M. wynaudense, M. bilineatum Beddome, 1870, and M. punctatum. A new key to the species of Melanophidium is presented. Aspects of the morphology, taxonomy and distribution of the three previously described species of Melanophidium are reviewed and revised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5084543','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5084543"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicians of ancient <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saini, Anu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A survey of Indian medical historiography will reveal no dearth of work on the systems of medicine and medical literature of ancient <span class="hlt">India</span>. However, the people who were responsible for the healing have not received much attention. This article traces the evolution of the physician as a professional in ancient <span class="hlt">India</span>. This article reviews the secondary literature on healing and medical practice in <span class="hlt">India</span>, specifically pertaining to the individual medical practitioner, drawing from varied sources. The healers of ancient <span class="hlt">India</span> hailed from different castes and classes. They were well-respected and enjoyed state patronage. They were held to the highest ethical standards of the day and were bound by a strict code of conduct. They underwent rigorous training in both medicine and surgery. Most physicians were multi-skilled generalists, and expected to be skilled in elocution and debate. They were reasonably well-off financially. The paper also briefly traces the evolution of medicinal ideas in ancient <span class="hlt">India</span>. PMID:27843823</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326854','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6326854"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbon potential of east coast of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, T.A.; Kumar, M.N.V.</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>The east coast of <span class="hlt">India</span> is considered to be a divergent margin formed during the fragmentation of Gondwanaland during the late Mesozoic. The four sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> located along this coast-cauvery, Palar, Krishna-Godavari, and Mahanadi (from south to north)- have their seaward extensions into the Bay of Bengal where some of them have built a 5-6 km (16,000-20,000 ft) thick late Mesozoic to Holocene sedimentary section. The <span class="hlt">basins</span> have two or more cycles of deposition. During the first (rift) cycle in the Early Cretaceous (stage 1), nonmarine to paralic sandstones and shales were deposited in the interior grabens. The second cycle (coastal margin), during the Tertiary, which is well developed in all <span class="hlt">basins</span> except Palar, was superimposed unconformably on the horst-graben morphology of the Cretaceous <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Although no commercial discoveries have been identified to date, significant oil and/or gas shows have been encountered in some of the tests, with definite but lesser shows in others. All important shows observed to date are located on horsts and other structural highs, but stratigraphic controls are very likely to be associated with sub-Upper cretaceous unconformities, between Cretaceous and Paleocene and between Miocene and Pliocene. Oil and gas plays in each sequence appear to be limited by the fault block in which the particular sequence is most completely developed and each appears to contain indigenous source rock providing hydrocarbons to the reservoirs in the sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19130796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19130796"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic affinities of the Siddis of South <span class="hlt">India</span>: an emigrant population of East Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gauniyal, Mansi; Chahal, S M S; Kshatriya, Gautam K</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the African Siddis to Goa, <span class="hlt">India</span>, as slaves about 500 years ago. Subsequently, the Siddis moved into the interior regions of the state of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, and have remained there ever since. Over time the Siddis have experienced considerable cultural changes because of their proximity to neighboring population groups. To understand the biological consequences of these changes, we studied the Siddis to determine the extent of genetic variation and the contributions from the African, European, and Indian ancestral populations. In the present study we typed the Siddis for 20 polymorphic serological, red cell, and Alu insertion-deletion loci. The overall pattern of phenotype (and genotype) distribution is in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Considering the ethnohistorical records and the availability of secondary-source genetic data, we used two data sets in the analysis: one comprising eight serological and red cell enzyme markers with eight population groups and another comprising six Alu insertion-deletion markers with seven tribal groups of South <span class="hlt">India</span>. The dendrograms generated from these two data sets on the basis of genetic distance analysis between the selected populations of African, European, and Indian descent reveals that the Siddis are closer to the Africans than they are to the South Indian populations. Genetic admixture analysis using a dihybrid model (19 loci) and a trihybrid model (10 loci and 8 loci) shows that the predominant influence comes from the Africans, a lesser contribution from the South Indians, and a slight contribution from the Portuguese. Thus the original composition of the African genes among the Siddis has been diluted to some extent by the contribution from southern Indian population groups. There is no nonrandom association of alleles among a set of 10 genetic marker systems considered in the present study. The demonstration of genetic homogeneity of the Siddis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198357"><span id="translatedtitle">Inventory Analysis in a Private Dental Hospital in Bangalore, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krishnappa, Pushpanjali</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction There are various approaches for inventory management. Of all the inventory control systems, ABC (Always, Better, Control) and VED (Vital, Essential, Desirable) matrix is most suitable for dental stores. We could not find any literature pertaining to inventory analysis in a private dental hospital. So, we conducted a study in a private dental hospital in Bangalore, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Aim The present study aimed at evolving an inventory control plan for a private dental institution by categorizing the materials utilizing an ABC-VED coupling matrix. Materials and Methods The study analysed the annual consumption, the expenditure incurred for the dental consumables and developed a matrix based on ABC and VED analysis to narrow down the group of consumables for managerial monitoring. Results Of the 215 consumables used 13.5% (A category) consumed 70% of total annual expenditure. About 21% of the consumables (Category B) consumed 20% and 65.5% (C category) accounted for 10% of the annual expenditure. The VED analysis found 47% consumables as vital, 37.6% as essential and 15.4% as desirable category. ABC-VED matrix analysis categorized 51.6%, 33.5% and 14.8% of consumables as category I, II and III, respectively. Conclusion Categorization by the ABC-VED coupling matrix model helps to narrow down on fewer consumables. The management of Category I consumables was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital consumables. Category II was monitored by middle and Category III at lower managerial level. PMID:28050404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950081','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950081"><span id="translatedtitle">UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH <span class="hlt">BASIN</span>, <span class="hlt">INDIA</span>, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A</p> <p>2005-05-04</p> <p>What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western <span class="hlt">India</span>. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non-unitary site response</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264408','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264408"><span id="translatedtitle">Webspinners in Early Eocene amber from western <span class="hlt">India</span> (Insecta, Embiodea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A.; Singh, Hukam; Nascimbene, Paul C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract The family Scelembiidae (Neoembiodea: Embiomorpha: Archembioidea) is recorded from Asia for the first time, based on two individuals preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, western <span class="hlt">India</span>. Kumarembia hurleyi Engel & Grimaldi, gen. n. et sp. n., is described, figured, and distinguished from other archembioid genera. The genus shares male genitalic features with scelembiids, otherwise known from South America and Africa. PMID:22287898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079089"><span id="translatedtitle">An audit of the approval letters issued by Drugs Controller General of <span class="hlt">India</span> to Ethics Committees in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhide, Shruti S.; Katkar, Jahnavi V.; Maurya, Mitesh; Gogtay, Nithya Jaideep; Thatte, Urmila M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aim: The present study is an audit of the communiqués issued by the Drugs Controller General of <span class="hlt">India</span> [DCGI] to Ethics Committees [ECs] for content and directives after the mandatory notification of registration of Ethics Committees issued on 8th February 2013. Methods: All letters were downloaded from the website of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization [CDSCO] and evaluated for the date of issue, number of directives, domains covered by the directives [general instructions, administrative requirements and quorum requirements], median time to approval for registration and time elapsed between date of application and issue of the approval letter. Results: There were a total of 1036 EC letters listed on the website, from which 854 [82.4%] could be downloaded. A working denominator of 841 was arrived at after discarding repeat letters and those that had an incorrect address. The state of Maharashtra had the highest number of ECs registered (209/841, 24.9%) followed by Gujarat [97/841, 11.5%) and <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> [96/841, 11.4%]. The number of directives within each letter ranged from 8-22. The overall time to approval was 77.5 [24-919] days and the time to approval between Institutional and Independent Ethics Committees was significantly different. Conclusions: The office of the DCGI had a very wide time range for approving registration of Ethics Committees that ranged from less than a month to more than two years. The quality and nature of the directives improved with time. As the country moves towards accreditation, letters issued by the DCGI should have uniformity. The large number of ECs in a single state and lack of even a single one in several others is something that needs to be addressed by policy makers. PMID:27843791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S31E0818G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S31E0818G"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Structure of <span class="hlt">India</span> from Regional Waveform Matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>We use a neighborhood adaptive grid search procedure and reflectivity synthetics to model regional distance range (500-2000~km) seismograms recorded in <span class="hlt">India</span> and to determine the variation in the crust and uppermost mantle structure across the subcontinent. The portions of the regional waveform which are most influenced by the crust and uppermost mantle structure are the 10-100~s period Pnl and fundamental mode surface waves. We use the adaptive grid search algorithm to match both portions of the seismogram simultaneously. This procedure results in a family of 1-D path average crust and upper mantle velocity and attenuation models whose propagation characteristics closely match those of the real Earth. Our data set currently consist of ˜20 seismograms whose propagation paths are primarily confined to the Ganges <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in north <span class="hlt">India</span> and the East Dharwar Craton of south <span class="hlt">India</span>. The East Dharwar Craton has a simple and uniform structure consisting of a 36+/-2 km thick two layer crust, and an uppermost mantle with a sub-Moho velocity of 4.5~km/s. The structure of northern <span class="hlt">India</span> is more complicated, with pronounced low velocities in the upper crustal layer due to the large sediment thicknesses in the Ganges <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7134629','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7134629"><span id="translatedtitle">Intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span>: A geologic model for source-bed and reservoir facies deposition within carbonate shelves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grover, G. Jr. )</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> (moats, inshore <span class="hlt">basins</span>, shelf <span class="hlt">basins</span>, differentiated shelf, and deep-water lagoons of others) are depressions of varying sizes and shapes that occur within tectonically passive and regionally extensive carbonate shelves. Intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> grade laterally and downdip (seaward) into shallow-water carbonates of the regional shelf, are separated from the open marine <span class="hlt">basin</span> by the shelf margin, and are largely filled by fine-grained subtidal sediments having attributes of shallow- and deeper water sedimentation. These <span class="hlt">basins</span> are commonly fringed or overlain by carbonate sands, reefs, or buildups. These facies may mimic those that occur along the regional shelf margin, and they can have trends that are at a high angle to that of the regional shelf. Intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> are not intracratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The history of most intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> is a few million to a few tens of million of years. Examples of intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> are known throughout the Phanerozoic; the southern portion of the Holocene Belize shelf is a modern example of an intrashelf <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Two types of intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> are recognized. Coastal <span class="hlt">basins</span> pass updip into coastal clastics of the craton with the <span class="hlt">basin</span> primarily filled by fine clastics. Shelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> occur on the outer part of the shelf, are surrounded by shallow-water carbonate facies, and are filled by peloidal lime mud, pelagics, and argillaceous carbonates. Intrashelf <span class="hlt">basins</span> are commonly the site of organic-rich, source-bed deposition, resulting in the close proximity of source beds and reservoir facies that may fringe or overlie the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Examples of hydrocarbon-charged reservoirs that were sourced by an intrashelf <span class="hlt">basin</span> include the Miocene Bombay High field, offshore <span class="hlt">India</span>; the giant Jurassic (Arab-D) and Cretaceous (Shuaiba) reservoirs of the Arabian Shelf; the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland trend, South Florida <span class="hlt">basin</span>; and the Permian-Pennsylvanian reservoirs surrounding the Tatum <span class="hlt">basin</span> in southeastern New Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146222','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146222"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive psychiatry in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Cognitive research has huge potential in <span class="hlt">India</span> and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhyW...22d..12B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhyW...22d..12B"><span id="translatedtitle">Unleashing science in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagla, Pallava</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in <span class="hlt">India</span> are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6406E..0QD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6406E..0QD"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, along the West Coast of <span class="hlt">India</span>, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of <span class="hlt">India</span> (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162730"><span id="translatedtitle">Intimate relationships of Devadasi sex workers in South <span class="hlt">India</span>: An exploration of risks of HIV/STI transmission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thompson, Laura H; du Plessis, Elsabé; Pelto, Pertti; Annigeri, Vinod; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen; Khan, Shamshad; Halli, Shiva S; Lorway, Robert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global literature on female sex workers suggests that being in an intimate relationship is associated with barriers to practising safe sex behaviours. Condom use within intimate relationships is often seen as a sign of infidelity and fosters mistrust which could affect longevity, trust and intimacy within partnerships. Using qualitative data from Devadasi sex workers and their intimate male partners in Bagalkot District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, we examined both partners' perspectives to understand the quality and dynamics of these relationships and the factors that influence condom use in intimate relationships. Our thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted in May 2011 with 20 couples suggests that many Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners define their relationships as 'like marriage' which reduced their motivation to use condoms. Evidence from this study suggests that active participation in sex workers' collectives (sanghas) can increase condom use, education and family planning services, among other things, and could be helpful for both Devadasis and their intimate partners to better understand and accept safer sexual practices. Our work has direct implications for designing couple-based health interventions for traditional Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJCli..17.1169G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJCli..17.1169G"><span id="translatedtitle">Relief and climate in South Asia: the influence of the western ghats on the current climate pattern of peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunnell, Yanni</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>The 1500-km-long Western Ghats mountain barrier of peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span> interacts with the southwest monsoon in a manner which bears heavily on the exceptionally varied climate pattern of the Deccan. <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> Province alone concentrates five of the six major climate types of the entire Indian Union. This review explores the interactions between atmospheric structure over South Asia and relief and discusses the efficiency with which the passive margin uplift, second only to the Himalayan barrier, acts as a climatic gatekeeper to the subcontinent. Particular attention is given to rainfall patterns and regimes. These are revealed by a variety of statistical classification and mapping techniques, and the analysis is guided by the steep environmental gradient observed on the immediate backslope of the Ghats, where annual totals can drop from 6000 to 600 mm in ca. 80 km. This is strongly reflected in the landform, soil, vegetation and cropping patterns and raises the question of the relationship between the uplift history of the mountain barrier at geological time-scales, the history of the South Asian monsoon circulation and the stability and diversity of the climatic pattern as seen today. The tightly arranged suite of bioclimatic regions also provides a unique geographical backdrop to the agricultural diversity of South <span class="hlt">India</span>, rarely found on such a scale in other monsoon contexts of the Tropics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24426275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24426275"><span id="translatedtitle">Association of a recombinant Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus with yellow vein and leaf curl disease of okra in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Devaraju, A; Jalali, Salil; Krishna Reddy, M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A begomovirus isolate (OY136A) collected from okra plants showing upward leaf curling, vein clearing, vein thickening and yellowing symptoms from Bangalore rural district, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> was characterized. The sequence comparisons revealed that, this virus isolate share highest nucleotide identity with isolates of Cotton leaf curl Bangalore virus (CLCuBV) (AY705380) (92.8 %) and Okra enation leaf curl virus (81.1-86.2 %). This is well supported by phylogentic analysis showing, close clustering of the virus isolate with CLCuBV. With this data, based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the present virus isolate is classified as a new strain of CLCuBV, for which CLCuBV-[<span class="hlt">India</span>: Bangalore: okra: 2006] additional descriptor is proposed. The betasatellite (KC608158) associated with the virus is having more than 95 % sequence similarity with the cotton leaf curl betasatellites (CLCuB) available in the GenBank.The recombination analysis suggested, emergence of this new strain of okra infecting begomovirus might have been from the exchange of genetic material between BYVMV and CLCuMuV. The virus was successfully transmitted by whitefly and grafting. The host range of the virus was shown to be very narrow and limited to two species in the family Malvaceae, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and hollyhock (Althaea rosea), and four in the family Solanaceae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4880673','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4880673"><span id="translatedtitle">Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, <span class="hlt">India</span>: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Acharya, Arun Kumar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, <span class="hlt">India</span>. PMID:27293984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..APRP22002C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000APS..APRP22002C"><span id="translatedtitle">History of Nuclear <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaturvedi, Ram</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 <span class="hlt">India</span> had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, <span class="hlt">India</span> continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 <span class="hlt">India</span> performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, <span class="hlt">India</span> used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. <span class="hlt">India</span> considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27914775','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27914775"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of background gamma radiation levels using airborne gamma ray spectrometer data over uranium deposits, Cuddapah <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> - A comparative study of dose rates estimated by AGRS and PGRS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srinivas, D; Ramesh Babu, V; Patra, I; Tripathi, Shailesh; Ramayya, M S; Chaturvedi, A K</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) has conducted high-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometer (AGRS), magnetometer and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys for uranium exploration, along the northern margins of Cuddapah <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The survey area includes well known uranium deposits such as Lambapur-Peddagattu, Chitrial and Koppunuru. The AGRS data collected for uranium exploration is utilised for estimating the average absorbed rates in air due to radio-elemental (potassium in %, uranium and thorium in ppm) distribution over these known deposit areas. Further, portable gamma ray spectrometer (PGRS) was used to acquire data over two nearby locations one from Lambapur deposit, and the other from known anomalous zone and subsequently average gamma dose rates were estimated. Representative in-situ rock samples were also collected from these two areas and subjected to radio-elemental concentration analysis by gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) in the laboratory and then dose rates were estimated. Analyses of these three sets of results complement one another, thereby providing a comprehensive picture of the radiation environment over these deposits. The average absorbed area wise dose rate level is estimated to be 130 ± 47 nGy h(-1) in Lambapur-Peddagattu, 186 ± 77 nGy h(-1) in Chitrial and 63 ± 22 nGy h(-1) in Koppunuru. The obtained average dose levels are found to be higher than the world average value of 54 nGy h(-1). The gamma absorbed dose rates in nGy h(-1) were converted to annual effective dose rates in mSv y(-1) as proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual average effective dose rates for the entire surveyed area is 0.12 mSv y(-1), which is much lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y(-1) by International Commission on Radiation protection (ICRP). It may be ascertained here that the present study establishes a reference data set (baseline) in these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/grants-mining-district/san-mateo-creek-basin','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/grants-mining-district/san-mateo-creek-basin"><span id="translatedtitle">San Mateo Creek <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The San Mateo Creek <span class="hlt">Basin</span> comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage <span class="hlt">basin</span> in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This <span class="hlt">basin</span> is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED416153.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED416153.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (<span class="hlt">India</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dickler, Paul</p> <p></p> <p>This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in <span class="hlt">India</span> contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "<span class="hlt">India</span> 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "<span class="hlt">India</span>: Domestic Order and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1063732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1063732"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal</p> <p>2013-01-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of <span class="hlt">India</span> issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in <span class="hlt">India</span> to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, <span class="hlt">India</span> has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of <span class="hlt">India</span> is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23086467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23086467"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of β-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies in six cities in <span class="hlt">India</span>: a multicentre study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohanty, D; Colah, R B; Gorakshakar, A C; Patel, R Z; Master, D C; Mahanta, J; Sharma, S K; Chaudhari, U; Ghosh, M; Das, S; Britt, R P; Singh, S; Ross, C; Jagannathan, L; Kaul, R; Shukla, D K; Muthuswamy, V</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The population of <span class="hlt">India</span> is extremely diverse comprising of more than 3,000 ethnic groups who still follow endogamy. Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in <span class="hlt">India</span> and pose a major health problem. The data on the prevalence of β-thalassemias and other haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups of <span class="hlt">India</span> is scarce. Therefore the present multicentre study was undertaken in six cities of six states of <span class="hlt">India</span> (Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Assam, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and Punjab) to determine the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups using uniform methodology. Fifty-six thousand seven hundred eighty individuals (college students and pregnant women) from different caste/ethnic groups were screened. RBC indices were measured on an automated haematology counter while the percentage of HbA(2), HbF and other abnormal Hb variants were estimated by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System. The overall prevalence of β-thalassemia trait was 2.78 % and varied from 1.48 to 3.64 % in different states, while the prevalence of β-thalassemia trait in 59 ethnic groups varied from 0 to 9.3 %. HbE trait was mainly seen in Dibrugarh in Assam (23.9 %) and Kolkata in West Bengal (3.92 %). In six ethnic groups from Assam, the prevalence of HbE trait varied from 41.1 to 66.7 %. Few subjects with δβ-thalassemia, HPFH, HbS trait, HbD trait, HbE homozygous and HbE β-thalassemia as well as HbS homozygous and HbS-β-thalassemia (<1 %) were also identified. This is the first large multicentre study covering cities from different regions of the country for screening for β-thalassemia carriers and other haemoglobinopathies where uniform protocols and methodology was followed and quality control ensured by the co-ordinating centre. This study also shows that establishment of centres for screening for β-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies is possible in medical colleges. Creating awareness, screening and counselling can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121811','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121811"><span id="translatedtitle">Practice Perspectives of Left-Handed Clinical Dental Students in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puranik, Manjunath P; Uma, SR</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Handedness becomes important for students during their training period. Limited literature is available regarding the same. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the dental practice perspectives and determine the hand preference and discomfort level among the Left-Handed (LH) clinical dental students. Materials and Methods A 30-item survey tool was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey among four successive LH cohorts (third and final year undergraduates, dental interns and postgraduates) in all the dental colleges of Bengaluru, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, during the year 2014. Results A total of 84 students completed the survey, response rate being 100%. About one-third (37%) reported that their institution was not properly equipped to accommodate LH students. Majority felt that LH dentists were at a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal complications. Mouth mirror handling showed equal distribution for handedness as compared to the other dental activities, whereas discomfort levels were negligible (“without any difficulty”). Dental practice perspective scores significantly correlated with the difficulty levels (r=-0.333, p<0.001). Conclusion Overall, the left-handers had a right dental practice perspective and their responses indicate a need to address their issues empathetically. PMID:27891465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3626049','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3626049"><span id="translatedtitle">How Does Sex Trafficking Increase the Risk of HIV Infection? An Observational Study From Southern <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wirth, Kathleen E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Murray, Megan B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23324332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23324332"><span id="translatedtitle">How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/140041','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/140041"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiological studies in young Eucalyptus stands in southern <span class="hlt">India</span> and their use in estimating forest transpiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, J.M.; Rosier, P.T.W.; Murthy, K.V.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>Stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and leaf area index were measured in adjacent plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis at Puradal, near Shimoga, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, southern <span class="hlt">India</span>. The data were collected in a range of climatic conditions during a two year period immediately following plantation establishment. Physiological differences between the two species were small and confined largely to leaf area index. Stomatal conductance was highest in the post-monsoon period and declined to minimum values immediately prior to the onset of the monsoon, with the lowest conductances observed after the plantations had been established for more than one year. Stomatal conductance, leaf area index and above-canopy meteorological data were combined in a multi-layer transpiration model and used to calculate hourly values of transpiration from the two species. Rates of transpiration up to 6 mm d{sup {minus}1} were estimated for the post-monsoon period but fell to below 1 mm d{sup {minus}1} prior to the monsoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489776"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ananda, K; Sridhar, K R</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Because mangrove plant species are a valuable source of useful metabolites, their endophytes have gained more importance. Randomly sampled surface-sterilized whole root segments of four mangrove plant species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, and Sonneratia caseolaris from the mangroves of Udyavara (<span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>) on the west coast of <span class="hlt">India</span>, were characterized for fungal communities by direct plating, damp chamber, and bubbling chamber incubation methods. The richness of endophytic fungal species from whole root segments after direct plating and damp chamber incubation was greatest for R. mucronata than for other plants (18 vs. 8-13). Incubation of whole root segments in bubbling chambers yielded conidia of two freshwater hyphomycetes: Mycocentrospora acerina (in Avicennia officinalis) and Triscelophorus acuminatus (in R. mucronata and in S. caseolaris). Surface-sterilized whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata sampled from the mid-tide level on direct plating yielded more fungi than that of the root segments sampled from low-tide and high-tide levels. The greatest number of isolates, species richness, and diversity of fungi were shown by the whole root segments of R. mucronata from the mid-tide level. Rarefaction indices also revealed the highest expected number of species out of 150 random isolations from the mid-tide level samples of whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata. The present study showed that fungi in mangrove roots are composed of a consortium of soil, marine, and freshwater fungi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JAESc...1..145C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JAESc...1..145C"><span id="translatedtitle">The paleoposition of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas</p> <p></p> <p>In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of <span class="hlt">India</span> remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally <span class="hlt">India</span> has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of <span class="hlt">India</span> from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary <span class="hlt">India</span> must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that <span class="hlt">India</span> was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6101668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6101668"><span id="translatedtitle">Woman's lot in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goyal, S K</p> <p>1980-01-26</p> <p>I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in <span class="hlt">India</span> (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In <span class="hlt">India</span> parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In <span class="hlt">India</span> daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in <span class="hlt">India</span>. The main cause for the plight of women in <span class="hlt">India</span> is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in <span class="hlt">India</span>. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053037.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053037.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span> Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching <span class="hlt">India</span>. Part I: <span class="hlt">India</span> Through the Ancient Classics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean</p> <p></p> <p>The past and the present interweave in contemporary <span class="hlt">India</span>. To understand <span class="hlt">India</span>, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from <span class="hlt">India</span> by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17037690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17037690"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioethics activities in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Nandini K</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The Indian Council of Medical Research formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in <span class="hlt">India</span>. In 1980, they formulated the first national ethical guidelines. They offer a number of different training programmes, from 1 day to 6 months. The council is developing a core curriculum for teaching bioethics, which would be applied uniformly in medical schools throughout the country. Drug development and ethics is also important in <span class="hlt">India</span>, particularly now that the local pharmaceutical industry is expanding and so many drugs trials are outsourced to the country. The council is also very active in encouraging the development of ethics review committees.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2721488','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2721488"><span id="translatedtitle">Urology in ancient <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Das, Sakti</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient <span class="hlt">India</span> from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in <span class="hlt">India</span> to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18436689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18436689"><span id="translatedtitle">Hematology of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) from two locations in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Standard hematology parameters were determined for 122 sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) at the Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, <span class="hlt">India</span> (27 degrees 0'N; 77 degrees 45'E), and the Bannerghatta Biological Park, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span> (12 degrees 48'N; 77 degrees 34'E) from March 2003 to July 2006. These two native sloth bear habitats have different climatic conditions and provided an opportunity to examine the effect of climate on the physiologic hematology values of these bears. We primarily analyzed the influence of age, sex, season, and body weight on the different hematology parameters. Several values were significantly different in sloth bear cubs (</= 1 yr) when compared to adult and sub-adult bears (>1 yr). The cubs had a lower erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCV) values when compared to adult and subadult bears. The cubs also had higher leukocyte counts, due to higher circulating neutrophils, as compared to adult and subadult bears. Within subadult and adult bears, we also identified a sexual dimorphic difference in leukocyte count in adult and subadult bears, wherein female bears had higher counts than males. This difference was the result of a significantly higher number of circulating neutrophils in female bears. Platelet counts were also higher in females as compared to males. On comparing different seasons, leukocyte counts were higher in winter as compared to the summer and monsoon seasons. When compared based on location, erythrocyte counts were higher in subadult and adult bears at Bannerghatta, which was at a higher altitude than Sur Sarovar. Within subadult and adult bears, we did not find any significant influence of age or body weight on the different hematologic parameters. In this study we have obtained mean hematologic values for sloth bears in their native habitat to serve as a reference for this species. This report will be useful to develop and evaluate health profiles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5107873','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5107873"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiotherapy Practice Patterns for Management of Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgeries in <span class="hlt">India</span>: A Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sultanpuram, Sagarika; Ottayil, Zulfeequer C. P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aim. The aim of the current study is to determine the practice patterns of physiotherapists for patients undergoing thoracic surgeries in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methodology. A cross-sectional survey was conducted across <span class="hlt">India</span> in which 600 questionnaires were sent in emails to physiotherapists. The questionnaire addressed assessment and treatment techniques of thoracic surgery. Results. A total of 234 completed questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 39%, with the majority of responses received from Telangana, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, and Andhra Pradesh. More than 90% of the responders practiced physical examination, chest expansion, chest X-ray, ABG analysis, pulmonary function test, and SpO2 (oxygen saturation) as the assessment measures in both the pre- and the postoperative phase. Breathing exercises, incentive spirometry, thoracic expansion exercises, coughing and huffing, positioning, and modified postural drainage are found to be commonly used physiotherapy interventions, both pre- and postoperatively, with a response rate of more than 90%. A response rate of more than 84.6% indicated that patients are made to dangle their lower limbs over the edge of the bed on the 1st postoperative day. Mobilization, such as walking up to a chair, sit to stand exercises, and perambulation within the patient's room, was started on the 2nd postoperative day, as stated by more than 65% of the physiotherapists. Staircase climbing was started on the 5th postoperative day. The most commonly used functional evaluation prior to discharge was 6-minute walk test. This was, in fact, practiced by 77.4% of the physiotherapists in their clinical settings. Conclusion. The most predominantly employed assessment measures included were physical examination, chest expansion, ABG analysis, pulmonary function test, chest X-ray, SpO2 (oxygen saturation), peripheral muscle strength, and cardiopulmonary exercise. The physiotherapy interventions most commonly used were breathing exercises, thoracic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...80B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...80B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal trends of rainfall across Indian river <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bisht, Deepak Singh; Chatterjee, Chandranath; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh; Sridhar, Venkataramana</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Daily gridded high-resolution rainfall data of <span class="hlt">India</span> Meteorological Department at 0.25° spatial resolution (1901-2015) was analyzed to detect the trend in seasonal, annual, and maximum cumulative rainfall for 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. The present study was carried out for 85 river <span class="hlt">basins</span> of <span class="hlt">India</span> during 1901-2015 and pre- and post-urbanization era, i.e., 1901-1970 and 1971-2015, respectively. Mann-Kendall (α = 0.05) and Theil-Sen's tests were employed for detecting the trend and percentage of change over the period of time, respectively. Daily extreme rainfall events, above 95 and 99 percentile threshold, were also analyzed to detect any trend in their magnitude and number of occurrences. The upward trend was found for the majority of the sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-day maximum cumulative rainfall during the post-urbanization era. The magnitude of extreme threshold events is also found to be increasing in the majority of the river <span class="hlt">basins</span> during the post-urbanization era. A 30-year moving window analysis further revealed a widespread upward trend in a number of extreme threshold rainfall events possibly due to urbanization and climatic factors. Overall trends studied against intra-<span class="hlt">basin</span> trend across Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> reveal the mixed pattern of trends due to inherent spatial heterogeneity of rainfall, therefore, highlighting the importance of scale for such studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5224982','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5224982"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern <span class="hlt">India</span> and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M.; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R. R.; Sahu, L. K.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern <span class="hlt">India</span> using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in <span class="hlt">India</span> (<span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of <span class="hlt">India</span> will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols. PMID:28072853</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28072853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28072853"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern <span class="hlt">India</span> and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R; Verma, R S; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R R; Sahu, L K; Sudheer, K P; Gunthe, S S</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern <span class="hlt">India</span> using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in <span class="hlt">India</span> (<span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of <span class="hlt">India</span> will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24616628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24616628"><span id="translatedtitle">Chondrites isp. indicating late paleozoic atmospheric anoxia in Eastern Peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Biplab; Banerjee, Sudipto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rhythmic sandstone-mudstone-coal succession of the Barakar Formation (early Permian) manifests a transition from lower braided-fluvial to upper tide-wave influenced, estuarine setting. Monospecific assemblage of marine trace fossil Chondrites isp. in contemporaneous claystone beds in the upper Barakar succession from two Gondwana <span class="hlt">basins</span> (namely, the Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and the Talchir <span class="hlt">Basin</span>) in eastern peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span> signifies predominant marine incursion during end early Permian. Monospecific Chondrites ichnoassemblage in different sedimentary horizons in geographically wide apart (~400 km) areas demarcates multiple short-spanned phases of anoxia in eastern <span class="hlt">India</span>. Such anoxia is interpreted as intermittent falls in oxygen level in an overall decreasing atmospheric oxygenation within the late Paleozoic global oxygen-carbon dioxide fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926327','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926327"><span id="translatedtitle">Chondrites isp. Indicating Late Paleozoic Atmospheric Anoxia in Eastern Peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Biplab; Banerjee, Sudipto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rhythmic sandstone-mudstone-coal succession of the Barakar Formation (early Permian) manifests a transition from lower braided-fluvial to upper tide-wave influenced, estuarine setting. Monospecific assemblage of marine trace fossil Chondrites isp. in contemporaneous claystone beds in the upper Barakar succession from two Gondwana <span class="hlt">basins</span> (namely, the Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and the Talchir <span class="hlt">Basin</span>) in eastern peninsular <span class="hlt">India</span> signifies predominant marine incursion during end early Permian. Monospecific Chondrites ichnoassemblage in different sedimentary horizons in geographically wide apart (~400 km) areas demarcates multiple short-spanned phases of anoxia in eastern <span class="hlt">India</span>. Such anoxia is interpreted as intermittent falls in oxygen level in an overall decreasing atmospheric oxygenation within the late Paleozoic global oxygen-carbon dioxide fluctuations. PMID:24616628</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absorbent&pg=2&id=EJ565563','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absorbent&pg=2&id=EJ565563"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Montessori, Mario M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in <span class="hlt">India</span> during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED293739.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED293739.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Planting Trees in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Oswald, James M.</p> <p></p> <p>Reforestation is desperately needed in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india+AND+water&pg=3&id=EJ297325','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india+AND+water&pg=3&id=EJ297325"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>'s Cities in Crisis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bryjak, George J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. <span class="hlt">India</span> is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hindi&pg=3&id=EJ916585','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hindi&pg=3&id=EJ916585"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">India</span>'s "Literate" Read?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper takes a close look at <span class="hlt">India</span>'s literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16704788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16704788"><span id="translatedtitle">"Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rolain, Jean-Marc; Mathai, Elizabeth; Lepidi, Hubert; Somashekar, Hosaagrahara R; Mathew, Leni G; Prakash, John A J; Raoult, Didier</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We report the first laboratory-confirmed human infection due to a new rickettsial genotype in <span class="hlt">India</span>, "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," in a 1-year-old boy with fever and maculopapular rash. The diagnosis was made by serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction detection, and immunohistochemical testing of the organism from a skin biopsy specimen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3347K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3347K"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement and modeling of CO2 exchange over forested landscapes in <span class="hlt">India</span>: an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kushwaha, S.; Dadhwal, V.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its potential impact on global climate change is the subject of worldwide studies, political debates and international discussions. The concern led to the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol to curtail emissions and mitigate the possible global warming. The studies so far suggest that terrestrial biological sinks might be the low cost options for carbon sequestration, which can be used to partially offset the industrial CO2 emissions globally. In past, the effectiveness of terrestrial sink and the quantitative estimates of their sink strengths have relied mainly on the measurements of changes in carbon stocks across the world. Recent developments in flux tower based measurement techniques such as Eddy Covariance for assessing the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes provide tools for quantifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 on a continuous basis. These near real time measurements, when integrated with remote sensing, enable the up-scaling of the carbon fluxes to regional scale. More than 470 towers exist worldwide as of now. Indian subcontinent was not having any tower-based CO2 flux measurement system so far. The Indian Space Research Organization under its Geosphere Biosphere Programme is funding five eddy covariance towers for terrestrial CO2 flux measurements in different ecological regions of the country. The tower sites already planned are: (i) a mixed forest plantation (Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, Holoptelia integrifolia) at Haldwani in collaboration with DISAFRI, University of Tuscia, Italy and the Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, (ii) a sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Doon valley Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in northern <span class="hlt">India</span>, (ii) a teak (Tectona grandis) mixed forest at Betul in Madhya Pradesh in central <span class="hlt">India</span>, (iv) an old teak plantation at Dandeli, and (v) a semi-evergreen forest at Nagarhole in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state in southern <span class="hlt">India</span>. The three towers have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144801"><span id="translatedtitle">A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choubisa, Shanti Lal</p> <p>2017-01-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> is one of the fluoride-endemic countries where the maximum numbers of ground or drinking water sources are naturally fluoridated. In <span class="hlt">India</span>, a total of 23, out of 36 states and union territories have drinking water contaminated with fluoride in varying concentration. In the present scenario, especially in rural <span class="hlt">India</span>, besides the surface waters (perennial ponds, dams, rivers, etc.), bore wells and hand pumps are the principal drinking water sources for domestic animals such as cattle (Bos taurus), water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), horses (Equus caballus), donkeys (Equus asinus) and dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Out of 23 states, 17 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha (Orissa), Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, have fluoride beyond the maximum permissible limit of 1.0 or 1.5 ppm in drinking water. This situation is a great concern for the animal health because fluoride is a slow toxicant and causes chronic diverse serious health hazards or toxic effects. Despite the fact that domestic animals are the basic income sources in rural areas and possess a significant contributory role not only in the agriculture sector but also in the strengthening of economy as well as in sustainable development of the country, research work on chronic fluoride intoxication (hydrofluorosis) due to drinking of fluoridated water in domestic animals rearing in various fluoride-endemic states is not enough as compared to work done in humans. However, some interesting and excellent research works conducted on different aspects of hydrofluorosis in domesticated animals rearing in different states are briefly and critically reviewed in the present communication. Author believes that this review paper not only will be more useful for researchers to do some more advance research work on fluoride</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.105..689S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJEaS.105..689S"><span id="translatedtitle">Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, <span class="hlt">India</span>, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shah, A. A.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir <span class="hlt">basin</span> using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir <span class="hlt">basin</span> fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976224"><span id="translatedtitle">Descriptive Epidemiology of Factors Associated with HIV Infections Among Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men in South <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lorway, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Reza-Paul, Sushena; du Plessis, Elsabé; McKinnon, Lyle; Thompson, Laura H.; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Purpose: Men and transgender women who have sex with men (MTWSM) continue to be an at-risk population for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Identification of risk factors and determinants of HIV infection is urgently needed to inform prevention and intervention programming. Methods: Data were collected from cross-sectional biological and behavioral surveys from four districts in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to HIV infection. Sociodemographic, sexual history, sex work history, condom practices, and substance use covariates were included in regression models. Results: A total of 456 participants were included; HIV prevalence was 12.4%, with the highest prevalence (26%) among MTWSM from Bellary District. In bivariate analyses, district (P = 0.002), lack of a current regular female partner (P = 0.022), and reported consumption of an alcoholic drink in the last month (P = 0.004) were associated with HIV infection. In multivariable models, only alcohol use remained statistically significant (adjusted odds ratios: 2.6, 95% confidence intervals: 1.2–5.8; P = 0.02). Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV continues to be high among MTWSM, with the highest prevalence found in Bellary district. PMID:27058882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23591870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23591870"><span id="translatedtitle">A troodontid dinosaur from the latest Cretaceous of <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goswami, A; Prasad, G V R; Verma, O; Flynn, J J; Benson, R B J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Troodontid dinosaurs share a close ancestry with birds and were distributed widely across Laurasia during the Cretaceous. Hundreds of occurrences of troodontid bones, and their highly distinctive teeth, are known from North America, Europe and Asia. Thus far, however, they remain unknown from Gondwanan landmasses. Here we report the discovery of a troodontid tooth from the uppermost Cretaceous Kallamedu Formation in the Cauvery <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of South <span class="hlt">India</span>. This is the first Gondwanan record for troodontids, extending their geographic range by nearly 10,000 km, and representing the first confirmed non-avian tetanuran dinosaur from the Indian subcontinent. This small-bodied maniraptoran dinosaur is an unexpected and distinctly 'Laurasian' component of an otherwise typical 'Gondwanan' tetrapod assemblage, including notosuchian crocodiles, abelisauroid dinosaurs and gondwanathere mammals. This discovery raises the question of whether troodontids dispersed to <span class="hlt">India</span> from Laurasia in the Late Cretaceous, or whether a broader Gondwanan distribution of troodontids remains to be discovered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-technical-notes','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-technical-notes"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BASINS</span> Technical Notes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in <span class="hlt">BASINS</span>. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in <span class="hlt">BASINS</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-tutorials-and-training','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-tutorials-and-training"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BASINS</span> Tutorials and Training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A series of lectures and exercises on how to use <span class="hlt">BASINS</span> for water quality modeling and watershed assessment. The lectures follow sequentially. Companion exercises are provided for users to practice different <span class="hlt">BASINS</span> water quality modeling techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA415761','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA415761"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Security Ties with <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. <span class="hlt">India</span>, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. <span class="hlt">India</span> wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to <span class="hlt">India</span> in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eomzqr991Hw','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eomzqr991Hw"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation Across <span class="hlt">India</span>'s Ghats Mountains (IMERG)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Animation of precipitation rates across <span class="hlt">India</span> and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along <span class="hlt">India</span>'s west coast...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146218','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146218"><span id="translatedtitle">Military psychiatry in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prabhu, H. R. A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the IInd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in <span class="hlt">India</span> with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in <span class="hlt">India</span>. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists. PMID:21836702</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001298&hterms=india+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dindia%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001298&hterms=india+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dindia%2Bwater"><span id="translatedtitle">Severe Flooding in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Floods devestated parts of eastern <span class="hlt">India</span> along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of <span class="hlt">India</span>. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5353826','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5353826"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among patients with Type 2 diabetes in Rural Sullia, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>: A community-based, cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dinesh, Peraje Vasu; Kulkarni, Annarao Gunderao; Gangadhar, Namratha Kurunji</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease which requires a multipronged approach for its management, wherein patient has an important role to play in terms of self-care practices, which can be taught to them by educational programs. To develop such an educational program, a baseline assessment of knowledge and self-care practices of patients, needs to be made. The two objectives of the study were to estimate the knowledge of diabetic patients regarding the disease and its complications, and to estimate the knowledge and adherence to self-care practices concerned with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study was conducted in rural Sullia, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, from January 2014 to May 2015. The sample size was calculated to be 400, and the sampling method was probability proportionate to sampling size. Result: Majority of them were married males of Hindu religion and belonged to upper middle class. Only 24.25% of them had good knowledge. Among the self-care practices, foot care was the most neglected area. Conclusion: Only one-fourth of the study population had a good knowledge toward diabetes. Adherence to some of the self-care practices was also poor. Government policies may help in creating guidelines on diabetes management, funding community programs for public awareness, availability of medicines, and diagnostic services to all sections of the community. Continuing education programs for health-care providers and utilization of mass media to the fullest potential may also help in creating awareness. PMID:28349003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H41A0766K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H41A0766K"><span id="translatedtitle">Necessity of Flood Early Warning Systems in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurian, C.; Natesan, U.; Durga Rao, K. H. V.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> is one of the highly flood prone countries in the world. National flood commission has reported that 400,000 km² of geographical area is prone to floods, constituting to twelve percent of the country's geographical area. Despite the reoccurrences of floods, <span class="hlt">India</span> still does not have a proper flood warning system. Probably this can be attributed to the lack of trained personnel in using advanced techniques. Frequent flood hazards results in damage to livelihood, infrastructure and public utilities. <span class="hlt">India</span> has a potential to develop an early warning system since it is one of the few countries where satellite based inputs are regularly used for monitoring and mitigating floods. However, modeling of flood extent is difficult due to the complexity of hydraulic and hydrologic processes during flood events. It has been reported that numerical methods of simulations can be effectively used to simulate the processes correctly. Progress in computational resources, data collection and development of several numerical codes has enhanced the use of hydrodynamic modeling approaches to simulate the flood extent in the floodplains. In this study an attempt is made to simulate the flood in one of the sub <span class="hlt">basins</span> of Godavari River in <span class="hlt">India</span> using hydrodynamic modeling techniques. The modeling environment includes MIKE software, which simulates the water depth at every grid cell of the study area. The runoff contribution from the catchment was calculated using Nebdor Afstromnings model. With the hydrodynamic modeling approach, accuracy in discharge and water level computations are improved compared to the conventional methods. The results of the study are proming to develop effective flood management plans in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Similar studies could be taken up in other flood prone areas of the country for continuous modernisation of flood forecasting techniques, early warning systems and strengthening decision support systems, which will help the policy makers in developing management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22727009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22727009"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical tourism in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. <span class="hlt">India</span> is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6776650','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6776650"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesozoic-Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> of Western China as example of partitioned retro-arc foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graham, S.A.; Zuchang, X.; Carroll, A.; McKnight, C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China, occupy a retro-arc foreland position with respect to the southern Eurasian convergent continental margin. Yet these <span class="hlt">basins</span> differ in many ways from retro-arc foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span> in other parts of the world. In North America, for instance, the Cretaceous Rocky Mountain foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> overlies basement that has been an integral part of cratonal North America since the Precambrian. The region had a long early Paleozoic history as a divergent continental margin and was later modified by relatively modest continental growth through accretionary tectonics. Once established in the Mesozoic, the Rocky Mountain foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> was a structurally simple, large, integrated <span class="hlt">basin</span>, with the exception of the Laramide time-space segment of the foreland system. In contrast, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span> of Xinjiang are markedly partitioned, reflecting the process and architecture of major tectonic accretion from the Paleozoic through the collision of <span class="hlt">India</span> in the Tertiary. The stage was set for a partitioned Mesozoic foreland with the Paleozoic suturing of the Siberia and Tarim cratons and intervening terranes. Although the margins of these blocks were deformed and uplifted during collision, their interiors persisted as depocenters into the foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> phase during the Mesozoic. The foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span> of western China apparently represent poorly documented end members in the spectrum of retro-arc foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The Chinese examples occur in a region characterized by extreme continental growth through tectonic accretion. Reactivation of structural trends inherited from pre-foreland history were key factors in segmentation of the foreland.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3510884','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3510884"><span id="translatedtitle">Dengue in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In <span class="hlt">India</span>, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of <span class="hlt">India</span> in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in <span class="hlt">India</span>, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116343"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon taxes and <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account <span class="hlt">India`s</span> rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit <span class="hlt">India</span> more than independent actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12640476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12640476"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco control in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. <span class="hlt">India</span>, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. <span class="hlt">India</span>'s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in <span class="hlt">India</span>. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3461730','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3461730"><span id="translatedtitle">Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in <span class="hlt">India</span>. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in <span class="hlt">India</span> have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from <span class="hlt">India</span>. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4989829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4989829"><span id="translatedtitle">Shigellosis: Epidemiology in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in <span class="hlt">India</span>. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in <span class="hlt">India</span>. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in <span class="hlt">India</span> is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070123"><span id="translatedtitle">Child maltreatment in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as <span class="hlt">India</span> where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in <span class="hlt">India</span> and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572308','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2572308"><span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco control in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. <span class="hlt">India</span>, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. <span class="hlt">India</span>'s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in <span class="hlt">India</span>. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1238373','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1238373"><span id="translatedtitle">Medicine in South <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McHenry, Malcolm M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in <span class="hlt">India</span>; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. <span class="hlt">India</span> possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in <span class="hlt">India</span> finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JAESc..21..683G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JAESc..21..683G"><span id="translatedtitle">The geographic and phylogenetic position of sauropod dinosaurs from the Kota formation (Early Jurassic) of <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gillette, David D.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>The earliest sauropods are the Late Triassic Isanosaurus from Thailand, the Early Jurassic Barapasaurus and Kotasaurus from the Kota Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">India</span> and Vulcanodon from Zimbabwe, and a variety of Middle Jurassic genera from many localities in Gondwana and Laurasia except North America. These early sauropod genera are related, but their phylogenetic positions remain unresolved. Sauropods originated in Laurasia (Thailand and vicinity) or Pangea (broadly, Thailand, China, <span class="hlt">India</span>), with at least three additional steps involving expansion and diversification through the Middle Jurassic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23905027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23905027"><span id="translatedtitle">Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Udupa, Kumaraswamy</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern <span class="hlt">India</span> in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3703563','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3703563"><span id="translatedtitle">Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Udupa, Kumaraswamy</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern <span class="hlt">India</span> in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper. PMID:23905027</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/140042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/140042"><span id="translatedtitle">The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern <span class="hlt">India</span>--Measurement and modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harding, R.J.; Hall, R.L.; Swaminath, M.H.; Murthy, K.V.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, southern <span class="hlt">India</span>. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987610','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987610"><span id="translatedtitle">Association Between Social Network Communities and Health Behavior: An Observational Sociocentric Network Study of Latrine Ownership in Rural <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We identified communities of interconnected people that might serve as normative reference groups for individual-level behavior related to latrine adoption. Methods. We applied an algorithmic social network method to determine the network community from respondent-reported social ties of 16 403 individuals in 75 villages in rural <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>; data were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used multilevel modeling to test the association between latrine ownership and community-level and village-level latrine ownership. We also investigated the degree to which network cohesion affected individual latrine ownership. Results. Three levels of social contacts (direct friends, social network community, and village) significantly predicted individual latrine ownership, but the strongest effect was found at the level of social network communities. In communities with high levels of network cohesion, the likelihood was decreased that any individual would own a latrine; this effect was significant only at lower levels of latrine ownership, suggesting a role for network cohesion in facilitating the nonownership norm. Conclusions. Although many international health and development interventions target village units, these results raise the possibility that the optimal target for public health interventions may not be determined through geography but through social network interactions. PMID:24625175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20645449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20645449"><span id="translatedtitle">A neoliberalisation of civil society? Self-help groups and the labouring class poor in rural South <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pattenden, Jonathan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper notes the prominence of self-help groups (SHGs) within current anti-poverty policy in <span class="hlt">India</span>, and analyses the impacts of government- and NGO-backed SHGs in rural North <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. It argues that self-help groups represent a partial neoliberalisation of civil society in that they address poverty through low-cost methods that do not challenge the existing distribution of power and resources between the dominant class and the labouring class poor. It finds that intra-group savings and loans and external loans/subsidies can provide marginal economic and political gains for members of the dominant class and those members of the labouring classes whose insecure employment patterns currently provide above poverty line consumption levels, but provide neither material nor political gains for the labouring class poor. Target-oriented SHG catalysts are inattentive to how the social relations of production reproduce poverty and tend to overlook class relations and socio-economic and political differentiation within and outside of groups, which are subject to interference by dominant class local politicians and landowners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JHyd..130...37C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JHyd..130...37C"><span id="translatedtitle">Deuterium tracing for the estimation of transpiration from trees Part 3. Measurements of transpiration from Eucalyptus plantation, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calder, Ian R.; Swaminath, M. H.; Kariyappa, G. S.; Srinivasalu, N. V.; Srinivasa Murty, K. V.; Mumtaz, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of transpiration from individual trees of Eucalyptus from plantations at four different sites in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, Southern <span class="hlt">India</span>, are presented. These show large (as much as tenfold) differences in the transpiration between premonsoon and postmonsoon periods, a reflection of the effects of soil-moisture stress in the premonsoon periods. For trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) less than 10 cm the transpiration rate of individual trees is proportional to the square of the DBH. For trees which are not experiencing soil-water stress the daily transpiration rate of individual trees, q, is well represented by the relation: q = (6.6 ± 0.3) g (m 3 day -1 where g (m 2) is the tree basal area. On a unit ground area basis the transpiration rate, expressed as a depth per day is given by the relation: Et = (0.66 ± 0.03) G (mm day -1 where g(m 2ha -1) is the total basal area per hectare. For all the sites studied, although there is evidence for the 'mining' of soil water as roots penetrate deeper depths in the soil each year, there is no evidence for direct abstraction from the water table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851369','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4851369"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20–30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern <span class="hlt">India</span>: An Alarming Scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> state, <span class="hlt">India</span> Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53G..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53G..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking Arabia-<span class="hlt">India</span> motion from Miocene to Present</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Fournier, M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Although small, the present-day Arabia-<span class="hlt">India</span> motion has been captured by several global and regional geodetic surveys that consistently show dextral motion of a few mm/yr, either transpressive or transtensive (Fournier et al., 2008). This motion is accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone, an active strike-slip boundary that runs for more than 700 km from the Somalia-<span class="hlt">India</span>-Arabia triple junction in the south to the Dalrymple trough in the north. Two recent marine cruises conducted along this fault aboard the BHO Beautemps-Beaupré (AOC 2006 and OWEN 2009) using a high resolution multibeam sounder (Simrad EM120, 10 m vertical resolution) provided a complete map of the active fault and confirmed a present-day pure dextral motion. The surface breaks closely follow a small circle of the Arabia-<span class="hlt">India</span> motion, with several pull-part <span class="hlt">basins</span> at the junctions between the main segments of the fault. Geomorphologic offsets reach 10 km, suggesting that the mapped fault has been active with the same style for past several million years. When did this motion start? The difficulty in tracking the past Arabia-<span class="hlt">India</span> motion is that there is no direct kinematic indicator available, since the boundary has been strike-slip and/or convergent during the Tertiary. Motion was most probably sinistral during the rapid northward travelling of <span class="hlt">India</span> towards Eurasia in the early Tertiary, Arabia being rigidly attached to Africa until the opening of the Gulf of Aden. However, the nature and location of the Arabia-<span class="hlt">India</span> boundary at that time remain speculative. Throughout the Miocene, the relative motion between <span class="hlt">India</span> and Arabia has been indirectly recorded at the Sheba and Carslberg ridges, the former recording Arabia-Somalia motion (opening of the Gulf of Aden) and the latter <span class="hlt">India</span>-Somalia motion (Indian Ocean opening). Both ridges have been studied with some details recently, using up to date magnetic lineations identification (Merkouriev and DeMets, 2006; Fournier et al., 2009). We combine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+medicine&pg=3&id=EJ322637','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+medicine&pg=3&id=EJ322637"><span id="translatedtitle">Science and Technology in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rao, J. S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Assesses the current status of science and technology in <span class="hlt">India</span>, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although <span class="hlt">India</span> has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india&pg=3&id=EJ1072160','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=india&pg=3&id=EJ1072160"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>'s Trade in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kumar, Shailendra</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, <span class="hlt">India</span> is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED318665.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED318665.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Environment and Culture in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leuthold, David</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of <span class="hlt">India</span>'s forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED329499.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED329499.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Passages from <span class="hlt">India</span>, Vol. 2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Geils, Kenneth, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of <span class="hlt">India</span>. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in <span class="hlt">India</span>; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=caste+AND+system+AND+india&id=EJ780772','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=caste+AND+system+AND+india&id=EJ780772"><span id="translatedtitle">A Tale of Two <span class="hlt">Indias</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sidhu, Jonathan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The latest battle between <span class="hlt">India</span>'s increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. <span class="hlt">India</span>'s Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED329500.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED329500.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Passages From <span class="hlt">India</span>, Vol. 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Geils, Kenneth, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of <span class="hlt">India</span>. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) <span class="hlt">India</span>: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22library+social%22&pg=6&id=ED030802','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22library+social%22&pg=6&id=ED030802"><span id="translatedtitle">Adult Education in <span class="hlt">India</span> & Abroad.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roy, Nikhil Ranjan</p> <p></p> <p>A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in <span class="hlt">India</span> since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in <span class="hlt">India</span>, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ959023.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ959023.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Indigenisation of Psychology in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dalal, Ajit K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Academic psychology which made a new beginning in <span class="hlt">India</span> in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Psychology went through massive expansion…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015hae..book.2007S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015hae..book.2007S"><span id="translatedtitle">Astronomical Instruments in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara</p> <p></p> <p>The earliest astronomical instruments used in <span class="hlt">India</span> were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/150531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/150531"><span id="translatedtitle">Recognition of an infracambrian source rock based on biomarkers in the Baghewala-1 oil, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peters, K.E.; Clark, M.E.; Lee, C.Y.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>Heavy, sulfur-rich oil produced from the Infra-cambrian (540-640 Ma) Jodhpur Formation in the Baghewala-1 well represents a new exploration play in the Bikaner-Nagaur <span class="hlt">basin</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span> and the punjab <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Pakistan. The Baghewala-1 oil is nonbiodegraded, and thermal-maturation-dependent biomarker ratios indicate generation from the source rock within the early oil window. Age-diagnostic and source-dependent biomarkers indicate that the oil originated from algal and bacterial organic matter with no higher plant input in an Infracambrian, carbonate-rich source rock deposited under anoxic marine conditions. These characteristics support a local origin of the Baghewala-1 oil from organic-rich laminated dolomites in the Infracambrian Bilara Formation. Significant amounts of petroleum could originate from equivalents of the proposed Bilara source rock in the Punjab <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Pakistan, where the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic section is thicker and more deeply buried than in <span class="hlt">India</span>. Deeper burial of the source rock in the Punjab <span class="hlt">basin</span> than in the Bikaner-Nagaur <span class="hlt">basin</span> could generate more mature equivalents of the Baghewala-1 oil. The Baghewala-1 oil is geochemically similar to another heavy oil from the Infracambrian Salt Range Series in the nearby Karampur-1 well in Pakistan and to oils derived from carbonate-evaporite facies of the Infracambrian Huqf Group about 2000 km (1243 mi) to the southwest in the Eastern Flank province of southern Oman. These findings are consistent with published evidence that subsiding rift <span class="hlt">basins</span> in northwest <span class="hlt">India</span>, Pakistan, and southern Oman were in close proximity during the Infracambrian along the Middle Eastern edge of Gondwanaland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310728M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310728M"><span id="translatedtitle">The tectonic development and erosion of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, East Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maritati, A.; Aitken, A. R. A.; Young, D. A.; Roberts, J. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Siegert, M. J.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) have immense potential to inform models of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica and its ice-sheet. However, even basic characteristics such as thickness and extent are often unknown. Using airborne geophysical data, we resolve the tectonic architecture of the Knox Subglacial Sedimentary <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in western Wilkes Land. In addition, we apply an erosion restoration model to reconstruct the original <span class="hlt">basin</span> geometry for which we resolve geometry typical of a transtensional pull-apart <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The tectonic architecture strongly indicates formation as a consequence of the rifting of <span class="hlt">India</span> from East Gondwana from ca. 160-130 Ma, and we suggest a spatial link with the western Mentelle <span class="hlt">Basin</span> offshore Western Australia. The erosion restoration model shows that erosion is confined within the rift margins, suggesting that rift structure has strongly influenced the evolution of the Denman and Scott ice streams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5066477','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5066477"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and Biology of Mallada desjardinsi (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in <span class="hlt">India</span> and Its Predatory Potential Against Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boopathi, T.; Singh, S. B.; Ravi, M.; Manju, T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we report the prevalence of Mallada desjardinsi (Navas) in seven geographical regions of <span class="hlt">India</span> and provide the first report of its kind outlining the preying of all stages of the spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, by M. desjardinsi. Sampling was conducted in seven regions of two provinces in <span class="hlt">India</span>, Bengaluru (<span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>) and Tiruppur (Tamil Nadu), which demonstrated that M. desjardinsi populations were most dense at the former and least at the later. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind outlining observations regarding the biology and feeding potential of M. desjardinsi on A. dispersus under laboratory conditions. It was observed that the second nymphal stadium of A. dispersus was most preferred prey for M. desjardinsi and the least preferred was the A. dispersus adult. It was also seen that the third stadium of M. desjardinsi consumed more A. dispersus individuals than any other life stages. The longevity of female and the total developmental period of M. desjardinsi were computed as 27.6 ± 1.69 and 24.1 ± 0.99 d, respectively. The average total number of eggs laid by the M. desjardinsi female was 211.1 ± 6.35 eggs. M. desjardinsi was observed to be extremely efficient in terms of prey searching and predatory potential with respect to A. dispersus. The results of this study indicate strongly that M. desjardinsi has the potential to be used for the control of A. dispersus. PMID:27417642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160023"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India`s</span> low-tech energy success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sampat, P.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of <span class="hlt">India</span>. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in <span class="hlt">India</span>; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural <span class="hlt">India</span>; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41B2884B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41B2884B"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotectonics of the Surma <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Bangladesh from GPS analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulbul, M. A. U.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Surma <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is a sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> of the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active <span class="hlt">basin</span> lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The Surma <span class="hlt">basin</span> is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma <span class="hlt">basin</span> mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma <span class="hlt">Basin</span> are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of <span class="hlt">India</span>. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma <span class="hlt">Basin</span> being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743338','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743338"><span id="translatedtitle">Global positioning system & Google Earth in the investigation of an outbreak of cholera in a village of Bengaluru Urban district, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Masthi, N.R. Ramesh; Madhusudan, M.; Puthussery, Yannick P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background & objectives: The global positioning system (GPS) technology along with Google Earth is used to measure (spatial map) the accurate distribution of morbidity, mortality and planning of interventions in the community. We used this technology to find out its role in the investigation of a cholera outbreak, and also to identify the cause of the outbreak. Methods: This study was conducted in a village near Bengaluru, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> in June 2013 during a cholera outbreak. House-to-house survey was done to identify acute watery diarrhoea cases. A hand held GPS receiver was used to record north and east coordinates of the households of cases and these values were subsequently plotted on Google Earth map. Water samples were collected from suspected sources for microbiological analysis. Results: A total of 27 cases of acute watery diarrhoea were reported. Fifty per cent of cases were in the age group of 14-44 yr and one death was reported. GPS technology and Google Earth described the accurate location of household of cases and spot map generated showed clustering of cases around the suspected water sources. The attack rate was 6.92 per cent and case fatality rate was 3.7 per cent. Water samples collected from suspected sources showed the presence of Vibrio cholera O1 Ogawa. Interpretation & conclusions: GPS technology and Google Earth were easy to use, helpful to accurately pinpoint the location of household of cases, construction of spot map and follow up of cases. Outbreak was found to be due to contamination of drinking water sources. PMID:26658586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24665453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24665453"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer notification in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including <span class="hlt">India</span> accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107548"><span id="translatedtitle">Protein intakes in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Indian diets derive almost 60 % of their protein from cereals with relatively low digestibility and quality. There have been several surveys of diets and protein intakes in <span class="hlt">India</span> by the National Nutrition Monitoring Board (NNMB) over the last 25 years, in urban and rural, as well as in slum dwellers and tribal populations. Data of disadvantaged populations from slums, tribals and sedentary rural Indian populations show that the protein intake (mainly from cereals) is about 1 gm/kg/day. However, the protein intake looks less promising in terms of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), using lysine as the first limiting amino acid, where all populations, particularly rural and tribal, appear to have an inadequate quality to their protein intake. The protein: energy (PE) ratio is a measure of dietary quality, and has been used in the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report to define reference requirement values with which the adequacy of diets can be evaluated in terms of a protein quality corrected PE ratio. It is likely that about one third of this sedentary rural population is at risk of not meeting their requirements. These levels of risk of deficiency are in a population with relatively low BMI populations, whose diets are also inadequate in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, while the burden of enhancing the quality of protein intake in rural <span class="hlt">India</span> exists, the quality of the diet, in general, represents a challenge that must be met.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24681359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24681359"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of <span class="hlt">India</span>. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of <span class="hlt">India</span>: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of <span class="hlt">India</span> (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028555','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028555"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethical Conventions: A Study on Dental Practitioner’s Knowledge and Practice of Ethics in their Line of Work in Bangalore, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Raju, Vamsee Krishnam; Nanjundaiah, Vanishree; Laksmikantha, Ramesh; Nayak, Sushma Shankar; Kshetrimayum, Nandita</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Dentistry, being one of the healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical standards of conduct. In <span class="hlt">India</span>, studies done to assess whether the dental practitioners adhere to ethics in their line of work are very meager. Aim The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of ethics in their line of work among practicing dentists from various dental colleges in Bangalore, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 258 practicing dentists attached to various dental colleges in Bangalore city of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the knowledge and practice scores according to gender and qualification. One way ANOVA was used to compare knowledge and practice score according to practice type and practice period. Results Mean knowledge score among males is 8.9 as compared to 9.43 among females and mean practice scores among males was 8.25 as compared to 8.29 in females. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean knowledge and practice scores among graduate dentists and specialists. Mean knowledge score among graduate dentists was 8.44 as compared to 9.36 among specialists and mean practice scores among graduate dentists was 7.7 as compared to 8.53 in specialists. Conclusion A significant association between the knowledge and practice scores was observed, implying that with an increase in knowledge, there was also an increase in the practices of ethics among study population. PMID:27656570</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2646550','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2646550"><span id="translatedtitle">The biological sciences in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dell, Karen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">India</span> is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in <span class="hlt">India</span>. To fulfill its aspirations, <span class="hlt">India</span>'s greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146188','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146188"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on antidepressants in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in <span class="hlt">India</span> has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in <span class="hlt">India</span> have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in <span class="hlt">India</span> on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment. PMID:21836704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15110430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15110430"><span id="translatedtitle">Popular perceptions of tobacco products and patterns of use among male college students in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Van Sickle, David</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>This paper examines popular perceptions of tobacco products and describes patterns of use among college youth in <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Data are drawn from 25 key informant interviews and six focus groups with male and female college students, interviews with shopkeepers, observational data on youth tobacco consumption, and a college-based survey. The survey was administered to 1587 males attending eleven colleges. Forty-five percent (n = 716) of college students surveyed had used tobacco products. Thirty-six percent (n = 573) had tried cigarettes, 10% (n = 157) had tried bidis, and 18% (n = 290) had tried gutkha. Tobacco consumption among smokers was low; for daily smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked was 6 per day. Students attending professional colleges, including engineering, medicine, and law were significantly more likely to have ever smoked and to be daily smokers when compared to students enrolled in other courses of study. In interviews, male students noted that smoking a cigarette enhanced one's manliness, relieved boredom, and eased tension. Although female students interviewed were non-smokers, several suggested that in the future, smoking might be an acceptable behavior among college-going females. When asked about their perceptions of smoking among youth in Western countries, the majority of students believed that three-quarters of male and female youth in the West smoked. This perception has been largely formed through media images, including satellite television and films. With regard to addiction, it was widely believed that filter-tipped cigarettes were one of the most addictive products because they are made of better quality tobacco, and are milder and smoother to smoke. Therefore, a person could easily smoke more of them, which would lead to addiction. Another widely held belief was that the more expensive the cigarette, the less harmful it was for one's health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20870665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20870665"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of biological half-life of tritium in coastal region of <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Vishwanath P; Pai, R K; Veerender, D D; Vishnu, M S; Vijayan, P; Managanvi, S S; Badiger, N M; Bhat, H R</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The present study estimates biological half-life (BHL) of tritium by analysing routine bioassay samples of radiation workers. During 2007-2009 year, 72,100 urine bioassay samples of the workers were analysed by liquid scintillation counting technique for internal dose monitoring for tritium. Two hundred and two subjects were taken for study with minimum 3 μCiL(-1) tritium uptake in their body fluid. The BHL of tritium of subjects ranges from 1 to 16 d with an average of 8.19 d. Human data indicate that the biological retention time ranges from 4 to 18 d with an average of 10 d. The seasonal variations of the BHL of tritium are 3.09 ± 1.48, 6.87 ± 0.58 and 5.73 ± 0.76 d (mean ± SD) for summer, winter and rainy seasons, respectively, for free water tritium in the coastal region of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, which shows that the BHL in summer is twice that of the winter season. Also three subjects showed the BHL of 101.73-121.09 d, which reveals that organically bound tritium is present with low tritium uptake also. The BHL of tritium for all age group of workers is observed independent of age and is shorter during April to May. The distribution of cumulative probability vs. BHL of tritium shows lognormal distribution with a geometric mean of 9.11 d and geometric standard deviation of 1.77 d. The study of the subjects is fit for two-compartment model and also an average BHL of tritium is found similar to earlier studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121787','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121787"><span id="translatedtitle">Determinants of Smokeless Tobacco Consumption and its Cessation among its Current Users in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Binnal, Almas; Ahmed, Junaid; Denny, Ceena</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Global Smokeless Tobacco (SLT) consumption is on the rise and constitutes a major Public Health problem. Controlling SLT intake is central to containing the increasing tobacco menace. Aim The present study was undertaken to comprehensively explore various factors involved in SLT consumption and its cessation among current SLT users. Materials and Methods Present study was conducted among current SLT users visiting Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences (MCODS), Manipal University, Mangalore, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>. A structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was employed for the present study. Knowledge, attitude, behaviour, worksite practices of respondents towards SLT consumption and its cessation, barriers to SLT cessation were explored. Information about socio-demographic variables was also collected. Results Overall, 170 current SLT users participated in the present study. Results revealed that the mean knowledge, attitude, worksite related practices and barrier scores were 9.96(55.33%), 48.89(81.48%), 2.70(33.75%) and 54.25(60.27%) respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant association of socio-demographic factors with knowledge, attitude and worksite related practices (p<0.05). SLT cessation related practices revealed that majority wished to quit (90%) and significant associations were noted amongst wish to quit with higher attitude scores; actual quit attempts with higher attitude, lower barrier scores and difficulty to quit with higher barrier scores (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study draws attention towards involvement of complex interactions of various parameters including socio-demographic factors in SLT consumption and its cessation. Hence, it is imperative to implement multifactorial SLT control approach in order to contain tobacco menace spread across the globe. PMID:27891470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4556573','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4556573"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Status of National Oral Health Policy in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kothia, Nandita Rani; Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Devaki, Talluri; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Ravoori, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Pachava, Srinivas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: National oral health policy was conscripted by the Indian Dental Association (IDA) in 1986 and was accepted as an integral part of National Health Policy (NHP) by the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare in one of its conferences in the year 1995. Objectives of this paper were to find out the efforts made or going on towards its execution, its current status and recent oral health-related affairs or programs, if any. Methods: Literature search was done using the institutional library, web-based search engines like ‘Google’ and ‘PubMed’ and also by cross referencing. It yielded 108 articles, of which 50 were excluded as they were not pertinent to the topic. Twenty-four were of global perspective rather than Indian and hence were not taken into account and finally 34 articles were considered for analyses. Documents related to central and state governments of <span class="hlt">India</span> were also considered. Results: All the articles considered for analysis were published within the past 10 years with gradual increase in number which depicts the researchers’ increasing focus towards oral health policy. Criticisms, suggestions and recommendations regarding national oral health programs, dental manpower issues, geriatric dentistry, public health dentistry, dental insurance, oral health inequality, and public-private partnerships have taken major occupancies in the articles. Proposals like "model for infant and child oral health promotion" and "oral health policy phase 1 for <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>" were among the initiatives towards national oral health policy. Conclusion: The need for implementation of the drafted oral health policy with modification that suits the rapidly changing oral health system of this country is inevitable. PMID:26340486</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l5001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l5001G"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river <span class="hlt">basins</span>, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘<span class="hlt">basin</span>-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several <span class="hlt">basins</span> in Africa. Dividing <span class="hlt">basins</span> into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span>, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">India</span>, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several <span class="hlt">basins</span> in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9197847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9197847"><span id="translatedtitle">Surgery in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mukerjee, S; Gupta, T</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Surgical practice in <span class="hlt">India</span> is mostly managed by the central and state governments and is totally government financed, offering free medical aid. However, with the economic growth and affluence of the middle-class population in urban areas, more and more hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics managed by the private sector are arising in cities and towns. Privately owned hospitals are built and managed by large industrial houses and trusts. It is essential, according to government directives, for these hospitals to have certain numbers of general beds that will provide for the economically weaker sections of the population. Medical insurance is popular amongst the urban population; in addition to well-established insurance companies, many new medical service reimbursement organizations are forming. Surgical care standards are uniformly high in the larger teaching institutions and hospitals run by the private sector in major cities in <span class="hlt">India</span>, in which superspecialty surgical care that meets worldwide standards is available in addition to general surgical care. These hospitals are manned by surgeons holding master's degrees in general surgery, superspecialties, and subspecialties. In the hospitals and dispensaries in rural areas, only basic surgical facilities are available; for major surgical procedures, the patients are referred to the closest urban hospitals. Therefore, the government of <span class="hlt">India</span> is placing more and more emphasis on building hospitals that offer better surgical facilities away from the cities and towns. A diploma course in surgery is run by the National Board of Surgery, and these diplomates are encouraged to practice more in rural areas and small hospitals. Economic constraints and the population explosion are the biggest hurdles to progress in surgical care, teaching, and research activities. With the advancement in education and growth of the economy, more and more multinationals are walking into the field of medical care, which is proving to be a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4241M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4241M"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydropower Ambitions of South Asian Nations: Ganges and Brahmaputra River <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mizanur Rahaman, Muhammad</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the current status of hydropower development in two major river <span class="hlt">basins</span> in South Asia, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. The total drainage area of the <span class="hlt">basins</span> is about 1660,000 km2 shared by China, Nepal, <span class="hlt">India</span>, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The <span class="hlt">basins</span> are blessed with ample water resources and huge hydropower potential. Hydropower development is strongly linked with the overall development framework of the region. The abundant hydropower potential of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra can help give riparian countries a safer energy future that is the key driving force behind the prospect of potential cooperation in the field of water. Based on four years research studies (2005-2009), this paper analyse the hydropower development plans and ambitions of riparian nations with special focus on China and <span class="hlt">India</span>. The finding suggests that it is essential to develop an integrated hydropower development approach involving all riparian nations intended to foster regional development and overcome the prospect of severe conflict because of unilateral hydropower ambitions of China and <span class="hlt">India</span>. The hydropower development cooperation between China and <span class="hlt">India</span> could also become the positive turning point in the integration of South and South-East Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Geo....15.1094D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Geo....15.1094D"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of cratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston <span class="hlt">basins</span> formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. In the Illinois <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span> remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of <span class="hlt">basin</span> initiation. Cratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span> of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span> in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span> almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=indian+AND+physics&id=EJ058663','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=indian+AND+physics&id=EJ058663"><span id="translatedtitle">School Physics Teaching in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Das, S. R.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Describes current difficulties in teaching physics in Indian secondary schools, including the existence in all states of <span class="hlt">India</span> of different syllabi of varying standards and content without the syllabi being related to the conditions and hardware available. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IREdu..56..705K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IREdu..56..705K"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">India</span>'s ``literate'' read?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This paper takes a close look at <span class="hlt">India</span>'s literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6299653','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6299653"><span id="translatedtitle">(Coal utilization in <span class="hlt">India</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krishnan, R.P.</p> <p>1991-01-15</p> <p>Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of <span class="hlt">India</span> (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA473595','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA473595"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>-U.S. Relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-10-02</p> <p>Delhi), August 22, 2007. 26 Ashok Sharma ,” US Admiral Says Military Cooperation With <span class="hlt">India</span> Improving Steadily,” Associated Press, August 23, 2007...and Power Minister Sushil Shinde. Among formal bilateral sessions over the past year were the following: ! In October 2006, a meeting of the U.S...Committee Hearing on U.S. Military Command Budgets, April 24, 2007; Ashok Sharma ,” US Admiral Says Military Cooperation With <span class="hlt">India</span> Improving Steadily</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA464785','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA464785"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>-U.S. Relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-02-13</p> <p>and political assassinations continue to date. ! On December 18, President Bush signed into law H.R. 5682, the Henry J . Hyde United States-<span class="hlt">India</span>...Washington, where Counterterrorism Coordinator Henry Crumpton led the U.S. delegation. ! Indian Power Minister Sushil Shinde paid an April visit to...H.Rept. 109-721). On December 18, President Bush signed the Henry J . Hyde United States-<span class="hlt">India</span> Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006 into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12222516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12222516"><span id="translatedtitle">Reproductive health in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">India</span>, prenatal tests are used to determine the sex of the fetus and, if it is female, it is often aborted. In response to sex discrimination in utero, the Forum against Sex Determination and Sex Preselection was formed in 1985. It began a campaign against using prenatal tests to determine sex for the subsequent abortion of female fetuses. The 1989 Maharashtra Regulation of Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques was a direct result of this campaign. The forum expanded to examine other reproductive technologies, particularly long-lasting contraceptives that cause systemic changes in women's bodies, and it has become more concerned about women's rights in general. It has renamed itself the Forum for Women's Health. The state translates the need for contraceptives into population control. It provides health care through primary health centers and subcenters. The maternal and child health program provides health care only to 15-45 year old women. The government knows that abortion and childbirth are major contributors to maternal mortality, so it provides safe abortion through its centers. Yet, prevailing conditions and social values keep women from using these services, so they resort to unhygienic abortions. The government considers repeated childbearing as the only cause of maternal mortality and ignores that poverty, malnutrition, and social position can also be responsible for maternal deaths. This attitude justifies its coercion of women to use contraception. <span class="hlt">India</span>'s government is presently pushing provider-controlled, long-acting methods. It supports high tech research of antifertility vaccines. Female barrier methods are not marketed. The family planning program is based on targets and incentives/ disincentives. The government has recently set up sterilization camps in Bombay. The forum is concerned that providers will not fully inform women about side effects of the injectables and about other possible contraceptive methods. Women are being trained in self-help and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901185','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901185"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">India</span>'s Worsening Uranium Shortage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Curtis, Michael M.</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>As a result of NSG restrictions, <span class="hlt">India</span> cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of <span class="hlt">India</span> Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..541..727M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..541..727M"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional scale groundwater modelling study for Ganga River <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maheswaran, R.; Khosa, R.; Gosain, A. K.; Lahari, S.; Sinha, S. K.; Chahar, B. R.; Dhanya, C. T.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Subsurface movement of water within the alluvial formations of Ganga <span class="hlt">Basin</span> System of North and East <span class="hlt">India</span>, extending over an area of 1 million km2, was simulated using Visual MODFLOW based transient numerical model. The study incorporates historical groundwater developments as recorded by various concerned agencies and also accommodates the role of some of the major tributaries of River Ganga as geo-hydrological boundaries. Geo-stratigraphic structures, along with corresponding hydrological parameters,were obtained from Central Groundwater Board, <span class="hlt">India</span>,and used in the study which was carried out over a time horizon of 4.5 years. The model parameters were fine tuned for calibration using Parameter Estimation (PEST) simulations. Analyses of the stream aquifer interaction using Zone Budget has allowed demarcation of the losing and gaining stretches along the main stem of River Ganga as well as some of its principal tributaries. From a management perspective,and entirely consistent with general understanding, it is seen that unabated long term groundwater extraction within the study <span class="hlt">basin</span> has induced a sharp decrease in critical dry weather base flow contributions. In view of a surge in demand for dry season irrigation water for agriculture in the area, numerical models can be a useful tool to generate not only an understanding of the underlying groundwater system but also facilitate development of <span class="hlt">basin</span>-wide detailed impact scenarios as inputs for management and policy action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581026"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of chikungunya virus infection in children from <span class="hlt">India</span> during 2009-2010: A cross sectional observational study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raghavendhar, B Siva; Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H; Sharma, B S; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Chikungunya virus, a small (about 60-70 nm diameter), spherical, enveloped, positive, single stranded RNA virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. After a short period of incubation (3-5 days) symptoms like fever with joint pains and others start appearing. After a gap of 20 years, this virus re-emerged during 2006-2008 in <span class="hlt">India</span> causing a major outbreak of CHIKV in <span class="hlt">India</span>. This study was conducted subsequent to the major outbreak in order to evaluate the proportion of chikungunya virus infection in children with suggestive symptoms at three geographical locations of <span class="hlt">India</span>. Lineage of circulating strains and changes in the E1 structural polypeptide were also determined. Blood samples were collected (in Sodium citrate vacutainer tubes) during 1st June 2009 to 31st May 2010 from children (age 0 ≤ 18 years) suspected to have chikungunya infection, that is, those who presented with sudden onset of fever and/or joint pain, myalgia, and headache from three regions of <span class="hlt">India</span>, All <span class="hlt">India</span> Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in New Delhi, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) in Hubli and Sawai Mansingh Medical College (SMS) in Jaipur. Detection of CHIKV antibodies in all acute-phase patient plasma samples was done by IgM ELISA and for samples within ≤5 days of fever, a one-step RT-PCR was carried out on a block thermo-cycler targeting 294 bp region of E1 gene that codes for the viral envelope protein. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences from few positive samples of two regions was done with African S-27 reference strain using BioEdit. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 6 by using the Maximum Likelihood method based on the Kimura 2-parameter model. Out of the 723 acute phase samples tested from three geographical locations of <span class="hlt">India</span>, Chikungunya virus infection was detected in 249/723 (34.44%) subjects by either IgM Elisa (180/723) or RT-PCR (69/412). RT-PCR was employed in samples collected from children with ≤5 days of fever. Maximum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10118492','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10118492"><span id="translatedtitle">K <span class="hlt">Basin</span> safety analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.</p> <p>1994-12-16</p> <p>The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K <span class="hlt">Basins</span> Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K <span class="hlt">Basins</span> and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K <span class="hlt">Basin</span> fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K <span class="hlt">Basin</span> activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of <span class="hlt">basin</span> water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33J0324A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33J0324A"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Terrestrial Moisture Source Transport on Summer Monsoon Rainfall Variability over Ganga River <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>A S, S.; Pathak, A.; Ghosh, S.; Kumar, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Ganga river <span class="hlt">basin</span>, which is one of the most agricultural intensified and densely populated in the world, receives moisture from different terrestrial sources, other than oceanic sources. The modeling of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) over Ganga <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, especially its variability, is very crucial as most of the agro-economical practices depend on it. The monsoon rainfall over the core monsoon zone in <span class="hlt">India</span> which covers the large amount of area of Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> is significantly correlated with the rainfall over Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Therefore, the atmospheric moisture transport from different terrestrial sources to the sink over Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> is studied for better understanding of ISMR variability (both inter-annual, and intraseasonal timescale) over Ganga <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and core monsoon zone. We use extended version of the dynamic recycling model, which is based on Lagrangian trajectory approach to study the impact of moisture source variability on ISMR over Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> during 1979-2013. The intraseasonal variation of ISMR is also observed to be significantly associated with the moisture source variability. The regions with dense vegetation cover such as Ganga <span class="hlt">basin</span> and south-central forest region in <span class="hlt">India</span>, manifest substantial role of land surface feedback with high recycling ratios (15-20%). It is also observed that the peak monsoon rainfall occurs during a period when all the oceanic and terrestrial sources altogether contribute significantly to the ISMR. The novelty of present work lies in understanding the role of different terrestrial sources on ISMR variability at different timescale viz., intra-seasonal to interannual. Our findings also highlight the importance of land surface feedback through evapotranspiration, in order to accurately model ISMR variability for better planning and management of the crop calendar. Key words: Atmospheric moisture transport, Dynamic precipitation recycling, Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability, Ganga River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/426254','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/426254"><span id="translatedtitle">Reserves in western <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain <span class="hlt">basins</span>: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The <span class="hlt">basins</span> contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance <span class="hlt">basins</span> which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these <span class="hlt">basins</span> being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that <span class="hlt">basin</span>. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6327476','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6327476"><span id="translatedtitle">South American sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Urien, C.M.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>More than 64 sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span> occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen <span class="hlt">basins</span> are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart <span class="hlt">basins</span>) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 <span class="hlt">basins</span> of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc <span class="hlt">basins</span>, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc <span class="hlt">basins</span>, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198461','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198461"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors Affecting Tooth Retention among Adult Population of Dharwad District, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Inamdar, Nurul Ameen; Prasad, K V V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Oral health in relation to general health is influen-ced by the retention of teeth. Understanding factors affecting tooth retention will help health and social policy-makers to translate the knowledge on tooth retention into action programs for improving oral health of the people and hence enhance tooth retention. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting tooth retention among adult population of Dharwad district, <span class="hlt">India</span>. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1100 subjects (616 urban and 484 rural) residing in Dharwad district, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>, <span class="hlt">India</span>, was conducted. Self-designed questionnaire was prepared and data were collected on socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene practices, diet practices, adverse oral habits and frequency of dental visits by the interview method and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired t-test and backward stepwise multiple regression. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the two quantitative variables. Results A total of 66.72% subjects retained all 28 teeth and mean number of teeth retained by the study subjects were 25.33 (90.46%). There was gradual reduction in tooth retention with increase in age. Males (95.8%) compared to females (94.07%), unmarried (98.8%) than married subjects (93.3%) and subjects with intermediate or post high school diploma (97.5%) than those who were illiterate (89.5%) and other low educational level study subjects retained more teeth. Further mean values of tooth retention for other socio demographic factors i.e., occupation, income and family size were not statistically significant (p≤0.05). In addition, subjects using tooth brush (96.6%) and tooth paste (96.6%) for cleaning the teeth, subjects practicing mixed diet (96.6%) and subjects who never visited the dentist (96.5%) in their lifetime showed statistically significant greater tooth</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480534','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480534"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>In order to enhance food production, <span class="hlt">India</span> has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span>. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..397..281V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..397..281V"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of observed soil moisture patterns under different land covers in Western Ghats, <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venkatesh, B.; Lakshman, Nandagiri; Purandara, B. K.; Reddy, V. B.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>SummaryAn understanding of the soil moisture variability is necessary to characterize the linkages between a region's hydrology, ecology and physiography. In the changing land use scenario of Western Ghats, <span class="hlt">India</span>, where deforestation along with extensive afforestation with exotic species is being undertaken, there is an urgent need to evaluate the impacts of these changes on regional hydrology. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to understand spatio-temporal variability of soil water potential and soil moisture content under different land covers in the humid tropical Western Ghats region and (b) to evaluate differences if any in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content as influenced by nature of land cover. To this end, experimental watersheds located in the Western Ghats of Uttara Kannada District, <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> State, <span class="hlt">India</span>, were established for monitoring of soil moisture. These watersheds possessed homogenous land covers of acacia plantation, natural forest and degraded forest. In addition to the measurements of hydro-meteorological parameters, soil matric potential measurements were made at four locations in each watershed at 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm depths at weekly time intervals during the period October 2004-December 2008. Soil moisture contents derived from potential measurements collected were analyzed to characterize the spatial and temporal variations across the three land covers. The results of ANOVA ( p < 0.01, LSD) test indicated that there was no significant change in the mean soil moisture across land covers. However, significant differences in soil moisture with depth were observed under forested watershed, whereas no such changes with depth were noticed under acacia and degraded land covers. Also, relationships between soil moisture at different depths were evaluated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression models for prediction of soil moisture from climatic variables and antecedent moisture condition were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51F2985D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51F2985D"><span id="translatedtitle">Leveraging Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Magnetic Anomalies to Constrain Gondwana Breakup and Early Indian Ocean Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, J. K.; Lawver, L. A.; Norton, I. O.; Gahagan, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, found between the Horn of Africa and Madagascar was formed during the rifting of East and West Gondwana. Understanding the evolution of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> has historically been hindered by enigmatic seafloor fabric and an apparent paucity of magnetic anomaly data. Recent iterations of satellite gravity data have revealed nearly complete fracture zones as well as a distinct extinct spreading ridge within the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Through a thorough compilation of available Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span> shiptrack profiles, we have been able to successfully model and interpret magnetic anomalies with exceptional detail. This complication is unrivaled in completeness and provides unprecedented insight into <span class="hlt">basin</span> formation. Using this high quality data, we have interpreted magnetic anomalies M0r (120.8 Ma) to M24Bn (152.43 Ma) about the extinct ridge. The interpreted Somali <span class="hlt">Basin</span> spreading rate and spreading direction, through anomaly M15n (135.76 Ma), are similar to those observed in the neighboring coeval Mozambique <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. This similarity suggests that East Gondwana separated from West Gondwana as a cohesive unit, and that the internal rifting of East Gondwana began later around 135 Ma. Our magnetic anomaly interpretations have been combined with additional magnetic interpretations from around the Indian Ocean to build a regionally consistent plate model of Gondwana breakup and early Indian Ocean formation. This plate model will be crucial for future efforts unraveling a precise history of East Gondwana fragmentation and constraining the formation of the Enderby <span class="hlt">Basin</span> offshore East Antarctica and Bay of Bengal offshore East <span class="hlt">India</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373263"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health programme on microfinance clients in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saha, Somen</p> <p>2013-10-12</p> <p>Microfinance is the provision of financial services for the poor. Health program through microfinance has the potential to address several access barriers to health. We report the design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health program on the members of two microfinance organizations from <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and Gujarat states of <span class="hlt">India</span>. Villages identified for roll-out of health services with microfinance were pair-matched with microfinance only villages. A quantitative survey at inception and twelve months post health intervention compare the primary outcome (incidence of childhood diarrhea), and secondary outcome (place of last delivery, toilet at home, and out-of-pocket expenditure on treatment). At baseline, the intervention and comparison communities were similar except for out-of-pocket expenditure on health. Low reported use of toilet at home indicates the areas are heading towards a sanitation crisis. This should be an area of program priority for the microfinance organizations. While respondents primarily rely on their savings for meeting treatment expenditure, borrowing from friends, relatives, and money-lenders remains other important source of meeting treatment expenditure in the community. Programs need to prioritize steps to ensure awareness about national health insurance schemes, entitlement to increase service utilization, and developing additional health financing safety nets for financing outpatient care, that are responsible for majority of health-debt. Finally we discuss implications of such programs for national policy makers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27307173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27307173"><span id="translatedtitle">Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from <span class="hlt">India</span> with notes on biology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from <span class="hlt">Karnataka</span> and Goa, <span class="hlt">India</span>, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7643G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7643G"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the Gop rift oceanic? A reevaluation of the Seychelles-<span class="hlt">India</span> conjugate margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Huixin; Werner, Philippe; Geoffroy, Laurent</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Recent studies reevaluated the timing and evolution of the breakup process between the Seychelles continental ridge and <span class="hlt">India</span>, and the relationship between this evolution and mantle melting associated with the Deccan Igneous Province1,2,3. Those studies, mainly based on gravity and seismic refraction surveys, point that the oceanic domain located between the Seychelles and the Laxmi Ridge (here designed as the Carlsberg <span class="hlt">Basin</span>) is the youngest oceanic domain between <span class="hlt">India</span> and the Seychelles. To the East of the Laxmi Ridge, the aborted Gop Rift is considered as an older highly magmatic extensional continental system with magmatism, breakup and oceanic spreading being coeval with or even predating the emplacement of the major pulse of the Deccan trapps. This interpretation on the oceanic nature of the Gop Rift conflicts with other extensive surveys based on magnetic and seismic reflection data4 which suggest that the Gop Rift is an extended syn-magmatic continental domain. In our work based (a) on the existing data, (b) on new deep-seismic reflection surveys (already published by Misra5) down to the Moho and underlying mantle and (c) on new concepts on the geometry of volcanic passive margins, we propose a distinct interpretation of the Seychelles-<span class="hlt">India</span> system. As proposed by former authors6,7, the Indian margin suffered some continental stretching and thinning before the onset of the Deccan traps during the Mesozoic. Thus continental crust thickness cannot be used easily as a proxy of syn-magmatic stretching-thinning processes or even to infer the presence or not of oceanic-type crust based, solely, on crustal thickness. However, some remarkable features appear on some of the deep penetration seismic lines we studied. We illustrate that the whole Seychelles/<span class="hlt">India</span> system, before the opening of the present-day "Carlsberg <span class="hlt">Basin</span>" may simply be regarded as a pair of sub-symmetric conjugate volcanic passive margins (VPMs) with inner and outer SDR wedges dipping towards the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/349074','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/349074"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal ash utilization in <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Michalski, S.R.; Brendel, G.F.; Gray, R.E.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>This paper describes methods of coal combustion product (CCP) management successfully employed in the US and considers their potential application in <span class="hlt">India</span>. <span class="hlt">India</span> produces about 66 million tons per year (mty) of coal ash from the combustion of 220 mty of domestically produced coal, the average ash content being about 30--40 percent as opposed to an average ash content of less than 10 percent in the US In other words, <span class="hlt">India</span> produces coal ash at about triple the rate of the US. Currently, 95 percent of this ash is sluiced into slurry ponds, many located near urban centers and consuming vast areas of premium land. Indian coal-fired generating capacity is expected to triple in the next ten years, which will dramatically increase ash production. Advanced coal cleaning technology may help reduce this amount, but not significantly. Currently <span class="hlt">India</span> utilizes two percent of the CCP`s produced with the remainder being disposed of primarily in large impoundments. The US utilizes about 25 percent of its coal ash with the remainder primarily being disposed of in nearly equal amounts between dry landfills and impoundments. There is an urgent need for <span class="hlt">India</span> to improve its ash management practice and to develop efficient and environmentally sound disposal procedures as well as high volume ash uses in ash haulback to the coalfields. In addition, utilization should include: reclamation, structural fill, flowable backfill and road base.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HMR....64..297G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HMR....64..297G"><span id="translatedtitle">Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from <span class="hlt">India</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The caprellid fauna of <span class="hlt">India</span> is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of <span class="hlt">India</span>, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from <span class="hlt">India</span> are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of <span class="hlt">India</span> while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in <span class="hlt">India</span>, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12342348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12342348"><span id="translatedtitle">Delhi: <span class="hlt">India</span>'s urban example.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cutler, B</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in <span class="hlt">India</span> are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15053381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15053381"><span id="translatedtitle">Newborn screening in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rama Devi, A Radha; Naushad, S M</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>Expanded newborn screening (NBS) is aimed for early detection and intervention of treatable inborn errors of metabolism and also to establish incidence of these disorders in this part of the globe. The first expanded NBS programme initiated in the capital city of Andhra Pradesh to screen all the newborns born in four major Government Maternity Hospitals in Hyderabad by heel prick capillary blood collected on S&S 903 filter paper. Chromatographic (TLC and HPLC), electrophoretic (cellulose acetate and agarose) and ELISA based assays have been employed for screening of common inborn errors of metabolism. This study has shown a high prevalence of treatable Inborn errors of metabolism. Congenital hypothyroidsm is the most common disorder (1 in 1700) followed by congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (1 in 2575) and Hyperhomocystenemia (1 in 100). Interestingly, a very high prevalence of inborn errors of metabolism to the extent of 1 in every thousand newborns was observed. The study reveals the importance of screening in <span class="hlt">India</span>, necessitating nation wide large-scale screening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19962634"><span id="translatedtitle">Decriminalising homosexuality in <span class="hlt">India</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Misra, Geetanjali</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of <span class="hlt">India</span> that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-framework-and-features','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins-framework-and-features"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BASINS</span> Framework and Features</span></a></p>