Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.
1994-12-16
The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.
WEBB, R.H.
1999-12-29
This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.
PECH, S.H.
2000-08-23
This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.
Morgan, D.S.; Jones, J.L.
1996-01-01
A numerical ground-water flow model of a hypothetical basin was constructed and used to investigate the effects of ground-water withdrawals on rates of natural discharge to streams and springs in small basins of the Puget Sound Lowland. Definitions of the topography, geology, drainage, and climate of the hypothetical basin were based on the features of typical small basins in the Puget Sound Lowland. This information was used to construct a 13-layer numerical ground-water flow model capable of simulating water levels, hydraulic gradients, and discharge to streams and springs. Three sequences of glacial drift and interglacial deposits were simulated in the model; each sequence consisted of recessional outwash, till, advance, outwash, and fine-grained interglacial sediments. Alluvial sediments of the major stream valleys and undifferentiated glacial and interglacial deposits were also included in the model. The model was calibrated by comparing simulated hydrologic conditions with expected conditions and making adjustments to values of hydraulic characteristics as needed. The model was calibrated to predevelop- ment conditions (those prior to pumping), and then used to simulate the effects of pumping on natural discharge to streams and springs. Seven series of simulations were made to investigate the effects of (1) distance from the well to a stream, (2) the presence of confining layers, (3) pumping rate, (4) depth of the pumped aquifer, (5) distance from the well to a bluff, (6) well density, and (7) recharge rate. The discharge of wells pumping from unconfined outwash aquifers on the drift plains is derived almost entirely from capture of natural discharge to nearby stream reaches. Increasing the lateral distance between the well and stream caused more of the well discharge to be captured from other streams on the drift plain. Pumping from aquifers separated from the stream by one or more confining layers caused a reduction in the effects of pumping on discharge to
BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas
2013-08-01
BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lu; Qiu, Nansheng; Xu, Wei
2016-04-01
Jiyang sub-basin is an oil-rich depression located in the southeast of Bohai Bay Basin, which is one of the most important hydrocarbon area in east of China. The thermal-rheological structure of the lithosphere can explain the dynamics evolution processes of basins, continental margins and orogenic belts, which directly reflects the characteristics of the lithosphere geodynamics. Nevertheless it is poorly to understand the evolution of lithospheric thermal-rheological structure in Jiyang sub-basin and its implication for basin extension. In this study, two dimensional numerical modelling is applied to calculate the paleo-temperature field and the thermo-lithospheric structure, which are used to estimate the evolution of lithospheric thermal-rheological structure. The results of study show that in Mesozoic the lithosphere was of relative rigidity and stable, as featured by large thickness and strength whereas after late Cretaceous the lithospheric strength decreased rapidly. The analysis of thermal-rheological properties shows that the lithospheric thermo-lithospheric structure is sandwiched-like with two ductile layers and two brittle layers. The upper crust is usually brittle. The brittle layers appear at outer 20km of the crust, below 20km ductile deformation predominates. There is also a 10km brittle layer on the top of the upper mantle. The integrated lithospheric yield strength is about 1.3-4.5×1012N/m, showing a weak lithosphere which may support the idea that the extension achieved by the ductile flow below the brittle layers. Keywords: lithospheric thermal-rheological structure; Jiyang sub-basin; Numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moczo, P.; Kristek, J.; Galis, M.; Pazak, P.
2009-12-01
applicable to media with large Vp/Vs ratio and thus to real sedimentary basins. Surprisingly, FD_DS_PSG is the worst scheme for the lowest values of the Vp/Vs ratio. Errors of FD_DS_SG and FD_VS_SG are very close and small (relative to other schemes), and they are least sensitive to variation in Vp/Vs. In parallel with the numerical results and their analysis we compare the numerical schemes themselves in terms of their inherent structures and applied approximations. We also discuss properties of recent higher-order numerical schemes.
Numerical Simulation of Extent of Carbon Dioxide Plume Injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.
2012-12-01
A series of thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulations was performed to evaluate extent of carbon dioxide plume injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, which is one of the prospective onshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. The carbon dioxide plume extent is an important factor in estimating storage efficiency and thus storage capacity of carbon dioxide in a storage formation because it represents an actual volume of the storage formation, which is occupied by injected carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide plume extent is also an essential component in risk analysis of geologic storage of carbon dioxide because most of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical responses to carbon dioxide injection occur within it. To evaluate impacts of injection scenarios (i.e., injection rate and period) of carbon dioxide and geological conditions (i.e., thickness and depth) and hydrogeochemical properties (i.e., porosity, intrinsic permeability, salt concentration in groundwater, and volume fraction of chlorite) of a storage formation on the carbon dioxide plume extent, a series of sensitivity tests was also performed. The numerical simulation results show that the carbon dioxide plume extent is significantly affected by such injection scenarios, geological conditions, and hydrogeochemical properties. The carbon dioxide plume extent increases as the injection rate (with a constant injection period) increases, and this trend does not change with time. The carbon dioxide plume extent decreases as the injection period (with a constant total injection amount) increases until about 50 years, while it is not sensitive to the injection period after about 50 years. The carbon dioxide plume extent also decreases as the thickness increases until about 100 years, while it is not sensitive to the thickness after about 100 years. In contrast, the carbon dioxide plume extent decreases as the depth increases, and this trend is intensified with time. On the other hand, the
BasinVis 1.0: A MATLAB®-based program for sedimentary basin subsidence analysis and visualization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael
2016-06-01
Stratigraphic and structural mapping is important to understand the internal structure of sedimentary basins. Subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. We designed a new software package to process and visualize stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins from well data. BasinVis 1.0 is implemented in MATLAB®, a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment, and employs two numerical methods: interpolation and subsidence analysis. Five different interpolation methods (linear, natural, cubic spline, Kriging, and thin-plate spline) are provided in this program for surface modeling. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. BasinVis 1.0 incorporates five main processing steps; (1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), (2) loading well data, (3) stratigraphic setting visualization, (4) subsidence parameter input, and (5) subsidence analysis and visualization. For in-depth analysis, our software provides cross-section and dip-slip fault backstripping tools. The graphical user interface guides users through the workflow and provides tools to analyze and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. We demonstrate all functions in a case study of Miocene sediment in the central Vienna Basin.
Using PASCAL for numerical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volper, D.; Miller, T. C.
1978-01-01
The data structures and control structures of PASCAL enhance the coding ability of the programmer. Proposed extensions to the language further increase its usefulness in writing numeric programs and support packages for numeric programs.
Numerical Package in Computer Supported Numeric Analysis Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tezer, Murat
2007-01-01
At universities in the faculties of Engineering, Sciences, Business and Economics together with higher education in Computing, it is stated that because of the difficulty, calculators and computers can be used in Numerical Analysis (NA). In this study, the learning computer supported NA will be discussed together with important usage of the…
Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.
Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.
1986-05-01
Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybarski, S.; Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.; Plume, R.
2014-12-01
In recent years, hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has become an increasingly popular method for extraction of oil and natural gas from tight formations. Concerns have been raised over a number of environmental risks associated with fracking, including contamination of groundwater by fracking fluids, upwelling of deep subsurface brines, and methane migration. Given the potentially long time scale for contaminant transport associated with hydraulic fracturing, numerical modeling remains the best practice for risk assessment. Oil shale in the Humboldt basin of northeastern Nevada has now become a target for hydraulic fracturing operations. Analysis of regional and shallow groundwater flow is used to assess several potential migration pathways specific to the geology and hydrogeology of this basin. The model domain in all simulations is defined by the geologic structure of the basin as determined by deep oil and gas well bores and formation outcrops. Vertical transport of gaseous methane along a density gradient is simulated in TOUGH2, while fluid transport along faults and/or hydraulic fractures and lateral flow through more permeable units adjacent to the targeted shale are modeled in FEFLOW. Sensitivity analysis considers basin, fault, and hydraulic fracturing parameters, and results highlight key processes that control fracking fluid and methane migration and time scales under which it might occur.
SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
Within this submission are multiple .tif images with accompanying metadata of magnetotelluric conductor occurrence, fault critical stress composite risk segment (CRS), permeability CRS, Quaternary mafic extrusions, Quaternary fault density, and Quaternary rhyolite maps. Each of these contributed to a final play fairway analysis (PFA) for the SE Great Basin study area.
Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Kim, Tae Yun; Roberts, Mindy
2011-07-20
Through extensive field data collection and analysis efforts conducted since the 1950s, researchers have established an understanding of the characteristic features of circulation in Puget Sound. The pattern ranges from the classic fjordal behavior in some basins, with shallow brackish outflow and compensating inflow immediately below, to the typical two-layer flow observed in many partially mixed estuaries with saline inflow at depth. An attempt at reproducing this behavior by fitting an analytical formulation to past data is presented, followed by the application of a three-dimensional circulation and transport numerical model. The analytical treatment helped identify key physical processes and parameters, but quickly reconfirmed that response is complex and would require site-specific parameterization to include effects of sills and interconnected basins. The numerical model of Puget Sound, developed using unstructured-grid finite volume method, allowed resolution of the sub-basin geometric features, including presence of major islands, and site-specific strong advective vertical mixing created by bathymetry and multiple sills. The model was calibrated using available recent short-term oceanographic time series data sets from different parts of the Puget Sound basin. The results are compared against (1) recent velocity and salinity data collected in Puget Sound from 2006 and (2) a composite data set from previously analyzed historical records, mostly from the 1970s. The results highlight the ability of the model to reproduce velocity and salinity profile characteristics, their variations among Puget Sound subbasins, and tidally averaged circulation. Sensitivity of residual circulation to variations in freshwater inflow and resulting salinity gradient in fjordal sub-basins of Puget Sound is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernov, Anton; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Yalciner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey
2010-05-01
A short cut numerical method for evaluation of the modes of free oscillations of the basins which have irregular geometry and bathymetry was presented in the paper (Yalciner A.C., Pelinovsky E., 2007). In the method, a single wave is inputted to the basin as an initial impulse. The respective agitation in the basin is computed by using the numerical method solving the nonlinear form of long wave equations. The time histories of water surface fluctuations at different locations due to propagation of the waves in relation to the initial impulse are stored and analyzed by the fast Fourier transform technique (FFT) and energy spectrum curves for each location are obtained. The frequencies of each mode of free oscillations are determined from the peaks of the spectrum curves. Some main features were added for this method and will be discussed here: 1. Instead of small number of gauges which were manually installed in the studied area the information from numerical simulation now is recorded on the regular net of the «simulation» gauges which was place everywhere on the sea surface in the depth deeper than "coast" level with the fixed presetted distance between gauges. The spectral analysis of wave records was produced by Welch periodorgam method instead of simple FFT so it's possible to get spectral power estimation for wave process and determine confidence interval for spectra peaks. 2. After the power spectral estimation procedure the common peak of studied seiche can be found and mean spectral amplitudes for this peak were calculated numerically by a Simpson integration method for all gauges in the basin and the mean spectral amplitudes spatial distribution map can be ploted. The spatial distribution helps to study structure of seiche and determine effected dangerous areas. 3. Nested grid module in the NAMI-DANCE - nonlinear shallow water equations calculation software package was developed. This is very important feature for complicated different scale (ocean
Numerical Simulation of Petroleum Generation and Migration in the Song Hong Basin, Vietnam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Byeong-Kook; Thi Nguyen, Hong; Park, Mee-Sook
2014-05-01
The numerical modeling of petroleum systems is an effective tool to understand generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin and hence to determine future targets for the hydrocarbon exploration. The numerical modeling identifies two petroleum systems in the Song Hong Basin, which is a petroliferous Cenozoic basin, offshore eastern Vietnam. These petroleum systems were named DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System and SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System. DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System covers northern and central parts of the Song Hong basin with Oligocene shale and coaly shale source rocks of Dinh Cao formation, which are dominated by type II-III kerogens. The hydrocarbon generation starts at 13 Ma within deeply buried Oligocene strata located in the centre of the basin. The hydrocarbon expels from the Oligocene source rock and migrates laterally and then up dip toward marginal areas where Middle Miocene sandstones of Phu Cu formation are present as major reservoirs. The numerical model shows that the critical moment occurs at about 3.5 Ma. The DinhCao-PhuCu(.) petroleum system is confirmed by sparse occurrence of oil and gas along the coast of eastern Vietnam. SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is identified in limited areas of the central and southern Song Hong basin. The major source rock of this petroleum system is Lower Miocene dark claystones of Song Huong formation which contain gas prone, type III kerogen. The migration model shows that hydrocarbons are generated from the Miocene source rocks in the center of the basin at about 12 Ma, and migrates updip through sand bodies of Quang Ngai formation to the major boundaries faults, and further moves into highly permeable up-dipping units, the Bien Dong formation. The best depiction of the generation-migration-accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs at about 2 Ma. The presence of the SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is indicated by the large gas fields in the central and
Precambrian shield and basement tectonics in sedimentary basin analysis
Touborg, J.F.
1984-04-01
This study focused on the use of (1) regional structural analysis of basement and Precambrian rocks surrounding a sedimentary basin, and (2) tracing basement structures into the sedimentary basin. The structural analysis of the Precambrian shield has a fundamental bearing on interpretation of overlying sedimentary cover rocks. This is expressed in the southern part of the Hudson's Bay basin and its southeastern arm, the Moose River basin. For instance, the rims of both basins are controlled by faults or graben structures. Approximately 13 major fault systems with strike lengths of 200-300 km (125-186 mi) or more can be traced from the exposed Precambrian shield into the basin in terms of lineament arrays and/or aeromagnetic and/or gravity signature. The data suggest reactivation of faults during basin sedimentation. This type of basement structural analysis in areas adjacent to sedimentary basins can provide a valuable interpretation base for subsequent seismic surveys and basin evaluation.
Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Strain Analysis
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
A DEM of the Tularosa Basin was divided into twelve zones, each of which a ZR ratio was calculated for. This submission has a TIFF image of the zoning designations, along with a table with respective ZR ratio calculations in the metadata.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girou, O.; Lemieux, J. M.; Malo, M.
2015-12-01
Full-scale carbon capture and storage in deep saline aquifers implies injecting important quantities of carbon in order to significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions. At the basin scale, impacts related to CO2 injection are pressure perturbation as well as brine migration into freshwater aquifers. In this study, potential impacts of an industrial-scale carbon capture and storage project in Bécancour (Quebec, Canada), in the St. Lawrence Lowlands basin, are discussed, as well as the role played by regional normal faults that divide the basin into multiple compartments. The basin is 300 km long and 90 km wide, formed by sub-horizontal Paleozoic formations on top of which the Utica and Lorraine shale formations represent the caprock of the potential CO2reservoir. These formations cover most of the basin, except in its eroded northwestern part, located between 10 to 40 km away from the potential injection sites. Three injection scenarios were considered, corresponding to greenhouse gases emissions from large emitters located; in Bécancour industrial park, in a larger area that allow affordable transport and in the entire basin without considering transport costs (1, 5, 10 Mt/yr). The numerical model FEFLOW was used to simulate CO2 injection into different compartments to evaluate pressure build up propagation and brine migration in order to define which compartments are best suited for long-term storage. The simulations considered an injection period of 100 years and post-injections period of 1000 years. Numerical simulations indicate that normal faults, which exhibit a low hydraulic conductivity, play a major role orienting pressure build-up and brine migration. Due to the presence of normal faults, no pressure build up occurred close to the surface. Similarly, preliminary mass transport simulations show very limited brine migration. These first results indicate that basin-scale impacts of carbon injection are low for the 3 injection scenarios, however, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, S.; Chung, S.; Kuo, B.
2009-12-01
Backarc basin basalts can be characterized as fertile, MORB-like end-member mixed with water-rich, previously depleted, arc-like components in various proportions. In addition, an enriched component might also contribute to the magma generation. A number of melting processes have been proposed to account for the chemical systematics of the backarc basin basalts. Previous numerical model experiments for circulation and thermal evolution in the subduction zones generally consider a steady spreading center, corresponding to mature stages. In this study we attempt to better understand the roles of different melting mechanisms and magma sources using a series of thermomechemical models of evolution of backarc basins. In the models the effects of rifting-spreading transition, ridge migration and asymmetric spreading on the thermal field, fluid distribution and melting history are incorporated. We focused on the evolution of the Mariana subduction system because the Mariana subduction zone is one of the best sampled region and its tectonic environment and history are relatively simple. Furthermore, the variations along the strike of the Mariana trough represent the sequence of the evolution of a backarc basin from rifting to mature stages of spreading. The effects of modeling parameters including slab geometry, spreading rate, velocity of subducting slab, lithospheric rheology and crustal thickness have been investigated. How the melting regimes and magma sources may evolve with time in the Mariana arc-basin system will be presented.
SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
This submission includes a Na/K geothermometer probability greater than 200 deg C map, as well as two play fairway analysis (PFA) models. The probability map acts as a composite risk segment for the PFA models. The PFA models differ in their application of magnetotelluric conductors as composite risk segments. These PFA models map out the geothermal potential in the region of SE Great Basin, Utah.
Numerical assessment of ASR recharge using small-diameter wells and surface basins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Händel, Falk; Liu, Gaisheng; Dietrich, Peter; Liedl, Rudolf; Butler, James J.
2014-09-01
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) methods are increasingly used to overcome the temporal imbalance between water demand and availability. Common ASR recharge methods utilize large-diameter injection wells or surface infiltration basins and trenches, and can be costly to implement. A new low-cost ASR recharge method is currently being developed. This approach is based on recharge via gravity in small-diameter wells installed with direct-push (DP) technology. Numerical modeling is used here to assess the potential of this new approach under conditions commonly faced in field settings. The primary objective is to investigate if a battery of small-diameter DP wells can serve as a viable alternative to a surface basin under typical field conditions, while the secondary objective is to assess which subsurface parameters have the greatest control on DP well performance. Simulation results indicate that gravity recharge via small-diameter wells appears to have a distinct advantage over recharge via surface infiltration basins. For example, two 0.05-m shallow vadose-zone wells with 9-m screens can recharge water at a greater rate than a 60 m2 basin. Also, results reveal that, contrary to an infiltration basin, the recharge rate in a DP well has a much stronger dependence on the horizontal component of hydraulic conductivity than on the vertical component. Moreover, near-surface layers of low hydraulic conductivity, which can significantly reduce the recharge capacity of a surface basin, have a relatively small impact on the recharge capacity of a well as long as a significant portion of the well screen is installed below those layers. Given that installation and operation costs can be low in comparison to common ASR recharge methods, this new approach appears to have great potential for recharging good quality water in shallow unconsolidated aquifers. A field investigation has recently been initiated to follow up the findings of this simulation assessment.
The application of environmental numerical simulation in pollutants migration into river basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Z. R.; Qin, Y. J.; Zhou, J. G.; Nan, H. Y.
2017-01-01
For the sustainable development of the social economy, it is very important that the water environment quality is analyzed, evaluated and predicted rationally, so that it could be planned, harnessed and managed effectively. To analyze and predict the water environment, the hydrodynamics behaviors and water pollution situations of the water body must be analyzed first based on hydrodynamics and water quality models. The objective of this work is to introduce how to establish river water dynamics and water quality model through the environment in the basin pollutant migration transformation rule, to simulate the rules and dynamics of river water pollution situation, to introduce the water quality model with geographic information system (GIS), and to apply the combination of environment numerical simulation to basin pollutant migration problem.
Simple numerical analysis of longboard speedometer data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hare, Jonathan
2013-11-01
Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 Phys. Educ. 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as simple numerical differentiation and integration. This is an interesting, fun and instructive way to start to explore data manipulation at GCSE and A-level—analysis and skills so essential for the engineer and scientist.
Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hare, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…
A.B. Gilliam; R.W.H. Carroll; G. Pohll; R.L. Hershey
2006-01-01
A detailed, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater flow model was created for the Mercury Valley Administrative Groundwater Basin (MVB). The MVB is a distinct groundwater basin as defined by the State of Nevada and is located partially within the boundary of the Nevada Test Site. This basin is being studied as a potential location for new industrial facilities and therefore would be subject to Nevada water-use limitations. The MVB model was used to estimate the volume of water that could be withdrawn from Mercury Valley without inducing laterally or vertically extensive water-table effects. In each model simulation, water-table drawdown was limited to a maximum of 0.5 m at the boundary of the basin and held within the screened interval of the well. Water withdrawal from Nevada groundwater basins is also limited to the State-defined perennial yield for that area. The perennial yield for the MVB is 27,036 m{sup 3}/day. The one existing water-supply well in Mercury Valley is capable of sustaining significantly higher withdrawal rates than it currently produces. Simulations showed this single well could produce 50 percent of the basin?s perennial yield with limited water-table drawdown. Pumping from six hypothetical water-supply wells was also simulated. Each hypothetical well was placed in an area of high hydraulic conductivity and far from the basin's boundaries. Each of these wells was capable of producing at least 50 percent of the basin's perennial yield. One of the hypothetical wells could simulate 100 percent of the perennial yield while staying within drawdown limitations. Multi-well simulations where two or more water-supply wells were simultaneously pumping were also conducted. These simulations almost always resulted in very limited lateral and vertical drawdown and produced 100 percent of Mercury Valley's perennial yield. A water-budget analysis was also conducted for each of the various stress simulations. Each of the stress scenarios
Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.
2014-10-01
Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the
Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Peshawar intermontane basin, northwest Himalayas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousafzai, Asim; Eckstein, Yoram; Dahl, Peter
2008-11-01
The hypothesis that abnormal fluid pressure is generated in basins under tectonic compression is tested. The study site, between the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT), Main Mantle Thrust (MMT), Main Central Thrust (MCT), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Salt Range Thrust (SRT) in northwest Pakistan, is experiencing a tectonic compression of 90 MPa. The Peshawar basin is a broad, oval depression comprising a thick sequence of lacustrine, deltaic and fluvial sediments overlain by loess and alluvial deposits dated at 2.8-0.6 Ma. It is surrounded by the Precambrian and Tertiary intrusive and metamorphic rocks on the north and sedimentary rocks of Paleogene and Neogene to the south. The basin was divided into four hydrostratigraphic units for numerical simulations using the three-dimensional finite-element model FEMWATER within groundwater modeling system (GMS) ver. 5.1. Simulated pressure head data have been compared with the field measurements of hydraulic heads. Transient simulations indicate that topography alone is not sufficient to induce the pressure heads observed in the field, generating consistently positive residuals 0.98-2.90 m over the topography-driven flow. The residuals disappeared after inclusion of the elastic properties of the four hydrostratigraphic units in the model, suggesting the effect of tectonic compression.
Manufacturing in space: Fluid dynamics numerical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, S. J.; Nicholson, L. A.; Spradley, L. W.
1981-01-01
Natural convection in a spherical container with cooling at the center was numerically simulated using the Lockheed-developed General Interpolants Method (GIM) numerical fluid dynamic computer program. The numerical analysis was simplified by assuming axisymmetric flow in the spherical container, with the symmetry axis being a sphere diagonal parallel to the gravity vector. This axisymmetric spherical geometry was intended as an idealization of the proposed Lal/Kroes growing experiments to be performed on board Spacelab. Results were obtained for a range of Rayleigh numbers from 25 to 10,000. For a temperature difference of 10 C from the cooling sting at the center to the container surface, and a gravitional loading of 0.000001 g a computed maximum fluid velocity of about 2.4 x 0.00001 cm/sec was reached after about 250 sec. The computed velocities were found to be approximately proportional to the Rayleigh number over the range of Rayleigh numbers investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gramusset, Anneli; Herrera, Paulo; Parada, Miguel Angel
2014-05-01
A thorough understanding of the thermal processes that occur in aquifers is essential to assess local and regional low enthalpy geothermal resources. The relationship between heat convection and heat conduction has been widely studied in basins around the world at a regional scale. However, few studies have focused on smaller, shallower basins containing free aquifers hosted in unconsolidated fluvial-alluvial sediments, like Santiago Basin. We use numerical modeling to simulate the fluid dynamics of the Santiago basin groundwater system under different thermal conditions. Despite the current computational advances, modeling such a complex system with a full 3D approach is still numerically time demanding and unstable. Besides, the basin has irregular geometry and variable hydraulic and thermal features. Thus, we performed a 2D model comprising a thin water saturated slice of sediments beneath the central part of the city, where the basin morphology is well constrained. We simulate coupled groundwater and heat flow throughout this vertical slice and we compare results for different scenarios that comprise different hydraulic, thermal and geometric parameters. Results obtained with certain hydraulic conductivities show that instabilities appear giving rise to free thermal convection in the deepest parts of the basin. If the system is split into several hydrogeological units, the onset of these instabilities is inhibited. Consequently, we suggest that the stratigraphic complexities of a fluvial-alluvial deposit should be considered to better understanding the thermal-driven groundwater fluid dynamics.
Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan; Akhter, Gulraiz
2011-02-01
The integration of the Geographic Information System (GIS) with groundwater modeling and satellite remote sensing capabilities has provided an efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater behavior and its associated land conditions. A 3-dimensional finite element model (Feflow) has been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan. The approach of using GIS techniques that partially fulfill the data requirements and define the parameters of existing hydrologic models was adopted. The numerical groundwater flow model is developed to configure the groundwater equipotential surface, hydraulic head gradient, and estimation of the groundwater budget of the aquifer. GIS is used for spatial database development, integration with a remote sensing, and numerical groundwater flow modeling capabilities. The thematic layers of soils, land use, hydrology, infrastructure, and climate were developed using GIS. The Arcview GIS software is used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling and integration and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to simulate future changes in piezometric heads from the period 2006 to 2020. Different scenarios were developed to study the impact of extreme climatic conditions (drought/flood) and variable groundwater abstraction on the regional groundwater system. The model results indicated a significant response in watertable due to external influential factors. The developed model provides an effective tool for evaluating better management options for monitoring future groundwater development in the study area.
Hybrid Experimental-Numerical Stress Analysis.
1983-04-01
components# biomechanics and fracture mechanics. .4 ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS The numerical techniques used In modern hybrid technique for...measured E24] relations of probe force versus probe area under applanation tonametry. ELASTIC-PASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS Fracture parameters governing...models of the crack. Strain energy release rate and stress intensity factor in linear elastic fracture mechanics, which is a well established analog
Numerical Analysis Of Flows With FIDAP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, Jeong L.
1990-01-01
Report presents an evaluation of accuracy of Fluid Dynamics Package (FIDAP) computer program. Finite-element code for analysis of flows of incompressible fluids and transfers of heat in multidimensional domains. Includes both available methods for treatment of spurious numerical coupling between simulated velocity and simulated pressure; namely, penalty method and mixed-interpolation method with variable choices of interpolation polynomials for velocity and pressure. Streamwise upwind (STU) method included as option for flows dominated by convection.
Biodegradation in numerical basin modelling: a case study from the Gifhorn Trough, N-Germany
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumenstein, I. O.; Krooss, B. M.; di Primio, R.; Rottke, W.; Müller, E.; Westerlage, C.; Littke, R.
2008-09-01
A mass balance concept based on petroleum compositional description using 14 individual compound groups has been developed to reproduce the process of in-reservoir petroleum biodegradation. Individual compound groups have been attributed different “biodegradabilities” and biodegradation rates to account for observed differences in their susceptibility to biodegradation. Petroleum compositional information is derived from basin modelling, in addition to temperature histories, filling rates and volumetric information. This new method has been subsequently applied to model the biodegradation processes in a petroleum system in the North German Basin. The case study area is situated in the Gifhorn Trough, where Jurassic reservoirs contain oils of variable API gravity (24°-33°), although present depth and temperature are similar. Numerical modelling revealed, however, that the filling histories of the individual reservoir structures differ considerably. Taking into account filling and temperature history of the reservoir structures, the newly developed biodegradation algorithm Biodexx predicted compositional data and API gravities similar to those observed in the study area, whereas earlier biodegradation approaches such as the biodegradation index (BDI) by Yu et al. (2002) did not reproduce the different biodegradation levels in the two investigated fields.
Numerical flow analysis for axial flow turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, T.; Aoki, S.
Some numerical flow analysis methods adopted in the gas turbine interactive design system, TDSYS, are described. In the TDSYS, a streamline curvature program for axisymmetric flows, quasi 3-D and fully 3-D time marching programs are used respectively for blade to blade flows and annular cascade flows. The streamline curvature method has some advantages in that it can include the effect of coolant mixing and choking flow conditions. Comparison of the experimental results with calculated results shows that the overall accuracy is determined more by the empirical correlations used for loss and deviation than by the numerical scheme. The time marching methods are the best choice for the analysis of turbine cascade flows because they can handle mixed subsonic-supersonic flows with automatic inclusion of shock waves in a single calculation. Some experimental results show that a time marching method can predict the airfoil surface Mach number distribution more accurately than a finite difference method. One weakpoint of the time marching methods is a long computer time; they usually require several times as much CPU time as other methods. But reductions in computer costs and improvements in numerical methods have made the quasi 3-D and fully 3-D time marching methods usable as design tools, and they are now used in TDSYS.
Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Cratering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
Supersonic jet exhaust impinging onto a flat surface is a fundamental flow encountered in space or with a missile launch vehicle system. The flow is important because it can endanger launch operations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a landing rocket s exhaust on soils. From numerical simulations and analysis, we developed characteristic expressions and curves, which we can use, along with rocket nozzle performance, to predict cratering effects during a soft-soil landing. We conducted a series of multiphase flow simulations with two phases: exhaust gas and sand particles. The main objective of the simulation was to obtain the numerical results as close to the experimental results as possible. After several simulating test runs, the results showed that packing limit and the angle of internal friction are the two critical and dominant factors in the simulations.
Numerical and experimental analysis of spallation phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Panerai, Francesco; Davuluri, Raghava S. C.; Zhang, Huaibao; Vazsonyi, Alexander R.; Lippay, Zachary S.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Danehy, Paul M.
2016-12-01
The spallation phenomenon was studied through numerical analysis using a coupled Lagrangian particle tracking code and a hypersonic aerothermodynamics computational fluid dynamics solver. The results show that carbon emission from spalled particles results in a significant modification of the gas composition of the post-shock layer. Results from a test campaign at the NASA Langley HYMETS facility are presented. Using an automated image processing of short exposure images, two-dimensional velocity vectors of the spalled particles were calculated. In a 30-s test at 100 W/cm2 of cold-wall heat flux, more than 722 particles were detected, with an average velocity of 110 m/s.
Numerical analysis method for linear induction machines.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elliott, D. G.
1972-01-01
A numerical analysis method has been developed for linear induction machines such as liquid metal MHD pumps and generators and linear motors. Arbitrary phase currents or voltages can be specified and the moving conductor can have arbitrary velocity and conductivity variations from point to point. The moving conductor is divided into a mesh and coefficients are calculated for the voltage induced at each mesh point by unit current at every other mesh point. Combining the coefficients with the mesh resistances yields a set of simultaneous equations which are solved for the unknown currents.
Low noise propeller design using numerical analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humpert, Bryce
The purpose of this study is to explore methods for reducing aircraft propeller noise with minimal losses in performance. Using numerical analysis, a standard two blade propeller configuration was taken from experiments conducted by Patrick, Finn, and Stich, and implemented into the numerical code XROTOR. The blade design modifications that were investigated to achieve the proposed goals include: increasing the number of blades, adjusting the chord length, beta distribution, radius of the blade, airfoil shape, and operating RPM. In order to determine the optimal blade design, a baseline case is first developed and the parameters listed earlier are then varied to create a new propeller design that reduces the sound pressure level (SPL) while maintaining performance levels within a predetermined range of the original specifications. From the analysis, the most significant improvements observed in lowering the acoustic signature are dominated by operating rpm and blade radius. A three-, four-, and five-blade configuration was developed that reduced the SPL generated by the propeller during cruise flight conditions. The optimum configuration that produced the greatest SPL reduction was the five-blade configuration. The resulting sound pressure level was reduced from the original 77 dB at 1000' ft above ground level (AGL), to 54 dB at 1000' AGL while remaining within 1.4% of the original thrust and efficiency.
Numerical Analysis of Convection/Transpiration Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, David E.; Dilley, Arthur D.; Kelly, H. Neale
1999-01-01
An innovative concept utilizing the natural porosity of refractory-composite materials and hydrogen coolant to provide CONvective and TRANspiration (CONTRAN) cooling and oxidation protection has been numerically studied for surfaces exposed to a high heat flux, high temperature environment such as hypersonic vehicle engine combustor walls. A boundary layer code and a porous media finite difference code were utilized to analyze the effect of convection and transpiration cooling on surface heat flux and temperature. The boundary, layer code determined that transpiration flow is able to provide blocking of the surface heat flux only if it is above a minimum level due to heat addition from combustion of the hydrogen transpirant. The porous media analysis indicated that cooling of the surface is attained with coolant flow rates that are in the same range as those required for blocking, indicating that a coupled analysis would be beneficial.
Nozzle Numerical Analysis Of The Scimitar Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, F.; Marini, M.; Cutrone, L.
2011-05-01
This work describes part of the activities on the LAPCAT-II A2 vehicle, in which starting from the available conceptual vehicle design and the related pre- cooled turbo-ramjet engine called SCIMITAR, well- thought assumptions made for performance figures of different components during the iteration process within LAPCAT-I will be assessed in more detail. In this paper it is presented a numerical analysis aimed at the design optimization of the nozzle contour of the LAPCAT A2 SCIMITAR engine designed by Reaction Engines Ltd. (REL) (see Figure 1). In particular, nozzle shape optimization process is presented for cruise conditions. All the computations have been carried out by using the CIRA C3NS code in non equilibrium conditions. The effect of considering detailed or reduced chemical kinetic schemes has been analyzed with a particular focus on the production of pollutants. An analysis of engine performance parameters, such as thrust and combustion efficiency has been carried out.
Numerical Analysis of Convection/Transpiration Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, David E.; Dilley, Arthur D.; Kelly, H. Neale
1999-01-01
An innovative concept utilizing the natural porosity of refractory-composite materials and hydrogen coolant to provide CONvective and TRANspiration (CONTRAN) cooling and oxidation protection has been numerically studied for surfaces exposed to a high heat flux high temperature environment such as hypersonic vehicle engine combustor walls. A boundary layer code and a porous media finite difference code were utilized to analyze the effect of convection and transpiration cooling on surface heat flux and temperature. The boundary layer code determined that transpiration flow is able to provide blocking of the surface heat flux only if it is above a minimum level due to heat addition from combustion of the hydrogen transpirant. The porous media analysis indicated that cooling of the surface is attained with coolant flow rates that are in the same range as those required for blocking, indicating that a coupled analysis would be beneficial.
A theoretical analysis of basin-scale groundwater temperature distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Ran; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wan, Li; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong
2015-03-01
The theory of regional groundwater flow is critical for explaining heat transport by moving groundwater in basins. Domenico and Palciauskas's (1973) pioneering study on convective heat transport in a simple basin assumed that convection has a small influence on redistributing groundwater temperature. Moreover, there has been no research focused on the temperature distribution around stagnation zones among flow systems. In this paper, the temperature distribution in the simple basin is reexamined and that in a complex basin with nested flow systems is explored. In both basins, compared to the temperature distribution due to conduction, convection leads to a lower temperature in most parts of the basin except for a small part near the discharge area. There is a high-temperature anomaly around the basin-bottom stagnation point where two flow systems converge due to a low degree of convection and a long travel distance, but there is no anomaly around the basin-bottom stagnation point where two flow systems diverge. In the complex basin, there are also high-temperature anomalies around internal stagnation points. Temperature around internal stagnation points could be very high when they are close to the basin bottom, for example, due to the small permeability anisotropy ratio. The temperature distribution revealed in this study could be valuable when using heat as a tracer to identify the pattern of groundwater flow in large-scale basins. Domenico PA, Palciauskas VV (1973) Theoretical analysis of forced convective heat transfer in regional groundwater flow. Geological Society of America Bulletin 84:3803-3814
Numerical modeling techniques for flood analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anees, Mohd Talha; Abdullah, K.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Piah, Abd. Rahni Mt.; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Syakir, M. I.; Mohd. Omar, A. K.
2016-12-01
Topographic and climatic changes are the main causes of abrupt flooding in tropical areas. It is the need to find out exact causes and effects of these changes. Numerical modeling techniques plays a vital role for such studies due to their use of hydrological parameters which are strongly linked with topographic changes. In this review, some of the widely used models utilizing hydrological and river modeling parameters and their estimation in data sparse region are discussed. Shortcomings of 1D and 2D numerical models and the possible improvements over these models through 3D modeling are also discussed. It is found that the HEC-RAS and FLO 2D model are best in terms of economical and accurate flood analysis for river and floodplain modeling respectively. Limitations of FLO 2D in floodplain modeling mainly such as floodplain elevation differences and its vertical roughness in grids were found which can be improve through 3D model. Therefore, 3D model was found to be more suitable than 1D and 2D models in terms of vertical accuracy in grid cells. It was also found that 3D models for open channel flows already developed recently but not for floodplain. Hence, it was suggested that a 3D model for floodplain should be developed by considering all hydrological and high resolution topographic parameter's models, discussed in this review, to enhance the findings of causes and effects of flooding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Tonani, Marina; Tintoré, Joaquin
2015-09-01
This study describes a quantitative evaluation of simulations in the western Mediterranean Sea at basin and sub-basin scales. The Mediterranean Forecasting System and the Mercator-Océan simulations provide operational ocean forecasts and hindcasts in the Mediterranean, and are also used as initial and boundary conditions for regional models. In this context, hindcast simulations from 2009 to 2012 are compared with available multi-platform observations at various spatial and temporal scales to evaluate their performance. Both simulations reproduce well the observed mean conditions and variability over the last years. The sub-basin scale analyses of the three-dimensional ocean structures and water mass properties reveal seasonal and regional temperature and salinity errors at the surface in both simulations, as well as significant biases at intermediate and deep layers in the Mediterranean Forecasting System. The simulated surface geostrophic velocities are weaker than those derived from altimetry, and circulation biases persist in the Balearic Sea. Additionally, the seasonal existence of the Alboran gyres is not well reproduced in either simulation. The identification of regional simulation biases is essential to advance from global to regional and local scale forecasting, in particular, improving the representation of the local physical processes and their interactions with the sub-basin dynamics and the general circulation.
183-H Basin Mixed Waste Analysis and Testing Report
1995-04-01
The purpose of this sampling and analysis report is to provide data necessary to support treatment and disposal options for the low-level mixed waste from the 183-H solar evaporation ponds. In 1973, four of the 16 flocculation and sedimentation basins were designated for use as solar evaporation basins to provide waste reduction by natural evaporation of liquid chemical wastes from the 300 Area fuel fabrication facilities. The primary purpose of this effort is to gather chemical and bulk property data for the waste in the drums/boxes of sediment removed from the basin at Central Waste Complex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cédric, Guyonnet-Benaize; Fabrice, Hollender; Maria, Manakou; Alexandros, Savvaidis; Elena, Zargli; Cécile, Cornou; Nikolaos, Veranis; Dimitrios, Raptakis; Artemios, Atzemoglou; Pierre-Yves, Bard; Nikolaos, Theodulidis; Kyriazis, Pitilakis; Emmanuelle, Chaljub
2013-04-01
The Mygdonian basin, located 30 km E-NE close to Thessaloniki, is a typical active tectonic basin, trending E-NW, filled by sediments 200 to 400 m thick. This basin has been chosen as a European experimental site since 1993 (European Commission research projects - EUROSEISTEST). It has been investigated for experimental and theoretical studies on site effects. The Mygdonian basin is currently covered by a permanent seismological network and has been mainly characterized in 2D and 3D with geophysical and geotechnical studies (Bastani et al, 2011; Cadet and Savvaidis, 2011; Gurk et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2007; Manakou et al, 2010; Pitilakis et al, 1999; Raptakis et al, 2000; Raptakis et al, 2005). All these studies allowed understanding the influence of geological structures and local site conditions on seismic site response. For these reasons, this site has been chosen for a verification exercise for numerical simulations in the framework of an ongoing international collaborative research project (Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project - E2VP). The verification phase has been made using a first 3D geophysical and geotechnical model (Manakou, 2007) about 5 km wide and 15 km long, centered on the Euroseistest site. After this verification phase, it has been decided to update, optimize and extend this model in order to obtain a more detailed model of the 3D geometry of the entire basin, especially the bedrock 3D geometry which can affect drastically the results of numerical simulations for site effect studies. In our study, we build a 3D geological model of the present-day structure of the entire Mygdonian basin. This "precise" model is 12 km wide, 65 km long and is 400 m deep in average. It has been built using geophysical, geotechnical and geological data. The database is heterogeneous and composed of hydrogeological boreholes, seismic refraction surveys, array microtremor measurements, electrical and geotechnical surveys. We propose an integrated
Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Water Chemistry
Adam Brandt
2015-12-15
This shapefile contains 409 well data points on Tularosa Basin Water Chemistry, each of which have a location (UTM), temperature, quartz and Potassium/Magnesium geothermometer; as well as concentrations of chemicals like Mn, Fe, Ba, Sr, Cs, Rb, As, NH4, HCO3, SO4, F, Cl, B, SiO2, Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Li.
Neotectonics of the Surma Basin, Bangladesh from GPS analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulbul, M. A. U.
2015-12-01
The Surma Basin is a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin situated at the northeastern corner of Bangladesh. The tectonically-active basin lies at the junction of three tectonic plates: the Indian plate, the Eurasian plate and the Burma platelet. The Surma Basin is bounded on the north by the Shillong Massif, east and southeast by CTFB of the Indo-Burman Ranges, west by the Indian Shield and to the south and southeast it is open to the main part of Bengal Basin. The Surma basin is subsiding at a high rate, which is controlled by flexure loading along the southern margin of the 2-km high Shillong Massif because of Dauki thrust fault system. The objective of this study is to explore and reconstruct the present scenario of the tectonically active zone of the northeastern Bangladesh, identify the active faults, identify the relation between the neotectonic activities and seismicity, relation between neotectonic activities and natural hazards and describe the nature of the possible future earthquakes. The present effort to establish the tectonics of the Surma basin mainly utilizes the horizontal and vertical movements of the area using GPS geodetic data and other constraints on the structure of the region. We also make use historical seismologic data, field geology, and satellite image data. The GPS data has been processed using GAMIT-GLOBK. The analysis of 5 continuous GPS geodetic stations installed in the Surma Basin are combined with published data from the adjacent parts of India. While the area is moving northeast at a rate of 50-52 mm/year relative to ITRF2008 reference frame, it is moving south in an Indian reference frame. The velocities reflect that the Surma Basin being overthrust by both Shillong Plateau from the north and Burmese microplate from the east, respectively. The combined GPS velocity data indicates shortening across Dauki Fault and Indo Burman Ranges at a rate of 7 mm/yr and 18 mm/yr, respectively. The complex anticlinal structures in and around the
Sequence Stratigraphy and Frequency Analysis of the Zhada Basin, SW Tibet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saylor, J. E.; Decelles, P. G.; Quade, J.
2008-12-01
Zhada basin is a large late Miocene - Pleistocene extensional sag basin in the Tethyan Himalaya of southwestern Tibet. Sequence stratigraphy in the basin reveals a long-term tectonic signal in the formation and filling of Zhada basin. The sedimentological record of the Zhada Formation also archives higher frequency cyclical expansion and contraction of a large paleolake. Expansion and contraction of lakes and wetlands has been linked to variability in the strength of the Asian monsoon and thought to be modulated by orbital cyclicity. In order to determine the forcing mechanism for Zhada paleolake expansion and contraction we created a wave form by assigning numerical values to the various depositional environments and applied spectral analysis to this record. Depositional environments in the South Zhada measured section were identified at 0.5 m increments or where the depositional environment changed. The result is a clipped waveform with uneven sample spacing and temporal resolution better than 4,000 yrs. In addition to a peak at 91.7 kyr (95% confidence level), spectral analysis reveals a peak at 22 kyr (85% confidence level). These are within 1/2 bandwidth (6 dB bandwidth = 2.4) of the eccentricity and precession frequencies. The record of Milankovitch cycles in Zhada basin implies that global climate drove lake and wetland expansion and contraction in the southern Tibetan Plateau from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene.
Sedimentary basin analysis using airborne gravity data: a case study from the Bohai Bay Basin, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wenyong; Liu, Yanxu; Zhou, Jianxin; Zhou, Xihua; Li, Bing
2016-11-01
In this paper, we discuss the application of an airborne gravity survey to sedimentary basin analysis. Using high-precision airborne gravity data constrained by drilling and seismic data from the Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China, we interpreted faults, structural elements, sedimentary thickness, structural styles and local structures (belts) in the central area of the Basin by the wavelet transform method. Subsequently, these data were subtracted from the Bouguer gravity to calculate the residual gravity anomalies. On this basis, the faults were interpreted mainly by linear zones of high gravity gradients and contour distortion, while the sedimentary thicknesses were computed by the Euler deconvolution. The structural styles were identified by the combination of gravity anomalies and the local structures interpreted by the first vertical derivative of the residual gravity. The results showed evidence for seven faults, one sag and ten new local structure belts.
Numerical modeling of severe convective storms occurring in the Carpathian Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horváth, Á.; Geresdi, I.; Németh, P.; Csirmaz, K.; Dombai, F.
Squall lines often cause serious damages due to the strong surface outflow, hail, or heavy precipitation in Hungary every summer. Squall lines in the Carpathian Basin can be classified into two main categories: pre-frontal squall-lines and frontal convective lines. In this paper, these two types of severe mesoscale phenomena are investigated using the high resolution numerical weather prediction model, the MM5. The case study for the first type of convective systems occurred on 18th May 2005 when two main convective lines with their embedded severe storms formed daytime and caused high-velocity wind events and extensive damages in the eastern part of Hungary. The second case study is a frontal squall line that hit Budapest on 20th August 2006 and the associated high precipitation (HP) supercells reached the capital of Hungary at same time when the traditional Constitution Day firework began. The consequences were catastrophic: five people were killed and more than one thousand were injured due to the extreme weather. The non-hydrostatic high resolution MM5 model was able to simulate and catch the severe weather events occurred on the days under discussion. Moreover, the model was able to compute the detailed structure of the supercells embedded in thunderstorm lines. By studying the equivalent potential temperature (EPT) fields at lower levels, we state that in the prefrontal case, there is a competition between the supercell thunderstorms for the wet and warm air. A thunderstorm that can collect the wet and warm air from larger area will have longer lifetime and more intense updraft. In the second case, the frontal squall lines, the movement and the behavior of the supercell storms embedded in the line was highly determined by the synoptic-scale motions and less affected by the EPT field of the prefrontal masses.
Nonclassicality thresholds for multiqubit states: Numerical analysis
Gruca, Jacek; Zukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Kiesel, Nikolai; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald; Schmid, Christian
2010-07-15
States that strongly violate Bell's inequalities are required in many quantum-informational protocols as, for example, in cryptography, secret sharing, and the reduction of communication complexity. We investigate families of such states with a numerical method which allows us to reveal nonclassicality even without direct knowledge of Bell's inequalities for the given problem. An extensive set of numerical results is presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji; Sun, Liqun
2015-07-01
The knowledge of drought evolution characteristics may aid the decision making process in mitigating drought impacts. This study uses a macro-scale hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate terrestrial hydrological processes over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China. Three drought indices, namely standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and soil moisture anomaly index (SMAI), are employed to examine the spatio-temporal and evolution features of drought events. SPI, SRI and SMAI represent meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought, respectively. The results reveal that the drought severity depicted by SPI and SRI is similar with increasing timescales; SRI is close to that of SPI in the wet season for the Liu River basin as the high-frequency precipitation is conserved more by runoff; the time lags appear between SPI and SRI due to the delay response of runoff to precipitation variability for the You River basin. The case study in 2010 spring drought further shows that the spatio-temporal evolutions are modulated by the basin-scale topography. There is more consistency between meteorological and hydrological droughts for the fan-like basin with a converged river network. For the west area of the Xijiang basin with the high elevation, the hydrological drought severity is less than meteorological drought during the developing stage. The recovery of hydrological and agricultural droughts is slower than that of meteorological drought for basins with a longer mainstream.
Microfabric analysis of the Appalachian basin Williamson and Willowvale shales
Burkins, D.L.; Woodard, M. . Geology Dept.)
1993-03-01
Shale samples from the Williamson and Willovale formations (Upper Llandoverian, Silurian) were studied to determine the relationship of microfabric (particle orientation) to sedimentary environment and processes. The shales were sampled along a traverse from Utica to Rochester, New York in the Appalachian foreland basin. Samples were taken from proximal and distal parts of the basin and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and using thin sections to determine the relationship between microfabric and basin position. Results show samples taken from the proximal part of the basin contain large amounts of silt grains, random orientation of clay flakes, and a high degree of bioturbation. Basinward, the samples become less silty, less bioturbated, and have more preferred orientation of clay flakes. The samples at the basin axis show the highest degree of preferred orientation and contain no silt grains. It can be concluded that the shale fabrics vary basinward and microfabric analysis is useful in determining the relative position of samples within a sedimentary basin.
Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan
2014-05-01
The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benaïchouche, Abed; Stab, Olivier; Tessier, Bruno; Cojan, Isabelle
2016-01-01
In landscapes dominated by fluvial erosion, the landscape morphology is closely related to the hydrographic network system. In this paper, we investigate the hydrographic network reorganization caused by a headward piracy mechanism between two drainage basins in France, the Meuse and the Moselle. Several piracies occurred in the Meuse basin during the past one million years, and the basin's current characteristics are favorable to new piracies by the Moselle river network. This study evaluates the consequences over the next several million years of a relative lowering of the Moselle River (and thus of its basin) with respect to the Meuse River. The problem is addressed with a numerical modeling approach (landscape evolution model, hereafter LEM) that requires empirical determinations of parameters and threshold values. Classically, fitting of the parameters is based on analysis of the relationship between the slope and the drainage area and is conducted under the hypothesis of equilibrium. Application of this conventional approach to the capture issue yields incomplete results that have been consolidated by a parametric sensitivity analysis. The LEM equations give a six-dimensional parameter space that was explored with over 15,000 simulations using the landscape evolution model GOLEM. The results demonstrate that stream piracies occur in only four locations in the studied reach near the city of Toul. The locations are mainly controlled by the local topography and are model-independent. Nevertheless, the chronology of the captures depends on two parameters: the river concavity (given by the fluvial advection equation) and the hillslope erosion factor. Thus, the simulations lead to three different scenarios that are explained by a phenomenon of exclusion or a string of events.
Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.
2002-01-01
We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.
Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Methodology Flow Charts
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
These images show the comprehensive methodology used for creation of a Play Fairway Analysis to explore the geothermal resource potential of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The deterministic methodology was originated by the petroleum industry, but was custom-modified to function as a knowledge-based geothermal exploration tool. The stochastic PFA flow chart uses weights of evidence, and is data-driven.
Application of Sediment Backstripping Corrections for Basin Analysis Using Microcomputers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkerson, Marlon Scott; Hsui, Albert Tong-Kwan
1989-01-01
Discussed is a program created to serve as an instructional tool for teaching basin analysis. Described is the use of the program for interpreting plots resulting from backstripping methods. Included in the discussion are implementation, applications and availability of the "Subside!" program. (CW)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus
2014-05-01
Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Hayes, Daniel; Gertman, Isaac; Menna, Milena; Poulain, Pierre-Marie
2014-05-01
The general anticlockwise circulation along the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin was first proposed by Nielsen in 1912. Half a century later the schematic of the circulation in the area was enriched with sub-basin flow structures. In late 1980s, a more detailed picture of the circulation composed of eddies, gyres and coastal-offshore jets was defined during the POEM cruises. In 2005, Millot and Taupier-Letage have used SST satellite imagery to argue for a simpler pattern similar to the one proposed almost a century ago. During the last decade, renewed in-situ multi-platforms investigations under the framework of CYBO, CYCLOPS, NEMED, GROOM, HaiSec and PERSEUS projects, as well the development of the operational ocean forecasts and hindcasts in the framework of the MFS, ECOOP, MERSEA and MyOcean projects, have made possible to obtain an improved, higher spatial and temporal resolution picture of the circulation in the area. After some years of scientific disputes on the circulation pattern of the region, the new in-situ data sets and the operational numerical simulations confirm the relevant POEM results. The existing POM-based Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting System (CYCOFOS), downscaling the MyOcean MFS, has been providing operational forecasts in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin region since early 2002. Recently, Radhakrishnan et al. (2012) parallelized the CYCOFOS hydrodynamic flow model using MPI to improve the accuracy of predictions while reducing the computational time. The parallel flow model is capable of modeling the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin flow at a resolution of 500 m. The model was run in hindcast mode during which the innovations were computed using the historical data collected using gliders and cruises. Then, DD-OceanVar (D'Amore et al., 2013), a data assimilation tool based on 3DVAR developed by CMCC was used to compute the temperature and salinity field corrections. Numerical modeling results after the
Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials.
Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B
2009-08-12
A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.
Numerical likelihood analysis of cosmic ray anisotropies
Carlos Hojvat et al.
2003-07-02
A numerical likelihood approach to the determination of cosmic ray anisotropies is presented which offers many advantages over other approaches. It allows a wide range of statistically meaningful hypotheses to be compared even when full sky coverage is unavailable, can be readily extended in order to include measurement errors, and makes maximum unbiased use of all available information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Byeong-Kook; Lee, Seul-A.; Park, Mee-Sook
2015-04-01
Petroleum system modeling calculates and visualizes how and when hydrocarbons generate, migrate, and accumulate in a sedimentary basin. Therefore, it can be used effectively to predict the future prospects of oil and gas based on the understanding of the petroleum system in time and space. The petroleum system modeling was performed on the Sora Basin which is a small Cenozoic basin located offshore southern Korea, also including the offshore area of western Kyushu, Japan. Oil and gas shows were detected in two wells drilled in the basin, indicating that petroleum systems are present in the basin. Input parameters were selected from the well data as well as previous geological and geophysical studies for the 1-D model, from which thermal parameters such as heat flow and thermal maturity are also calculated and applied to 2-D model. The 2-D modeling was performed on an E-W seismic section across the basin from western margin in the Korea Block to eastern margin in Japanese Block. The PetroMod software was employed in the 2-D modeling, and stratigraphy, including lithology and organic content, was obtained from the wells and previous geological studies. 2-D modeling shows that hydrocarbons were expelled from the pod of the Eocene source rock in the Miocene time. The hydrocarbons migrate vertically along faults to the upper Oligocene sandstone formation, rather than the updip migrations along the sandstone bed, and hence form small-sized accumulations in the upper part of the sandstone formation. 3-D model was also performed based on depth maps of each formation in the Sora basin. Hydrocarbons are generated and expelled from the pod of the source rock of Eocene formation from 32Ma. In addition, the 3-D model shows that the hydrocarbon migrates northwestward and eastward in the carrier bed of sandstone. The petroleum models indicate that only a small amount of hydrocarbons are accumulated in the reservoir formation, probably due to small size of the basin and low degree
Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby
2006-02-28
The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.
Analysis of single ring infiltrometer test by direct numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Réfloch, Aurore; Oxarango, Laurent; Rossier, Yvan; Gaudet, Jean Paul
2016-04-01
The well field of the Lyon metropolitan area provides drinking water to approximately 1,300,000 inhabitants. It is equipped with 12 infiltration basins. These basins have two main goals: sustaining the water table in times of peak demand for water, and preventing a possible contamination from the Rhône river by inverting groundwater flow direction. The water infiltration under the basins is thus crucial for the overall hydrogeologic behavior of the site. In order to characterize this phenomenon, a set of infiltrometer tests were performed to estimate the soil hydraulic properties. The soil is a coarse alluvial deposits. In order to deal with its sparse granulometric curve, a large single ring infiltrometer (1 meter in diameter) was used. A constant hydraulic head (=0.07 m) was imposed during the test. Two kinds of data are recorded: the amount of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. The main hydraulic properties are estimated using Richard's equation in a 2D axi-symmetric configuration. Simulations are performed using a finite element commercial software package (Comsol Multiphysics 5.1). According to simplified numerical models, an average homogeneous saturated permeability of the alluvial deposits is estimated at 5.0 10-6 m.s-1. However, such a simple model is not able to represent accurately the moisture stain at the soil surface. More complex models introduce anisotropy of permeability in the alluvium layer, with mono or bi-layer domain. In these cases, experimental and modeling results are consistent, both for the amount of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. The hydraulic anisotropy in the soil could be due to the stratified nature of alluvial deposits and to soil compaction during the construction of infiltration basins. Keywords: Single ring infiltrometer test, artificial aquifer recharge, numerical modeling.
Numerical Analysis of the SCHOLAR Supersonic Combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, Carlos G.; Cutler, Andrew D.
2003-01-01
The SCHOLAR scramjet experiment is the subject of an ongoing numerical investigation. The facility nozzle and combustor were solved separate and sequentially, with the exit conditions of the former used as inlet conditions for the latter. A baseline configuration for the numerical model was compared with the available experimental data. It was found that ignition-delay was underpredicted and fuel-plume penetration overpredicted, while the pressure rise was close to experimental values. In addition, grid-convergence by means of grid-sequencing could not be established. The effects of the different turbulence parameters were quantified. It was found that it was not possible to simultaneously predict the three main parameters of this flow: pressure-rise, ignition-delay, and fuel-plume penetration.
A Numerical Model for Atomtronic Circuit Analysis
Chow, Weng W.; Straatsma, Cameron J. E.; Anderson, Dana Z.
2015-07-16
A model for studying atomtronic devices and circuits based on finite-temperature Bose-condensed gases is presented. The approach involves numerically solving equations of motion for atomic populations and coherences, derived using the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian and the Heisenberg picture. The resulting cluster expansion is truncated at a level giving balance between physics rigor and numerical demand mitigation. This approach allows parametric studies involving time scales that cover both the rapid population dynamics relevant to nonequilibrium state evolution, as well as the much longer time durations typical for reaching steady-state device operation. This model is demonstrated by studying the evolution of a Bose-condensed gas in the presence of atom injection and extraction in a double-well potential. In this configuration phase locking between condensates in each well of the potential is readily observed, and its influence on the evolution of the system is studied.
Numerical Analysis of Robust Phase Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudinger, Kenneth; Kimmel, Shelby
Robust phase estimation (RPE) is a new technique for estimating rotation angles and axes of single-qubit operations, steps necessary for developing useful quantum gates [arXiv:1502.02677]. As RPE only diagnoses a few parameters of a set of gate operations while at the same time achieving Heisenberg scaling, it requires relatively few resources compared to traditional tomographic procedures. In this talk, we present numerical simulations of RPE that show both Heisenberg scaling and robustness against state preparation and measurement errors, while also demonstrating numerical bounds on the procedure's efficacy. We additionally compare RPE to gate set tomography (GST), another Heisenberg-limited tomographic procedure. While GST provides a full gate set description, it is more resource-intensive than RPE, leading to potential tradeoffs between the procedures. We explore these tradeoffs and numerically establish criteria to guide experimentalists in deciding when to use RPE or GST to characterize their gate sets.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Detrital Zircon Geochronology Applied to Basin Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gehrels, G. E.
2014-12-01
pathways (commonly involving episodes of recycling), characterizing source regions, establishing connections between drainage areas and offshore basins, and evaluating reservoir characteristics.
Basin analysis studies of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana
Macke, D.L.
1988-07-01
The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) sedimentary rocks of the Powder River basin represent nearly half of Phanerozoic time, yet they remain virtually unexplored in the subsurface. Rocks of the same age in the Big Horn and Williston basins and in the Central Montana trough have produced much oil and gas, as have the overlying Pennsylvanian strata of the Powder River basin. A synthesis of published stratigraphic information, together with a regional analysis of sedimentary sequences, has been undertaken to evaluate the economic potential of the lower Paleozoic formations. The lack of an economic impetus to study these rocks has hampered the development of precise depositional models for these sequences. Furthermore, the depths of prospective beds, as well as long-standing misconceptions about the regional stratigraphy, have also served to restrain exploration. Stratigraphic studies have documented a succession of marine transgressions and regressions on the flanks of a highland in southeastern Wyoming. The highland persisted as a subdued geographic feature through most of early Paleozoic time, until it rose at the end of the Mississippian. Erosion during the Late Silurian and Devonian removed much of the depositional record in the area, but onlap can be demonstrated with relative certainty for Ordovician and Mississippian rocks. The repetition of sedimentologic features indicates persistent geologic controls in the region and suggests that these paleoenvironments might provide good targets for exploration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sehrt, Manuel; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.
2014-05-01
The Tarfaya Basin is the northern part of the Tarfaya-Laâyoune-Dakhla Basin that extends over 1000 km along the western Saharan margin from the Mauritanian border to the Canary Islands in the north. The basin is bounded by the Mauritanide thrust belt and Precambrian Reguibat Arch in the SE-E and the Palaeozoic fold belt of the Anti-Atlas in the NE. A large amount of Mesozoic terrigenous sedimentary rocks are deposited in most of the basins along the continental margin of Morocco indicating a major episode of erosion occurred during the rift and early post-rift period in the Central Atlantic. In the Tarfaya-Laâyoune-Dakhla Basin, the Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary cover reaches a thickness of up to 12 km. The presence of high surface elevations in the Anti-Atlas mountain belt (2700 m) indicates a potential source area for the surrounding basins, i.e. the Tarfaya Basin. The present study was focused on the thermal and inversion history of the Tarfaya Basin, the provenance of the Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of the basin and additionally on the thermal and exhumation history of the Western Anti-Atlas. In order to characterize the t-T history, apatite and zircon fission-track dating, apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He dating and furthermore 2-D modelling with 'HeFTy' software has been carried out at Precambrian rocks of the Western Anti-Atlas and Cretaceous to Neogene sedimentary rocks from the Tarfaya Basin. Thermochronological data and t-T path modelling indicate an inversion of the onshore Tarfaya Basin in the Palaeogene. The provenance analysis suggests an almost continuous sediment transport from the Anti-Atlas to the Tarfaya Basin and a simultaneous sediment input from the Reguibat Shield.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sophocleous, M. A.; Koelliker, J. K.; Govindaraju, R. S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S. R.; Perkins, S. P.
1999-01-01
The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water rights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.
Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S.R.; Perkins, S.P.
1999-01-01
The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water fights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.
Numerical analysis of slender vortex motion
Zhou, H.
1996-02-01
Several numerical methods for slender vortex motion (the local induction equation, the Klein-Majda equation, and the Klein-Knio equation) are compared on the specific example of sideband instability of Kelvin waves on a vortex. Numerical experiments on this model problem indicate that all these methods yield qualitatively similar behavior, and this behavior is different from the behavior of a non-slender vortex with variable cross-section. It is found that the boundaries between stable, recurrent, and chaotic regimes in the parameter space of the model problem depend on the method used. The boundaries of these domains in the parameter space for the Klein-Majda equation and for the Klein-Knio equation are closely related to the core size. When the core size is large enough, the Klein-Majda equation always exhibits stable solutions for our model problem. Various conclusions are drawn; in particular, the behavior of turbulent vortices cannot be captured by these local approximations, and probably cannot be captured by any slender vortex model with constant vortex cross-section. Speculations about the differences between classical and superfluid hydrodynamics are also offered.
Numerical Sensitivity Analysis of a Composite Impact Absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caputo, F.; Lamanna, G.; Scarano, D.; Soprano, A.
2008-08-01
This work deals with a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of structural composite components. There are several difficulties associated with the numerical simulation of a composite impact-absorber, such as high geometrical non-linearities, boundary contact conditions, failure criteria, material behaviour; all those aspects make the calibration of numerical models and the evaluation of their sensitivity to the governing geometrical, physical and numerical parameters one of the main objectives of whatever numerical investigation. The last aspect is a very important one for designers in order to make the application of the model to real cases robust from both a physical and a numerical point of view. At first, on the basis of experimental data from literature, a preliminary calibration of the numerical model of a composite impact absorber and then a sensitivity analysis to the variation of the main geometrical and material parameters have been developed, by using explicit finite element algorithms implemented in the Ls-Dyna code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.
2007-12-01
The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3
The Analysis, Numerical Simulation, and Diagnosis of Extratropical Weather Systems
1999-09-30
respectively, and iv ) the numerical simulation and observational validation of high-spatial resolution (~10 km) numerical predictions. APPROACH My approach...satellite and targeted dropwindsonde observations; in collaboration with Xiaolie Zou (Fla. State Univ.), Chris Velden (Univ. Wisc ./CIMMS), and Arlin...Univ. Wisc .), and Arlin Krueger (NASA/GSFC). Analysis and numerical simulation of the fine-scale structure of upper-level jet streams from high- spatial
Procedures for numerical analysis of circadian rhythms
REFINETTI, ROBERTO; LISSEN, GERMAINE CORNÉ; HALBERG, FRANZ
2010-01-01
This article reviews various procedures used in the analysis of circadian rhythms at the populational, organismal, cellular and molecular levels. The procedures range from visual inspection of time plots and actograms to several mathematical methods of time series analysis. Computational steps are described in some detail, and additional bibliographic resources and computer programs are listed. PMID:23710111
Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Sail Spacecraft
Sasaki, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Usui, Hideyuki; Funaki, Ikkoh; Kojima, Hirotsugu
2008-12-31
To capture the kinetic energy of the solar wind by creating a large magnetosphere around the spacecraft, magneto-plasma sail injects a plasma jet into a strong magnetic field produced by an electromagnet onboard the spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) on the magnetosphere of magneto-plasma sail. First, using an axi-symmetric two-dimensional MHD code, we numerically confirm the magnetic field inflation, and the formation of a magnetosphere by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field. The expansion of an artificial magnetosphere by the plasma injection is then simulated, and we show that the magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field expanded by the plasma jet from the spacecraft. This simulation indicates the size of the artificial magnetosphere becomes smaller when applying the IMF.
Manufacturing in space: Fluid dynamics numerical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, S. J.; Nicholson, L. A.; Spradley, L. W.
1982-01-01
Numerical computations were performed for natural convection in circular enclosures under various conditions of acceleration. It was found that subcritical acceleration vectors applied in the direction of the temperature gradient will lead to an eventual state of rest regardless of the initial state of motion. Supercritical acceleration vectors will lead to the same steady state condition of motion regardless of the initial state of motion. Convection velocities were computed for acceleration vectors at various angles of the initial temperature gradient. The results for Rayleigh numbers of 1000 or less were found to closely follow Weinbaum's first order theory. Higher Rayleigh number results were shown to depart significantly from the first order theory. Supercritical behavior was confirmed for Rayleigh numbers greater than the known supercritical value of 9216. Response times were determined to provide an indication of the time required to change states of motion for the various cases considered.
Heilweil, V.M.; Freethey, G.W.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Stolp, B.J.; Wilberg, D.E.
2000-01-01
Because rapid growth of communities in Washington and Iron Counties, Utah, is expected to cause an increase in the future demand for water resources, a hydrologic investigation was done to better understand ground-water resources within the central Virgin River basin. This study focused on two of the principal ground-water reservoirs within the basin: the upper Ash Creek basin ground-water system and the Navajo and Kayenta aquifer system.The ground-water system of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin consists of three aquifers: the uppermost Quaternary basin-fill aquifer, the Tertiary alluvial-fan aquifer, and the Tertiary Pine Valley monzonite aquifer. These aquifers are naturally bounded by the Hurricane Fault and by drainage divides. On the basis of measurements, estimates, and numerical simulations of reasonable values for all inflow and outflow components, total water moving through the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is estimated to be about 14,000 acre-feet per year. Recharge to the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is mostly from infiltration of precipitation and seepage from ephemeral and perennial streams. The primary source of discharge is assumed to be evapotranspiration; however, subsurface discharge near Ash Creek Reservoir also may be important.The character of two of the hydrologic boundaries of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is speculative. The eastern boundary provided by the Hurricane Fault is assumed to be a no-flow boundary, and a substantial part of the ground-water discharge from the system is assumed to be subsurface outflow beneath Ash Creek Reservoir along the southern boundary. However, these assumptions might be incorrect because alternative numerical simulations that used different boundary conditions also proved to be feasible. The hydrogeologic character of the aquifers is uncertain because of limited data. Differences in well yield indicate that there is considerable
Numerical Modelling of multi-stage basin inversion in the western Barents Shelf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armaghan Faisal Miraj, Muhammad; Pascal, Christphe; Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Faleide, Jan Inge
2016-04-01
Numerical modeling of inversion induced by different regional tectonic forces from Late Triassic to Miocene is presented. Our goal is to predict strain and stress pattern evolution and to test the observed tectonic inversion events in the western Barents Sea. We used a finite-element numerical code, namely ANSYS™, to simulate stress and fault slip patterns and four 2-D thin plate modelling setups with different boundary conditions were constructed. We assumed four different regional events: Late Triassic to Early Jurassic E-W compression presumably connected to westward translation of Novaya Zemlya (Model 1), Late Cretaceous NE-SW directed far field stresses (Model 2), dextral megashear between Greenland and the Barents Sea Shelf in Early Eocene (Model 3) and NW-SE Atlantic ridge push from Miocene to present-day (Model 4). Model 1 results show a strike-slip regime along the central segment of the Thor Iversen Fault Complex and the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Compressive regimes along the Måsøy and Hoop fault complexes favor development of inversion structures in the study area during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. Simulated stress patterns in Model 2 suggest a clockwise stress rotation along the Bjørnøyrenna Fault Complex and the Ringvassøy - Loppa Fault Complex and pronounced stress deflections along the Asterias Fault Complex. These modeled stress deflections support tectonic inversion during Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary along the corresponding fault complexes. The results obtained in Model 3 suggest that the interior of the western Barents Sea was not severely influenced by Early Eocene North Atlantic opening/shearing. Stress rotations are modelled along the Senja Fracture Zone and Hornsund Fault Complex which separate the study area into two different rheological domains. The results suggest that Early Eocene sea floor spreading caused stress partitioning along the Senja Fracture Zone. The observed inversion structures may be related to local
Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.
Witkowski, W.R.; Eldred, M.S.; Harding, D.C.
1994-09-01
The use of state-of-the-art numerical analysis tools to determine the optimal design of a radioactive material (RAM) transportation container is investigated. The design of a RAM package`s components involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal, and radioactive shielding analyses. The final design must adhere to very strict design constraints. The current technique used by cask designers is uncoupled and involves designing each component separately with respect to its driving constraint. With the use of numerical optimization schemes, the complex couplings can be considered directly, and the performance of the integrated package can be maximized with respect to the analysis conditions. This can lead to more efficient package designs. Thermal and structural accident conditions are analyzed in the shape optimization of a simplified cask design. In this paper, details of the integration of numerical analysis tools, development of a process model, nonsmoothness difficulties with the optimization of the cask, and preliminary results are discussed.
Numerical analysis of ellipsometric critical adsorption data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Dan S. P.; Law, Bruce M.; Smock, Martin; Landau, David P.
1997-01-01
A recent study [Dan S. P. Smith and Bruce M. Law, Phys. Rev. E 54, 2727 (1996)] presented measurements of the ellipsometric coefficient at the Brewster angle ρ-bar on the liquid-vapor surface of four different binary liquid mixtures in the vicinity of their liquid-liquid critical point and analyzed the data analytically for large reduced temperatures t. In the current report we analyze this (ρ-bar,t) data numerically over the entire range of t. Theoretical universal surface scaling functions P+/-(x) from a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation [M. Smock, H. W. Diehl, and D. P. Landau, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 98, 486 (1994)] and a renormalization-group (RG) calculation [H. W. Diehl and M. Smock, Phys. Rev. B 47, 5841 (1993); 48, 6470(E) (1993)] are used in the numerical integration of Maxwell's equations to provide theoretical (ρ-bar,t) curves that can be compared directly with the experimental data. While both the MC and RG curves are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data, the agreement is generally found to be better for the MC curves. However, systematic discrepancies are found in the quantitative comparison between the MC and experimental (ρ-bar,t) curves, and it is determined that these discrepancies are too large to be due to experimental error. Finally, it is demonstrated that ρ-bar can be rescaled to produce an approximately universal ellipsometric curve as a function of the single variable ξ+/-/λ, where ξ is the correlation length and λ is the wavelength of light. The position of the maximum of this curve in the one-phase region, (ξ+/λ)peak, is approximately a universal number. It is determined that (ξ+/λ)peak is dependent primarily on the ratio c+/P∞,+, where P+(x)≅c+x-Β/ν for x<<1 and P+(x)≅P∞,+e-x for x>>:1. This enables the experimental estimate of c+/P∞,+=0.90+/-0.24, which is significantly large compared to the MC and RG values of 0.577 and 0.442, respectively.
Numerical analysis for finite Fresnel transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoyagi, Tomohiro; Ohtsubo, Kouichi; Aoyagi, Nobuo
2016-10-01
The Fresnel transform is a bounded, linear, additive, and unitary operator in Hilbert space and is applied to many applications. In this study, a sampling theorem for a Fresnel transform pair in polar coordinate systems is derived. According to the sampling theorem, any function in the complex plane can be expressed by taking the products of the values of a function and sampling function systems. Sampling function systems are constituted by Bessel functions and their zeros. By computer simulations, we consider the application of the sampling theorem to the problem of approximating a function to demonstrate its validity. Our approximating function is a circularly symmetric function which is defined in the complex plane. Counting the number of sampling points requires the calculation of the zeros of Bessel functions, which are calculated by an approximation formula and numerical tables. Therefore, our sampling points are nonuniform. The number of sampling points, the normalized mean square error between the original function and its approximation function and phases are calculated and the relationship between them is revealed.
Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)
1991-12-01
This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.
Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.
1991-12-01
This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.
Numerical Analysis Of Interlaminar-Fracture Toughness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.
1988-01-01
Finite-element analysis applied in conjunction with strain-energy and micromechanical concepts. Computational procedure involves local, local-crack-closure, and/or the "unique" local-crack-closure method developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, for mathematical modeling of ENF and MMF. Methods based on three-dimensional finite-element analysis in conjunction with concept of strain-energy-release rate and with micromechanics of composite materials. Assists in interpretation of ENF and MMF fracture tests performed to obtain fracture-toughness parameters, by enabling evaluation of states of stress likely to induce interlaminar fractures.
An analysis of the carbon balance of the Arctic Basin
Mcguire, David; Hayes, Daniel J; Kicklighter, David W.; Manizza, Manfredi; Zhuang, Qianlai; Chen, Min; Follows, Michael J; Gurney, Kevin; Mcclelland, James W; Melillo, Jerry; Peterson, Bruce; Prinn, Ronald
2010-01-01
This study used several model-based tools to analyse the dynamics of the Arctic Basin between 1997 and 2006 as a linked system of land-ocean-atmosphere C exchange. The analysis estimates that terrestrial areas of the Arctic Basin lost 62.9 Tg C yr 1 and that the Arctic Ocean gained 94.1 Tg C yr 1. Arctic lands and oceans were a net CO2 sink of 108.9 Tg C yr 1, which is within the range of uncertainty in estimates from atmospheric inversions. Although both lands and oceans of the Arctic were estimated to be CO2 sinks, the land sink diminished in strength because of increased fire disturbance compared to previous decades, while the ocean sink increased in strength because of increased biological pump activity associated with reduced sea ice cover. Terrestrial areas of the Arctic were a net source of 41.5 Tg CH4 yr 1 that increased by 0.6 Tg CH4 yr 1 during the decade of analysis, a magnitude that is comparable with an atmospheric inversion of CH4. Because the radiative forcing of the estimated CH4 emissions is much greater than the CO2 sink, the analysis suggests that the Arctic Basin is a substantial net source of green house gas forcing to the climate system.
Hydrological regime analysis of the Selenge River basin, Mongolia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, X.; Yasunari, T.; Ohata, T.; Natsagdorj, L.; Davaa, G.; Oyunbaatar, D.
2003-10-01
Arid and semi-arid regions are very vulnerable to environmental changes. Climate change studies indicate that the environment in such areas will steadily deteriorate with global warming; inland lakes will shrink and desert areas will expand. Mongolia is a landlocked country in north-central Asia that contains a unique ecological system consisting of taiga, steppe, and desert from north to south. The Selenge River basin (280 000 km2) in northern Mongolia is a semi-arid region underlain by permafrost, between latitudes 46 and 52Â°N, and longitudes 96 and 109Â°E. The issue of sustainable development of the basin is very important owing to its limited natural resources, including fresh water, forest, and rangeland. To examine the water cycle processes in the basin, a hydrological analysis was carried out using a simple scheme for the interaction between the land surface and atmosphere (big-leaf model) coupled to a hydrological model for the period 1988-92 to estimate the hydrological regime of the basin. Annual precipitation in this period averaged 298 mm, ranging from 212 to 352 mm at a 1 Â° × 1 Â° resolution based on data from 10 gauges, and the estimated annual evapotranspiration averaged 241 mm, ranging between 153 and 300 mm. This indicates that evapotranspiration accounts for the overwhelming majority of the annual precipitation, averaging 81% and ranging between 64 and 96%. The annual potential evapotranspiration in the basin averaged 2009 mm; the ratio of evapotranspiration (actual to potential evapotranspiration) was 0Â·12 and the wetness index (annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) was 0Â·15. Copyright
Carlson, Carl S.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Brown, Craig J.
2010-01-01
A study of the groundwater and stream-aquifer interaction in the Pootatuck River Basin, Newtown, Connecticut, was conducted to analyze the effect of production wells on the groundwater levels and streamflow in the Pootatuck River as part of a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and Newtown, Connecticut. This study will help address concerns about the increasing competition for water for human uses and protection of aquatic habitat. The groundwater-flow model developed in the study was designed for use as a tool to assist planners in assessing the effects of potential future development, which will change the amount and distribution of recharge available to the groundwater system. Several different techniques were used to investigate the interconnection between the stream and the aquifer. Temperature, groundwater levels, stream stage, and stable-isotope data collected during aquifer tests at the principal production wells in the Pootatuck River Basin, as well as groundwater-flow simulations of the system, indicate that more than half of the water pumped from the wells comes from the Pootatuck River. This finding potentially has a large effect on approaches for protecting the water quality of the pumped water. Increases in the amount of impervious surface from future development will reduce and redistribute recharge to the groundwater system. The simulation of future development scenarios showed a decrease in the simulated base flow in the main stem of the Pootatuck River and in all of the 26 simulated subbasins, with some of the subbasins showing a decrease of more than 20 percent when new development had 85 percent impervious area. The groundwater-flow model and particle tracking were used to determine areas that contribute recharge to the five production wells available for use in the Pootatuck River Basin. These areas included narrow portions of the aquifer that extended beyond the immediate upgradient areas, probably because of deeper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamato, Philippe; Castelltort, Sébastien; Willett, Sean
2010-05-01
The last two decades have been marked by a large amount of studies on the relative influences of climate and tectonics on landscape evolution. Coevally, considerable advances have been achieved in numerical modelling of landscape evolution. These have been particularly useful in testing hypotheses and scenarios of the potential controls and feedbacks between climate, tectonics and landscape evolution. However, our current knowledge of the physical processes of erosion in nature remains incomplete. Indeed, although the predictions of landscape evolution models are often insightful, they are also sometimes overlooked due to their lack of physical basis. In parallel with current field and experimental investigations on erosion processes, one way to tackle this problem is to compare simulated and natural landscapes. Then, this allows us to know how can one assess whether a simulated landscape is realistic in a long-standing problem in geomorphology. The scaling between stream length and upstream drainage area, a relation known as Hack's law (Hack, 1957) provides a constrain on the geometry of natural landscapes. It is however notoriously difficult to use this law to assess the goodness of a landscape evolution model since it must be regarded over a logarithmic range of scales (stream orders), which is usually not possible in landscape evolution models because of their resolution. The convergence angle, a measure of a basin's elongation (Castelltort et al., 2009) is a similar metrics of drainage basin shape. It is controlled by the slope and roughness of the undissected surface on which a new basin develops. This relation arises from analytical predictions of water flow over simple topography and is supported by data on median to large-scale natural networks. In the present study we investigate the influence of slope and surface roughness on the shape of river basins using the CASCADE code (Braun and Sambridge, 1997). Results show that the rules used to route water in
Rio Hondo Sediment Assessment Analysis Using SAM. Numerical Model Investigation
1991-05-01
MISCELLANEOUS PAPER HL-91-1 M ~ RIO HONDO SEDIMENT ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS USING SAM Numerical Model Investigation AD-A238 572Ii 1 11byIll lil Nolan K...FUNDING NUMBERS Rio Hondo Sediment Assessment Analysis Using SAM; Numerical Model Investigation 6. AUTHOR(S) Nolan K. Raphelt Michael J. Trawle William A... Rio Hondo through Roswell, NM, was conducted. The investigation represented a sediment assessment level study conducted to test for potential
Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita
2016-04-01
A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.
Numerical analysis of the orthogonal descent method
Shokov, V.A.; Shchepakin, M.B.
1994-11-01
The author of the orthogonal descent method has been testing it since 1977. The results of these tests have only strengthened the need for further analysis and development of orthogonal descent algorithms for various classes of convex programming problems. Systematic testing of orthogonal descent algorithms and comparison of test results with other nondifferentiable optimization methods was conducted at TsEMI RAN in 1991-1992 using the results.
Numerical bifurcation analysis of immunological models with time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luzyanina, Tatyana; Roose, Dirk; Bocharov, Gennady
2005-12-01
In recent years, a large number of mathematical models that are described by delay differential equations (DDEs) have appeared in the life sciences. To analyze the models' dynamics, numerical methods are necessary, since analytical studies can only give limited results. In turn, the availability of efficient numerical methods and software packages encourages the use of time delays in mathematical modelling, which may lead to more realistic models. We outline recently developed numerical methods for bifurcation analysis of DDEs and illustrate the use of these methods in the analysis of a mathematical model of human hepatitis B virus infection.
Ernest A. Mancini
2004-02-05
The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and the determination of the tectonic and depositional histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first three (3) to six (6) months of Year 1, the research focus is on data compilation and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the tectonic and depositional histories of the basin. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.
Numerical analysis on pump turbine runaway points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, L.; Liu, J. T.; Wang, L. Q.; Jiao, L.; Li, Z. F.
2012-11-01
To research the character of pump turbine runaway points with different guide vane opening, a hydraulic model was established based on a pumped storage power station. The RNG k-ε model and SMPLEC algorithms was used to simulate the internal flow fields. The result of the simulation was compared with the test data and good correspondence was got between experimental data and CFD result. Based on this model, internal flow analysis was carried out. The result show that when the pump turbine ran at the runway speed, lots of vortexes appeared in the flow passage of the runner. These vortexes could always be observed even if the guide vane opening changes. That is an important way of energy loss in the runaway condition. Pressure on two sides of the runner blades were almost the same. So the runner power is very low. High speed induced large centrifugal force and the small guide vane opening gave the water velocity a large tangential component, then an obvious water ring could be observed between the runner blades and guide vanes in small guide vane opening condition. That ring disappeared when the opening bigger than 20°. These conclusions can provide a theory basis for the analysis and simulation of the pump turbine runaway points.
Numerical Uncertainty Quantification for Radiation Analysis Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Brooke; Blattnig, Steve; Clowdsley, Martha
2007-01-01
Recently a new emphasis has been placed on engineering applications of space radiation analyses and thus a systematic effort of Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) of the tools commonly used for radiation analysis for vehicle design and mission planning has begun. There are two sources of uncertainty in geometric discretization addressed in this paper that need to be quantified in order to understand the total uncertainty in estimating space radiation exposures. One source of uncertainty is in ray tracing, as the number of rays increase the associated uncertainty decreases, but the computational expense increases. Thus, a cost benefit analysis optimizing computational time versus uncertainty is needed and is addressed in this paper. The second source of uncertainty results from the interpolation over the dose vs. depth curves that is needed to determine the radiation exposure. The question, then, is what is the number of thicknesses that is needed to get an accurate result. So convergence testing is performed to quantify the uncertainty associated with interpolating over different shield thickness spatial grids.
Numerical analysis of soil-structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanlangen, Harry
1991-05-01
A study to improve some existing procedures for the finite element analysis of soil deformation and collapse is presented. Special attention is paid to problems of soil structure interaction. Emphasis is put on the behavior of soil rather than on that of structures. This seems to be justifiable if static interaction of stiff structures and soft soil is considered. In such a case nonlinear response will exclusively stem from soil deformation. In addition, the quality of the results depends to a high extent on the proper modeling of soil flow along structures and not on the modeling of the structure itself. An exception is made when geotextile reinforcement is considered. In that case the structural element, i.e., the geotextile, is highly flexible. The equation of continuum equilibrium, which serves as a starting point for the finite element formulation of large deformation elastoplasticity, is discussed with special attention being paid to the interpretation of some objective stress rate tensors. The solution of nonlinear finite element equations is addressed. Soil deformation in the prefailure range is discussed. Large deformation effect in the analysis of soil deformation is touched on.
Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris
WESTCOTT, J.L.
2000-06-21
This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tallman, A. A.; Richards, K. E.; Stringer, A. C.; Weaver, J.; Daus, A.; Robinson, J. C.
2008-12-01
Geomatrix conducted a hydrogeologic assessment of the Inarajan and Tinaga River basins in southern Guam to develop a conceptual understanding of groundwater flow and occurrence in support of design, construction, and operation of a regional municipal landfill. Few previous hydrologic studies have focused on southern Guam, and thus this study provided the first detailed comprehensive assessment of groundwater and surface water conditions in the area. Data collected from an extensive field program, along with previous investigations were used to develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model describing regional and site geology, hydrostratigraphy, and groundwater and surface water flow. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model of the system was developed using MODFLOW-SURFACT. The model was used to test various alternative conceptualizations and to provide a tool to evaluate landfill design and potential impacts to water resources from construction and operation of the landfill. The nature of the local watershed systems allowed for design of a basin-scale model. Historic USGS daily discharge measurements on the Inarajan and Tinaga Rivers coupled with historic precipitation records facilitated the basin scale approach. The model was calibrated to both steady state and transient conditions allowing for simulation of groundwater flow under a variety of conditions. Following calibration, predictive simulations were conducted to assess various aspects of landfill construction. The primary finding of the predictive assessments was that elimination of areal recharge resulting from construction of the landfill will cause a dramatic lowering of the water table in the weathered and fractured pyroclastic units that underlie the site. In addition, construction of the landfill will likely result in some reduction in stream base flow. Discharge of storm water runoff from the landfill into adjacent wetlands will mitigate some of the predicted impacts to base flow and
NASCRIN - NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SCRAMJET INLET
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, A.
1994-01-01
The NASCRIN program was developed for analyzing two-dimensional flow fields in supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) inlets. NASCRIN solves the two-dimensional Euler or Navier-Stokes equations in conservative form by an unsplit, explicit, two-step finite-difference method. A more recent explicit-implicit, two-step scheme has also been incorporated in the code for viscous flow analysis. An algebraic, two-layer eddy-viscosity model is used for the turbulent flow calculations. NASCRIN can analyze both inviscid and viscous flows with no struts, one strut, or multiple struts embedded in the flow field. NASCRIN can be used in a quasi-three-dimensional sense for some scramjet inlets under certain simplifying assumptions. Although developed for supersonic internal flow, NASCRIN may be adapted to a variety of other flow problems. In particular, it should be readily adaptable to subsonic inflow with supersonic outflow, supersonic inflow with subsonic outflow, or fully subsonic flow. The NASCRIN program is available for batch execution on the CDC CYBER 203. The vectorized FORTRAN version was developed in 1983. NASCRIN has a central memory requirement of approximately 300K words for a grid size of about 3,000 points.
Combustion irreversibilities: Numerical simulation and analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Valter; Rouboa, Abel
2012-08-01
An exergy analysis was performed considering the combustion of methane and agro-industrial residues produced in Portugal (forest residues and vines pruning). Regarding that the irreversibilities of a thermodynamic process are path dependent, the combustion process was considering as resulting from different hypothetical paths each one characterized by four main sub-processes: reactant mixing, fuel oxidation, internal thermal energy exchange (heat transfer), and product mixing. The exergetic efficiency was computed using a zero dimensional model developed by using a Visual Basic home code. It was concluded that the exergy losses were mainly due to the internal thermal energy exchange sub-process. The exergy losses from this sub-process are higher when the reactants are preheated up to the ignition temperature without previous fuel oxidation. On the other hand, the global exergy destruction can be minored increasing the pressure, the reactants temperature and the oxygen content on the oxidant stream. This methodology allows the identification of the phenomena and processes that have larger exergy losses, the understanding of why these losses occur and how the exergy changes with the parameters associated to each system which is crucial to implement the syngas combustion from biomass products as a competitive technology.
Numerical analysis of human dental occlusal contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, F. S.; Las Casas, E. B.; Godoy, G. C. D.; Meireles, A. B.
2010-06-01
The purpose of this study was to obtain real contact areas, forces, and pressures acting on human dental enamel as a function of the nominal pressure during dental occlusal contact. The described development consisted of three steps: characterization of the surface roughness by 3D contact profilometry test, finite element analysis of micro responses for each pair of main asperities in contact, and homogenization of macro responses using an assumed probability density function. The inelastic deformation of enamel was considered, adjusting the stress-strain relationship of sound enamel to that obtained from instrumented indentation tests conducted with spherical tip. A mechanical part of the static friction coefficient was estimated as the ratio between tangential and normal components of the overall resistive force, resulting in μd = 0.057. Less than 1% of contact pairs reached the yield stress of enamel, indicating that the occlusal contact is essentially elastic. The micro-models indicated an average hardness of 6.25GPa, and the homogenized result for macroscopic interface was around 9GPa. Further refinements of the methodology and verification using experimental data can provide a better understanding of processes related to contact, friction and wear of human tooth enamel.
Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region
Faulds, James E.
2013-09-30
are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike‐slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527 representative of the region. Results: The results of our slip and dilation tendency analysis are shown in Figures 4 (dilation tendency), 5 (slip tendency) and 6 (slip tendency + dilation tendency). Shmin varies from northwest to east‐west trending throughout much of the Great Basin. As such, north‐ to northeast‐striking faults have the highest tendency to slip and to dilate, depending on the local trend of shmin. These results provide a first order filter on faults and fault systems in the Great Basin, affording focusing of local‐scale exploration efforts for blind or hidden geothermal resources.
Hamming, R W
1965-04-23
I hope I have shown not that mathematicians are incompetent or wrong, but why I believe that their interests, tastes, and objectives are frequently different from those of practicing numerical analysts, and why activity in numerical analysis should be evaluated by its own standards and not by those of pure mathematics. I hope I have also shown you that much of the "art form" of mathematics consists of delicate, "noise-free" results, while many areas of applied mathematics, especially numerical analysis, are dominated by noise. Again, in computing the process is fundamental, and rigorous mathematical proofs are often meaningless in computing situations. Finally, in numerical analysis, as in engineering, choosing the right model is more important than choosing the model with the elegant mathematics.
Analysis of water level variations in Brazilian basins using GRACE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matos, A.; Blitzkow, D.; Almeida, F.; Costa, S.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.
2012-01-01
A comparison between daily
A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.
2010-12-01
Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas
2016-09-01
Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipsey, Lindsay; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Cloetingh, Sierd
2015-04-01
Thermal anomalies in deep sedimentary settings are largely controlled by fluid circulation within permeable zones. Convection is of particular interest in geothermal exploration, as it creates areas with anomalously high temperatures at shallow depths. Recent work on the temperature distribution in the Dutch subsurface revealed a thermal anomaly at the Luttelgeest-01 (LTG-01) at 4-5 km depth, which could be explained by thermal convection. Temperature measurements show a shift to higher temperatures at depths greater than 4000 m, corresponding the Dinantian carbonates. In order for convective heat transport to explain the anomaly, there must also be sufficient permeability. Rayleigh number calculations show that convection may be possible within the Dinantian carbonate layer, depending on its thickness, permeability and geothermal gradient. For example, an average permeability of 60 mD permits convection in a 600 m aquifer, given a geothermal gradient of 31°C/km. If the permeability is reduced to 20 mD, convection can only occur where the thickness of the aquifer is greater than 900 m. Interestingly, numerical simulations were able to come within 5-10 mD of the theoretical minimum permeability values calculated for each scenario. 3D numerical simulations provide insight on possible flow and thermal structures within the fractured carbonate interval, as well as illustrate the role of permeability on the timing of convection onset, convection cell structure development and the resulting temperature patterns. The development and number of convection cells is very much a time dependent process. Many cells may develop in the beginning of simulations, but they seem to gradually converge until steady state is reached. The shape of convective upwellings varies from roughly circular or hexagonal to more elongated upwellings and downwellings. Furthermore, the geometric aspects of the carbonate platform itself likely control the shape and location of upwellings, as well as
Mancini, Ernest A.
2003-02-06
The project objectives are improving access to information for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin by inventorying data files and records of the major information repositories in the region, making these inventories easily accessible in electronic format, increasing the amount of information available on domestic sedimentary basins through a comprehensive analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, and enhancing the understanding of the petroleum systems operating in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin.
Numerical analysis of eccentric orifice plate using ANSYS Fluent software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zahariea, D.
2016-11-01
In this paper the eccentric orifice plate is qualitative analysed as compared with the classical concentric orifice plate from the point of view of sedimentation tendency of solid particles in the fluid whose flow rate is measured. For this purpose, the numerical streamlines pattern will be compared for both orifice plates. The numerical analysis has been performed using ANSYS Fluent software. The methodology of CFD analysis is presented: creating the 3D solid model, fluid domain extraction, meshing, boundary condition, turbulence model, solving algorithm, convergence criterion, results and validation. Analysing the numerical streamlines, for the concentric orifice plate can be clearly observed two circumferential regions of separated flows, upstream and downstream of the orifice plate. The bottom part of these regions are the place where the solid particles could sediment. On the other hand, for the eccentric orifice plate, the streamlines pattern suggest that no sedimentation will occur because at the bottom area of the pipe there are no separated flows.
A general numerical model for wave rotor analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel W.
1992-01-01
Wave rotors represent one of the promising technologies for achieving very high core temperatures and pressures in future gas turbine engines. Their operation depends upon unsteady gas dynamics and as such, their analysis is quite difficult. This report describes a numerical model which has been developed to perform such an analysis. Following a brief introduction, a summary of the wave rotor concept is given. The governing equations are then presented, along with a summary of the assumptions used to obtain them. Next, the numerical integration technique is described. This is an explicit finite volume technique based on the method of Roe. The discussion then focuses on the implementation of appropriate boundary conditions. Following this, some results are presented which first compare the numerical approximation to the governing differential equations and then compare the overall model to an actual wave rotor experiment. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented concerning the limitations of the simplifying assumptions and areas where the model may be improved.
A general numerical model for wave rotor analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paxson, Daniel W.
1992-07-01
Wave rotors represent one of the promising technologies for achieving very high core temperatures and pressures in future gas turbine engines. Their operation depends upon unsteady gas dynamics and as such, their analysis is quite difficult. This report describes a numerical model which has been developed to perform such an analysis. Following a brief introduction, a summary of the wave rotor concept is given. The governing equations are then presented, along with a summary of the assumptions used to obtain them. Next, the numerical integration technique is described. This is an explicit finite volume technique based on the method of Roe. The discussion then focuses on the implementation of appropriate boundary conditions. Following this, some results are presented which first compare the numerical approximation to the governing differential equations and then compare the overall model to an actual wave rotor experiment. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented concerning the limitations of the simplifying assumptions and areas where the model may be improved.
Classification and analysis of candidate impact crater-hosted closed-basin lakes on Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goudge, Timothy A.; Aureli, Kelsey L.; Head, James W.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Mustard, John F.
2015-11-01
We present a new catalog of 205 candidate closed-basin lakes contained within impact craters across the surface of Mars. These basins have an inlet valley that incises the crater rim and flows into the basin but no visible outlet valley, and are considered candidate closed-basin lakes; the presence of a valley flowing into a basin does not necessitate the formation of a standing body of water. The major geomorphic distinction within our catalog of candidate paleolakes is the length of the inlet valley(s), with two major classes - basins with long (>20 km) inlet valleys (30 basins), and basins with short (<20 km) inlet valleys (175 basins). We identify 55 basins that contain sedimentary fan deposits at the mouths of their inlet valleys, of which nine are fed by long inlet valleys and 46 are fed by short inlet valleys. Analysis of the mineralogy of these fan deposits suggests that they are primarily composed of detrital material. Additionally, we find no evidence for widespread evaporite deposit formation within our catalog of candidate closed-basin lakes, which we conclude is indicative of a general transience for any lakes that did form within these basins. Morphometric characteristics for our catalog indicate that as an upper limit, these basins represent a volume of water equivalent to a ∼1.2 m global equivalent layer (GEL) of water spread evenly across the martian surface; this is a small fraction of the modern water ice reservoir on Mars. Our catalog offers a broader context within which results from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover can be interpreted, as Gale crater is a candidate closed-basin lake contained within our catalog. Gale is also one of 12 closed-basin lakes fed by both long and short inlet valleys, and so in situ analyses by Curiosity can shed light on the relative importance of these two types of inlets for any lacustrine activity within the basin.
Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Partial Basin and Range Heat and Zones of Critical Stress Maps
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
Interpolated maps of heat flow, temperature gradient, and quartz geothermometers are included as TIF files. Zones of critical stress map is also included as a TIF file. The zones are given a 5km diameter buffer. The study area is only a part of the Basin and Range, but it does includes the Tularosa Basin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, A.; Palombi, D.; Huff, G. F.
2014-12-01
A regional scale study of groundwater flow dynamics was undertaken in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), comprising parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. The objective of the study is to investigate basin-scale hydrogeology in WCSB and to establish boundary conditions for future local-scale groundwater management models. Earlier work in the Alberta basin has acknowledged the fact that in addition to topography controlled conditions, a substantial part of the basin exhibits sub-hydrostatic regimes. The basin-scale model (approx. 420,000 km2) includes Upper Cretaceous aquifers to Recent age sediments which collectively attain maximum thicknesses of >2600 m. Regional aquifer units considered for the numerical model are Quaternary sediments, and the sedimentary rocks of the Paskapoo, Scollard, Horseshoe Canyon formations and the Belly River Group. Regional aquitards delineated include the Battle and Bear Paw formations. The study area is bound to the west by the Brazeau-Waptiti thrust belt and to the south by the Canada-USA international border. The boundary to the north and east is delineated by the maximum extent of the Wapiti and Belly River groups and Judith River Formation. USGS MODFLOW was implemented for numerical simulation. The steady state numerical model was calibrated using a Response Surface based (Radial Basis Functions) optimization method. The calibration targets (~2000) were comprised of drill stem tests for deeper units and static water levels for shallower units. Petrophysical analyses of cores averaged K values from analyses of aquifer test results,and literature values were used to provide initial values and calibration ranges for hydraulic properties. Results indicate predominance of topography driven, local- to intermediate-scale flow systems in all hydrostratigraphic units with recharge of these units occurring in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The Battle aquitard, where present, acts to retard regional flow
MI-Sim: A MATLAB package for the numerical analysis of microbial ecological interactions.
Wade, Matthew J; Oakley, Jordan; Harbisher, Sophie; Parker, Nicholas G; Dolfing, Jan
2017-01-01
Food-webs and other classes of ecological network motifs, are a means of describing feeding relationships between consumers and producers in an ecosystem. They have application across scales where they differ only in the underlying characteristics of the organisms and substrates describing the system. Mathematical modelling, using mechanistic approaches to describe the dynamic behaviour and properties of the system through sets of ordinary differential equations, has been used extensively in ecology. Models allow simulation of the dynamics of the various motifs and their numerical analysis provides a greater understanding of the interplay between the system components and their intrinsic properties. We have developed the MI-Sim software for use with MATLAB to allow a rigorous and rapid numerical analysis of several common ecological motifs. MI-Sim contains a series of the most commonly used motifs such as cooperation, competition and predation. It does not require detailed knowledge of mathematical analytical techniques and is offered as a single graphical user interface containing all input and output options. The tools available in the current version of MI-Sim include model simulation, steady-state existence and stability analysis, and basin of attraction analysis. The software includes seven ecological interaction motifs and seven growth function models. Unlike other system analysis tools, MI-Sim is designed as a simple and user-friendly tool specific to ecological population type models, allowing for rapid assessment of their dynamical and behavioural properties.
MI-Sim: A MATLAB package for the numerical analysis of microbial ecological interactions
Oakley, Jordan; Harbisher, Sophie; Parker, Nicholas G.; Dolfing, Jan
2017-01-01
Food-webs and other classes of ecological network motifs, are a means of describing feeding relationships between consumers and producers in an ecosystem. They have application across scales where they differ only in the underlying characteristics of the organisms and substrates describing the system. Mathematical modelling, using mechanistic approaches to describe the dynamic behaviour and properties of the system through sets of ordinary differential equations, has been used extensively in ecology. Models allow simulation of the dynamics of the various motifs and their numerical analysis provides a greater understanding of the interplay between the system components and their intrinsic properties. We have developed the MI-Sim software for use with MATLAB to allow a rigorous and rapid numerical analysis of several common ecological motifs. MI-Sim contains a series of the most commonly used motifs such as cooperation, competition and predation. It does not require detailed knowledge of mathematical analytical techniques and is offered as a single graphical user interface containing all input and output options. The tools available in the current version of MI-Sim include model simulation, steady-state existence and stability analysis, and basin of attraction analysis. The software includes seven ecological interaction motifs and seven growth function models. Unlike other system analysis tools, MI-Sim is designed as a simple and user-friendly tool specific to ecological population type models, allowing for rapid assessment of their dynamical and behavioural properties. PMID:28273164
Numerical Analysis of Ice Impacts on Azimuth Propeller
2013-09-01
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY , CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited NUMERICAL ANALYSIS...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey , CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9... coastal ferries, workboats and fishing boats [3]. When considering icebreaking vessels, the likelihood of achieving damages to the propellers becomes
Investigating Convergence Patterns for Numerical Methods Using Data Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Sheldon P.
2013-01-01
The article investigates the patterns that arise in the convergence of numerical methods, particularly those in the errors involved in successive iterations, using data analysis and curve fitting methods. In particular, the results obtained are used to convey a deeper level of understanding of the concepts of linear, quadratic, and cubic…
Scilab and Maxima Environment: Towards Free Software in Numerical Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mora, Angel; Galan, Jose Luis; Aguilera, Gabriel; Fernandez, Alvaro; Merida, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pedro
2010-01-01
In this work we will present the ScilabUMA environment we have developed as an alternative to Matlab. This environment connects Scilab (for numerical analysis) and Maxima (for symbolic computations). Furthermore, the developed interface is, in our opinion at least, as powerful as the interface of Matlab. (Contains 3 figures.)
Numerical analysis of strongly nonlinear extensional vibrations in elastic rods.
Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé
2007-01-01
In the framework of transduction, nondestructive testing, and nonlinear acoustic characterization, this article presents the analysis of strongly nonlinear vibrations by means of an original numerical algorithm. In acoustic and transducer applications in extreme working conditions, such as the ones induced by the generation of high-power ultrasound, the analysis of nonlinear ultrasonic vibrations is fundamental. Also, the excitation and analysis of nonlinear vibrations is an emergent technique in nonlinear characterization for damage detection. A third-order evolution equation is derived and numerically solved for extensional waves in isotropic dissipative media. A nine-constant theory of elasticity for isotropic solids is constructed, and the nonlinearity parameters corresponding to extensional waves are proposed. The nonlinear differential equation is solved by using a new numerical algorithm working in the time domain. The finite-difference numerical method proposed is implicit and only requires the solution of a linear set of equations at each time step. The model allows the analysis of strongly nonlinear, one-dimensional vibrations and can be used for prediction as well as characterization. Vibration waveforms are calculated at different points, and results are compared for different excitation levels and boundary conditions. Amplitude distributions along the rod axis for every harmonic component also are evaluated. Special attention is given to the study of high-amplitude damping of vibrations by means of several simulations. Simulations are performed for amplitudes ranging from linear to nonlinear and weak shock.
Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.
2012-01-01
The drainage basin is a fundamental hydrologic entity used for studies of surface-water resources and during planning of water-related projects. Numeric drainage areas published by the U.S. Geological Survey water science centers in Annual Water Data Reports and on the National Water Information Systems (NWIS) Web site are still primarily derived from hard-copy sources and by manual delineation of polygonal basin areas on paper topographic map sheets. To expedite numeric drainage area determinations, the Colorado Water Science Center developed a digital database structure and a delineation methodology based on the hydrologic unit boundaries in the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This report describes the digital database architecture and delineation methodology and also presents the results of a comparison of the numeric drainage areas derived using this digital methodology with those derived using traditional, non-digital methods. (Please see report for full Abstract)
Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen
2009-04-01
Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J.; Moridis, G. J.
2012-12-01
Gas hydrate reservoirs are currently considered as one of the clean future energy resources. Gas hydrates, which mainly consist of methane, are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules are trapped within the lattice of ice crystals. From their thermodynamic characteristics, they are typically found in the oceanic sediments or permafrost regions. One of the main concerns related to gas production from the hydrate deposits is geomechanical instability. When the hydrates, which support part of the stress in the formations, are dissociated or formed, the stress and strain fields are significantly changed. In particular, the oceanic hydrate sediments are highly affected by geomechanics, because of huge overburden. In this study, we investigate geomechanical responses from a marine hydrate accumulation at the Ulleung basin in the Korean East Sea, by numerical simulation, when gas is produced by depressurization. Depressurization is widely used for gas production from the hydrate deposits, dissociating the hydrates. We employ two-way coupling between flow and geomechanics, proposed by Kim et al. (SPE Journal 2012 17(2):485-501), in order to model variations in porosity and permeability more rigorously. From the numerical results, the geomechanical situation appears challenging, as significant subsidence (exceeding 3.5 m near the sea floor and 1.5 m at the top of the hydrate deposit) is estimated to occur along a large part of the wellbore, and geomechanical failure within the 20m-thick system is possible early in the production process. However, there is still significant uncertainty in geomechanical data, because the data are incomplete. Further simulations based on the experimental and field data will be required.
Numerical simulation of unidirectional irregular nonlinear waves in the basin of intermediate depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slunyaev, Alexey; Sergeeva, Anna; Didenkulova, Ira
2016-04-01
waves over intermediate-depth waves, we show that in the situation of very rough sea, the extreme waves possess noticeable front-rear asymmetry in all considered cases. In the situation of modulationaly stable waves, kph ≈ 1 < 1.36, the asymmetry is equally pronounced as in the deeper water situations. Thus the Benjamin - Feir instability seems to be irrelevant for this peculiarity of extreme wave shapes. The results of numerical simulations are discussed in view of available in-situ measurements at shallow regions of the Baltic Sea. [1] A. Sergeeva, A. Slunyaev, Rogue waves, rogue events and extreme wave kinematics in spatio-temporal fields of simulated sea states. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 13, 1759-1771 (2013).
Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.
1992-01-01
Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.
Analysis of sludge from Hanford K East Basin canisters
Makenas, B.J.; Welsh, T.L.; Baker, R.B.; Hoppe, E.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Abrefah, J.; Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R.
1997-09-12
Sludge samples from the canisters in the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and to assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements. This report is a summary and review of the data provided by various laboratories. Although raw chemistry data were originally reported on various bases (compositions for as-settled, centrifuged, or dry sludge) this report places all of the data on a common comparable basis. Data were evaluated for internal consistency and consistency with respect to the governing sample analysis plan. Conclusions applicable to sludge disposition and spent fuel storage are drawn where possible.
Maĭor, T Iu; Sheveleva, N G; Sukhanova, L V; Timoshkin, O A; Kiril'chik, S V
2010-11-01
Baikalian cyclopoids represent one of the richest endemic faunas of freshwater cyclopoid copepods. The genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is the most numerous by species number in the lake. In this work, molecular-phylogenetic analysis of 14 species and 1 sub-species from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin is performed. The regions of mitochondrial cytochrom-oxydase I (COI) and of nuclear small-subunit 18S rRNA were used as evolution markers. In the obtained set of nucleotide sequences of COT gene, an effect of synonymous substitution saturation is revealed. Baikalian representatives of the genus Diacyclops form at phylogenetic schemes by two markers a monophyletic griup, it suggest their origin from a common ancestral form. Preliminary estimate of the age of this group is 20-25 My.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nettasana, Tussanee; Craig, James; Tolson, Bryan
2012-11-01
Sustainable management of groundwater resources is vital for development of areas at risk from water-resource over-exploitation. In northeast Thailand, the Phu Thok aquifer is an important water source, particularly in the Thaphra area, where increased groundwater withdrawals may result in water-level decline and saline-water upconing. Three-dimensional finite-difference flow models were developed with MODFLOW to predict the impacts of future pumping on hydraulic heads. Four scenarios of pumping and recharge were defined to evaluate the system response to future usage and climate conditions. Primary model simulations show that groundwater heads will continue to decrease by 4-12 m by the year 2040 at the center of the highly exploited area, under conditions of both increasing pumping and drought. To quantify predictive uncertainty in these estimates, in addition to the primary conceptual model, three alternative conceptual models were used in the simulation of sustainable yields. These alternative models show that, for this case study, a reasonable degree of uncertainty in hydrostratigraphic interpretation is more impactful than uncertainty in recharge distribution or boundary conditions. The uncertainty-analysis results strongly support addressing conceptual-model uncertainty in the practice of groundwater-management modeling. Doing so will better assist decision makers in selecting and implementing robust sustainable strategies.
Recent advances in numerical analysis of structural eigenvalue problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, K. K.
1973-01-01
A wide range of eigenvalue problems encountered in practical structural engineering analyses is defined, in which the structures are assumed to be discretized by any suitable technique such as the finite-element method. A review of the usual numerical procedures for the solution of such eigenvalue problems is presented and is followed by an extensive account of recently developed eigenproblem solution procedures. Particular emphasis is placed on the new numerical algorithms and associated computer programs based on the Sturm sequence method. Eigenvalue algorithms developed for efficient solution of natural frequency and buckling problems of structures are presented, as well as some eigenvalue procedures formulated in connection with the solution of quadratic matrix equations associated with free vibration analysis of structures. A new algorithm is described for natural frequency analysis of damped structural systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Pablo, M. A.; Márquez, A.; Centeno, J. D.
The Atlantis basin is one of the martian highlands areas where there was proposed the existence of an ancient lake during the early geological history of Mars [1] [2] [3] [4]. The existence of some morphological features inside the basin and in the surrounding area, allow to check the existence of liquid water in the past of the planet. On the other hand, other morphological features indicate the existence of snow and liquid groundwater in recent times. The detailed study of the geomorphologic features allows to make an approach to the hydrological evolution of the Atlantis basin. The study of the geomorphology of this region has been carried out by means of the analysis of MOC high resolution images obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the THEMIS images, in the visible spectrum, sent by Mars Odyssey spacecrafts. The most clearly morphological feature indicative of the existence of water in the surface of Mars in the past are the numerous channels that end into Atlantis basin from the highest terrains. In addiction to these fluvial channels, the existence of mass flow deposits is also indicative of the existence of water in the area. Some of these slumps are in the internal slopes of impact craters, but others cover huge extensions around the chaotic terrains of the studied area. The lobated ejecta deposits observed in the Atlantis basin region are indicative of the existence of groundwater (solid or liquid) [5]. Serrated reliefs and tables in the borders of the basins are indicative of the existence of a water sheet. Beneath this water sheet some deposits was formed which was eroded, due to the gradual desiccation of the basin, forming the tables and serrated reliefs. The existence of different chaotic terrains in the area implies the existence of huge amounts of water under the surface according to the different models of chaotic terrain formation [6] [7]. The existence of groundwater could be decided by the existence of collapses in the near to the
Numerical bifurcation analysis of conformal formulations of the Einstein constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holst, M.; Kungurtsev, V.
2011-12-01
The Einstein constraint equations have been the subject of study for more than 50 years. The introduction of the conformal method in the 1970s as a parametrization of initial data for the Einstein equations led to increased interest in the development of a complete solution theory for the constraints, with the theory for constant mean curvature (CMC) spatial slices and closed manifolds completely developed by 1995. The first general non-CMC existence result was establish by Holst et al. in 2008, with extensions to rough data by Holst et al. in 2009, and to vacuum spacetimes by Maxwell in 2009. The non-CMC theory remains mostly open; moreover, recent work of Maxwell on specific symmetry models sheds light on fundamental nonuniqueness problems with the conformal method as a parametrization in non-CMC settings. In parallel with these mathematical developments, computational physicists have uncovered surprising behavior in numerical solutions to the extended conformal thin sandwich formulation of the Einstein constraints. In particular, numerical evidence suggests the existence of multiple solutions with a quadratic fold, and a recent analysis of a simplified model supports this conclusion. In this article, we examine this apparent bifurcation phenomena in a methodical way, using modern techniques in bifurcation theory and in numerical homotopy methods. We first review the evidence for the presence of bifurcation in the Hamiltonian constraint in the time-symmetric case. We give a brief introduction to the mathematical framework for analyzing bifurcation phenomena, and then develop the main ideas behind the construction of numerical homotopy, or path-following, methods in the analysis of bifurcation phenomena. We then apply the continuation software package AUTO to this problem, and verify the presence of the fold with homotopy-based numerical methods. We discuss these results and their physical significance, which lead to some interesting remaining questions to
Wahid, Ali Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab
2016-02-01
Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.
Analysis of Length Distribution of Drainage Basin Perimeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, Christian
1982-08-01
To establish a theoretical base for the study of the length distribution of basin perimeters, the paper introduces a descriptive model of the topology of interlocking channel and ridge networks. Assuming topological randomness within and between both, the expected number of links of basin perimeters is derived; for large basin magnitudes n, it approximates a square root function in n. Observed link numbers of perimeters deviate significantly, showing a 0.69 regression exponent for their growth rate relative to the basin magnitude rather than the expected value of 0.5. The spatial constraint of possible perimeter/(area;)½ proportions as defined by the circle is translated into a corresponding topological constraint but fails to provide a sufficient explanation. The paper then explores the possibility that the relatively large length of the perimeter reflects the basin elongation which, following Hack, might be linked to the length of the mainstream. Although basin perimeter, elongation, and mainstream length are highly correlated and the elongation axis is oriented to the outlet in two-thirds of the sample basins, the data indicate that the mainstream link number does not account for the basin elongation, nor does it account for the number of links of the basin perimeter.
Asymptotic/numerical analysis of supersonic propeller noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myers, M. K.; Wydeven, R.
1989-01-01
An asymptotic analysis based on the Mach surface structure of the field of a supersonic helical source distribution is applied to predict thickness and loading noise radiated by high speed propeller blades. The theory utilizes an integral representation of the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings equation in a fully linearized form. The asymptotic results are used for chordwise strips of the blade, while required spanwise integrations are performed numerically. The form of the analysis enables predicted waveforms to be interpreted in terms of Mach surface propagation. A computer code developed to implement the theory is described and found to yield results in close agreement with more exact computations.
Clustered Numerical Data Analysis Using Markov Lie Monoid Based Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Joseph
2016-03-01
We have designed and build an optimal numerical standardization algorithm that links numerical values with their associated units, error level, and defining metadata thus supporting automated data exchange and new levels of artificial intelligence (AI). The software manages all dimensional and error analysis and computational tracing. Tables of entities verses properties of these generalized numbers (called ``metanumbers'') support a transformation of each table into a network among the entities and another network among their properties where the network connection matrix is based upon a proximity metric between the two items. We previously proved that every network is isomorphic to the Lie algebra that generates continuous Markov transformations. We have also shown that the eigenvectors of these Markov matrices provide an agnostic clustering of the underlying patterns. We will present this methodology and show how our new work on conversion of scientific numerical data through this process can reveal underlying information clusters ordered by the eigenvalues. We will also show how the linking of clusters from different tables can be used to form a ``supernet'' of all numerical information supporting new initiatives in AI.
K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis
Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Pool, Karl N.
2016-03-01
A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO_{3}, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the ^{60}Co was present
A numerical model and spreadsheet interface for pumping test analysis.
Johnson, G S; Cosgrove, D M; Frederick, D B
2001-01-01
Curve-matching techniques have been the standard method of aquifer test analysis for several decades. A variety of techniques provide the capability of evaluating test data from confined, unconfined, leaky aquitard, and other conditions. Each technique, however, is accompanied by a set of assumptions, and evaluation of a combination of conditions can be complicated or impossible due to intractable mathematics or nonuniqueness of the solution. Numerical modeling of pumping tests provides two major advantages: (1) the user can choose which properties to calibrate and what assumptions to make; and (2) in the calibration process the user is gaining insights into the conceptual model of the flow system and uncertainties in the analysis. Routine numerical modeling of pumping tests is now practical due to computer hardware and software advances of the last decade. The RADFLOW model and spreadsheet interface presented in this paper is an easy-to-use numerical model for estimation of aquifer properties from pumping test data. Layered conceptual models and their properties are evaluated in a trial-and-error estimation procedure. The RADFLOW model can treat most combinations of confined, unconfined, leaky aquitard, partial penetration, and borehole storage conditions. RADFLOW is especially useful in stratified aquifer systems with no identifiable lateral boundaries. It has been verified to several analytical solutions and has been applied in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to develop and test conceptual models and provide estimates of aquifer properties. Because the model assumes axially symmetrical flow, it is limited to representing multiple aquifer layers that are laterally continuous.
Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel
J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton
1999-08-10
Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).
Numerical Analysis on Double Dome Stretching Tests of Woven Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wonoh; Cao, Jian; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James
2007-04-01
As a result of international corporative benchmark works, material characterization of the woven fabric reinforced composites has been examined to better understand their mechanical properties and to provide the process design information for numerical analysis. Here, in order to predict thermo-forming behaviors of woven composites, the double dome stretching tests have been numerically performed for the balanced plain weave. To account for the change of fiber orientation under the large deformation, the non-orthogonal constitutive model has been utilized and nonlinear friction behavior is incorporated in the simulation. Also the equivalent material properties based on the contact status have been used for the thermo-stamping process. Blank draw-in, punch force history and fiber orientation after forming will be reported.
Numerical Ergonomics Analysis in Operation Environment of CNC Machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, S. F.; Yang, Z. X.
2010-05-01
The performance of operator will be affected by different operation environments [1]. Moreover, poor operation environment may cause health problems of the operator [2]. Physical and psychological considerations are two main factors that will affect the performance of operator under different conditions of operation environment. In this paper, applying scientific and systematic methods find out the pivot elements in the field of physical and psychological factors. There are five main factors including light, temperature, noise, air flow and space that are analyzed. A numerical ergonomics model has been built up regarding the analysis results which can support to advance the design of operation environment. Moreover, the output of numerical ergonomic model can provide the safe, comfortable, more productive conditions for the operator.
1-D Numerical Analysis of ABCC Engine Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holden, Richard
1999-01-01
ABCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engine into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Except for the heat source, the basic operation of the ABCC is similar to the basic operation of the RBCC engine. The ABCC is intended to have a higher specific impulse than the RBCC for single stage Earth to orbit vehicle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in ABCC propulsion system. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model using conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy equations that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic ABCC engine following a flight path. At specific points during the development of the 1-D numerical model a myriad of tests were performed to prove the program produced consistent, realistic numbers that follow compressible flow theory for various inlet conditions.
Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca
2010-01-01
Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…
Ernest Mancini
2001-03-01
Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE for review. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. The information on the source rocks is being prepared for inclusion in the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern and western parts of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis continues. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Two underdeveloped Smackover reservoirs have been identified. They are the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - This task has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock information will continue to be prepared for the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Study of Smackover underdeveloped reservoirs will continue with focus on the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs.
Anderson, M.; Matti, J.; Jachens, R.
2004-01-01
The San Bernardino basin is an area of Quaternary extension between the San Jacinto and San Andreas Fault zones in southern California. New gravity data are combined with aeromagnetic data to produce two- and three-dimensional models of the basin floor. These models are used to identify specific faults that have normal displacements. In addition, aeromagnetic maps of the basin constrain strike-slip offset on many faults. Relocated seismicity, focal mechanisms, and a seismic reflection profile for the basin area support interpretations of the gravity and magnetic anomalies. The shape of the basin revealed by our interpretations is different from past interpretations, broadening its areal extent while confining the deepest parts to an area along the modern San Jacinto fault, west of the city of San Bernardino. Through these geophysical observations and related geologic information, we propose a model for the development of the basin. The San Jacinto fault-related strike-slip displacements started on fault strands in the basin having a stepping geometry thus forming a pull-apart graben, and finally cut through the graben in a simpler, bending geometry. In this model, the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas Fault has little influence on the formation of the basin. The deep, central part of the basin resembles classic pull-apart structures and our model describes a high level of detail for this structure that can be compared to other pull-apart structures as well as analog and numerical models in order to better understand timing and kinematics of pull-apart basin formation. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.
Numerical MLPG Analysis of Piezoelectric Sensor in Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staňák, Peter; Sládek, Ján; Sládek, Vladimír; Krahulec, Slavomír
2014-07-01
The paper deals with a numerical analysis of the electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric sensors subjected to an external non-uniform displacement field. The meshless method based on the local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) approach is utilized for the numerical solution of a boundary value problem for the coupled electro-mechanical fields that characterize the piezoelectric material. The sensor is modeled as a 3-D piezoelectric solid. The transient effects are not considered. Using the present MLPG approach, the assumed solid of the cylindrical shape is discretized with nodal points only, and a small spherical subdomain is introduced around each nodal point. Local integral equations constructed from the weak form of governing PDEs are defined over these local subdomains. A moving least-squares (MLS) approximation scheme is used to approximate the spatial variations of the unknown field variables, and the Heaviside unit step function is used as a test function. The electric field induced on the sensor is studied in a numerical example for two loading scenarios.
An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack
1993-01-01
A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.
An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack
1992-01-01
A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.
Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols
Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R
2008-01-01
Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.
Diffraction patterns from multiple tilted laser apertures: numerical analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalev, Anton V.; Polyakov, Vadim M.
2016-03-01
We propose a Rayleigh-Sommerfeld based method for numerical calculation of multiple tilted apertures near and far field diffraction patterns. Method is based on iterative procedure of fast Fourier transform based circular convolution of the initial field complex amplitudes distribution and impulse response function modified in order to account aperture and observation planes mutual tilt. The method is computationally efficient and has good accordance with the results of experimental diffraction patterns and can be applied for analysis of spatial noises occurring in master oscillator power amplifier laser systems. The example of diffraction simulation for a Phobos-Ground laser rangefinder amplifier is demonstrated.
Numerical model of solar dynamic radiator for parametric analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhatigan, Jennifer L.
1989-01-01
Growth power requirements for Space Station Freedom will be met through addition of 25 kW solar dynamic (SD) power modules. Extensive thermal and power cycle modeling capabilities have been developed which are powerful tools in Station design and analysis, but which prove cumbersome and costly for simple component preliminary design studies. In order to aid in refining the SD radiator to the mature design stage, a simple and flexible numerical model was developed. The model simulates heat transfer and fluid flow performance of the radiator and calculates area mass and impact survivability for many combinations of flow tube and panel configurations, fluid and material properties, and environmental and cycle variations.
Schreffler, Curtis L.
1996-01-01
A water-use analysis computer program was developed for the Neshaminy Creek Basin to assist in managing and allocating water resources in the basin. The program was developed for IBM-compatible personal computers. Basin analysis and the methodologies developed for the Neshaminy Creek Basin can be transferred to other watersheds. The development and structure of the water-use analysis program is documented in this report. The report also serves as a user's guide. The program uses common relational database-management software that allows for water use-data input, editing, updating and output and can be used to generate a watershed water-use analysis report. The watershed-analysis report lists summations of public-supply well withdrawals; a combination of industrial, commercial, institutional, and ground-water irrigation well withdrawals; spray irrigation systems; a combination of public, industrial, and private surface-water withdrawals; wastewater-tratement-facility dishcarges; estimates of aggregate domestic ground-water withdrawals on an areal basin or subbasin basis; imports and exports of wastewater across basin or subbasin divides; imports and exports of public water supplies across basin or subbasin divides; estimates of evaporative loss and consumptive loss from produce incorporation; industrial septic-system discharges to ground water; and ground-water well-permit allocations.
Geologic Analysis of Priority Basins for Exploration and Drilling
Carroll, H.B.; Reeves, T.K.
1999-04-27
There has been a substantial decline in both exploratory drilling and seismic field crew activity in the United States over the last 10 years, due primarily to the declining price of oil. To reverse this trend and to preserve the entrepreneurial independent operator, the U.S. DOE is attempting to encourage hydrocarbon exploration activities in some of the under exploited regions of the United States. This goal is being accomplished by conducting broad regional reviews of potentially prospective areas within the lower 48 states. Data are being collected on selected areas, and studies are being done on a regional scale generally unavailable to the smaller independent. The results of this work will be made available to the public to encourage the undertaking of operations in areas which have been overlooked until this project. Fifteen criteria have been developed for the selection of study areas. Eight regions have been identified where regional geologic analysis will be performed. This report discusses preliminary findings concerning the geology, early tectonic history, structure and potential unconventional source rocks for the Black Mesa basin and South Central states region, the two highest priority study areas.
An analysis of stream temperatures, Green River Basin, Wyoming
Lowham, H.W.
1978-01-01
A method for estimating temperatures of streams in the Green River basin, Wyoming, utilizes a regional model for estimating mean daily temperatures of streams at unmeasured sites. The regional model was developed by describing annual temperature patterns at 43 measured sites and by applying the harmonic function T = M + A -sin (0.0172 t + C)- where: T is mean daily temperature; M, A, and C are harmonic coefficients calculated from data for each stream-temperature station; and t is the day of the water year. Application of the equation for estimating temperatures at unmeasured sites requires regionalized estimates of M, A, and C. Regional estimates were developed with the aid of multiple-regression techniques, whereby the calculated harmonic coefficients were regressed against physical and climatic characteristics of the stream-temperature stations. Stream elevation was a significant factor affecting water temperature. Analysis of areal and temporal variations in temperature showed that springs, irrigation return flows, and reservoir storage were affecting reaches of several major streams. (Woodard-USGS)
Mas-Pla, Josep; Font, Eva; Astui, Oihane; Menció, Anna; Rodríguez-Florit, Agustí; Folch, Albert; Brusi, David; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo
2012-12-01
Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream-aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbúcies River basin (116 km(2)) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbúcies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins
105-N basin sediment disposition phase-two sampling and analysis plan
Smith, R. C.
1997-03-14
The sampling and analysis plan for Phase 2 of the 105-N Basin sediment disposition task defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed to support characterization of the sediment and selection of an appropriate sediment disposal option.
Analysis and Numerical Treatment of Elliptic Equations with Stochastic Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Shi
Many science and engineering applications are impacted by a significant amount of uncertainty in the model. Examples include groundwater flow, microscopic biological system, material science and chemical engineering systems. Common mathematical problems in these applications are elliptic equations with stochastic data. In this dissertation, we examine two types of stochastic elliptic partial differential equations(SPDEs), namely nonlinear stochastic diffusion reaction equations and general linearized elastostatic problems in random media. We begin with the construction of an analysis framework for this class of SPDEs, extending prior work of Babuska in 2010. We then use the framework both for establishing well-posedness of the continuous problems and for posing Galerkintype numerical methods. In order to solve these two types of problems, single integral weak formulations and stochastic collocation methods are applied. Moreover, a priori error estimates for stochastic collocation methods are derived, which imply that the rate of convergence is exponential, along with the order of polynomial increasing in the space of random variables. As expected, numerical experiments show the exponential rate of convergence, verified by a posterior error analysis. Finally, an adaptive strategy driven by a posterior error indicators is designed.
Direct numerical simulation and analysis of shock turbulence interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Sangsan; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz
1991-01-01
Two kinds of linear analysis, rapid distortion theory (RDT) and linear interaction analysis (LIA), were used to investigate the effects of a shock wave on turbulence. Direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional isotropic turbulence interaction with a normal shock were also performed. The results from RDT and LIA are in good agreement for weak shock waves, where the effects of shock front curvature and shock front unsteadiness are not significant in producing vorticity. The linear analyses predict wavenumber-dependent amplification of the upstream one-dimensional energy spectrum, leading to turbulence scale length scale decrease through the interaction. Instantaneous vorticity fields show that vortical structures are enhanced while they are compressed in the shock normal direction. Entrophy amplfication through the shock wave compares favorably with the results of linear analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tepe, Çiǧdem; Sözbilir, Hasan
2016-04-01
The purpose of this study is to discuss the geological and geomorphological features of active faults controlling Kemalpaşa Basin. The study consists of basin-bounding faults expressions, kinematic and geomorphic analysis. Kemalpaşa Basin, which is approximately ENE trending and asymmetric graben is located in the southern part of Gediz Graben. Menderes Massif and Bornova Complex comprise the basement rocks of basin. Kızılca Formation, Sütçüler Formation and Alluvium uncomformably overlie the basement rocks. Kemalpaşa Basin which is one of the Quaternary basin in the Western Anatolia Extensional Province was developed at the structural border of the Spildaǧı Fault Zone in the north and the Kemalpaşa Fault in the south. Both the north and south margin-bounding faults of Kemalpaşa Basin are oblique-slip normal faults. According to the results of kinematic analysis, Kemalpaşa Basin has been formed under a NE-GW trending extensional tectonic regime. The variation in the relative degree of tectonic activity in Kemalpaşa Basin and its surroundings were interpreted a detailed geomorphic study of the fault-generated mountain fronts and drainage pattern of the both sides. To identify the impacts of active faults controlling the north and south margins of Kemalpaşa Basin on the geomorphological evolution, the geomorphic indices such as drainage basin geometries, triangular facets, axial river profiles have been determined and the degree of tectonic activity in the both sides of Kemalpaşa Basin has been numerically defined using morphometric indexes such as asymmetry factor (AF), hypsometric curve and integral (HI), valley floor width-to-height ratio (Vf) and mountain front sinuosity (Smf). In morphometric analysis, the both sides of the basin were investigated separating into two segments as the west and east. The values of HI (0,28-0,60), Vf (0,27-0,60) and Smf (1,3) calculated for the western part of the north margin compared with the values of HI (0
Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design
Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; ...
2015-06-21
The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagneticmore » simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.« less
Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design
Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter
2015-06-21
The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.
2014-07-01
Barrier Shoreline Wetland Value Assessment Model1 by S. Kyle McKay2 and J. Craig Fischenich3 OVERVIEW: Sensitivity analysis is a technique for...scale restoration projects to reduce marsh loss and maintain these wetlands as healthy functioning ecosystems. The Barataria Basin Barrier Shoreline...Sensitivity Analysis of the Barataria Basin Barrier Shoreline Wetland Value Assessment Model1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Hürlimann, M.
2009-04-01
Debris flows are present in every country where a combination of high mountains and flash floods exists. In the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, at the Pyrenees, sporadic debris events occur. We selected two different events. The first one was triggered at La Guingueta by the big exceptional flood event that produced many debris flows in 1982 which were spread all over the Catalonian Pyrenees. The second, more local event occurred in 2000 at the mountain Montserrat at the Pre-litoral mountain chain. We present here some results of the FLATModel, entirely developed at the Research Group in Sediment Transport of the Hydraulic, Marine and Environmental Engineering Department (GITS-UPC). The 2D FLATModel is a Finite Volume method that uses the Godunov scheme. Some numerical arranges have been made to analyze the entrainment process during the events, the Stop & Go phenomena and the final deposit of the material. The material rheology implemented is the Voellmy approach, because it acts very well evaluating the frictional and turbulent behavior. The FLATModel uses a GIS environment that facilitates the data analysis as the comparison between field and numerical data. The two events present two different characteristics, one is practically a one dimensional problem of 1400 m in length and the other has a more two dimensional behavior that forms a big fan.
Buker, C.; Littke, R.; Welte, D.H.
1995-08-01
The detailed and reliable reconstruction of the geological and thermal evolution of sedimentary basins forms the indispensable basis of any simulation of generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons. For this purpose - although often not taken into account - analysing and quantifying the uplift and erosion history is as important as the subsidence and temperature history. The reconstruction of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, petroleum expulsion and migration and the changing reservoir characteristics is only possible based on such an integrated approach. Applying this technique on the Carboniferous Ruhr Basin and the Lower Saxony Basin (western Germany) by utilising 1-D and 2-D forward modeling approaches resulted in important and new quantitative information on their temperature, subsidence and erosion histories which are of fundamental geological interest. The basin evolution models were calibrated using vitrinite reflectance data, fluid inclusion temperatures, and apatite and zircon fission track data. The detailed knowledge of the geological and thermal basin evolution then allowed in combination with a new kinetic model for gas generation from coals the modeling of generation, migration and accumulation of methane from Carboniferous coal seams.
Numerical analysis of the V-Y shaped advancement flap.
Remache, D; Chambert, J; Pauchot, J; Jacquet, E
2015-10-01
The V-Y advancement flap is a usual technique for the closure of skin defects. A triangular flap is incised adjacent to a skin defect of rectangular shape. As the flap is advanced to close the initial defect, two smaller defects in the shape of a parallelogram are formed with respect to a reflection symmetry. The height of the defects depends on the apex angle of the flap and the closure efforts are related to the defects height. Andrades et al. 2005 have performed a geometrical analysis of the V-Y flap technique in order to reach a compromise between the flap size and the defects width. However, the geometrical approach does not consider the mechanical properties of the skin. The present analysis based on the finite element method is proposed as a complement to the geometrical one. This analysis aims to highlight the major role of the skin elasticity for a full analysis of the V-Y advancement flap. Furthermore, the study of this technique shows that closing at the flap apex seems mechanically the most interesting step. Thus different strategies of defect closure at the flap apex stemming from surgeon's know-how have been tested by numerical simulations.
Numerical Analysis of Film Cooling at High Blowing Ratio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Gabry, Lamyaa; Heidmann, James; Ameri, Ali
2009-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in the analysis of a film cooling jet in crossflow. Predictions of film effectiveness are compared with experimental results for a circular jet at blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. Film effectiveness is a surface quantity which alone is insufficient in understanding the source and finding a remedy for shortcomings of the numerical model. Therefore, in addition, comparisons are made to flow field measurements of temperature along the jet centerline. These comparisons show that the CFD model is accurately predicting the extent and trajectory of the film cooling jet; however, there is a lack of agreement in the near-wall region downstream of the film hole. The effects of main stream turbulence conditions, boundary layer thickness, turbulence modeling, and numerical artificial dissipation are evaluated and found to have an insufficient impact in the wake region of separated films (i.e. cannot account for the discrepancy between measured and predicted centerline fluid temperatures). Analyses of low and moderate blowing ratio cases are carried out and results are in good agreement with data.
Numerical model of solar dynamic radiator for parametric analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhatigan, Jennifer L.
1989-01-01
Growth power requirements for Space Station Freedom will be met through addition of 25 kW solar dynamic (SD) power modules. The SD module rejects waste heat from the power conversion cycle to space through a pumped-loop, multi-panel, deployable radiator. The baseline radiator configuration was defined during the Space Station conceptual design phase and is a function of the state point and heat rejection requirements of the power conversion unit. Requirements determined by the overall station design such as mass, system redundancy, micrometeoroid and space debris impact survivability, launch packaging, costs, and thermal and structural interaction with other station components have also been design drivers for the radiator configuration. Extensive thermal and power cycle modeling capabilities have been developed which are powerful tools in Station design and analysis, but which prove cumbersome and costly for simple component preliminary design studies. In order to aid in refining the SD radiator to the mature design stage, a simple and flexible numerical model was developed. The model simulates heat transfer and fluid flow performance of the radiator and calculates area mass and impact survivability for many combinations of flow tube and panel configurations, fluid and material properties, and environmental and cycle variations. A brief description and discussion of the numerical model, it's capabilities and limitations, and results of the parametric studies performed is presented.
Putnam, P.E.; Moore, S. ); Ward, G. )
1990-05-01
Linking hydrodynamics to detailed stratigraphic and structural analyses is a powerful tool in hydrocarbon exploration in mature basins, In southernmost Canada straddling the Alberta-Saskatchewan border, significant petroleum reserves are encountered within Mesozoic units which are largely controlled by subsurface flow cells. The Jurassic Sawtooth Formation is characterized by an eastward shift from lower shoreface quartzarenites to basinal coquinas. The Sawtooth is a blanket deposit and crops out along the flanks of several Tertiary uplifts in northern Montana. In the subsurface the Sawtooth is draped over several relatively young structures. Potentiometric mapping illustrates a northerly flow orientation within the Sawtooth, and oil pools under artesian conditions are located where flow paths cross steeply flanked structures. The Lower Cretaceous Sunburst Formation is a series of valley-fill sandstones with mainly southwesterly paleoflow orientations. Hydrocarbon pools (e.g., Manyberries field) are located within a regional potentiometric low formed by three converging cells which recharge in the south, northwest, and east. This potentiometric low is characterized by systematic changes in oil and water compositions, with progressively lighter oils and NaCl-rich waters found toward the low's center. Stratigraphic variability controls pooling within the low, with hydrocarbons located on the updip flanks of valley fills which border nonreservoir rocks. In the northwestern Williston basin regional hydrodynamic analysis, combined with standard subsurface approaches, allows operators to discern large new hydrocarbon-bearing trends within and between densely drilled areas characterized by complex structure and stratigraphy.
Arnold, L.R.
2010-01-01
The Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin (Lost Creek basin) is an important alluvial aquifer for irrigation, public supply, and domestic water uses in northeastern Colorado. Beginning in 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydrologic data and constructed a steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Lost Creek basin. The model builds upon the work of previous investigators to provide an updated tool for simulating the potential effects of various hydrologic stresses on groundwater flow and evaluating possible aquifer-management strategies. As part of model development, the thickness and extent of regolith sediments in the basin were mapped, and data were collected concerning aquifer recharge beneath native grassland, nonirrigated agricultural fields, irrigated agricultural fields, and ephemeral stream channels. The thickness and extent of regolith in the Lost Creek basin indicate the presence of a 2- to 7-mile-wide buried paleovalley that extends along the Lost Creek basin from south to north, where it joins the alluvial valley of the South Platte River valley. Regolith that fills the paleovalley is as much as about 190 ft thick. Average annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on native grassland and nonirrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using the chloride mass-balance method to range from 0.1 to 0.6 inch, which represents about 1-4 percent of long-term average precipitation. Average annual recharge from infiltration of ephemeral streamflow was estimated by using apparent downward velocities of chloride peaks to range from 5.7 to 8.2 inches. Average annual recharge beneath irrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using passive-wick lysimeters and a water-balance approach to range from 0 to 11.3 inches, depending on irrigation method, soil type, crop type, and the net quantity of irrigation water applied
Asymptotic analysis of numerical wave propagation in finite difference equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giles, M.; Thompkins, W. T., Jr.
1983-01-01
An asymptotic technique is developed for analyzing the propagation and dissipation of wave-like solutions to finite difference equations. It is shown that for each fixed complex frequency there are usually several wave solutions with different wavenumbers and the slowly varying amplitude of each satisfies an asymptotic amplitude equation which includes the effects of smoothly varying coefficients in the finite difference equations. The local group velocity appears in this equation as the velocity of convection of the amplitude. Asymptotic boundary conditions coupling the amplitudes of the different wave solutions are also derived. A wavepacket theory is developed which predicts the motion, and interaction at boundaries, of wavepackets, wave-like disturbances of finite length. Comparison with numerical experiments demonstrates the success and limitations of the theory. Finally an asymptotic global stability analysis is developed.
A Cartesian parametrization for the numerical analysis of material instability
Mota, Alejandro; Chen, Qiushi; Foulk, III, James W.; Ostien, Jakob T.; Lai, Zhengshou
2016-02-25
We examine four parametrizations of the unit sphere in the context of material stability analysis by means of the singularity of the acoustic tensor. We then propose a Cartesian parametrization for vectors that lie a cube of side length two and use these vectors in lieu of unit normals to test for the loss of the ellipticity condition. This parametrization is then used to construct a tensor akin to the acoustic tensor. It is shown that both of these tensors become singular at the same time and in the same planes in the presence of a material instability. Furthermore, the performance of the Cartesian parametrization is compared against the other parametrizations, with the results of these comparisons showing that in general, the Cartesian parametrization is more robust and more numerically efficient than the others.
A Cartesian parametrization for the numerical analysis of material instability
Mota, Alejandro; Chen, Qiushi; Foulk, III, James W.; ...
2016-02-25
We examine four parametrizations of the unit sphere in the context of material stability analysis by means of the singularity of the acoustic tensor. We then propose a Cartesian parametrization for vectors that lie a cube of side length two and use these vectors in lieu of unit normals to test for the loss of the ellipticity condition. This parametrization is then used to construct a tensor akin to the acoustic tensor. It is shown that both of these tensors become singular at the same time and in the same planes in the presence of a material instability. Furthermore, themore » performance of the Cartesian parametrization is compared against the other parametrizations, with the results of these comparisons showing that in general, the Cartesian parametrization is more robust and more numerically efficient than the others.« less
Numerical Analysis of a Finite Element/Volume Penalty Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maury, Bertrand
The penalty method makes it possible to incorporate a large class of constraints in general purpose Finite Element solvers like freeFEM++. We present here some contributions to the numerical analysis of this method. We propose an abstract framework for this approach, together with some general error estimates based on the discretization parameter ɛ and the space discretization parameter h. As this work is motivated by the possibility to handle constraints like rigid motion for fluid-particle flows, we shall pay a special attention to a model problem of this kind, where the constraint is prescribed over a subdomain. We show how the abstract estimate can be applied to this situation, in the case where a non-body-fitted mesh is used. In addition, we describe how this method provides an approximation of the Lagrange multiplier associated to the constraint.
Preliminary Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Spallation Phenomenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Panerai, Francesco; Davuluri, Raghava S. C.; Vazsonyi, Alexander R.; Zhang, Huaibao; Lippay, Zachary S.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Danehy, Paul M.
2015-01-01
The spallation phenomenon was studied through numerical analysis using a coupled Lagrangian particle tracking code and a hypersonic aerothermodynamics computational fluid dynamics solver. The results show that carbon emission from spalled particles results in a significant modification of the gas composition of the post shock layer. Preliminary results from a test-campaign at the NASA Langley HYMETS facility are presented. Using an automated image processing of high-speed images, two-dimensional velocity vectors of the spalled particles were calculated. In a 30 second test at 100 W/cm2 of cold-wall heat-flux, more than 1300 particles were detected, with an average velocity of 102 m/s, and most frequent observed velocity of 60 m/s.
Measurement and numerical analysis of flammability limits of halogenated hydrocarbons.
Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki
2004-06-18
Flammability limits measurement was made for a number of halogenated compounds by the ASHRAE method. Most of compounds measured are the ones for which discrepancy was noted between the literature values and predicted values of flammability limits. As a result, it has been found that most of the newly obtained values of flammability limits are not in accordance with the literature values. Numerical analysis was carried out for a set of flammability limits data including the newly obtained ones using a modified analytical method based on F-number scheme. In this method, fitting procedure was done directly to flammability limits themselves instead of fitting to F-number. After the fitting process, the average relative deviation between the observed and calculated values is 9.3% for the lower limits and 14.6% for the upper limits.
Numerical analysis of the dynamics of distributed vortex configurations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Govorukhin, V. N.
2016-08-01
A numerical algorithm is proposed for analyzing the dynamics of distributed plane vortex configurations in an inviscid incompressible fluid. At every time step, the algorithm involves the computation of unsteady vortex flows, an analysis of the configuration structure with the help of heuristic criteria, the visualization of the distribution of marked particles and vorticity, the construction of streamlines of fluid particles, and the computation of the field of local Lyapunov exponents. The inviscid incompressible fluid dynamic equations are solved by applying a meshless vortex method. The algorithm is used to investigate the interaction of two and three identical distributed vortices with various initial positions in the flow region with and without the Coriolis force.
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Notched Composites Under Tension Loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aidi, Bilel; Case, Scott W.
2015-12-01
Experimental quasi-static tests were performed on center notched carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites having different stacking sequences made of G40-600/5245C prepreg. The three-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was used during quasi-static tests conducted on quasi-isotropic notched samples to obtain the distribution of strains as a function of applied stress. A finite element model was built within Abaqus to predict the notched strength and the strain profiles for comparison with measured results. A user-material subroutine using the multi-continuum theory (MCT) as a failure initiation criterion and an energy-based damage evolution law as implemented by Autodesk Simulation Composite Analysis (ASCA) was used to conduct a quantitative comparison of strain components predicted by the analysis and obtained in the experiments. Good agreement between experimental data and numerical analyses results are observed. Modal analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of static damage on the dominant frequencies of the notched structure using the resulted degraded material elements. The first in-plane mode was found to be a good candidate for tracking the level of damage.
Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Spycher, Nicolas; Pester, Nick; Saldi, Giuseppe; Beyer, John; Houseworth, Jim; Knauss, Kevin
2014-09-04
This report presents findings for hydrological and chemical characteristics and processes relevant to large-scale geologic CO_{2} sequestration in the Newark Basin of southern New York and northern New Jersey. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the Tri-Carb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration — comprising Sandia Technologies, LLC; Conrad Geoscience; and Schlumberger Carbon Services.
1981-10-01
BASIN LARIMER-WELD COUNTIES COLORADO VOLUME I FLOOD HAZARD, DAM SAFETY, AND FLOOD WARNING VOLUME II HYDROLOGY VOLUME III FLOOD PLAIN ANALYSIS, SHEEP...presented in four separate volumes. Vol- ume I considers basin flood hazards, dam safety, and flood warning. Volume II presents the detailed...has its source near the south end of Horsetooth Reservoir and flows in a generally eastward direction to its confluence with the Cache la Poudre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaljub, Emmanuel; Maufroy, Emeline; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Priolo, Enrico; Klin, Peter; De Martin, Florent; Zhang, Zenghuo; Hollender, Fabrice; Bard, Pierre-Yves
2013-04-01
Numerical simulation is playing a role of increasing importance in the field of seismic hazard by providing quantitative estimates of earthquake ground motion, its variability, and its sensitivity to geometrical and mechanical properties of the medium. Continuous efforts to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods, combined with increasing computational power have made it technically feasible to calculate seismograms in 3D realistic configurations and for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. Now, in order to foster the use of numerical simulations in practical prediction of earthquake ground motion, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D sites. This process of verification is a necessary prerequisite to confrontation of numerical predictions and observations. Through the ongoing Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project (E2VP), which focuses on the Mygdonian basin (northern Greece), we investigated the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion for frequencies up to 4 Hz. Numerical predictions obtained by several teams using a wide variety of methods were compared using quantitative goodness-of-fit criteria. In order to better understand the cause of misfits between different simulations, initially performed for the realistic geometry of the Mygdonian basin, we defined five stringent canonical configurations. The canonical models allow for identifying sources of misfits and quantify their importance. Detailed quantitative comparison of simulations in relation to dominant features of the models shows that even relatively simple heterogeneous models must be treated with maximum care in order to achieve sufficient level of accuracy. One important conclusion is that the numerical representation of models with strong variations (e.g. discontinuities) may considerably vary from one method to the other, and may become a dominant source of
A LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...
A REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...
A stable and efficient numerical algorithm for unconfined aquifer analysis
Keating, Elizabeth; Zyvoloski, George
2008-01-01
The non-linearity of equations governing flow in unconfined aquifers poses challenges for numerical models, particularly in field-scale applications. Existing methods are often unstable, do not converge, or require extremely fine grids and small time steps. Standard modeling procedures such as automated model calibration and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis typically require thousands of forward model runs. Stable and efficient model performance is essential to these analyses. We propose a new method that offers improvements in stability and efficiency, and is relatively tolerant of coarse grids. It applies a strategy similar to that in the MODFLOW code to solution of Richard's Equation with a grid-dependent pressure/saturation relationship. The method imposes a contrast between horizontal and vertical permeability in gridblocks containing the water table. We establish the accuracy of the method by comparison to an analytical solution for radial flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer with delayed yield. Using a suite of test problems, we demonstrate the efficiencies gained in speed and accuracy over two-phase simulations, and improved stability when compared to MODFLOW. The advantages for applications to transient unconfined aquifer analysis are clearly demonstrated by our examples. We also demonstrate applicability to mixed vadose zone/saturated zone applications, including transport, and find that the method shows great promise for these types of problem, as well.
A stable and efficient numerical algorithm for unconfined aquifer analysis.
Keating, Elizabeth; Zyvoloski, George
2009-01-01
The nonlinearity of equations governing flow in unconfined aquifers poses challenges for numerical models, particularly in field-scale applications. Existing methods are often unstable, do not converge, or require extremely fine grids and small time steps. Standard modeling procedures such as automated model calibration and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis typically require thousands of model runs. Stable and efficient model performance is essential to these analyses. We propose a new method that offers improvements in stability and efficiency and is relatively tolerant of coarse grids. It applies a strategy similar to that in the MODFLOW code to the solution of Richard's equation with a grid-dependent pressure/saturation relationship. The method imposes a contrast between horizontal and vertical permeability in gridblocks containing the water table, does not require "dry" cells to convert to inactive cells, and allows recharge to flow through relatively dry cells to the water table. We establish the accuracy of the method by comparison to an analytical solution for radial flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer with delayed yield. Using a suite of test problems, we demonstrate the efficiencies gained in speed and accuracy over two-phase simulations, and improved stability when compared to MODFLOW. The advantages for applications to transient unconfined aquifer analysis are clearly demonstrated by our examples. We also demonstrate applicability to mixed vadose zone/saturated zone applications, including transport, and find that the method shows great promise for these types of problem as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.
2015-11-01
Total nitrogen (TN), which consists of total particulate nitrogen (TPN) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), is transported with not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals. In general, TPN export from an entire river basin to the ocean is larger than TDN in a mountainous region. Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are hypothesized to be mainly transported as suspended matters from the ground surface, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated TN export from an entire river basin, and also we estimated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen input across a river basin. The maximum potential contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was found to be 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin. The contribution of particulate nitrogen based on suspended sediment from the ocean to the river basin soils was 22.9 % with SD of 3.6 % by using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (δ15N).
Trace fossil analysis of lacustrine facies and basins
Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.
1998-01-01
Two ichnofacies are typical of lacustrine depositional systems. The Scoyenia ichnofacies characterizes transitional terrestrial/nonmarine aquatic substrates, periodically inundated or desiccated, and therefore is commonly present in lake margin facies. The Mermia ichnofacies is associated with well oxygenated, permanent subaqueous, fine-grained substrates of hydrologically open, perennial lakes. Bathymetric zonations within the Mermia ichnofacies are complicated by the wide variability of lacustrine systems. Detected proximal-distal trends are useful within particular lake basins, but commonly difficult to extrapolate to other lakes. Other potential ichnofacies include the typically marine Skolithos ichnofacies for high-energy zones of lakes and substrate-controlled, still unnamed ichnofacies, associated to lake margin deposits. Trace fossils are useful for sedimentologic analysis of event beds. Lacustrine turbidites are characterized by low-diversity suites, reflecting colonization by opportunistic organisms after the turbidite event. Underflow current beds record animal activity contemporaneous with nearly continuous sedimentation. Ichnologic studies may also help to distinguish between marine and lacustrine turbidites. Deep-marine turbidites host the Nereites ichnofacies that consists of high diversity of ornate grazing traces and graphoglyptids, recording highly specialized feeding strategies developed to solve the problem of the scarcity of food in the deep sea. Deep lacustrine environments contain the Mermia ichnofacies, which is dominated by unspecialized grazing and feeding traces probably related to the abundance and accessibility of food in lacustrine systems. The lower diversity of lacustrine ichnofaunas in comparison with deep-sea assemblages more likely reflects lower species diversity as a consequence of less stable conditions. Increase of depth and extent of bioturbation through geologic time produced a clear signature in the ichnofabric record of
Wilkins, D.W.; Scott, W.B.; Kaehler, C.A.
1980-01-01
The study of the Southwest alluvial basins (east) will involve an analysis of the regional aquifer system in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. This area has been divided into 22 basins. The study of the alluvial aquifer-system will be made in the following stages: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches, (3) compiling existing data, (4) data collection, (5) basin modeling, (6) regional aquifer modeling, and (7) reports. The regional aquifer study will be accomplished through studying each of the 22 basins. Data compilation and limited data collection will be part of each basin study. Digital computer models will be made for those basins where data are sufficient. A regional aquifer model will be developed from the basin models. In addition to this report, there will be basin hydrology reports and the final regional report. Included in the final report will be a description of the regional hydrology and geology. (USGS)
A Computer-Based Content Analysis of Interview Texts: Numeric Description and Multivariate Analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bierschenk, B.
1977-01-01
A method is described by which cognitive structures in verbal data can be identified and categorized through numerical analysis and quantitative description. Transcriptions of interviews (in this case, the verbal statements of 40 researchers) are manually coded and subjected to analysis following the AaO (Agent action Object) paradigm. The texts…
SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisch, H. P.
1994-01-01
SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any
Voronin, Lois M.; Densmore, Jill N.; Martin, Peter; Brush, Charles F.; Carlson, Carl S.; Miller, David M.
2013-01-01
Groundwater withdrawals began in 1992 from the Langford Basin within the Fort Irwin National Training Center (NTC), California. From April 1992 to December 2010, approximately 12,300 acre-feet of water (averaging about 650 acre-feet per year) has been withdrawn from the basin and transported to the adjacent Irwin Basin. Since withdrawals began, water levels in the basin have declined by as much as 40 feet, and the quality of the groundwater withdrawn from the basin has deteriorated. The U.S. Geological Survey collected geohydrologic data from Langford Basin during 1992–2011 to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater available in the basin. Geophysical surveys, including gravity, seismic refraction, and time-domain electromagnetic induction surveys, were conducted to determine the depth and shape of the basin, to delineate depths to the Quaternary-Tertiary interface, and to map the depth to the water table and changes in water quality. Data were collected from existing wells and test holes, as well as 11 monitor wells that were installed at 5 sites as part of this study. Water-quality samples collected from wells in the basin were used to determine the groundwater chemistry within the basin and to delineate potential sources of poor-quality groundwater. Analysis of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater indicates that present-day precipitation is not a major source of recharge to the basin. Tritium and carbon-14 data indicate that most of the basin was recharged prior to 1952, and the groundwater in the basin has an apparent age of 12,500 to 30,000 years. Recharge to the basin, estimated to be less than 50 acre-feet per year, has not been sufficient to replenish the water that is being withdrawn from the basin. A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed for the Langford Basin to better understand the aquifer system used by the Fort Irwin NTC as part of its water supply, and to provide a tool to help manage groundwater resources at
Summary of research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer sciences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1986-01-01
The major categories of current ICASE research programs addressed include: numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; control and parameter identification problems, with emphasis on effective numerical methods; computational problems in engineering and physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.
Heilweil, V.M.; Freethey, G.W.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Stolp, B.J.; Wilberg, D.E.
2000-01-01
Because rapid growth of communities in Washington and Iron Counties, Utah, is expected to cause an increase in the future demand for water resources, a hydrologic investigation was done to better understand ground-water resources within the central Virgin River basin. This study focused on two of the principal ground-water reservoirs within the basin: the upper Ash Creek basin ground-water system and the Navajo and Kayenta aquifer system. The ground-water system of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin consists of three aquifers: the uppermost Quaternary basin-fill aquifer, the Tertiary alluvial-fan aquifer, and the Tertiary Pine Valley monzonite aquifer. These aquifers are naturally bounded by the Hurricane Fault and by drainage divides. On the basis of measurements, estimates, and numerical simulations of reasonable values for all inflow and outflow components, total water moving through the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is estimated to be about 14,000 acre-feet per year. Recharge to the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is mostly from infiltration of precipitation and seepage from ephemeral and perennial streams. The primary source of discharge is assumed to be evapotranspiration; however, subsurface discharge near Ash Creek Reservoir also may be important. The character of two of the hydrologic boundaries of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is speculative. The eastern boundary provided by the Hurricane Fault is assumed to be a no-flow boundary, and a substantial part of the ground-water discharge from the system is assumed to be subsurface outflow beneath Ash Creek Reservoir along the southern boundary. However, these assumptions might be incorrect because alternative numerical simulations that used different boundary conditions also proved to be feasible. The hydrogeologic character of the aquifers is uncertain because of limited data. Difference in well yield indicate that there is considerable
Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.
1981-01-01
Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.
Ernest Mancini
2000-12-31
Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the modeling results are being interpreted for report writing (Table 1). Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern part of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis has been initiated. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - The report on basin flow will be completed. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock data will be reviewed in light of the basin flow model results. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis.
Great Basin NV Play Fairway Analysis - Carson Sink
Jim Faulds
2015-10-28
All datasets and products specific to the Carson Sink basin. Includes a packed ArcMap (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the Carson Sink area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.
Discomfort Analysis in Computerized Numeric Control Machine Operations
Sankaranarayanasamy, Krishnasamy; Ganguli, Anindya Kumar
2012-01-01
Objectives The introduction of computerized numeric control (CNC) technology in manufacturing industries has revolutionized the production process, but there are some health and safety problems associated with these machines. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of postural discomfort in CNC machine operators, and the relationship of this discomfort to the display and control panel height, with a view to validate the anthropometric recommendation for the location of the display and control panel in CNC machines. Methods The postural discomforts associated with CNC machines were studied in 122 male operators using Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort mapping, subject information, and discomfort level at various time intervals from starting to end of a shift. This information was collected using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA. Results Neck discomfort due to the positioning of the machine displays, and shoulder and arm discomfort due to the positioning of controls were identified as common health issues in the operators of these machines. The study revealed that 45.9% of machine operators reported discomfort in the lower back, 41.8% in the neck, 22.1% in the upper-back, 53.3% in the shoulder and arm, and 21.3% of the operators reported discomfort in the leg. Conclusion Discomfort increased with the progress of the day and was highest at the end of a shift; subject age had no effect on patient tendency to experience discomfort levels. PMID:22993720
Numerical Simulation and Scaling Analysis of Cell Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Rui; He, Ping
2011-11-01
Cell printing, i.e., printing three dimensional (3D) structures of cells held in a tissue matrix, is gaining significant attention in the biomedical community. The key idea is to use inkjet printer or similar devices to print cells into 3D patterns with a resolution comparable to the size of mammalian cells. Achieving such a resolution in vitro can lead to breakthroughs in areas such as organ transplantation. Although the feasibility of cell printing has been demonstrated recently, the printing resolution and cell viability remain to be improved. Here we investigate a unit operation in cell printing, namely, the impact of a cell-laden droplet into a pool of highly viscous liquids. The droplet and cell dynamics are quantified using both direct numerical simulation and scaling analysis. These studies indicate that although cell experienced significant stress during droplet impact, the duration of such stress is very short, which helps explain why many cells can survive the cell printing process. These studies also revealed that cell membrane can be temporarily ruptured during cell printing, which is supported by indirect experimental evidence.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Combustion Using Principal Component Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owoyele, Opeoluwa; Echekki, Tarek
2016-11-01
We investigate the potential of accelerating chemistry integration during the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of complex fuels based on the transport equations of representative scalars that span the desired composition space using principal component analysis (PCA). The transported principal components (PCs) offer significant potential to reduce the computational cost of DNS through a reduction in the number of transported scalars, as well as the spatial and temporal resolution requirements. The strategy is demonstrated using DNS of a premixed methane-air flame in a 2D vortical flow and is extended to the 3D geometry to further demonstrate the computational efficiency of PC transport. The PCs are derived from a priori PCA of a subset of the full thermo-chemical scalars' vector. The PCs' chemical source terms and transport properties are constructed and tabulated in terms of the PCs using artificial neural networks (ANN). Comparison of DNS based on a full thermo-chemical state and DNS based on PC transport based on 6 PCs shows excellent agreement even for species that are not included in the PCA reduction. The transported PCs reproduce some of the salient features of strongly curved and strongly strained flames. The 2D DNS results also show a significant reduction of two orders of magnitude in the computational cost of the simulations, which enables an extension of the PCA approach to 3D DNS under similar computational requirements. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1217200.
Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Alexander
2016-04-01
The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.
Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR
Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao
2016-01-01
The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously. PMID:27598168
Analysis of Numerical Simulation Results of LIPS-200 Lifetime Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Tianping; Geng, Hai; Jia, Yanhui; Meng, Wei; Wu, Xianming; Sun, Anbang
2016-06-01
Accelerator grid structural and electron backstreaming failures are the most important factors affecting the ion thruster's lifetime. During the thruster's operation, Charge Exchange Xenon (CEX) ions are generated from collisions between plasma and neutral atoms. Those CEX ions grid's barrel and wall frequently, which cause the failures of the grid system. In order to validate whether the 20 cm Lanzhou Ion Propulsion System (LIPS-200) satisfies China's communication satellite platform's application requirement for North-South Station Keeping (NSSK), this study analyzed the measured depth of the pit/groove on the accelerator grid's wall and aperture diameter's variation and estimated the operating lifetime of the ion thruster. Different from the previous method, in this paper, the experimental results after the 5500 h of accumulated operation of the LIPS-200 ion thruster are presented firstly. Then, based on these results, theoretical analysis and numerical calculations were firstly performed to predict the on-orbit lifetime of LIPS-200. The results obtained were more accurate to calculate the reliability and analyze the failure modes of the ion thruster. The results indicated that the predicted lifetime of LIPS-200's was about 13218.1 h which could satisfy the required lifetime requirement of 11000 h very well.
1-D Numerical Analysis of RBCC Engine Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Samuel S.
1998-01-01
An RBCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engines into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Considerable research pertaining to RBCC propulsion was performed during the 1960's and these engines were revisited recently as a candidate propulsion system for either a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) or two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle. There are a variety of RBCC configurations that had been evaluated and new designs are currently under development. However, the basic configuration of all RBCC systems is built around the ejector scramjet engine originally developed for the hypersonic airplane. In this configuration, a rocket engine plays as an ejector in the air-augmented initial acceleration mode, as a fuel injector in scramjet mode and the rocket in all rocket mode for orbital insertion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in RBCC propulsion systems. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic RBCC engine following a flight path.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Andrew Dean
Organic geochemistry of oils from the Tarim basin, NW China, distinguish at least seven genetic groups of oils. The largest group are derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician anoxic slope-facies marls coincident with the margins of structural uplifts. Other groups include non-marine derived oils in the Luntai uplift, from southwest Tarim, in the Kuqa depression, and west of the Bachu uplift. A seep sample from west of Kashi clusters with Luntai oils. These results suggest that numerous source-rock horizons occur, but they are really restricted. Organic geochemistry of oils from northern Qaidam defines a family of hypersaline, anoxic lacustrine derived oils. Cenozoic outcrop samples from northern Qaidam are too organic lean to be of source quality, but dark laminated upper Oligocene mudstones from the Shi 28 well are of fair to good quality. Biomarkers provide a good correlation between the oils and the core samples. Organic matter is from algae and bacteria and lacks terrestrial material. Hydrocarbons are contained in upper Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene reservoirs. Eight oils are from NW Qaidam, but one sample comes from NE Qaidam, an area previously believed to only produce oils derived from Jurassic source rocks. Thus an unidentified Cenozoic source rock occurs in NE Qaidam. Thermal modeling indicates generation occurred in northwestern Qaidam within the last 3 million years, agreeing with observed low maturity biomarker parameters. Cenozoic stratigraphy in northern Qaidam and southern Tarim basins record the tectonic history of the surrounding structural/topographic elements. Paleocurrents record flow away from adjacent ranges from the Miocene to the present. Provenance data tie sediments to adjacent structural elements. Petrography indicates increasingly immature sandstones in Miocene and younger sediments relative to pre-Miocene samples. Apatite fission-track results from southeastern Tarim yield a cooling age of 17 +/- 1 Ma indicative of unroofing since at
Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard
2005-08-01
The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.
Dartnell, P.; Gardner, J.V.
2009-01-01
The seafloor off greater Los Angeles, California, has been extensively studied for the past century. Terrain analysis of recently compiled multibeam bathymetry reveals the detailed seafloor morphology along the Los Angeles Margin and San Pedro Basin. The terrain analysis uses the multibeam bathymetry to calculate two seafloor indices, a seafloor slope, and a Topographic Position Index. The derived grids along with depth are analyzed in a hierarchical, decision-tree classification to delineate six seafloor provinces-high-relief shelf, low-relief shelf, steep-basin slope, gentle-basin slope, gullies and canyons, and basins. Rock outcrops protrude in places above the generally smooth continental shelf. Gullies incise the steep-basin slopes, and some submarine canyons extend from the coastline to the basin floor. San Pedro Basin is separated from the Santa Monica Basin to the north by a ridge consisting of the Redondo Knoll and the Redondo Submarine Canyon delta. An 865-m-deep sill separates the two basins. Water depths of San Pedro Basin are ??100 m deeper than those in the San Diego Trough to the south, and three passes breach a ridge that separates the San Pedro Basin from the San Diego Trough. Information gained from this study can be used as base maps for such future studies as tectonic reconstructions, identifying sedimentary processes, tracking pollution transport, and defining benthic habitats. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Empinotti, Thais; Spychala, Yvonne; Luthi, Stefan; Hodgson, David
2016-04-01
The depositional architectures of deep-water turbiditic deposits are strongly influenced by seafloor topography. Slope gradient variations of less than one degree might be sufficient to change the distribution of sands significantly along the basin profile. Stratigraphic units of deep-water sandstones from the Fort Brown Fm. in the Laingsburg depocentre (Karoo Basin, South Africa) are an example of that. Regional mapping and stratigraphic correlation of Units C to F (Van der Merwe et al., 2014) show a change from sand-attached systems in Units C and D to sand-detached systems in Units E and F. The sand-attached systems show a continuity of sands from entrenched slope valleys to basin-floor lobe complexes, while in the sand-detached systems there are widespread sand bypass zones of approximately 10 to 30 km where almost no sand is deposited and erosive features are observed. This is interpreted to reflect the development of a stepped slope profile. Lobe deposits occur before and after the bypass region, but significant differences in depositional architecture are noticed between these lobe deposits. The intraslope lobes are characterized by an aggradational to compensational stacking pattern and a common occurrence of erosive features, while the basin floor lobes show a lateral compensating stacking pattern with less erosive features. In this study, process-based numerical modelling of turbidity currents are performed to test if a stepped slope to basin profile with subtle gradient changes similar to that interpreted for the Laingsburg depocentre during the deposition of Unit E are suitable to generate the sediment distribution pattern observed in the field. Through an iterative modelling workflow we aim to constrain the paleoslope gradient changes using the parameters constrained from outcrop. The study also investigates how flow parameters such as sediment concentration, flow velocity, flow thickness and Froude number behave as a function of different slope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.
2015-04-01
Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are transported not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen (TN) input across a river basin using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (δ15N). The contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin, providing a first estimate of MDN export for a river basin. The contribution of nitrogen from the ocean to the river basin soils was between 22.9 and 23.8 %. Furthermore, SIA showed that the transport of oceanic TN by sea eagles (Haliaeetus spp.) was greater than that by bears (Ursus arctos), which had previously been that bears are thought to be the major animal transporter of nutrients in the northern part of Japan.
Numerical Analysis of the Sea State Bias for Satellite Altimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glazman, R. E.; Fabrikant, A.; Srokosz, M. A.
1996-01-01
Theoretical understanding of the dependence of sea state bias (SSB) on wind wave conditions has been achieved only for the case of a unidirectional wind-driven sea. Recent analysis of Geosat and TOPEX altimeter data showed that additional factors, such as swell, ocean currents, and complex directional properties of realistic wave fields, may influence SSB behavior. Here we investigate effects of two-dimensional multimodal wave spectra using a numerical model of radar reflection from a random, non-Gaussian surface. A recently proposed ocean wave spectrum is employed to describe sea surface statistics. The following findings appear to be of particular interest: (1) Sea swell has an appreciable effect in reducing the SSB coefficient compared with the pure wind sea case but has less effect on the actual SSB owing to the corresponding increase in significant wave height. (2) Hidden multimodal structure (the two-dimensional wavenumber spectrum contains separate peaks, for swell and wind seas, while the frequency spectrum looks unimodal) results in an appreciable change of SSB. (3) For unimodal, purely wind-driven seas, the influence of the angular spectral width is relatively unimportant; that is, a unidirectional sea provides a good qualitative model for SSB if the swell is absent. (4) The pseudo wave age is generally much better fo parametrization the SSB coefficient than the actual wave age (which is ill-defined for a multimodal sea) or wind speed. (5) SSB can be as high as 5% of the significant wave height, which is significantly greater than predicted by present empirical model functions tuned on global data sets. (6) Parameterization of SSB in terms of wind speed is likely to lead to errors due to the dependence on the (in practice, unknown) fetch.
Numerical analysis of the sea state bias for satellite altimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glazman, R. E.; Fabrikant, A.; Srokosz, M. A.
1996-02-01
Theoretical understanding of the dependence of sea state bias (SSB) on wind wave conditions has been achieved only for the case of a unidirectional wind-driven sea [Jackson, 1979; Rodriguez et al., 1992; Glazman and Srokosz, 1991]. Recent analysis of Geosat and TOPEX altimeter data showed that additional factors, such as swell, ocean currents, and complex directional properties of realistic wave fields, may influence SSB behavior. Here we investigate effects of two-dimensional multimodal wave spectra using a numerical model of radar reflection from a random, non-Gaussian surface. A recently proposed ocean wave spectrum is employed to describe sea surface statistics. The following findings appear to be of particular interest: (1) Sea swell has an appreciable effect in reducing the SSB coefficient compared with the pure wind sea case but has less effect on the actual SSB, owing to the corresponding increase in significant wave height. (2) Hidden multimodal structure (the two-dimensional wavenumber spectrum contains separate peaks, for swell and wind seas, while the frequency spectrum looks unimodal) results in an appreciable change of SSB. (3) For unimodal, purely wind-driven seas, the influence of the angular spectral width is relatively unimportant; that is, a unidirectional sea provides a good qualitative model for SSB if the swell is absent. (4) The pseudo wave age is generally much better for parametrizing the SSB coefficient than the actual wave age (which is ill-defined for a multimodal sea) or wind speed. (5) SSB can be as high as 5% of the significant wave height, which is significantly greater than predicted by present empirical model functions tuned on global data sets. (6) Parameterization of SSB in terms of wind speed is likely to lead to errors due to the dependence on the (in practice, unknown) fetch.
Numerical analysis of fume formation mechanism in arc welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tashiro, Shinichi; Zeniya, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Manabu; Nakata, Kazuhiro; Murphy, Anthony B.; Yamamoto, Eri; Yamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Keiichi
2010-11-01
In order to clarify the fume formation mechanism in arc welding, a quantitative investigation based on the knowledge of interaction among the electrode, arc and weld pool is indispensable. A fume formation model consisting of a heterogeneous condensation model, a homogeneous nucleation model and a coagulation model has been developed and coupled with the GTA or GMA welding model. A series of processes from evaporation of metal vapour to fume formation from the metal vapour was totally investigated by employing this simulation model. The aim of this paper is to visualize the fume formation process and clarify the fume formation mechanism theoretically through a numerical analysis. Furthermore, the reliability of the simulation model was also evaluated through a comparison of the simulation result with the experimental result. As a result, it was found that the size of the secondary particles consisting of small particles with a size of several tens of nanometres reached 300 nm at maximum and the secondary particle was in a U-shaped chain form in helium GTA welding. Furthermore, it was also clarified that most part of the fume was produced in the downstream region of the arc originating from the metal vapour evaporated mainly from the droplet in argon GMA welding. The fume was constituted by particles with a size of several tens of nanometres and had similar characteristics to that of GTA welding. On the other hand, if the metal transfer becomes unstable and the metal vapour near the droplet diffuses directly towards the surroundings of the arc not getting into the plasma flow, the size of the particles reaches several hundred nanometres.
Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map
Adam Brandt
2015-11-15
This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730
ANALYSIS OF A NUMERICAL SOLVER FOR RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION.
Gao, Hao; Zhao, Hongkai
2013-01-01
We analyze a numerical algorithm for solving radiative transport equation with vacuum or reflection boundary condition that was proposed in [4] with angular discretization by finite element method and spatial discretization by discontinuous Galerkin or finite difference method.
Numerical analysis of incompressible viscous flow around a bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugano, Minoru; Ishii, Ryuji; Morioka, Shigeki
1992-12-01
A numerical simulation of flows around a deformable gas bubble rising through an incompressible viscous fluid is carried out on a supercomputer Fujitsu VP-2600 at the Data Processing Center of Kyoto University. The solution algorithm is a modified MAC (Marker And Cell) method. For the grid generation, an orthogonal mapping proposed by Ryskin and Leal is applied. The numerical results are compared with Ryskin and Leal's results and previous experiments. It will be shown that a good agreement is obtained between them.
Numerical Grid Generation and Potential Airfoil Analysis and Design
1988-01-01
contents include a discussion of grid generation concepts and schemes in the literature , iter- ative methods for numerical grid generation and two...to multicomponent rN airfoils, arbitrary multiple bodies and cascade grid generation for the first time. We present representative results as a... literature , iter- ative methods for numerical grid generation and two differential grid gen- eration schemes: (1) an elliptic, and (2) a parabolic scheme. A
Sheet Hydroforming Process Numerical Model Improvement Through Experimental Results Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriele, Papadia; Antonio, Del Prete; Alfredo, Anglani
2010-06-01
The increasing application of numerical simulation in metal forming field has helped engineers to solve problems one after another to manufacture a qualified formed product reducing the required time [1]. Accurate simulation results are fundamental for the tooling and the product designs. The wide application of numerical simulation is encouraging the development of highly accurate simulation procedures to meet industrial requirements. Many factors can influence the final simulation results and many studies have been carried out about materials [2], yield criteria [3] and plastic deformation [4,5], process parameters [6] and their optimization. In order to develop a reliable hydromechanical deep drawing (HDD) numerical model the authors have been worked out specific activities based on the evaluation of the effective stiffness of the blankholder structure [7]. In this paper after an appropriate tuning phase of the blankholder force distribution, the experimental activity has been taken into account to improve the accuracy of the numerical model. In the first phase, the effective capability of the blankholder structure to transfer the applied load given by hydraulic actuators to the blank has been explored. This phase ended with the definition of an appropriate subdivision of the blankholder active surface in order to take into account the effective pressure map obtained for the given loads configuration. In the second phase the numerical results obtained with the developed subdivision have been compared with the experimental data of the studied model. The numerical model has been then improved, finding the best solution for the blankholder force distribution.
Tectonic Subsidence Analysis of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, Northern South China Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, X.; Huang, S. S. X. E. C.; Zhuang, W.; LIU, Z.; Duan, W.; Hu, S.
2015-12-01
The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB hereafter) in the northern margin of the South China Sea has attracted great attention not only because of its special tectonic location but also for its abundant hydrocarbon resources. Tectonic evolution controls the petroleum geological condition of hydrocarbon-bearing basins. Efforts have been made to understand the tectonic evolution of this basin. However, many issues about the tectonic features and the evolution process of this basin, such as the age of the breakup unconformities and the anomalously accelerated subsidence during the post-rifting stage, remain controversial. Here we employ tectonic subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins, a technique of removing isostatic loading and compaction effects by back-stripping, to investigate the tectonic controls on the basin formation of the PRMB. We performed the analysis on 4 drill wells and 43 synthetic wells constructed based on recently acquired seismic profiles. The result shows that tectonic subsidence in the eastern sags of the PRMB began to decrease at ~30Ma while in the western sags the onset was ~23.8Ma. This suggests that the break-up time i.e. the end of rifting in the PRMB is earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Abnormally accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred between 17.5-16.4Ma during the post-rifting stage, at an average subsidence rate as high as 301.9m/Ma. This phenomenon discriminates the PRMB from the category of classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, of which the tectonic subsidence during the post-rifting stage decays exponentially. The main objective of this paper is to provide insights into the geological and geodynamic evolution of the PRMB. The result bears significance to hydrocarbon exploration in this region.
Method Study of Flood Hazard Analysis for Plain River Network Area, Taihu Basin, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.
2015-12-01
Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.
2015-04-01
Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic
Quantitative analysis of numerical solvers for oscillatory biomolecular system models
Quo, Chang F; Wang, May D
2008-01-01
Background This article provides guidelines for selecting optimal numerical solvers for biomolecular system models. Because various parameters of the same system could have drastically different ranges from 10-15 to 1010, the ODEs can be stiff and ill-conditioned, resulting in non-unique, non-existing, or non-reproducible modeling solutions. Previous studies have not examined in depth how to best select numerical solvers for biomolecular system models, which makes it difficult to experimentally validate the modeling results. To address this problem, we have chosen one of the well-known stiff initial value problems with limit cycle behavior as a test-bed system model. Solving this model, we have illustrated that different answers may result from different numerical solvers. We use MATLAB numerical solvers because they are optimized and widely used by the modeling community. We have also conducted a systematic study of numerical solver performances by using qualitative and quantitative measures such as convergence, accuracy, and computational cost (i.e. in terms of function evaluation, partial derivative, LU decomposition, and "take-off" points). The results show that the modeling solutions can be drastically different using different numerical solvers. Thus, it is important to intelligently select numerical solvers when solving biomolecular system models. Results The classic Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction is described by the Oregonator model and is used as a case study. We report two guidelines in selecting optimal numerical solver(s) for stiff, complex oscillatory systems: (i) for problems with unknown parameters, ode45 is the optimal choice regardless of the relative error tolerance; (ii) for known stiff problems, both ode113 and ode15s are good choices under strict relative tolerance conditions. Conclusions For any given biomolecular model, by building a library of numerical solvers with quantitative performance assessment metric, we show that it is possible
Analysis of anelastic flow and numerical treatment via finite elements
Martinez, M.J.
1994-05-01
In this report, we reconsider the various approximations made to the full equations of motion and energy transport for treating low-speed flows with significant temperature induced property variations. This entails assessment of the development of so-called anelastic for low-Mach number flows outside the range of validity of the Boussinesq equations. An integral part of this assessment is the development of a finite element-based numerical scheme for obtaining approximate numerical solutions to this class of problems. Several formulations were attempted and are compared.
Water Level Temporal Variation Analysis at Prata Basin Using GRACE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimaraes, G.; Blitzkow, D.; Matos, A.; Vaz, F.; Campos, I.; Barbosa, A.
2008-12-01
A comparison between daily in-situ water level time series measured at ground-based hydrometric stations of Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) with vertically-integrated water height deduced from GRACE geoid (height anomaly) is carried out. The 10-day intervals of GRACE models were computed by Groupe de Recherches de Géodésie Spatiale (CNES/GRGS). The height anomaly was converted into equivalent water height, over the Prata basin for a ~6-year period (July-2002 to May-2008). A correlation around 74 per cent has been detected. This correlation allows defining a local transfer function by adjusting a linear relationship between GRACE-based and in situ observation time-series. The study of the Continuous Wavelet Transform was applied in the hydrometric stations and a time-scale correlation was figured out.
Structural analysis of high-dimensional basins of attraction.
Martiniani, Stefano; Schrenk, K Julian; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J; Frenkel, Daan
2016-09-01
We propose an efficient Monte Carlo method for the computation of the volumes of high-dimensional bodies with arbitrary shape. We start with a region of known volume within the interior of the manifold and then use the multistate Bennett acceptance-ratio method to compute the dimensionless free-energy difference between a series of equilibrium simulations performed within this object. The method produces results that are in excellent agreement with thermodynamic integration, as well as a direct estimate of the associated statistical uncertainties. The histogram method also allows us to directly obtain an estimate of the interior radial probability density profile, thus yielding useful insight into the structural properties of such a high-dimensional body. We illustrate the method by analyzing the effect of structural disorder on the basins of attraction of mechanically stable packings of soft repulsive spheres.
A spatial analysis of phosphorus in the Mississippi river basin.
Jacobson, Linda M; David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E
2011-01-01
Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6-mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model ( = 0.48, = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model ( = 0.42, = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model ( = 0.49, = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Gu, Gao-Feng; Xiong, Xiong; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2015-10-01
Many complex systems generate multifractal time series which are long-range cross-correlated. Numerous methods have been proposed to characterize the multifractal nature of these long-range cross correlations. However, several important issues about these methods are not well understood and most methods consider only one moment order. We study the joint multifractal analysis based on partition function with two moment orders, which was initially invented to investigate fluid fields, and derive analytically several important properties. We apply the method numerically to binomial measures with multifractal cross correlations and bivariate fractional Brownian motions without multifractal cross correlations. For binomial multifractal measures, the explicit expressions of mass function, singularity strength and multifractal spectrum of the cross correlations are derived, which agree excellently with the numerical results. We also apply the method to stock market indexes and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of index volatilities.
Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Flows in Channels of Complex Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farbos De Luzan, Charles
The current study proposes to follow a systematic validated approach to applied fluid mechanics problems in order to evaluate the ability of different computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to be a relevant design tool. This systematic approach involves different operations such as grid sensitivity analyses, turbulence models comparison and appropriate wall treatments, in order to define case-specific optimal parameters for industrial applications. A validation effort is performed on each study, with particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results as the validating metric. The first part of the dissertation lays down the principles of validation, and presents the details of a grid sensitivity analysis, as well as a turbulence models benchmark. The models are available in commercial solvers, and in most cases the default values of the equations constants are retained. The validation experimental data is taken with a hot wire, and has served as a reference to validate multiple turbulence models for turbulent flows in channels. In a second part, the study of a coaxial piping system will compare a set of different steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) turbulence models, namely the one equation model Spalart-Almaras, and two-equation-models standard k-epsilon, k-epsilon realizable, k-epsilon RNG, standard k-omega, k-omega SST, and transition SST. The geometry of interest involves a transition from an annulus into a larger one, where highly turbulent phenomena occur, such as recirculation and jet impingement. Based on a set of constraints that are defined in the analysis, a chosen model will be tested on new designs in order to evaluate their performance. The third part of this dissertation will address the steady-state flow patterns in a Viscosity-Sensitive Fluidic Diode (VSFD). This device is used in a fluidics application, and its originality lies in the fact that it does not require a control fluid in order to operate. This section will discuss the
Numerical analysis of initial stage of thermal shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demidov, V. N.
2016-07-01
The paper studies a problem of a thermal shock at the surface of a half-space, which properties are described by elastic-plastic model taking into account dynamic effects, heat inertia, coupling between thermal and mechanical fields. The problem is solved numerically using finite-difference method of S.K. Godunov.
Analysis and Modeling of Buoyancy Generated Turbulence using Numerical Data.
1997-09-01
Rayleigh- Bernard convection offers a unique flow situation in which buoyancy-generated turbulence can be studied in isolation, free of the...using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of Rayleigh- Bernard convection. In particular, we examine the pressure-strain and pressure temperature
Approximation and Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Equations of Evolution.
1980-01-31
les Espaces d’ Interpolation; Dualitg", Math. Scand., 9, 1961, pp. 147-177. 9. __ "Equations Diff~rentielles Op ~ rationnelles dan les Espaces de Hilbert...relaxation," Revue Francaise d’automatique, informatique, recherche operationnelle, R3, 1973, p. 5-32. Ill DOUGLAS, J. and GALLIE, T.MI. "On the Numerical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamboa, Davide; Williams, John; Kirk, Karen; Gent, Christopher; Bentham, Michelle; Fellgett, Mark; Schofield, David
2016-04-01
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a vital technology towards low-carbon energy resources and the mitigation of global warming trends induced by rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The East Irish Sea Basin (EISB) is a key area for CCS in the western UK, having high CO2 storage potentials in explored hydrocarbon fields and in saline aquifers within the Permo-Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Formation. However, the theoretical storage potential of the EISB could be poorly estimated as the reservoir-prone Lower Permian formations are not considered in detail by current estimations. This work aims to fill this gap, focusing on the characterisation of the Lower Permian Collyhurst Sandstone Formation as a viable storage unit. The potential for CO2 storage is estimated as the total volume/area of suitable closures that are isolated by structural traps, occurring at depths suitable for CO2 injection and containment (>800m). Detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made using 3D seismic data to assess the storage potential of the Collyhurst Sandstone Formation in the southern EISB. The basin strata is compartmentalised by numerous N-S trending faults. A higher degree of compartmentalisation occurs within regional anticlines where elongated tilted blocks are observed, bound by predominantly west-dipping faults that induce a variable offset of the Collyhurst Sandstone strata. Contrastingly, higher lateral continuity of this formation is observed within graben basins were faults are less frequent and with minor offset, thus potentially creating larger storage closures. Fault dip orientation in the grabens is variable, with west and east dipping faults occurring as a function of large east-dipping listric faults. This study was complemented by the stress modelling of the interpreted faults in order to assess the risk of CO2 leakage. Analysis of borehole breakouts observed in four approximately vertical wells in the EISB suggest a maximum horizontal stress
The numerical analysis of a turbulent compressible jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debonis, James Raymond
2000-10-01
A numerical method to simulate high Reynolds number jet flows was formulated and applied to gain a better understanding of the flow physics. Large-eddy simulation was chosen as the most promising approach to model the turbulent structures due to its compromise between accuracy and computational expense. The filtered Navier-Stokes equations were developed including a total energy form of the energy equation. Sub-grid scale models for the momentum and energy equations were adapted from compressible forms of Smagorinsky's original model. The effect of using disparate temporal and spatial accuracy in a numerical scheme was discovered through one-dimensional model problems and a new uniformly fourth-order accurate numerical method was developed. Results from two and three dimensional validation exercises show that the code accurately reproduces both viscous and inviscid flows. Numerous axisymmetric jet simulations were performed to investigate the effect of grid resolution, numerical scheme, exit boundary conditions and sub-grid scale modeling on the solution and the results were used to guide the three-dimensional calculations. Three-dimensional calculations of a Mach 1.4 jet showed that this LES simulation accurately captures the physics of the turbulent flow. The agreement with experimental data relatively good and is much better than results in the current literature. Turbulent intensities indicate that the turbulent structures at this level of modeling are not isotropic and this information could lend itself to the development of improved sub-grid scale models for LES and turbulence models for RANS simulations. A two point correlation technique was used to quantify the turbulent structures. Two point space correlations were used to obtain a measure of the integral length scale, which proved to be approximately ½Dj. Two point space-time correlations were used to obtain the convection velocity for the turbulent structures. This velocity ranged from 0.57 to 0.71 Uj.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Hsiao-Tung
2016-06-01
Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.
Howell, P.D.; Budai, J.M.
1989-03-01
Quantitative paleobathymetry is difficult to determine for any rock sequence with a significant subtidal component. Water depth estimates are traditionally obtained from detailed sedimentology and paleontology, but this type of data is seldom available in subsurface work. Further, a good geological data base may be inconclusive for paleobathymetry in subtidal or substorm-wave base environments. More accurate facies prediction would be possible if paleobathymetry could be determined from the conventional subsurface data normally available to explorationists. Subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins has the potential to provide precise paleobathymetric estimates for a variety of depositional settings. This technique is illustrated using the Middle Ordovician carbonates of the Michigan basin. Tectonic subsidence patterns established from stratigraphic and subsidence modeling of the Lower-Middle Ordovician Prairie du Chien Group in Michigan are projected forward through the Middle Ordovician. Isopach thicknesses of the Black River and Trenton carbonates are superimposed on the tectonic subsidence patterns to provide a quantitative basin-fill model. The model paleobathymetry is then compared with core data from exploration wells to evaluate the model facies interpretation. An excellent fit is achieved for the shallow to deep subtidal platform and basinal Trenton carbonates. This technique allows paleobathymetry to be calculated in many basins where tectonic subsidence patterns can be accurately modeled.
Wu, Feifei; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Yanpeng; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Chunhui
2012-06-15
Occurrence of temperature anomaly has greatly affected natural cycles of water resources in Lancang River basin in China, which is the upper reach of Mekong River. An integrated spatiotemporal decomposition and analysis method was proposed for the identification of temperature-variation patterns under changing climatic conditions in the basin. This method was based on the combination of S-mode empirical orthogonal function analysis, IDW interpolation, liner regression, weighted moving average and Mann Kendall methods. Results indicated that the first two modes extracted nearly 80% of spatiotemporal variations in temperature. Temperature in the whole basin followed the same variation trend through the first mode analysis. Sensitive areas were mainly located in the southwest of the basin, which occupied nearly half of the basin. The associated time series presented that the basin appeared transition from cold periods to warm periods. Temperature increased significantly over the period of 1960 to 2009 at annual and seasonal scales, particularly over 1990s. At the same time, the most significant rising occurred in winter and the least in summer. In the second mode, a west-east inverse phase pattern of temperature variations was a distinct feature in most of the basin. Temporal trend indicated that the increasing trend in the west region was slightly stronger than that in the east. This was particularly the case of edge areas almost vertical juncture with monsoons. This research is not only helpful in improving understanding of temperature response to global warming in the basin but also provides a basis for basin management.
Numerical Analysis Of The Resistance To Pullout Test Of Clinched Assemblies Of Thin Metal Sheets
Jomaa, Moez; Billardon, Rene
2007-04-07
This paper presents the finite element analysis of the resistance of a clinch point to pullout test -that follows the numerical analysis of the forming process of the point-. The simulations have been validated by comparison with experimental evidences. The influence on the numerical predictions of various computation and process parameters have been evaluated.
Jones, Joseph L.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Frans, Lonna M.
2013-01-01
A groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate potential future effects of growth and of water-management strategies on water resources in the Chimacum Creek Basin. The model covers an area of about 64 square miles (mi2) on the Olympic Peninsula in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington. The Chimacum Creek Basin drains an area of about 53 mi2 and consists of Chimacum Creek and its tributary East Fork Chimacum Creek, which converge near the town of Chimacum and discharge to Port Townsend Bay near the town of Irondale. The topography of the model area consists of north-south oriented, narrow, regularly spaced parallel ridges and valleys that are characteristic of fluted glaciated surfaces. Thick accumulations of peat occur along the axis of East Fork Chimacum Creek and provide rich soils for agricultural use. The study area is underlain by a north-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial (till and outwash) and interglacial (fluvial and lacustrine) deposits, and sedimentary and igneous bedrock units that crop out along the margins and the western interior of the model area. Six hydrogeologic units in the model area form the basis of the groundwater-flow model. They are represented by model layers UC (upper confining), UA (upper aquifer), MC (middle confining), LA (lower aquifer), LC (lower confining), and OE (bedrock). Groundwater flow in the Chimacum Creek Basin and vicinity was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The finite-difference model grid comprises 245 columns, 313 rows, and 6 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 200 × 200 feet (ft). The thickness of model layers varies throughout the model area and ranges from 5 ft in the non-bedrock units to more than 2,400 ft in the bedrock. Groundwater flow was simulated for steady-state conditions, which were simulated for calibration of the model using average recharge, discharge, and water levels for the 180-month period October 1994–September 2009. The model as
Application of Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) for Dungun River Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafiz, I.; Nor, N. D. M.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; K, F.; Hanapi, M. N.; L, Livia
2013-06-01
The Northeast monsoon happening during the months of October until January is the major rainy season found in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The Dungun river basin (1,858 km2) is exposed to this season thus experiencing characteristically regular flooding due to the prolong rainfall events. The annual rainfall over the river basins are 2,880 mm with great proportion falling in the months of December (19.4%). This study is to apply the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model which Dungun river basin has been chosen for this study as the catchments have range of flood and relevant data that can be used to develop the model. The satellite data used in this study is provided by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch. The main feature of this real-time flood analysis model is the satellite-based rainfall data input employed during the model creation phase. The performance of the model for the river basins from satellite and ground-based rainfall data are compared using three error analysis methods.
Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenbin; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe
2016-09-01
When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.
Fourier analysis of numerical algorithms for the Maxwell equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen
1993-01-01
The Fourier method is used to analyze the dispersive, dissipative, and isotropy errors of various spatial and time discretizations applied to the Maxwell equations on multi-dimensional grids. Both Cartesian grids and non-Cartesian grids based on hexagons and tetradecahedra are studied and compared. The numerical errors are quantitatively determined in terms of phase speed, wave number, propagation direction, gridspacings, and CFL number. The study shows that centered schemes are more efficient than upwind schemes. The non-Cartesian grids yield superior isotropy and higher accuracy than the Cartesian ones. For the centered schemes, the staggered grids produce less errors than the unstaggered ones. A new unstaggered scheme which has all the best properties is introduced. The study also demonstrates that a proper choice of time discretization can reduce the overall numerical errors due to the spatial discretization.
Nonlinear ultrasonic resonators: a numerical analysis in the time domain.
Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé
2006-12-22
In the framework of the study of nonlinear acoustic phenomena arising in high-power ultrasonic resonators, this paper deals with the numerical prediction of the behaviour of strongly nonlinear waves in resonators. In particular three-dimensional cavities in complex modal configurations are analyzed. The main motivation of this work is the understanding and optimisation of high-power ultrasonic applications in fluids. Based on conservation laws written in Lagrangian coordinates and the isentropic state equation, several evolution equations (one-dimensional, two-dimensional, three-dimensional and axisymmetric) are proposed and numerically solved in the time domain. No restriction on nonlinearity level is imposed. These developments allow the simulation of the time evolution of the pressure distribution inside the cavity, as well as the harmonics distribution. Distortion, nonlinear attenuation and rms pressure can be studied. Periodic (continue) and pulsed signal excitation are possible. Some results referred to complicated nonlinear waves are presented.
An efficient numerical procedure for thermohydrodynamic analysis of cavitating bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vijayaraghavan, D.
1995-01-01
An efficient and accurate numerical procedure to determine the thermo-hydrodynamic performance of cavitating bearings is described. This procedure is based on the earlier development of Elrod for lubricating films, in which the properties across the film thickness are determined at Lobatto points and their distributions are expressed by collocated polynomials. The cavitated regions and their boundaries are rigorously treated. Thermal boundary conditions at the surfaces, including heat dissipation through the metal to the ambient, are incorporated. Numerical examples are presented comparing the predictions using this procedure with earlier theoretical predictions and experimental data. With a few points across the film thickness and across the journal and the bearing in the radial direction, the temperature profile is very well predicted.
Vistas in applied mathematics: Numerical analysis, atmospheric sciences, immunology
Balakrishnan, A.V.; Dorodnitsyn, A.A.; Lions, J.L.
1986-01-01
Advances in the theory and application of numerical modeling techniques are discussed in papers contributed, primarily by Soviet scientists, on the occasion of the 60th birthday of Gurii I. Marchuk. Topics examined include splitting techniques for computations of industrial flows, the mathematical foundations of the k-epsilon turbulence model, splitting methods for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the approximation of inhomogeneous hyperbolic boundary-value problems, multigrid methods, and the finite-element approximation of minimal surfaces. Consideration is given to dynamic modeling of moist atmospheres, satellite observations of the earth radiation budget and the problem of energy-active ocean regions, a numerical model of the biosphere for use with GCMs, and large-scale modeling of ocean circulation. Also included are several papers on modeling problems in immunology.
FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS
Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...
FEM numerical model analysis of magnetic nanoparticle tumor heating experiments.
Pearce, John A; Petyk, Alicia A; Hoopes, P Jack
2014-01-01
Iron oxide nanoparticles are currently under investigation as heating agents for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Major determinants of effective heating include the biodistribution of magnetic materials, the minimum iron oxide loading required to achieve adequate heating, and practically achievable magnetic field strengths. These are inter-related criteria that ultimately determine the practicability of this approach to tumor treatment. Currently, we lack fundamental engineering design criteria that can be used in treatment planning and assessment. Coupling numerical models to experimental studies illuminate the underlying physical processes and can separate physical processes to determine their relative importance. Further, adding thermal damage and cell death process to the models provides valuable perspective on the likelihood of successful treatment. FEM numerical models were applied to increase the understanding of a carefully calibrated series of experiments in mouse mammary carcinoma. The numerical models results indicate that tumor loadings equivalent to approximately 1 mg of Fe3O4 per gram of tumor tissue are required to achieve adequate heating in magnetic field strengths of 34 kA/m (rms) at 160 kHz. Further, the models indicate that direct intratumoral injection of the nanoparticles results in between 1 and 20% uptake in the tissues.
Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Fields in Multiscale Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Ji; Fang, Guang-You; Ji, Yi-Cai
2015-04-01
Modeling technique for electromagnetic fields excited by antennas is an important topic in computational electromagnetics, which is concerned with the numerical solution of Maxwell's equations. In this paper, a novel hybrid technique that combines method of moments (MoM) with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented to handle the problem. This approach employed Huygen's principle to realize the hybridization of the two classical numerical algorithms. For wideband electromagnetic data, the interpolation scheme is used in the MoM based on the dyadic Green's function. On the other hand, with the help of equivalence principle, the scattered electric and magnetic fields on the Huygen's surface calculated by MoM are taken as the sources for FDTD. Therefore, the electromagnetic fields in the environment can be obtained by employing finite-difference time-domain method. Finally, numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique by analyzing two canonical samples. Supported in part by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 201M550839, and in part by the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant No. KGZD-EW-603
Numerical analysis of biosonar beamforming mechanisms and strategies in bats.
Müller, Rolf
2010-09-01
Beamforming is critical to the function of most sonar systems. The conspicuous noseleaf and pinna shapes in bats suggest that beamforming mechanisms based on diffraction of the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic waves play a major role in bat biosonar. Numerical methods can be used to investigate the relationships between baffle geometry, acoustic mechanisms, and resulting beampatterns. Key advantages of numerical approaches are: efficient, high-resolution estimation of beampatterns, spatially dense predictions of near-field amplitudes, and the malleability of the underlying shape representations. A numerical approach that combines near-field predictions based on a finite-element formulation for harmonic solutions to the Helmholtz equation with a free-field projection based on the Kirchhoff integral to obtain estimates of the far-field beampattern is reviewed. This method has been used to predict physical beamforming mechanisms such as frequency-dependent beamforming with half-open resonance cavities in the noseleaf of horseshoe bats and beam narrowing through extension of the pinna aperture with skin folds in false vampire bats. The fine structure of biosonar beampatterns is discussed for the case of the Chinese noctule and methods for assessing the spatial information conveyed by beampatterns are demonstrated for the brown long-eared bat.
Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis
Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.
1987-08-01
The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.
Numerical analysis of a rapid magnetic microfluidic mixer.
Wen, Chih-Yung; Liang, Kuok-Pong; Chen, Hua; Fu, Lung-Ming
2011-11-01
This paper presents a detailed numerical investigation of the novel active microfluidic mixer proposed by Wen et al. (Electrophoresis 2009, 30, 4179-4186). This mixer uses an electromagnet driven by DC or AC power to induce transient interactive flows between a water-based ferrofluid and DI water. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the mixing mechanism. In the presence of the electromagnet's magnetic field, the magnetic nanoparticles create a body force vector that acts on the mixed fluid. Numerical simulations show that this magnetic body force causes the ferrofluid to expand significantly and uniformly toward miscible water. The magnetic force also produces many extremely fine finger structures along the direction of local magnetic field lines at the interface in both upstream and downstream regions of the microchannel when the external steady magnetic strength (DC power actuation) exceeds 30 Oe (critical magnetic Peclet number Pe(m),cr = 2870). This study is the first to analyze these pronounced finger patterns numerically, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental visualization of Wen et al. (Electrophoresis 2009, 30, 4179-4186). The large interfacial area that accompanies these fine finger structures and the dominant diffusion effects occurring around the circumferential regions of fingers significantly enhance the mixing performance. The mixing ratio can be as high as 95% within 2.0 s. at a distance of 3.0 mm from the mixing channel inlet when the applied peak magnetic field supplied by the DC power source exceeds 60 Oe. This study also presents a sample implementation of AC power actuation in a numerical simulation, an experimental benchmark, and a simulation of DC power actuation with the same peak magnetic strength. The simulated flow structures of the AC power actuation agree well with the experimental visualization, and are similar to those produced by DC power. The AC and DC power actuated flow fields exhibited no
Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby
2006-05-26
The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon
Numerical analysis of the symmetric hybrid transducer ultrasonic motor.
Satonobu, J; Friend, J R; Nakamura, K; Ueha, S
2001-11-01
In this paper, operation of a symmetric hybrid transducer ultrasonic motor with output produced by two rotors connected together via a driveshaft is numerically analyzed and compared with the traditional asymmetric hybrid transducer motor design that produces its output from only one rotor. A one-dimensional finite element model for torsional vibration in the stator and a Coulomb friction model for rotor/stator contact associated with the longitudinal vibration of the motor are introduced. The calculation results demonstrate that the symmetric design is capable of performance comparable with the traditional asymmetric design when an optimum static spring force in the rotor/stator contact interface is applied during operation.
Numerical Method and Analysis of Consistency for Electrodiffusion Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Danielewski, M.; Lewenstam, A.
2007-12-01
Numerical procedure based on method of lines for time-dependent electrodiffusion transport is developed. Finite difference space discretization with suitably selected weights based on a non-uniform grid is applied. Consistency of this method and the method put forward by Brumleve and Buck are analyzed and compared. The resulting stiff system of ODEs is effectively solved using the Radau IIa integrator. The applications to selected electrochemical systems: liquid junction, bi-ionic case and fused salts have been tested. Results for ion-selective electrodes are demonstrated.
Analysis and modeling of subgrid scalar mixing using numerical data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence is used to study, analyze and, subsequently, model the role of small (subgrid) scales in the mixing process. In particular, we attempt to model the dissipation of the large scale (supergrid) scalar fluctuations caused by the subgrid scales by decomposing it into two parts: (1) the effect due to the interaction among the subgrid scales; and (2) the effect due to interaction between the supergrid and the subgrid scales. Model comparisons with DNS data show good agreement. This model is expected to be useful in the large eddy simulations of scalar mixing and reaction.
Preliminary numerical analysis of improved gas chromatograph model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodrow, P. T.
1973-01-01
A mathematical model for the gas chromatograph was developed which incorporates the heretofore neglected transport mechanisms of intraparticle diffusion and rates of adsorption. Because a closed-form analytical solution to the model does not appear realizable, techniques for the numerical solution of the model equations are being investigated. Criteria were developed for using a finite terminal boundary condition in place of an infinite boundary condition used in analytical solution techniques. The class of weighted residual methods known as orthogonal collocation is presently being investigated and appears promising.
Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.
Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu
2015-05-01
The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970.
Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabir, M. A.; Dutta, D.; Hironaka, S.
2011-04-01
Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition) with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS)" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R-squared value) indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including descriptions
Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabir, M. A.; Dutta, D.; Hironaka, S.
2010-08-01
Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition) with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different surface grids and river nodes are modeled using one-dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS)" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R-squared value) indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the model including
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sang-Mook; Kim, Yoon-Mi
2016-04-01
Marginal basins locate between the continent and arc islands often exhibit diverse style of opening, from regions that appear to have formed by well-defined and localized spreading center (manifested by the presence of distinct seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns) to those with less obvious zones of extension and a broad magmatic emplacement most likely in the lower crust. Such difference in the style of back-arc basin formation may lead to marked difference in crustal structure in terms of its overall thickness and spatial variations. The Ulleung Basin, one of three major basins in the East Sea/Sea of Japan, is considered to represent a continental rifting end-member of back-arc opening. Although a great deal of work has been conducted on the sedimentary sections in the last several decades, the deep crustal sections have not been systematically investigated for long time, and thus the structure and characteristics of the crust remain poorly understood. This study examines the marine gravity anomalies of the Ulleung Basin in order to understand the crustal structure using crucial sediment-thickness information. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth in general varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the margins. However, within the basin center, the inferred thickness of the crust is more or less the same (10-12 km), thus by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous impression. The almost-uniformly-thick crust that is thicker than a normal oceanic crust (~ 7 km) is consistent with previous observations using ocean bottom seismometers and recent deep seismic results from the nearby Yamato Basin. Another important finding is that small residual mantle gravity anomaly highs exist in the northern part of the basin. These highs are aligned in the NNE-SSW direction which correspond to the orientation of the major tectonic structures on the Korean Peninsula, raising the possibility that, though by a small degree, they are a
Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman
2005-05-10
The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary
Numerical solution-space analysis of satisfiability problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Alexander; Hartmann, A. K.
2010-11-01
The solution-space structure of the three-satisfiability problem (3-SAT) is studied as a function of the control parameter α (ratio of the number of clauses to the number of variables) using numerical simulations. For this purpose one has to sample the solution space with uniform weight. It is shown here that standard stochastic local-search (SLS) algorithms like average satisfiability (ASAT) exhibit a sampling bias, as does “Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo” (MCMCMC) (also known as “parallel tempering”) when run for feasible times. Nevertheless, unbiased samples of solutions can be obtained using the “ballistic-networking approach,” which is introduced here. It is a generalization of “ballistic search” methods and yields also a cluster structure of the solution space. As application, solutions of 3-SAT instances are generated using ASAT plus ballistic networking. The numerical results are compatible with a previous analytical prediction of a simple solution-space structure for small values of α and a transition to a clustered phase at αc≈3.86 , where the solution space breaks up into several non-negligible clusters. Furthermore, in the thermodynamic limit there are, even for α=4.25 close to the SAT-UNSAT transition αs≈4.267 , always clusters without any frozen variables. This may explain why some SLS algorithms are able to solve very large 3-SAT instances close to the SAT-UNSAT transition.
Numerical Analysis of Transient Temperature Response of Soap Film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Seiichi; Tatesaku, Akihiro; Dantsuka, Yuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kunimine, Kanji
2015-11-01
Measurements of thermophysical properties of thin liquid films are important to understand interfacial phenomena due to film structures composed of amphiphilic molecules in soap film, phospholipid bilayer of biological cell and emulsion. A transient hot-wire technique for liquid films less than 1 \\upmu m thick such as soap film has been proposed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity simultaneously. Two-dimensional heat conduction equations for a solid cylinder with a liquid film have been solved numerically. The temperature of a thin wire with liquid film increases steeply with its own heat generation. The feasibility of this technique is verified through numerical experiments for various thermal conductivities, diffusivities, and film thicknesses. Calculated results indicate that the increase in the volumetric average temperature of the thin wire sufficiently varies with the change of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the soap film. Therefore, the temperature characteristics could be utilized to evaluate both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity using the Gauss-Newton method.
Numerical analysis of cell adhesion in capillary flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger; Ishikawa, Takuji
2016-11-01
Numerical simulation of cell adhesion was performed for capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. Despite a lot of works about leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, cell motion in capillaries has remained unclear. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram is obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. According to our numerical results, bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between PSGL-1 and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25000008, 26107703, 14J03967. We also acknowledge support from the Tohoku University Division for International Advanced Research and Education Organization.
Numerical analysis and prediction of laser forming of thin plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamsaout, Toufik; Amara, EL-Hachemi
2012-03-01
Laser forming is a technique consisting in the design and the construction of complex metallic work-pieces with special shapes, difficult to achieve with the conventional techniques. By using lasers, the main advantage of the process is that it is contactless and does not require any external force. It offers also more flexibility for a lower price. This kind of processing interests the industries that use the stamping or other costly ways for prototypes such as in the aero-spatial, automotive, naval and microelectronics industries. The analytical modeling of laser forming process is often complex or impossible to achieve, since the dimensions and the mechanical properties change with the time and in the space. Therefore, the numerical approach is more suitable for laser forming modeling. Our numerical study is divided into two models, the first one is a purely thermal treatment which allows the determination of the temperature field produced by a laser pass, and the second one consists in the thermomechanical coupling treatment. The temperature field resulting from the first stage is used to calculate the stress field, the deformations and the bending angle of the plate. The thermo-mechanical properties of material are isotropic, but temperature-dependant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, V. O.; Parsons, T.; Simpson, R. W.; Timoshkina, E. P.; Williams, C.
2007-01-01
Data on present-day heat flow, subsidence history, and paleotemperature for the Sacramento Delta region, California, have been employed to constrain a numerical model of tectonic subsidence and thermal evolution of forearc basins. The model assumes an oceanic basement with an initial thermal profile dependent on its age subjected to refrigeration caused by a subducting slab. Subsidence in the Sacramento Delta region appears to be close to that expected for a forearc basin underlain by normal oceanic lithosphere of age 150 Ma, demonstrating that effects from both the initial thermal profile and the subduction process are necessary and sufficient. Subsidence at the eastern and northern borders of the Sacramento Valley is considerably less, approximating subsidence expected from the dynamics of the subduction zone alone. These results, together with other geophysical data, show that Sacramento Delta lithosphere, being thinner and having undergone deeper subsidence, must differ from lithosphere of the transitional type under other parts of the Sacramento Valley. Thermal modeling allows evaluation of the rheological properties of the lithosphere. Strength diagrams based on our thermal model show that, even under relatively slow deformation (10-17 s-1), the upper part of the delta crystalline crust (down to 20-22 km) can fail in brittle fashion, which is in agreement with deeper earthquake occurrence. Hypocentral depths of earthquakes under the Sacramento Delta region extend to nearly 20 km, whereas, in the Coast Ranges to the west, depths are typically less than 12-15 km. The greater width of the seismogenic zone in this area raises the possibility that, for fault segments of comparable length, earthquakes of somewhat greater magnitude might occur than in the Coast Ranges to the west.
Mikhailov, V.O.; Parsons, T.; Simpson, R.W.; Timoshkina, E.P.; Williams, C.
2007-01-01
Data on present-day heat flow, subsidence history, and paleotemperature for the Sacramento Delta region, California, have been employed to constrain a numerical model of tectonic subsidence and thermal evolution of forearc basins. The model assumes an oceanic basement with an initial thermal profile dependent on its age subjected to refrigeration caused by a subducting slab. Subsidence in the Sacramento Delta region appears to be close to that expected for a forearc basin underlain by normal oceanic lithosphere of age 150 Ma, demonstrating that effects from both the initial thermal profile and the subduction process are necessary and sufficient. Subsidence at the eastern and northern borders of the Sacramento Valley is considerably less, approximating subsidence expected from the dynamics of the subduction zone alone. These results, together with other geophysical data, show that Sacramento Delta lithosphere, being thinner and having undergone deeper subsidence, must differ from lithosphere of the transitional type under other parts of the Sacramento Valley. Thermal modeling allows evaluation of the rheological properties of the lithosphere. Strength diagrams based on our thermal model show that, even under relatively slow deformation (10−17 s−1), the upper part of the delta crystalline crust (down to 20–22 km) can fail in brittle fashion, which is in agreement with deeper earthquake occurrence. Hypocentral depths of earthquakes under the Sacramento Delta region extend to nearly 20 km, whereas, in the Coast Ranges to the west, depths are typically less than 12–15 km. The greater width of the seismogenic zone in this area raises the possibility that, for fault segments of comparable length, earthquakes of somewhat greater magnitude might occur than in the Coast Ranges to the west.
Ernest A. Mancini
2005-03-31
The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and basin modeling and petroleum system identification of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first six (6) to nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus is on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.
Ernest A. Mancini
2004-11-05
The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project is the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and basin modeling and petroleum system identification of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first six (6) to nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus is on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.
Notes on numerical reliability of several statistical analysis programs
Landwehr, J.M.; Tasker, Gary D.
1999-01-01
This report presents a benchmark analysis of several statistical analysis programs currently in use in the USGS. The benchmark consists of a comparison between the values provided by a statistical analysis program for variables in the reference data set ANASTY and their known or calculated theoretical values. The ANASTY data set is an amendment of the Wilkinson NASTY data set that has been used in the statistical literature to assess the reliability (computational correctness) of calculated analytical results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Samuel S.; Schafer, Charles F.
1988-01-01
A numerical analysis of transient heat and solute transport across a rectangular cavity with combined horizontal temperature and concentration gradients is performed by a numerical method based on the SIMPLE. Numerical results show that the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers both decrease markedly when the solutal and thermal buoyancy forces act in the opposite directions. When the solutal and thermal buoyancy forces act in the same directions, however, the average Sherwood number increases significantly and yet the average Nusselt number decreases slightly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.; de Melo, N.; Skea, J. E. F.
2012-09-01
A set of Maple routines is presented, fully compatible with the new releases of Maple (14 and higher). The package deals with the numerical evolution of dynamical systems and provide flexible plotting of the results. The package also brings an initial conditions generator, a numerical solver manager, and a focusing set of routines that allow for better analysis of the graphical display of the results. The novelty that the package presents an optional C interface is maintained. This allows for fast numerical integration, even for the totally inexperienced Maple user, without any C expertise being required. Finally, the package provides the routines to calculate the fractal dimension of boundaries (via box counting). New version program summary Program Title: Ndynamics Catalogue identifier: %Leave blank, supplied by Elsevier. Licensing provisions: no. Programming language: Maple, C. Computer: Intel(R) Core(TM) i3 CPU M330 @ 2.13 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 3.0 GB Keywords: Dynamical systems, Box counting, Fractal dimension, Symbolic computation, Differential equations, Maple. Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADKH_v1_0. Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 119 (1999) 256. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem Computation and plotting of numerical solutions of dynamical systems and the determination of the fractal dimension of the boundaries. Solution method The default method of integration is a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme, but any method of integration present on the Maple system is available via an argument when calling the routine. A box counting [1] method is used to calculate the fractal dimension [2] of the boundaries. Reasons for the new version The Ndynamics package met a demand of our research community for a flexible and friendly environment for analyzing dynamical systems. All the user has to do is create his/her own Maple session, with the system to
Numerical Analysis on Neutron Shielding Structure of ITER Vacuum Vessel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Changle; Wu, Songtao; Yu, Jie; Sheng, Daolin
2008-06-01
The neutron shielding component of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) vacuum vessel is a kind of structure resembling a wall in appearance. A FE (finite element) model is set up by using ANSYS code in terms of its structural features. Static analysis, thermal expansion analysis and dynamic analysis are performed. The static results show that the stress and displacement distribution are allowable, but the high stress appears in the junction between the upper and lower parts. The modal analysis indicates that the biggest deformation exists in the port area. Through modal superposition, the single-point response has been found with the lower rank frequency of the acceleration seismic response spectrum. But the deformation and the stress values are within the permissible limit. The analysis results would benefit the work in the next step and provide some reference for the implementation of the engineering plan in the future.
Numerical analysis of internal waves in stratified wake flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraunie, Philppe
2014-05-01
In laboratory investigations, increased attention has been given to internal waves generated by stationary placed oscillating sources and moving bodies in stratified fluids [1]. The main attention was paid to study flows past bodies of perfect shapes like sphere [2], cylinder [3] of thin strip [3] which are the best theoretical (analytical or numerical) studies. Due to simplicity of geometry, flow around a strip has a potential to investigate separately effects of a drag and lift forces on the body by changing the slope of the horizontally moving strip which can be placed vertically [1], horizontally [2], or be tilted under some angle to the direction of towing velocity [5]. Numeric modeling of a flow past vertical strip uniformly towing with permanent velocity in horizontal direction in a linearly stratified talk which was based on a finite differences solver adapted to the low Reynolds Navier-Stokes equation with transport equation for salinity (LES simulation [6] and RANS [7]) has demonstrated reasonable agreement with data of Schlieren visualization, density marker and probe measurements of internal wave fields. The chosen test cases allowed demonstrating the ability of selected numerical methods to represent stably stratified flows over horizontal strip [4] and hill type 2D obstacles [1, 3] with generation of internal waves. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research work was supported by the Region Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur - Modtercom project. The work was also supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 12-01-00128). REFERENCES [1] Chashechkin Yu.D., Mitkin V.V. Experimental study of a fine structure of 2D wakes and mixing past an obstacle in a continuously stratified fluid // Dynamics of Atmosphere and Oceans. 2001. V. 34. P. 165-187. [2] Chashechkin, Yu. D. Hydrodynamics of a sphere in a stratified fluid // Fluid Dyn. 1989. V.24(1) P. 1-7. [3] Mitkin V. V., Chashechkin Yu. D. Transformation of hanging discontinuities into vortex systems in a
Numerical analysis of Coleman-de Luccia tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Yuhei; Okuyama, Kazumi
2016-08-01
In this paper, we study the false vacuum decay of a single scalar field ϕ coupled to gravity described by the Coleman-de Luccia (CdL) instanton. We show that it is possible to numerically calculate the bounce factor, which is related to the CdL tunneling rate, without using the thin-wall approximation. In this paper, we consider 1/cosh(ϕ)- and cos(ϕ)-type potentials as examples, which have cosmological and phenomenological applications. Especially, in the cos(ϕ)-type potential, we show that the range of values in which axion decay constant can take is restricted by the form of the periodic potential if the CdL tunneling occurs.
Performance analysis of a mirror by numerical iterative method.
Park, Kwijong; Cho, Myung; Lee, Dae-Hee; Moon, Bongkon
2014-12-29
Zernike polynomials are generally used to predict the optical performance of a mirror. However, it can also be done by a numerical iterative method. As piston, tip, tilt, and defocus (P.T.T.F) aberrations can be easily removed by optical alignment, we iteratively used a rotation transformation and a paraboloid graph subtraction for removal of the aberrations from a raw deformation of the optical surface through a Finite Element Method (FEM). The results of a 30 cm concave circular mirror corrected by the iterative method were almost the same as those yielded by Zernike polynomial fitting, and the computational time was fast. In addition, a concave square mirror whose surface area is π was analyzed in order to visualize the deformation maps of a general mirror aperture shape. The iterative method can be applicable efficiently because it does not depend on the mirror aperture shape.
The numerical analysis of labyrinth screw pump and seal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yizheng; Luo, Jin; Han, Guojun
1991-08-01
The main part of a labyrinth screw pump and seal is composed of both threads on the axle and the sleeve, which intersect at an oblique angle. A unit element surrounded by the two sets of threads has been taken as an isolated calculating area. Based on the N-S equation and the continuity equation, the centrifugal force and curvature effect have been neglected. Due to the periodical property along z-direction, it is reasonable to neglect the terms (d/dz) in the equations on the entrance and the middle cross section of the unit element. Thus, the set of equations could be reduced in a simpler form, and the coupling of x-y plane flow with z-direction could be eliminated. Therefore a quasi-state three-dimensional velocity field in the unit element space can be calculated by numerical solutions. Thus the corresponding characteristics of the labyrinth pump and seal may be obtained.
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Structural Acousticcontrol Interior Noise Reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Bevan, Jeffrey S.
1999-01-01
The research results contained in this technical report were performed under the NASA grant entitled "Experimental and Numerical Structural Acoustic Control for Interior Noise Reduction". The report is based essentially on partial progress of the Ph.D. dissertation prepared by Jeffrey S. Bevan under direct guidance of Dr. Chuh Mei. The document presents a finite element formulation and control of sound radiated from cylindrical panels embedded with piezoceramic actuators. The extended MIN6 shallow shell element is fully electrical-structural coupled. A piezoelectric modal actuator participation (PMAP) is defined which indicates the actuator performance to each of the offending modes. Genetic algorithm is also employed to validate the sensor and actuator locations determined by the PMAP criteria. The work was conducted at the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University. Mr. Travis L. Turner, Structural Acoustics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center is the technical monitor.
Magnetic induction of electroporation: numerical analysis and technical limitations.
David, Marcelo; Golberg, Roman; Rubinsky, Boris
2014-01-01
Electric fields delivered across biological cells can cause structural and functional changes to the cell membrane, such as electroporation. An important application of electroporation is in the permeabilization of skin cells. Currently these cells are electroporated with contact electrodes. In this study we explore the feasibility of using electromagnetic induction for non-contact electroporation of skin cells, and the effect of various design parameters on the process. We derived a simple analytical solution that lends itself to a systematic study of design parameters and verified the solution with a numeric solution of the Maxwell equations using finite elements. A short feasibility study of the system implementation is done, concluding that there are technological limitations that must be met in the future in order to build such a device.
Numerical analysis of a two-dimensional nonsteady detonations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taki, S.; Fujiwara, T.
1976-01-01
In the present work a system of two-dimensional nonsteady hydrodynamic and chemical kinetic equations was numerically integrated for an exothermic system. Assumed two-step reaction model simulates practically an oxyhydrogen mixture. The calculation starts from a plane Chapman-Jouguet detonation as an initial condition. Two-dimensional disturbances are generated by artificially placing nonuniformities ahead of the detonation front. Regardless of the difference of the given initial disturbances, a fixed number of triple shock waves were produced for a fixed combination of mixture model and geometry when the transition period was over. This shows that for a given detonation tube geometry any exothermic system has its own characteristic multidimensional structure. The obtained number of triple shock waves contained in the detonation front was in agreement with existing experimental observations under the same condition.
A Numerical Analysis of a Light Slowing and Storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chough, Young-Tak
2015-12-01
We provide an in-depth numerical study on creation of stationary light pulses (SLP) in a cold atomic medium, locating the optimal parameter space for experimental realization. We visualize the dynamics of the atoms and the field inside the medium. We find that as the coupling field strength increases, the light slowing effect is actually diminished. It also turns out that the spatial profile of the pulse inside the medium is indeed not symmetric around its apex, and we point out that this asymmetry causes the energy imbalance between the two signals retrieved into the opposite directions, in addition to such extrinsic reasons as the disparity between the coupling field strengths or the imperfect centering of the pulse in the medium at the time of "writing".
Numerical analysis of turbulent coaxial flow with internal heat generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, A.; Weinstein, H.
1981-01-01
A computational method with which to obtain a physical understanding of the turbulent field of two coaxial jets entering an axisymmetric chamber is developed. Even the laminar field of this flow is quite complicated. This is due to the many different domains which exist in the field especially in the entrance region. Physically, three regions may be identified: the wall region, the initial region near the axis of symmetry and the mixing region. Advancing downstream, these regions change relative size with the ratio of the two jets' mass fluxes as the main parameter. The turbulent field of these flows is much more complicated due to the difference in the effective transport coefficients and turbulence level from region to region. However, being aware beforehand of the complications and the different regions of this field, the appropriate turbulence model and numerical scheme can be adjusted to treat the problem.
Numerical analysis of a quasistatic piezoelectric problem with damage*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, José R.; Martínez, Rebeca; Stavroulakis, Georgios E.
2008-07-01
The quasistatic evolution of the mechanical state of a piezoelectric body with damage is numerically studied in this paper. Both damage and piezoelectric effects are included into the model. The variational formulation leads to a coupled system composed of two linear variational equations for the displacement field and the electric potential, and a nonlinear parabolic variational equation for the damage field. The existence of a unique weak solution is stated. Then, a fully discrete scheme is introduced by using a finite element method to approximate the spatial variable and an Euler scheme to discretize the time derivatives. Error estimates are derived on the approximate solutions, from which the linear convergence of the algorithm is deduced under suitable regularity conditions. Finally, a two-dimensional example is presented to demonstrate the behaviour of the solution. To cite this article: J.R. Fernández et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).
Analysis of free turbulent shear flows by numerical methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korst, H. H.; Chow, W. L.; Hurt, R. F.; White, R. A.; Addy, A. L.
1973-01-01
Studies are described in which the effort was essentially directed to classes of problems where the phenomenologically interpreted effective transport coefficients could be absorbed by, and subsequently extracted from (by comparison with experimental data), appropriate coordinate transformations. The transformed system of differential equations could then be solved without further specifications or assumptions by numerical integration procedures. An attempt was made to delineate different regimes for which specific eddy viscosity models could be formulated. In particular, this would account for the carryover of turbulence from attached boundary layers, the transitory adjustment, and the asymptotic behavior of initially disturbed mixing regions. Such models were subsequently used in seeking solutions for the prescribed two-dimensional test cases, yielding a better insight into overall aspects of the exchange mechanisms.
On estimating gravity anomalies from gradiometer data. [by numerical analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Argentiero, P.; Garza-Robles, R.
1976-01-01
The Gravsat-gradiometer mission involves flying a gradiometer on a gravity satellite (Gravsat) which is in a low, polar, and circular orbit. Results are presented of a numerical simulation of the mission which demonstrates that, if the satellite is in a 250-km orbit, 3- and 5-degree gravity anomalies may be estimated with accuracies of 0.03 and 0.01 mm/square second (3 and 1 mgal), respectively. At an altitude of 350 km, the results are 0.07 and 0.025 mm.square second (7 and 2.5 mgal), respectively. These results assume a rotating type gradiometer with a 0.1 -etvos unit accuracy. The results can readily be scaled to reflect another accuracy level.
Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation of a model of morphogenesis.
Muñoz, Ana I; Tello, José Ignacio
2011-10-01
We consider a simple mathematical model of distribution of morphogens (signaling molecules responsible for the differentiation of cells and the creation of tissue patterns). The mathematical model is a particular case of the model proposed by Lander, Nie and Wan in 2006 and similar to the model presented in Lander, Nie, Vargas and Wan 2005. The model consists of a system of three equations: a PDE of parabolic type with dynamical boundary conditions modelling the distribution of free morphogens and two ODEs describing the evolution of bound and free receptors. Three biological processes are taken into account: diffusion, degradation and reversible binding. We study the stationary solutions and the evolution problem. Numerical simulations show the behavior of the solution depending on the values of the parameters.
Numerical analysis of kinematic soil—pile interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George
2008-07-01
In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000@. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir
2010-05-01
The original program complex is proposed for the ocean circulation sigma-model, developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (INM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The complex can be used in various curvilinear orthogonal coordinate systems. In addition to ocean circulation model, the complex contains a sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics model, as well as the original system of the atmospheric forcing implementation on the basis of both prescribed meteodata and atmospheric model results. This complex can be used as the oceanic block of Earth climate model as well as for solving the scientific and practical problems concerning the World ocean and its separate oceans and seas. The developed program complex can be effectively used on parallel shared memory computational systems and on contemporary personal computers. On the base of the complex proposed the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was developed. The model is realized in the curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system obtained by the conformal transformation of the standard geographical grid that allowed us to locate the system singularities outside the integration domain. The horizontal resolution of the OGCM is 1 degree on longitude, 0.5 degree on latitude, and it has 40 non-uniform sigma-levels in depth. The model was integrated for 100 years starting from the Levitus January climatology using the realistic atmospheric annual cycle calculated on the base of CORE datasets. The experimental results showed us that the model adequately reproduces the basic characteristics of large-scale World Ocean dynamics, that is in good agreement with both observational data and results of the best climatic OGCMs. This OGCM is used as the oceanic component of the new version of climatic system model (CSM) developed in INM RAS. The latter is now ready for carrying out the new numerical experiments on climate and its change modelling according to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios in the
Numerical analysis on nanoparticles-laden gas film thrust bearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhiru; Diao, Dongfeng; Yang, Lei
2013-07-01
Nanoparticles can be taken as additives and added into various fluids to improve their lubricating performances. At present, researches in this area are mainly concentrated on the improvement effects of nanoparticles on the lubricating performances of liquid such as oil and water. Nanoparticles will also affect gas lubrication, but few related studies have been reported. Nanoparticles-laden gas film (NLGF) is formed when adding nanoparticles into gas bearing. Then, the lubricating performances of gas bearing including pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity will change. The variations of pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity in nanoparticles-laden gas film thrust bearing are investigated by numerical method. Taking account of the compressibility of gas and the interactions between gas and nanoparticles, a computational fluid dynamics model based on Navier-Stokes equations is applied to simulate the NLGF flow. The effects of inlet nanoparticles volume fraction and orifice radius on film pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of the NLGF are calculated. The numerical calculation results show that both of the film land pressure and the maximum film pressure both increase when the nanoparticles are added into gas bearing, and the film pressures increase with the rising of the inlet nanoparticles volume fraction. The nanoparticles have an enhancement effect on load-carrying capacity of the studied bearing, and the enhancement effect becomes greater as the film thickness decrease. Therefore, nanoparticles can effectively improve the lubricating performance of gas bearing. The proposed research provides a theoretical basis for the design of new-type nanoparticles-laden gas film bearings.
Kohles, K.M.; Potts, J. ); Reid, F.S.
1991-03-01
The Washakie and Red Desert basins comprise the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basins of southwestern Wyoming. Stratigraphically the basins are dominated by a thick package of Cretaceous clastic sediments, as much as 16,000 ft thick, which resulted from several major transgressive-regressive cycles. Upper Cretaceous strata deposited during the latest cycle contain extensive deposits of commercial hydrocarbons, particularly gas. Much of the present structural configuration of the area is the result of the Laramide Orogeny in Late Cretaceous time. To facilitate a comprehensive geological analysis of the area a computerized subsurface data base was constructed from available well logs for approximately 3,000 wells in the Washakie and Red Desert basins. This data base contains correlated tops for most of the major Upper Cretaceous stratigraphic units, including selected subdivisions and net sand thickness values. Consistent correlations were achieved through the use of a tight, loop-tied cross section and key well network containing over 400 correlated well-logs. A complete suite of structure contour maps on all correlated horizons was generated from the data base with commercially available software. These maps, along with selected computer-generated structural cross sections, reveal a detailed subsurface picture of the Washakie and Red Desert basins. Isopachous maps of selected intervals were also produced to illustrate the Late Cretaceous depositional history of the area.
Temporal precipitation trend analysis at the Langat River Basin, Selangor, Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palizdan, Narges; Falamarzi, Yashar; Huang, Yuk Feng; Lee, Teang Shui; Ghazali, Abdul Halim
2015-12-01
The Langat River Basin provides fresh water for about 1.2 million people in the Langat and Klang valleys. Any change in the pattern of rainfall could affect the quantity of water in the basin. Studying the pattern of change in rainfall is crucial for managing the available water resources in the basin. Thus, in this study, for the first time, both parametric and non-parametric methods were employed to detect rainfall trend in the basin for the period 1982-2011. The trends were determined at 30 rainfall stations using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, the Sen's slope estimator and the linear regression analysis. Lag-1 approach was utilized to test the serial correlation of the series. On the annual scale, it was found that most of the stations in the basin were characterized with insignificant trends. The significant trends were found only at the four stations, namely 44301, 44305, 44320 and 2719001. The results of the seasonal trend analysis showed that most of the stations during the northeast monsoon (NEM) and the inter monsoon 1 (INT1) seasons and half of the stations during the southwest monsoon (SWM) season experienced insignificant positive trends. To the contrary, for the inter monsoon 2 (INT2) season, majority of the stations showed negative trends. It was found that during the NEM season the station 44301, for the INT1 season stations 44301, 2719001 and 3118069 were established as having significant changes, while in the SWM season station 2917001 and during the INT2 season, the stations 2615131 and 44301 showed significant trends. It is worth mentioning that the maximum rainfall occurs in inter-monsoon seasons.
Wilkins, D.W.
1986-01-01
The Southwest Alluvial Basins study is part of the National Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis program. Twenty-two structural basins extend from the San Luis Basin in southern Colorado to the Presidio Basin in western Texas. Closed surface-water basins west of the Guadalupe Mountains and east of the Peloncillo Mountains are included in the study. The study area is bounded on the east by predominately Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. Tertiary and Quaternary volcanics also are present. Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, and also Mesozoic rocks west of the Espanola and Albuquerque-Belen Basins, form the west boundary. The east and west boundary units converge at the north end of the study area to form the north boundary. The study area extends south to the international border between the United States and Mexico. The Santa Fe Group sediments of late Oligocene to middle Pleistocene age comprise the main aquifer in the area. Estimated maximum depths of sediments in the rift basins range from 8,000 ft in the Tularosa-Hueco Basin to 30,000 ft in the San Luis Basin. The average thickness of sediments in closed basins is about 4,000 ft. Santa Fe deposits are composed of layers of gravel, sand, silt, and clay interbedded with local volcanic lows of tuffs. Lacustrine deposits are more prevalent in the closed basins. Wells produce as much as 2,000 gal of water/min. Poteniometric-surface altitudes for 1971-82 indicate that water recharges in the highland areas around the basins and discharges in the center of valleys. Water generally flows from the east and west southward along the axis of the valleys. Groundwater quality for the region has been zoned into calcium sulfate, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, magnesium chloride; sodium sulfate, sodium chloride; sodium bicarbonate; and calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate types. (USGS)
Ernest A. Mancini
2003-11-11
The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and the determination of the tectonic and depositional histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first three (3) to six (6) months of Year 1, the research focus is on data compilation and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the tectonic and depositional histories of the basin. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.
Ernest A. Mancini
2003-09-11
The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and the determination of the tectonic and depositional histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin. In the first three (3) to six (6) months of Year 1, the research focus is on data compilation and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the tectonic and depositional histories of the basin. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.
Minimizing Errors in Numerical Analysis of Chemical Data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rusling, James F.
1988-01-01
Investigates minimizing errors in computational methods commonly used in chemistry. Provides a series of examples illustrating the propagation of errors, finite difference methods, and nonlinear regression analysis. Includes illustrations to explain these concepts. (MVL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Ximing; McKinney, Daene C.; Lasdon, Leon S.
2002-06-01
Sustainable water management in irrigation-dominated river basins attempts to ensure a long-term, stable, and flexible water supply to meet crop water demands, as well as growing municipal and industrial water demands, while mitigating negative environmental consequences. To achieve this delicate balance, new models are needed which can use indicators of sustainability to guide the decision-making process. This paper presents a new long-term modeling framework which uses quantified sustainability criteria in a long-term optimization model of a basin, ensuring risk minimization in water supply, environmental conservation, equity in water allocation, and economic efficiency in water infrastructure development. ``Current'' and ``future'' water supply and demand are combined into a coherent system which takes account of the cumulative effects of short-term water use decisions and deals with the tradeoffs between the benefits of current and future generations. The modeling framework is demonstrated with an application to the Syr Darya River Basin of central Asia. Model results show the effectiveness of this tool for policy analysis in the context of the river basin.
Methods of numerical analysis of 1-dimensional 2-body problem in Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimenko, S. V.; Nikitin, I. N.; Urazmetov, W. F.
2000-04-01
Numerical methods for solution of differential equations with deviating arguments describing 1-dimensional ultra-relativistic scattering of 2 identical charged particles in classical electrodynamics with half-retarded/halfadvanced interaction (Wheeler and Feynman, 1949) are developed. A bifurcation of solutions and violation of their reflectional symmetries in the region of velocities v>0.937c are found in numerical analysis.
Multivariate analysis of groundwater resources in Ganga-Yamuna basin (India).
Sargaonkar, Aabha P; Gupta, Apurba; Devotta, Sukumar
2008-07-01
Groundwater quality data on physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal concentrations in three cities (Faridabad, Allahabad and Varanasi) in Ganga-Yamuna basin was subjected to multivariate analysis (MVA) using SPSS. The factors extracted showed high loading (> 0.3) of various parameters, such as Cl, conductivity, TDS, hardness, Na, Mg, and SO4, indicating contamination due to leaching of pollutants. Major manifest variable associated with these factors is the unorganized solid waste dumping practiced in all the cities. Bacterial contamination of hand pump samples in Allahabad is attributed to surface water-groundwater interaction. The factor with high loading of Ca and F is indicative of geological conditions of the region. Wells in Yamuna river sub-watershed exhibit less freshwater recharge, which is attributed to surface water pollution and sediment deposition in the river. Thus, the methodology for hydrogeological analysis is useful to identify critical water quality issues and possible sources of pollution in river basins.
A general numerical analysis program for the superconducting quasiparticle mixer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.
1986-01-01
A user-oriented computer program SISCAP (SIS Computer Analysis Program) for analyzing SIS mixers is described. The program allows arbitrary impedance terminations to be specified at all LO harmonics and sideband frequencies. It is therefore able to treat a much more general class of SIS mixers than the widely used three-frequency analysis, for which the harmonics are assumed to be short-circuited. An additional program, GETCHI, provides the necessary input data to program SISCAP. The SISCAP program performs a nonlinear analysis to determine the SIS junction voltage waveform produced by the local oscillator. The quantum theory of mixing is used in its most general form, treating the large signal properties of the mixer in the time domain. A small signal linear analysis is then used to find the conversion loss and port impedances. The noise analysis includes thermal noise from the termination resistances and shot noise from the periodic LO current. Quantum noise is not considered. Many aspects of the program have been adequately verified and found accurate.
Interaction of debris with a solid obstacle: numerical analysis.
Kosinska, Anna
2010-05-15
The subject of this research is the propagation of a cloud of solid particles formed from an explosion-damaged construction. The main objective is the interaction of the cloud (debris) with a solid beam located at some distance from the explosion. The mathematical model involves the flow of the gas using standard conservation equations, and this part of the model is solved numerically. The solid particles are treated as a system of solid points (so-called Lagrangian approach), whose motion is the result of the flowing gas as well as collisions with obstacles. These two issues are described respectively by Newton's second law and the hard-sphere model. The model is used to simulate various cases where the influence of different parameters like the value of the pressure of the explosion, the particle size, the number of particles and the obstacle location are investigated. The results are presented as snapshots of particle location, and also as the particle total momentum during collision with the beam.
Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Urban Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.
2009-08-01
The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (athletic park), named "Serafeio Athletic and Cultural Centre," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.
Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.
2008-09-01
The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.
A Hybrid Numerical Analysis Method for Structural Health Monitoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Staroselsky, Alexander
2001-01-01
A new hybrid surface-integral-finite-element numerical scheme has been developed to model a three-dimensional crack propagating through a thin, multi-layered coating. The finite element method was used to model the physical state of the coating (far field), and the surface integral method was used to model the fatigue crack growth. The two formulations are coupled through the need to satisfy boundary conditions on the crack surface and the external boundary. The coupling is sufficiently weak that the surface integral mesh of the crack surface and the finite element mesh of the uncracked volume can be set up independently. Thus when modeling crack growth, the finite element mesh can remain fixed for the duration of the simulation as the crack mesh is advanced. This method was implemented to evaluate the feasibility of fabricating a structural health monitoring system for real-time detection of surface cracks propagating in engine components. In this work, the authors formulate the hybrid surface-integral-finite-element method and discuss the mechanical issues of implementing a structural health monitoring system in an aircraft engine environment.
Containment steam blowdown analysis : experimental and numerical comparisons.
NguyenLe, Q.; Ishii, M.; Reactor Analysis; Purdue Univ.
1999-01-01
This paper compares the numerical simulation with the experimental data of a steam blowdown event in a light water reactor containment building. A three step approach was used to analyze the steam jet behavior. First, the temperature and pressure data of a steam blowdown event was measured at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA), a scaled model of the General Electric Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. Second, a 1-dimensonial, system level RELAP5/Mod3.2 model of the steam blowdown event was created and the results used to set the initial conditions for the PUMA blowdown experiments. Finally, 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional CFD models of the discharged steam jets were computed using PHOENICS, a commercially available CFD package. It was found that RELAP5 is reasonably capable in predicting the general temperature and pressure trends in the RPV. However, due to modeling compromises and the code's built-in capabilities, RELAP5 1-dimensional predictions of containment temperature and pressure did not compare well with measured data. On the other hand, with minor modfications to the k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model, the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional PHOENICS CFD solutions compared extremely well with the measured data.
Numerical analysis of the ultraprecision machining of copper
Stevens, R.; Anderson, C.; Rhorer, R.; Lucca, D.
1995-03-01
Modeling of the ultraprecision machining process can aid in the understanding of the relative importance of various process parameters and ultimately lead to improved methods of generating ultraprecision surfaces such as those required for metal optics and single crystal microelectronics substrates. Any modeling method should be verified by direct comparison to experimental data. Until recently it has been difficult to accurately measure the cutting edge, or sharpness, of a diamond tool; and therefore, most models have assumed an infinitely sharp cutting tip. With the relatively new technology of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the cutting edge of single crystal diamond tools can be quantitatively described. Ultraprecision machining experiments using an AFM characterized cutting tool and orthogonal geometry have been performed. These experiments have resulted in measured cutting and thrust forces for different depths of cut in copper (Te-Cu: 99.4-99.5% Cu, 0.5-0.6% Te, 4-5 micron grain size, 225 MPa yield strength) with a well characterized diamond tool. By using this actual tool tip geometry the authors have been able to develop a model that can predict cutting and thrust forces for depths of cut on the order of the sharpness of the tool. Forces predicted by this numerical model are compared to the experimentally measured forces.
Numerical analysis for cavitation flow of marine propeller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Muchammad, Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.
2015-12-01
Concerning the environmental issue and the increase of fuel price, optimizing the fuel consumption has been recently an important subject in all industries. In marine industries one of the ways to decrease the energy consumption was by reducing the presence of cavitation on marine propeller blades. This will give a higher propulsive efficiency. This paper provides an investigation into the influence of the cavitation on a hydrodynamic performance around the propeller based on numerical method. Hydrofoil representing the blade form of propeller was of particular of interest. Two types of cavitation model were investigated with respect to the accuracy of the result and the effectiveness of the method. The results include the hydrodynamic characteristics of cavitation phenomenon like lift/drag variation with respect to the cavity extent. It was found that a high accuracy and low computational time is achieved when the cavitation model of Zwart-Gerber-Belamri is used. The interesting outcome of this study is that the results can be used as a good evaluation tool for high marine propeller performance.
Numerical analysis of mixing enhancement for micro-electroosmotic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, G. H.; He, Y. L.; Tao, W. Q.
2010-05-01
Micro-electroosmotic flow is usually slow with negligible inertial effects and diffusion-based mixing can be problematic. To gain an improved understanding of electroosmotic mixing in microchannels, a numerical study has been carried out for channels patterned with wall blocks, and channels patterned with heterogeneous surfaces. The lattice Boltzmann method has been employed to obtain the external electric field, electric potential distribution in the electrolyte, the flow field, and the species concentration distribution within the same framework. The simulation results show that wall blocks and heterogeneous surfaces can significantly disturb the streamlines by fluid folding and stretching leading to apparently substantial improvements in mixing. However, the results show that the introduction of such features can substantially reduce the mass flow rate and thus effectively prolongs the available mixing time when the flow passes through the channel. This is a non-negligible factor on the effectiveness of the observed improvements in mixing efficiency. Compared with the heterogeneous surface distribution, the wall block cases can achieve more effective enhancement in the same mixing time. In addition, the field synergy theory is extended to analyze the mixing enhancement in electroosmotic flow. The distribution of the local synergy angle in the channel aids to evaluate the effectiveness of enhancement method.
Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.
1998-01-01
A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.
Numerical analysis of extensional flow through the pharyngeal duct
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preciado-Méndez, M.; Salinas-Vázquez, M.; Vicente, W.; Brito-de la Fuente, E.; Ascanio, G.
2017-01-01
The flow through the pharynx from the glossopalatal junction (GPJ) to the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) has been numerically investigated with a non-Newtonian fluid obeying the power-law with similar rheological indices to a contrast medium used in videofluroscopy. For that purpose, a three-dimensional model of the transport of food bolus along the pharynx has been proposed using the immersed boundaries method, which allow representing the shape of the pharynx using Cartesian grids. The pharyngeal wall has been considered to be an elastic membrane. Flow fields in terms of the axial velocity, pressure, shear rate and strain rate were obtained. Results show that the highest velocity concentrates in the central stream as the fluid enters into the pharynx. In addition, as the flow quits the pharynx, a recirculation zone appears inside the cavity, resulting in low velocity zone, which increases with the coefficient of elasticity. A strong dependence on the coefficient of elasticity was observed on the pressure fields; so that as such a coefficient increases, the pressure in the pharyngeal wall will increase. It has been also observed that the bolus head travels faster than the bolus tail, which indicates that the bolus is not only subjected to shear but also to elongation. Results from this work can be further used for a rheological characterization (shear and extension) of oral nutritional supplements for patients suffering from swallowing disorders.
Enzyme polymorphism in Endotrypanum and numerical analysis of isoenzyme data.
Franco, A M; Momen, H; Naiff, R D; Moreira, C F; Deane, M P; Grimaldi Júnior, G
1996-07-01
In this study, we have analysed enzyme polymorphism among a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Endotrypanum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Seventeen stocks of Endotrypanum spp. isolated from sloths (Choloepus didactylus and C. juruanus) in the Amazon Region of Brazil were analysed by enzyme electrophoresis, and their electromorphic profiles were compared with reference strains reported previously. The 16 enzymic loci were analysed, and the strains were classified into zymodemes, each representing parasites with unique enzyme profiles. Each zymodeme was considered as an elementary taxon, and using numerical analyses (cladistic, agglomerative hierarchical and ordination techniques) the genus was shown to be monophyletic and the 12 zymodemes characterized could be divided into 3 groups (A, B, C). The heterogeneous population (which may represent a complex of parasite species or strains variants) showed, however, no correlation with the origin (i.e. host species involved or geographic area of isolation) of Endotrypanum stocks. Eight isolates of Endotrypanum sp. from Rondônia State (Brazil) and a parasite strain from Panama were clustered together into a zymodeme, which was phenetically closely related to the E. monterogeii from Costa Rica. The data indicate that E. schaudinni is a species complex.
Numerical and experimental analysis of instability phenomena in pump turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentner, Ch; Sallaberger, M.; Widmer, Ch; Braun, O.; Staubli, T.
2012-11-01
Today, utilities operating pump turbines require fast and frequent changes between pumping and generating modes as well as extended operation at off-design conditions. Operation of the units in unstable areas of the machine characteristic is not acceptable and may lead to self-excited vibration of the hydraulic system. Two main features of unstable behaviour of pump turbines are known. One sometimes occurs in generating mode at low load off-design operation close to runaway conditions (S-shape of the turbine characteristic) and the other one shows in pump operation as a drop in head as the flow is reduced (saddle-type pump instability of head curve). If the stability characteristics of a pump turbine need to be known already at the design stage of the runner, numerical flow simulation (computational fluid dynamics, CFD) is the most promising tool. As the characteristics of the flow near the stability limit are highly unsteady, steady state CFD, as it is usually applied for the runner design, does not deliver the necessary insight into the flow field. In order to analyse the flow field in runner and diffuser of a pump turbine in the unstable areas of operation, ANDRITZ HYDRO has evaluated several CFD procedures with different approaches for the calculation of the described instabilities in pump and turbine operation. The results of the unsteady flow calculation are compared with model test results.
A numerical model for dynamic wave rotor analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, D. E.
1995-01-01
A numerical model has been developed which can predict the dynamic (and steady state) performance of a wave rotor, given the geometry and time dependent boundary conditions. The one-dimensional, perfect gas, CFD based code tracks the gasdynamics in each of the wave rotor passages as they rotate past the various ducts. The model can operate both on and off-design, allowing dynamic behavior to be studied throughout the operating range of the wave rotor. The model accounts for several major loss mechanisms including finite passage opening time, fluid friction, heat transfer to and from the passage walls, and leakage to and from the passage ends. In addition, it can calculate the amount of work transferred to and from the fluid when the flow in the ducts is not aligned with the passages such as occurs in off-design operation. Since it is one-dimensional, the model runs reasonably fast on a typical workstation. This paper will describe the model and present the results of some transient calculations for a conceptual four port wave rotor designed as a topping cycle for a small gas turbine engine.
Numerical Analysis of Weak Random Drift in a Cline
Luskin, Mitchell; Nagylaki, Thomas
1979-01-01
The equilibrium state of a diffusion model for weak random genetic drift in a cline is analyzed numerically. The monoecious organism occupies an unbounded linear habitat with constant, uniform population density. Migration is homogeneous, symmetric, and independent of genotype. A single diallelic locus with a step environment is investigated in the absence of dominance and mutation. The ratio of the variance of either gene frequency to the product of the expected gene frequencies decreases monotonically to a non-zero constant. The correlation between the gene frequencies at two points decreases monotonically to zero as the separation is increased with the average position fixed; the decrease is asymptotically exponential. The correlation decreases monotonically to a positive constant depending on the separation as the average position increasingly deviates from the center of the cline with the separation fixed. The correlation also decreases monotonically to zero if one of the points is fixed and the other is moved outward in the habitat, the ultimate decrease again being exponential. All the results are parameter free. Some asymptotic formulae are derived analytically. PMID:17248919
Numerical Simulation and Chaotic Analysis of an Aluminum Holding Furnace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ji-min; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Lan, Shen; Chen, Tao; Li, Jie; Yan, Hong-jie; Zhou, Jie-min; Tian, Rui-jiao; Tu, Yan-wu; Li, Wen-ke
2014-12-01
To achieve high heat efficiency, low pollutant emission and homogeneous melt temperature during thermal process of secondary aluminum, taking into account the features of aluminum alloying process, a CFD process model was developed and integrated with heat load and aluminum temperature control model. This paper presented numerical simulation of aluminum holding furnaces using the customized code based on FLUENT packages. Thermal behaviors of aluminum holding furnaces were investigated by probing into main physical fields such as flue gas temperature, velocity, and concentration, and combustion instability of aluminum holding process was represented by chaos theory. The results show that aluminum temperature uniform coefficient firstly decreases during heating phase, then increases and reduces alternately during holding phase, lastly rises during standing phase. Correlation dimension drops with fuel velocity. Maximal Lyapunov exponent reaches to a maximum when air-fuel ratio is close to 1. It would be a clear comprehension about each phase of aluminum holding furnaces to find new technology, retrofit furnace design, and optimize parameters combination.
Numerical Analysis Of Three Component Induction Logging In Geothermal Reservoirs
Dr. David L. Alumbaugh
2002-01-09
This project is supporting the development of the ''Geo-Bilt'', geothermal electromagnetic-induction logging tool that is being built by ElectroManetic Instruments, Inc. The tool consists of three mutually orthogonal magnetic field antennas, and three-component magnetic field receivers located at different distances from the source. In its current configuration, the source that has a moment aligned along the borehole axis consists of a 1m long solenoid, while the two trans-axial sources consist of 1m by 8cm loops of wire. The receivers are located 2m and 5m away from the center of the sources, and five frequencies from 2 kHz to 40 kHz are being employed. This study is numerically investigating (1) the effect of the borehole on the measurements, and (2) the sensitivity of the tool to fracture zone-geometries that might be encountered in a geothermal field. The benefits of the results are that they will lead to a better understanding of the data that the tool produces during its testing phase and an idea of what the limitations of the tool are.
Geotechnical Analysis of Five Shelby Tube Samples from H-Area Retention Basin
Langton, C.A.
1999-06-02
Geotechnical and geochemical analyses were performed on five Shelby tube samples collected in the H-Area Retention Basin (HRB) during July and August of 1998. The samples were collected as part of the HRB characterization study. The test results, which are documented in this report, will be used to support the HRB contaminant fate and transport modeling/analysis and to evaluate remedial options. The results will also be used as a base line for future treatability studies.
Potentials and limits to basin stability estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schultz, Paul; Menck, Peter J.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen
2017-02-01
Stability assessment methods for dynamical systems have recently been complemented by basin stability and derived measures, i.e. probabilistic statements whether systems remain in a basin of attraction given a distribution of perturbations. Their application requires numerical estimation via Monte Carlo sampling and integration of differential equations. Here, we analyse the applicability of basin stability to systems with basin geometries that are challenging for this numerical method, having fractal basin boundaries and riddled or intermingled basins of attraction. We find that numerical basin stability estimation is still meaningful for fractal boundaries but reaches its limits for riddled basins with holes.
Basin Acoustic Seamount Scattering Experiment (BASSEX) Data Analysis and Modeling
2016-06-07
Kauai source at various ranges and bearings . OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this work is to measure aspects of acoustic propagation that...horizontal plane, arriving at the array from a different bearing . Further analysis will include processing all of the BASSEX KNPAL receptions and
An analysis of the carbon balance of the Arctic Basin from 1997 to 2006
McGuire, A.D.; Hayes, D.J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Manizza, M.; Zhuang, Q.; Chen, M.; Follows, M.J.; Gurney, K.R.; McClelland, J.W.; Melillo, J.M.; Peterson, B.J.; Prinn, R.G.
2010-01-01
This study used several model-based tools to analyse the dynamics of the Arctic Basin between 1997 and 2006 as a linked system of land-ocean-atmosphere C exchange. The analysis estimates that terrestrial areas of the Arctic Basin lost 62.9 Tg C yr-1 and that the Arctic Ocean gained 94.1 Tg C yr-1. Arctic lands and oceans were a net CO2 sink of 108.9 Tg C yr-1, which is within the range of uncertainty in estimates from atmospheric inversions. Although both lands and oceans of the Arctic were estimated to be CO2 sinks, the land sink diminished in strength because of increased fire disturbance compared to previous decades, while the ocean sink increased in strength because of increased biological pump activity associated with reduced sea ice cover. Terrestrial areas of the Arctic were a net source of 41.5 Tg CH4 yr-1 that increased by 0.6 Tg CH4 yr-1 during the decade of analysis, a magnitude that is comparable with an atmospheric inversion of CH4. Because the radiative forcing of the estimated CH4 emissions is much greater than the CO2 sink, the analysis suggests that the Arctic Basin is a substantial net source of green house gas forcing to the climate system.
Numerical Methods for Creep Analysis in Geotechnical Problems.
1981-12-01
relation- ships of the theory of curvilinear coordinates provide a general expression for the area, Marsden and Tromba (1975). pp 314. viz. Az) = 2 + 6(Xz...National Laboratories, 1978. Kuske, A. and Robertson, G. Photoelastic Stress Analysis. Wiley Interscience, 1974. Marsden, J.E., and Tromba , A.J., Vector
Numerical Fracture Analysis of Cryogenically Treated Alloy Steel Weldments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasool Mohideen, S.; Thamizhmanii, S.; Fatah, M. M. Muhammed Abdul; Saidin, W. Najmuddin W.
2016-02-01
Cryogenic treatment is being used commercially in the industries in the last two decades for improving the life of many engineering component such as bearings and cutting tools. Though their influence in improving the wear resistance of tool materials is well established, the effect of treatment on weldments is not much investigated. In the present work, a two dimensional finite element analysis was carried out on the compact tension specimen model for simulating the treatment process and to study the fracture behaviour. The weldments were modelled by thermo- mechanical coupled field analysis for simulating he temperature distribution in the model during weld pool cooling and introducing thermal stresses due to uneven contraction and cooling. The model was subjected to cryogenic treatment by adopting radiation effect. The fracture analysis was carried out using Rice's J- Integral approach. The analysis produced a similar outcome of experimental results i.e. Increase in the fracture toughness of the specimen after cryogenic treatment in the heat affected zone of weldment.
Modern Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled System Analysis-SAMSAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisch, H. P.
1984-01-01
SAMSAN aids control-system analyst by providing self-consistent set of computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies, with emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Program provides set of algorithms readily integrated for solving control-system problems.
Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled-System Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisch, H. P.; Bauer, F. H.
1986-01-01
SAMSAN provides control-system analyst with self-consistent computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies. Emphasizes sampled-system analysis. SAMSAN reduces burden on analyst by providing set of algorithms well tested and documented and readily integrated for solving control-system problems.
Bradfield, A.D.
1986-01-01
Coal-mining impacts on Smoky Creek, eastern Tennessee were evaluated using water quality and benthic invertebrate data. Data from mined sites were also compared with water quality and invertebrate fauna found at Crabapple Branch, an undisturbed stream in a nearby basin. Although differences in water quality constituent concentrations and physical habitat conditions at sampling sites were apparent, commonly used measures of benthic invertebrate sample data such as number of taxa, sample diversity, number of organisms, and biomass were inadequate for determining differences in stream environments. Clustering algorithms were more useful in determining differences in benthic invertebrate community structure and composition. When data from a single season were examined, sites on tributary streams generally clustered separately from sites on Smoky Creek. These analyses compared with differences in water quality, stream size, and substrate characteristics between tributary sites and the more degraded main stem sites, indicated that numerical classification of invertebrate data can provide discharge-independent information useful in rapid evaluations of in-stream environmental conditions. 25 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.
Bradfield, A.D.
1986-01-01
Coal-mining impacts on Smoky Creek, eastern Tennessee were evaluated using water quality and benthic invertebrate data. Data from mined sites were also compared with water quality and invertebrate fauna found at Crabapple Branch, an undisturbed stream in a nearby basin. Although differences in water quality constituent concentrations and physical habitat conditions at sampling sites were apparent, commonly used measures of benthic invertebrate sample data such as number of taxa, sample diversity, number of organisms, and biomass were inadequate for determining differences in stream environments. Clustering algorithms were more useful in determining differences in benthic invertebrate community structure and composition. Normal (collections) and inverse (species) analyses based on presence-absence data of species of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera were compared using constancy, fidelity, and relative abundance of species found at stations with similar fauna. These analyses identified differences in benthic community composition due to seasonal variations in invertebrate life histories. When data from a single season were examined, sites on tributary streams generally clustered separately from sites on Smoky Creek. These analyses compared with differences in water quality, stream size, and substrate characteristics between tributary sites and the more degraded main stem sites, indicated that numerical classification of invertebrate data can provide discharge-independent information useful in rapid evaluations of in-stream environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seonok; Wang, Sookyun; Lee, Minhee
2016-04-01
Long term containment of stored CO2 in deep geological formation will be dependent on the performance of the caprock to prevent the buoyant CO2. The study aims to identify CO2-brine-caprock interactions and develop a framework, within which, geochemical reaction in caprock due CO2 injection can be evaluated. A series of autoclave experiments were conducted with caprock from drilling cores of Pohang basin where many researches have been focused as a candidate for geological CO2 sequestration at 50℃ with 100 bar of CO2 for 15day. XRD, XRF, ICP-OES and SEM-EDS studies were performed to characterize the reaction products. Also the numerical modeling with use of Geochemist's Workbench 10.0.6 (GWB) in two stages was performed. The first one was aimed at simulating the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating caprocks impacted by the beginning of CO2 injection (100 days), the second enabling assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (10000 years). The simulations allowed to determine the suitability of the formation for carbon dioxide storage.
Numerical analysis of electrically tunable aspherical optofluidic lenses.
In this work, we use the numerical simulation platform Zemax to investigate the optical properties of electrically tunable aspherical liquid lenses, as we recently reported in an experimental study [
2016-06-27
In this work, we use the numerical simulation platform Zemax to investigate the optical properties of electrically tunable aspherical liquid lenses, as we recently reported in an experimental study [
A Gravity Analysis of the Subsurface Structure of the Utopia Impact Basin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnerdt, W. B.
2004-01-01
The large, shallow, circular depression in Utopia Planitia has been identified as a huge impact basin, based on both geological evidence and detailed analysis of MOLA topography. Its diameter (approximately 3000 km) is equivalent to that of the Hellas basin, as is its inferred age (early Noachian). However, there the similarity ends. Their appearance, both surficially and geophysically, are virtually polar opposites. Whereas Hellas is extremely deep with rough terrain and large slopes, high-precision MOLA measurements were required to unambiguously define the smooth, shallow, almost imperceptible bowl of the Utopia basin. Conversely, Utopia displays one of the largest (non-Tharsis-related) positive geoid anomalies on Mars, in contrast to a more subdued negative anomaly over Hellas. As these two features presumably formed roughly contemporaneously by similar mechanisms, it is reasonable to assume that they were originally quite similar, and that their differences are due largely to different paths of subsequent modification. The obvious source for these differences is in their elevations: Hellas is located in the southern highlands at a rim elevation of about 3km, whereas Utopia is in the lowlying northern plains, at an average elevation of 4 km. Thus Utopia has been in an especially gravitationally favorable position to be subjected to infilling, for example, by lava flows, sedimentation, or water. In fact, its floor was almost certainly the lowest point on the planet at one time, and it would have been the termination point for down-slope drainage from over two-thirds of Mars. Thus the nature of the material filling this basin has strong connections to the sedimentary and/or volcanic processes acting on Mars in the Noachian and Early Hesperian periods. In particular, it may be able to shed some light on amount and persistence of water on early Mars in general and in the Utopia basin in particular. In this study I will use the inferred early correspondence between
Experimental and numerical analysis of Al6063 duralumin using Taylor impact test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruszka, L.; Anaszewicz, Ł.; Janiszewski, J.; Grązka, M.
2012-08-01
The paper presents results of experimental and numerical analysis of dynamic behaviour Al6063 duralumin. Dynamical experiments were made using Taylor impact test. Experimental results at next step of study were used in numerical analyses of dynamic yield stress of tested material and model parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation. The main aim of this analysis is to find out dynamical properties of Al6063 duralumin tested in Taylor impact test.
Application of Methods of Numerical Analysis to Physical and Engineering Data.
1980-10-15
for tbe estimated fo. Part E extends the method to include an arbitrary signal noise power function. Part F discusses a method for obtaining initial...7 AD-AI02 685 BEDFORD RESEARCH ASSOCIATES MA F/6 4/1APPLICATION OF METHODS OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS TO PHYSICAL AND EN--ETC(U) OCT 80 R BOUCHER, T...APPLICATION OF METHODS OF NUMERICAL .) ANALYSIS TO PHYSICAL AND! ENGINEERING DATA R. Boucher T. Costello ~ P. Meehan J. Noonan Bedford Research Associates 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; di Primio, Rolando; Vallejo, Eduardo; Kohler, Guillermina; Pangaro, Francisco
2010-05-01
The analysis of a dense 2D seismic reflection dataset and 12 exploration wells data, allowed us to reconstruct the geological evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina. We identified and mapped the major syn- and post-rift seismic sequences, and their boundaries such as unconformities and regional seismic markers, present on the continental shelf and slope (water depths from 50 to 1800 m) of the Colorado Basin. Seismic-to-well log correlations, as well as integration with biostratigraphic data provided a chrono-stratigraphic framework for the interpreted horizons. The construction of isochronal (twt) maps provided a 3D spatial visualisation of the stratigraphic relationship among the sequences. The maps show a change in configuration from the break-up unconformity (130 Ma) to the present-day seafloor. The break-up unconformity displays a central EW-elongated graben which prevails on the overlying sequences up to the Miocene. The EW Colorado basin turns NW-SE towards the East, going perpendicular to the present-day continental margin (oriented NE-SW). The strong obliquity of the basin orientation related to the direction corresponding to the opening of the South Atlantic (NE-SW) suggests a structural control from the pre-rift basement on the rift and post-rift sequences. Starting from the break-up unconformity, the history of basin filling is illustrated up to the flat seafloor. The basin sag phase is represented by the sequences deposited between the break-up unconformity and the Colorado discontinuity (Aptian to Campanian). The Campanian to Eocene successions are more or less parallel- layered suggesting sequence aggradation. The distribution of liquid/gas hydrocarbon-leakage features (i.e. gas chimneys, mud volcanoes, and seabed pockmarks) should allow the definition of potential migration pathways. In this sense, a systematic mapping of these paleo- and present-day features observed in the seismic profiles has been performed and their distribution was
Numerical Analysis of Modal Instability Onset in Fiber Amplifiers
2014-03-11
uniform radial grids paves the way for future analysis of fibers with more complicated structures such as large pitch photonic crystal fibers and...profile of the fiber thus significantly changing the guided mode properties even to the point of changing an anti- guiding core into a guiding one [6...weakly- guiding large mode area fibers justifies the use of the scalar approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation governing the evolution of
Numerical analysis of projectile impact in woven texile structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roylance, D.
1977-01-01
Computer codes were developed for simulating the dynamic fracture and viscoelastic constitutive response due to stress wave interaction and reflections caused by ballistic impact on woven textiles. The method, which was developed for use in the design and analysis of protection devices for personnel armor, has potential for use in studies of rotor blade burst containment at high velocity. Alterations in coding required for burst containment problems are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baioni, Davide; Gallerini, Giuliano; Sgavetti, Maria
2013-04-01
The present work is focused on the distribution of landslides in Foglia river basin area (northern Marche-Romagna), using a heuristic approach supported by GIS tools for the construction of statistical analysis and spatial data. The study area is located in the Adriatic side of the northern Apennine in the boundary that marks the transition between the Marche and Emilia-Romagna regions. The Foglia river basin extends from the Apennines to the Adriatic sea with NE-SE trend occupying an area of about 708 km2. The purpose of this study is to investigate any relationships between factors related to the territory, which were taken into account and divided into classes, and landslides, trying to identify any possible existence of relationships between them. For this aim the study of landslides distribution was performed by using a GIS approach superimposing each thematic map, previously created, with landslides surveyed. Furthermore, we tried to isolate the most recurrent classes, to detect if at the same conditions there is a parameter that affects more than others, so as to recognize every direct relationship of cause and effect. Finally, an analysis was conducted by applying the model of uncertainty CF (Certainity Factor). In the Foglia river basin were surveyed a total of 2821 landslides occupy a total area of 155 km2, corresponding to 22% areal extent of the entire basin. The results of analysis carried out highlighted the importance and role of individual factors that led to the development of landslides analyzed. Moreover, this methodology may be applied to all orders of magnitude and scale without any problem by not requiring a commitment important, both from the economic point of view, and of human resources.
Asymptotic analysis of dissipative waves with applications to their numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagstrom, Thomas
1990-01-01
Various problems involving the interplay of asymptotics and numerics in the analysis of wave propagation in dissipative systems are studied. A general approach to the asymptotic analysis of linear, dissipative waves is developed. It was applied to the derivation of asymptotic boundary conditions for numerical solutions on unbounded domains. Applications include the Navier-Stokes equations. Multidimensional traveling wave solutions to reaction-diffusion equations are also considered. A preliminary numerical investigation of a thermo-diffusive model of flame propagation in a channel with heat loss at the walls is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, K. K.; Li, C. H.; Cai, Y. P.; Xu, M.; Xia, X. H.
2014-05-01
In this paper, a fuzzy multi-attribute decision analysis approach (FMADAA) was developed for supporting the evaluation of water resources security in nine provinces within the Yellow River basin. A numerical approximation system and a modified left-right scoring approach were adopted to cope with the uncertainties in the acquired information. Also, four conventional multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) methods were implemented in the evaluation model for impact evaluation, including simple weighted addition (SWA), weighted product (WP), cooperative game theory (CGT) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Moreover, several aggregation methods including average ranking procedure, Borda and Copeland methods were used to integrate the ranking results, helping rank the water resources security in those nine provinces as well as improving reliability of evaluation results. The ranking results showed that the water resources security of the entire basin was in critical condition, including the insecurity and absolute insecurity states, especially in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces in which water resources were lower than the average quantity in China. Hence, the improvement of water eco-environment statuses in the above-mentioned provinces should be prioritized in the future planning of the Yellow River basin.
Mehrian, Majid Ramezani; Hernandez, Raul Ponce; Yavari, Ahmad Reza; Faryadi, Shahrzad; Salehi, Esmaeil
2016-08-01
Lake Urmia is the second largest hypersaline lake in the world in terms of surface area. In recent decades, the drop in water level of the lake has been one of the most important environmental issues in Iran. At present, the entire basin is threatened due to abrupt decline of the lake's water level and the consequent increase in salinity. Despite the numerous studies, there is still an ambiguity about the main cause of this environmental crisis. This paper is an attempt to detect the changes in the landscape structure of the main elements of the whole basin using remote sensing techniques and analyze the results against climate data with time series analysis for the purpose of achieving a more clarified illustration of processes and trends. Trend analysis of the different affecting factors indicates that the main cause of the drastic dry out of the lake is the huge expansion of irrigated agriculture in the basin between 1999 and 2014. The climatological parameters including precipitation and temperature cannot be the main reasons for reduced water level in the lake. The results show how the increase in irrigated agricultural area without considering the water resources limits can lead to a regional disaster. The approach used in this study can be a useful tool to monitor and assess the causality of environmental disaster.
Design of braided composite tubes by numerical analysis method
Hamada, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Akihiro; Maekawa, Zenichiro; Nakai, Asami; Yokoyama, Atsushi
1995-11-01
Conventional composite laminates have very poor strength through thickness and as a result are limited in their application for structural parts with complex shape. In this paper, the design for braided composite tube was proposed. The concept of analysis model which involved from micro model to macro model was presented. This method was applied to predict bending rigidity and initial fracture stress under bending load of the braided tube. The proposed analytical procedure can be included as a unit in CAE system for braided composites.
Numerical analysis of helium-heated methane/steam reformer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozdzierz, M.; Brus, G.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.
2016-09-01
One of the most promising between many high temperature nuclear reactors applications is to produce hydrogen with heat gained. The simplest and the best examined method is steam reforming of methane. The fabricated hydrogen has wide range of use, for example can be electrochemically oxidized in fuel cells. However, heat management inside methane/steam reformer is extremely important because huge temperature gradients can cause catalyst deactivation. In this work the analysis of temperature field inside helium-heated methane/steam reformer is presented. The optimal system working conditions with respect to methane conversion rate are proposed.
Quantitative numerical analysis of transient IR-experiments on buildings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maierhofer, Ch.; Wiggenhauser, H.; Brink, A.; Röllig, M.
2004-12-01
Impulse-thermography has been established as a fast and reliable tool in many areas of non-destructive testing. In recent years several investigations have been done to apply active thermography to civil engineering. For quantitative investigations in this area of application, finite difference calculations have been performed for systematic studies on the influence of environmental conditions, heating power and time, defect depth and size and thermal properties of the bulk material (concrete). The comparison of simulated and experimental data enables the quantitative analysis of defects.
Numerical Methods for Harmonic Analysis on the Sphere
1981-03-01
numbers,much as a Montecarlo -type of analysis is conducted. The seeds were chosen widely apart, to ensure that the correlation between "trials" would be...estimate, where the sampling part Is the result of a Montecarlo -like approach, is much easier to obtain than the theoretical one that involves setting up...likely errors in the potential coefficients obtained from 10 x 1 mean anom- alies using the quadratures formula 6 = - - f:0 ’ U1 0,)da g• The Montecarlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leever, K. A.; Matenco, L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.
2011-04-01
The Pannonian and Dacic Basins in SE Europe are presently connected by the Danube River across the South Carpathians, to which they are in a back-arc and foreland position respectively. Part of the Paratethys realm during the Neogene, open water communication between the basins was interrupted by the Late Miocene uplift of the Carpathians. Different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the Danube gateway: capture of the upstream lake or an upstream river or incision of an antecedent river. Estimates on its age range from Late Miocene to Quaternary. A related issue is the effect of the large Mediterranean sea level fall related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis on the Paratethys subbasins, specifically the "isolated" Pannonian Basin. In a synthetic numerical modelling study, using a pseudo-3D code integrating tectonics, surface processes and isostasy, we addressed the causes and effects of changes in connectivity between two large sedimentary basins separated by an elevated barrier. Specifically, we aimed to find the expression of connectivity events in the sedimentary record in general and the consequences for the evolution of the Pannonian-Dacic area in particular. We studied a range of parameters including the geometry and uplift rate of the barrier, downstream sea level change and lithosphere rigidity. We found that changes in connectivity are expressed in the sedimentary record through their effect on base level in the upstream basin and supply in the downstream basin. The most important factors controlling the response are the elevation difference between the basins and the upstream accommodation space at the time of reconnection. The most pronounced effect of reconnection through lake capture is predicted for a large elevation difference and limited upstream accommodation space. Downstream increase in sediment supply is dependent on the latter rather than the reconnection event itself. Of the parameters we tested, the rigidity of the lithosphere
Numerical Flow Analysis of a Hydraulic Gear Pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panta, Yogendra M.; Kim, Hyun W.; Pierson, Hazel M.
2007-11-01
The pressure that exists at the outlet port of a gear pump is a result of system load that was created by a resistance to the fluid flow. However, the flow pattern created inside an external gear pump by the motion of two oppositely rotating gears is deceptively complex, despite the simple geometry of the gear pump. The flow cannot be analyzed, based on a steady-state assumption that is usually employed to analyze turbo-machinery although the flow is essentially steady. Only the time-dependent, transient analysis with moving dynamic meshing technique can predict the motion of the fluid flow against the very high adverse pressure distribution. Although the complexity of analysis is inherent in all positive displacement pumps, gear pumps pose an exceptional challenge in modeling due to the fact that there are two rotating components that are housed within a stationary casing and the gears must be in contact with each other all the time. Fluent, commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was used to analyze the flow of the gear pump. The investigation done by CFD produced significant information on flow patterns, velocity and pressure fields, and flow rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Kuk-Hyun; Palmer, Richard
2016-09-01
Despite wide use of regression-based regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) methods, the majority are based on either ordinary least squares (OLS) or generalized least squares (GLS). This paper proposes 'spatial proximity' based RFFA methods using the spatial lagged model (SLM) and spatial error model (SEM). The proposed methods are represented by two frameworks: the quantile regression technique (QRT) and parameter regression technique (PRT). The QRT develops prediction equations for flooding quantiles in average recurrence intervals (ARIs) of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 100 years whereas the PRT provides prediction of three parameters for the selected distribution. The proposed methods are tested using data incorporating 30 basin characteristics from 237 basins in Northeastern United States. Results show that generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution properly represents flood frequencies in the study gages. Also, basin area, stream network, and precipitation seasonality are found to be the most effective explanatory variables in prediction modeling by the QRT and PRT. 'Spatial proximity' based RFFA methods provide reliable flood quantile estimates compared to simpler methods. Compared to the QRT, the PRT may be recommended due to its accuracy and computational simplicity. The results presented in this paper may serve as one possible guidepost for hydrologists interested in flood analysis at ungaged sites.
Copula-Based Flood Frequency Analysis at Ungauged Basin Confluences: Nashville, Tennessee
Kao, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Ni-Bin
2012-01-01
Many cities are located at or near the confluence of streams where availability of water resources may be enhanced to sustain user needs while also posing an increased flooding risk from multiple tributaries. An accurate flood frequency estimator that models the joint flood potential at a basin confluence is needed. Given that long-term flow observations are often unavailable, estimating flood frequency at ungaged basin confluences proves challenging. Through the use of copulas, this case study demonstrates how an improved flood frequency analysis can be performed for stream confluences at Nashville, TN. The approach involves four major steps including initial data quality control, fitting of marginal distributions of tributary peak flows, construction of a suitable dependence structure, and identification of flood frequency at the confluence point based on synthesized peak flows. This case study may help researchers and practitioners develop a better understanding of joint flood frequency with consideration of upstream dam regulation among several contributing watersheds.
Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.
2008-01-01
This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406
Trend analysis of rainfall time series for Sindh river basin in India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajbhiye, Sarita; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; Sharma, S. K.
2016-08-01
The study of precipitation trends is critically important for a country like India whose food security and economy are dependent on the timely availability of water such as 83 % water used for agriculture sector, 12 % for industry sector and only 5 % for domestic sector. In this study, the historical rainfall data for the periods 1901-2002 and 1942-2002 of the Sindh river basin, India, were analysed for monthly, seasonal and annual trends. The conventional Mann-Kendall test (MK) and Mann-Kendall test (MMK), after the removal of the effect of all significant autocorrelation coefficients, and Sen's slope estimator were used to identify the trends. Kriging technique was used for interpolating the spatial pattern using Arc GIS 9.3. The analysis suggested significant increase in the trend of rainfall for seasonal and annual series in the Sindh basin during 1901-2002.
Morphometrical Analysis and Peak Runoff Estimation for the Sub-Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salami, Adebayo Wahab; Amoo, Oseni Taiwo; Adeyemo, Joshiah Adetayo; Mohammed, Abdulrasaq Apalando; Adeogun, Adeniyi Ganiyu
2016-03-01
This study utilized Spatial Information Technology (SIT) such as Remote Sensing (RS), a Geographical Information System (GIS), the Global Positioning System (GPS) and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for a morphometrical analysis of five sub-basins within the Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Morpho-metrical parameters, such as the total relief, relative relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, texture ratio, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, sinuosity factor and bifurcation ratio, have been computed and analyzed. The study revealed that the contribution of the morphometric parameters to flooding suggest catchment No. 1 has the least concentration time and the highest runoff depth. Catchment No. 4 has the highest circularity ratio (0.35) as the most hazardous site where floods could reach a great volume over a small area.
Riser Feeding Evaluation Method for Metal Castings Using Numerical Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad, Nadiah
One of the design aspects that continues to create a challenge for casting designers is the optimum design of casting feeders (risers). As liquid metal solidifies, the metal shrinks and forms cavities inside the casting. In order to avoid shrinkage cavities, risers are added to the casting shape to supply additional molten metal when shrinkage occurs during solidification. The shrinkage cavities in the casting are compensated by controlling the cooling rate to promote directional solidification. This control can be achieved by designing the casting such that the cooling begins at the sections that are farthest away from the risers and ends at the risers. Therefore, the risers will solidify last and feed the casting with the molten metal. As a result, the shrinkage cavities formed during solidification are in the risers which are later removed from the casting. Since casting designers have to usually go through iterative processes of validating the casting designs which are very costly due to expensive simulation processes or manual trials and errors on actual casting processes, this study investigates more efficient methods that will help casting designers utilize their casting experiences systematically to develop good initial casting designs. The objective is to reduce the casting design method iterations; therefore, reducing the cost involved in that design processes. The aim of this research aims at finding a method that can help casting designers design effective risers used in sand casting process of aluminum-silicon alloys by utilizing the analysis of solidification simulation. The analysis focuses on studying the significance of pressure distribution of the liquid metal at the early stage of casting solidification, when heat transfer and convective fluid flow are taken into account in the solidification simulation. The mathematical model of casting solidification was solved using the finite volume method (FVM). This study focuses to improve our
Theoretical and numerical analysis of the corneal air puff test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simonini, Irene; Angelillo, Maurizio; Pandolfi, Anna
2016-08-01
Ocular analyzers are used in the current clinical practice to estimate, by means of a rapid air jet, the intraocular pressure and other eye's parameters. In this study, we model the biomechanical response of the human cornea to the dynamic test with two approaches. In the first approach, the corneal system undergoing the air puff test is regarded as a harmonic oscillator. In the second approach, we use patient-specific geometries and the finite element method to simulate the dynamic test on surgically treated corneas. In spite of the different levels of approximation, the qualitative response of the two models is very similar, and the most meaningful results of both models are not significantly affected by the inclusion of viscosity of the corneal material in the dynamic analysis. Finite element calculations reproduce the observed snap-through of the corneal shell, including two applanate configurations, and compare well with in vivo images provided by ocular analyzers, suggesting that the mechanical response of the cornea to the air puff test is actually driven only by the elasticity of the stromal tissue. These observations agree with the dynamic characteristics of the test, since the frequency of the air puff impulse is several orders of magnitude larger than the reciprocal of any reasonable relaxation time for the material, downplaying the role of viscosity during the fast snap-through phase.
Numerical Analysis of Microwave Heating on Saponification Reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Kama; Jia, Kun
2005-01-01
Currently, microwave is widely used in chemical industry to accelerate chemical reactions. Saponification reaction has important applications in industry; some research results have shown that microwave heating can significantly accelerate the reaction [1]. But so far, no efficient method has been reported for the analysis of the heating process and design of an efficient reactor powered by microwave. In this paper, we present a method to study the microwave heating process on saponification reaction, where the reactant in a test tube is considered as a mixture of dilute solution. According to the preliminary measurement results, the effective permittivity of the mixture is approximately the permittivity of water, but the conductivity, which could change with the reaction, is derived from the reaction equation (RE). The electromagnetic field equation and reaction equation are coupled by the conductivity. Following that, the whole heating processes, which is described by Maxwell's equations, the reaction equation and heat transport equation (HTE), is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The temperature rising in the test tube are measured and compared with the computational results. Good agreement can be seen between the measured and calculated results.
Experimental and numerical analysis of automotive gearbox rattle noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadmiri, Younes; Rigaud, Emmanuel; Perret-Liaudet, Joël; Vary, Laurence
2012-06-01
The aim of this work is to characterize the rattle noise of automotive gearboxes, resulting from impacts between toothed wheels of unselected gear ratios. These stereo-mechanical impacts are modeled by a coefficient of restitution which describes damping during the squeezing of the lubricant film for approaching surfaces, and the elastic deformation of impacting bodies. The dynamic response of the loose gear first depends on the design parameters and the engine operating conditions. The unknown parameters are the drag torque and the coefficient of restitution. They are identified experimentally through implementation of two optical encoders in an actual automotive gearbox and the operation of a specific test bench which replicates the automotive power train. Models of the different drag torque sources are validated from analysis of the free damped response of the driveline. The coefficient of restitution and its probability density function are measured from experiments under stationary operating conditions. A nonlinear model is built. The dynamic response of the loose gear depends on the dimensionless backlash, the coefficient of restitution and a dimensionless parameter proposed to describe the rattle excitation level. Experiments under controlled excitation are performed to validate the assumptions, to confirm the ability of the parameter proposed to describe the rattle noise threshold, and to characterize the dynamic response. The nonlinear model predictions are fitted with the drag torque and coefficient of restitution previously identified. They are compared with measurements to demonstrate the ability of the model to predict gear rattle for any loose gear, any gearbox and any operating condition.
Numerical analysis of three-dimensional viscous internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, Rodrick V.; Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1988-01-01
A 3-D Navier-Stokes code has been developed for analysis of turbomachinery blade rows and other internal flows. The Navier-Stokes equations are written in a Cartesian coordinate system rotating about the x-axis, and then mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system. Streamwise viscous terms are neglected using the thin-layer assumption, and turbulence effects are modeled using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The equations are discretized using finite differences on stacked C-type grids and are solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially-varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Calculations have been made of a horseshoe vortex formed in front of a flat plate with a round leading edge standing in a turbulent endwall boundary layer. Comparisons are made with experimental data taken by Eckerle and Langston for a circular cylinder under similar conditions. Computer and measured results are compared in terms of endwall flow visualization pictures and total pressure loss contours and vector plots on the symmetry plane. Calculated details of the primary vortex show excellent agreement with the experimental data. The calculations also show a small secondary vortex not seen experimentally.
Numerical Analysis of Maneuvering Rotorcraft Using Moving Overlapped Grid Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Choongmo; Aoyama, Takashi
In transient flight, rotor wakes and tip vortex generated by unsteady blade air-loads and blade motions are fully unsteady and 3-dimensionally-aperiodic, giving rise to significant complicity in accurate analysis compared to steady flight. We propose a hybrid approach by splitting the motions of a maneuvering helicopter into translation and rotation. Translation is simulated using a non-inertial moving (translating) coordinate for which new governing equations are derived, and rotations are simulated by moving each grid in the frame. A flow simulation (CFD) code is constructed by using the hybrid approach, then two simple cases (accelerating/decelerating flight and right-turn flight) for maneuvering helicopter are calculated using the moving overlapped grid method, which is now one of the most advanced techniques for tip-vortex capture. The vortex bundling phenomena, which is a main characteristic of right-turn flight, is well captured by the simulation code. The results of the present study provide better understanding of the characteristics for maneuvering rotorcraft, which can be valuable in full helicopter design.
Groundwater flow and capture zone analysis of the Central Passaic River Basin, New Jersey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, Fatoumata; Ophori, Duke; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Canace, Robert
2009-02-01
Delineating capture zones of pumping wells is an important part of safe drinking water and well protection programs. Capture zones or contributing areas of a groundwater extraction well are the parts of the aquifer recharge areas from which the wells draw their water. Their extent and location depend on the hydrogeologic conditions such as groundwater recharge, pumping scenario and the aquifer properties such as hydraulic conductivity, porosity, heterogeneity of the medium and hydraulic gradient. Different methods of delineation can be used depending on the complexity of the hydrogeologic conditions. In this study, a 3-dimensional transient numerical MODFLOW model was developed for the Central Passaic River Basin (CPRB), and used with a MODPATH particle tracking code to determine 3-dimensional transient capture zones. Analytically calculated capture zones from previous studies at the site were compared with the new numerically simulated capture zones. The study results revealed that the analytical solution was more conservative, estimating larger capture zones than the numerical models. Of all the parameters that can impact the size, shape and location of a capture zone, the hydraulic conductivity is one of the most critical. Capture zones tend to be smaller in lower hydraulic conductivity areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modu, B.; Herbert, B.
2014-11-01
The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9% falls in Chad republic. Since its formation, the basin continues to experienced water shortage due to the activities of Dams combination, increase in irrigations and general reduction in rainfall. Chad basin needs an external water source for it to be function at sustainable level, hence needs for exploitation of higher east African river basin called Congo basin; which covers an area of 3.7 million square km lies in an astride the equator in west-central Africa-world second largest river basin after Amazon. The Congo River almost pans around republic of Congo, the democratic republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, part of Cameroun, and Tanzania. The remotely sensed imagery analysis and observation revealed that Congo basin is on the elevation of 275 to 460 meters and the Chad basin is on elevation of 240 meters. This implies that water can be drained from Congo basin via headrace down to the Chad basin for the water sustainability.
King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine
2016-01-01
A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ±15°C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming ~5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine
2016-12-01
A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ± 15 °C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming 5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.
Hydrologic analysis of the Rio Grande Basin north of Embudo, New Mexico; Colorado and New Mexico
Hearne, G.A.; Dewey, J.D.
1988-01-01
Water yield was estimated for each of the five regions that represent contrasting hydrologic regimes in the 10,400 square miles of the Rio Grande basin above Embudo, New Mexico. Water yield was estimated as 2,800 cubic feet per second for the San Juan Mountains, and 28 cubic feet per second for the Taos Plateau. Evapotranspiration exceeded precipitation by 150 cubic feet per second on the Costilla Plains and 2,400 cubic feet per second on the Alamosa Basin. A three-dimensional model was constructed to represent the aquifer system in the Alamosa Basin. A preliminary analysis concluded that: (1) a seven-layer model representing 3,200 feet of saturated thickness could accurately simulate the behavior of the flow equation; and (2) the 1950 condition was approximately stable and would be a satisfactory initial condition. Reasonable modifications to groundwater withdrawals simulated 1950-79 water-level declines close to measured value. Sensitivity tests indicated that evapotranspiration salvage was the major source, 69 to 82 percent, of groundwater withdrawals. Evapotranspiration salvage was projected to be the source of most withdrawals. (USGS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gassaway, J. D.
1976-01-01
An analysis is presented which is based upon a numerical solution of Gauss's law for the multiple dielectric semiconductor and electrode structure. The formulation resulted in a large set of equations, usually nonlinear, which were solved by an iterative scheme based upon the Gauss-Seidel method employing a relaxation parameter. Proper consideration of the nonlinearity of the space-charge in the semiconductor allowed convergent solutions which can give reasonable approximations to the channel potential profiles though not as good for estimating the space charge itself. The results of this work, which are three computer programs, are listed. None of the programs give the electric field explicitly as output data. However, when this information is desired, the programs can be expanded to include field estimations based on a polynominal fit to the potential field, or they may serve as subprograms for main programs dealing with general aspects of charge transfer.
Structural and vascular analysis of tissue engineering scaffolds, Part 1: Numerical fluid analysis.
Almeida, Henrique A; Bártolo, Paulo J
2012-01-01
Rapid prototyping technologies were recently introduced in the medical field, being particularly viable to produce porous scaffolds for tissue engineering. These scaffolds should be biocompatible, biodegradable, with appropriate porosity, pore structure, and pore distribution on top of presenting both surface and structural compatibility. This chapter presents the state-of-the-art in tissue engineering and scaffold design using numerical fluid analysis for optimal vascular design. The vascularization of scaffolds is an important aspect due to its influence regarding the normal flow of biofluids within the human body. This computational tool also allows to design either a scaffold offering less resistance to the normal flow of biofluids or reducing the possibility for blood coagulation through forcing the flow toward a specific direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.
2013-12-01
Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vonhof, H.; Lubbe, J. V. D.; Joordens, J. J.; Feibel, C. S.; Junginger, A.; Garcin, Y.; Krause-Nehring, J.; Beck, C.; Johnson, T. C.
2015-12-01
Lake Turkana in northern Kenya is one of the largest lakes in the East African Rift System (EARS) that experienced significant climate-driven lake level variation over the Holocene. Arguably the most important feature of Holocene climate change in the EARS is the termination of the African Humid Period (AHP), that caused a ~70 meter lake level drop in Lake Turkana. The precise hydrological response to the termination of the AHP is potentially complex, because Lake Turkana lies at the cross roads of two large atmospheric convection systems; the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the Congo Air Boundary (CAB). Shifting of these atmospheric systems around the end of the AHP dramatically rearranged spatial rainfall patterns in the Turkana Basin catchment, causing changes in relative runoff contributions from the different sub-catchments in the Turkana Basin. We here present a Holocene Turkana lake water Sr-isotope reconstruction, based on the analysis of well-dated lacustrine ostracods and shells. This reconstruction reveals consistently high Sr isotope values for the early Holocene, followed by a remarkable drop of Sr isotope ratios around the AHP termination. We interpret this pattern to represent a westward shift in the location of the CAB, leading to the reduction and eventual shutdown of runoff contribution from the Chew Bahir Basin to the Turkana Basin at the end of the AHP. The record demonstrates the exceptional suitability of Sr isotope data for this type of paleohydrological reconstructions. This is mainly due to the chemically conservative Sr-isotope mass balance in EARS lake systems, which is insensitive to environmental change at seasonal timescales that so often overprints the longer term climate signal in stable (oxygen and carbon) isotope records of these lakes. Furthermore, when Sr-isotope signatures of the contributing sub-catchments are known, the observed Sr isotope trends can be interpreted in terms of spatial shifts in climate driven runoff
1991-01-15
This research project was to develop methods for the numerical and analytic analysis of implicit systems of differential equations, (DAE)- F(x’, z ,t...0 (1) which are not equivalent to an explicit ordinary differential equation (ODE), (ODE) z ’ = G( z , t) (2) That is, the Jacobian Fe of (1) is...structure theorems and a general numerical procedure for the linear time varying DAE E(t)w’(t) + F(t) z (t) = f(t) (3) This numerical algorithm was the
An Analysis of Numerical Weather Prediction of the Diabatic Rossby Vortex
2014-06-01
NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION OF THE DIABATIC ROSSBY VORTEX by Matthew W. McKenzie June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Richard W. Moore Second Reader...FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) MATTHEW W. MCKENZIE 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943...public release; distribution is unlimited AN ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION OF THE DIABATIC ROSSBY VORTEX Matthew W. McKenzie Lieutenant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, K. K.; Li, C. H.; Cai, Y. P.; Xu, M.; Xia, X. H.
2014-01-01
In this paper, a Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis Approach (FMADAA) was adopted in water resources security evaluation for the nine provinces in the Yellow River basin in 2006. A numerical approximation system and a modified left-right scoring approach were adopted to cope with the uncertainties in the acquired information. Four multi-attribute decision making methods were implemented in the evaluation model for impact evaluation, including simple weighted addition (SWA), weighted product (WP), cooperative game theory (CGT) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) which could be used for helping rank the water resources security in those nine provinces as well as the criteria alternatives. Moreover, several aggregation methods including average ranking procedure, borda and copeland methods were used to integrate the ranking results. The ranking results showed that the water resources security of the entire basin is in critical, insecurity and absolute insecurity state, especially in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces in which water resources were lower than the average quantity in China. Hence, future planning of the Yellow River basin should mainly focus on the improvement of water eco-environment status in the provinces above.
Geology, basin analysis, and hydrocarbon potential of Mozambique and the Mozambique Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nairn, Alan E. M.; Lerche, Ian; Iliffe, James E.
1991-03-01
The Phanerozoic structural and stratigraphic history of Mozambique can be separated into a "Karoo" and a post-Karoo phase. Outcrops of Karoo rocks, limited to the Zambezi valley and small outliers in the Mozambique belt to the north show an eastward facies change marked by an increased argillaceous content and the appearance of carbonates. The wide coastal plain and immediate offshore of southern Mozambique is marked by extensional horsts and grabens with a Mesozoic fill covered by Cenozoic sediments. Little is known of lower stratigraphic horizons. In this coastal province there is a facies transition from continental clastics in the northwest and west to more lacustrine and marine deposits to the southeast and east. Upwards the succession passes into the Cenozoic without a noticeable break. In the offshore in the north seismic lines help define two basins, the Zambezi Delta basin and the Mozambique Channel basin separated by the Beira High. In the south several offshore grabens have been defined, one of which, the South Mozambique graben, has been examined here by an integrated basin analysis technique. The technique, which uses available depositional, structural and thermal data, provides information on maturation and the timing of hydrocarbon maturation. The analysis showed variation in the extension rate with time, and two phases of rifting. The greatest rate of extension, accumulation and subsidence, between 96 and 76 Ma, depends upon interpretational assumptions. During this time interval fault blocks were systematically tilted "domino" fashion. This event broadly coincides with the rifting between Madagascar and Antarctica, a period of plate reorganization. The earlier rifting phase was probably related to the strike-slip separation of Madagascar from Africa. Modelling heat flow suggests that the later event is the more important from the maturation-hydrocarbon standpoint. The offshore, and potentially the deeper, onshore post-Karoo basins have traps
Teresa E. Jordan
2015-11-15
This collection of files are part of a larger dataset uploaded in support of Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin (GPFA-AB, DOE Project DE-EE0006726). Phase 1 of the GPFA-AB project identified potential Geothermal Play Fairways within the Appalachian basin of Pennsylvania, West Virginia and New York. This was accomplished through analysis of 4 key criteria or ‘risks’: thermal quality, natural reservoir productivity, risk of seismicity, and heat utilization. Each of these analyses represent a distinct project task, with the fifth task encompassing combination of the 4 risks factors. Supporting data for all five tasks has been uploaded into the Geothermal Data Repository node of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This submission comprises the data for Thermal Quality Analysis (project task 1) and includes all of the necessary shapefiles, rasters, datasets, code, and references to code repositories that were used to create the thermal resource and risk factor maps as part of the GPFA-AB project. The identified Geothermal Play Fairways are also provided with the larger dataset. Figures (.png) are provided as examples of the shapefiles and rasters. The regional standardized 1 square km grid used in the project is also provided as points (cell centers), polygons, and as a raster. Two ArcGIS toolboxes are available: 1) RegionalGridModels.tbx for creating resource and risk factor maps on the standardized grid, and 2) ThermalRiskFactorModels.tbx for use in making the thermal resource maps and cross sections. These toolboxes contain “item description” documentation for each model within the toolbox, and for the toolbox itself. This submission also contains three R scripts: 1) AddNewSeisFields.R to add seismic risk data to attribute tables of seismic risk, 2) StratifiedKrigingInterpolation.R for the interpolations used in the thermal resource analysis, and 3) LeaveOneOutCrossValidation.R for the cross validations used in
Water-quality assessment of the Potomac River Basin: analysis of available pesticide data, 1972-1990
Zappia, Humbert; Fisher, Gary T.
1997-01-01
A study of available data for the period from 1972 to 1990 was conducted to characterize the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in sur-face water, bottom material, ground water, and fish tissue in the Potomac River Basin. The study was conducted by the Potomac River study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Exist-ing data coverage was evaluated to guide future data-collection activities. Data from computer data bases and from published and unpublished reports were obtained from local, State, and Fed-eral agencies in the four Potomac River Basin states and the District of Columbia. Data are available for all environmental media, but geo-graphic and temporal coverage are limited. Clusters of data occur in the north-central parts of the basin, with numerous samples at discrete loca-tions in the Shenandoah and Monocacy River Basins, along the mainstem Potomac River, in the Washington, D.C., area, and in streams along the Potomac Estuary. Much of the available surface-water and bottom-material data are from the ear-lier years of the period of interest, the ground-water data are from the middle years, and the fish-tissue data are distributed over much of the period. Overall, temporal coverage is not sufficient for analysis of trends. Comparisons between different sample media are possible in some areas of the Potomac River Basin, particularly in the northern end of the Great Valley. Residual concentrations of some pesticides have been found in surface water, bottom mate-rial, ground water, and fish tissue. Samples have been analyzed for a total of at least 69 pesticides and related compounds in surface water, bottom material, ground water, and fish tissue. Most con-centrations of the pesticides analyzed during the period from 1972 to 1990 were less than or equal to reporting limits. For surface-water samples, 13 out of 41 pes-ticides and related compounds analyzed had concentrations equal to or greater than the
New mapping of Radlandi basin and detailed analysis of its inner plains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minelli, Francesco; Giorgetti, Carolina; Mondini, Alessandro; Pauselli, Cristina; Mancinelli, Paolo
2013-04-01
NEW MAPPING OF RADITLADI BASIN AND DETAILED ANALYSIS OF ITS INNER PLAINS. Francesco Minelli 1, Carolina Giorgetti 1, Alessandro C. Mondini 2, Cristina Pauselli 1, Paolo Mancinelli1. 1 Gruppo di Geologia Strutturale e Geofisica (GSG), Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06123, Perugia, Italy . Email: minelli91@yahoo.it. 2 CNR IRPI Perugia, 06123, Perugia. Introduction: The Raditladi basin is a large peak-ring impact crater discovered during the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) first flyby of Mercury in January 2008 [1]. The Raditladi basin is relatively young [2], and the study of the internal structures give an indication of the processes that acted recently in Mercury's geological history. Geological mapping: We first present the geological mapping of Raditladi crater. In the map we defined different sub-units on the base of previous studies [4][5] and surface morphology and reflectance. Through a GIS software we associated a polygonal layer to each sub-unit, this allowed to distinguish nine different layers. Due to the similarities with the Rachmaninoff basin, to define sub-units mapped on Raditladi, we adopted Rachmaninoff crater's units definitions made by Marchi et al. (2011) [4]. Structures analysis : We also mapped secondary structures consisting in concentric troughs arranged in a circular pattern. We defined two different kinds of troughs: (i) structures characterized by a distinct flat floor and interpretable as grabens, and (ii) structures with linear and curvilinear segments [5]. Inner plain deposit: The analysis of the topography made possible the estimation of the deposit's thickness. The measurement of the thickness is possible thanks to the presence of two small craters, crater A and crater, located in Raditladi's Inner plain. Observing the morphology of the two small craters' rim and hummocky central floor, we distinguished two different units: the shallower consists in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dombrowsky, Ines; Almog, Ram; Becker, Nir; Feitelson, Eran; Klawitter, Simone; Lindemann, Stefan; Mutlak, Natalie
2010-05-01
The basin scale has been promoted universally as the optimal management unit that allows for the internalization of all external effects caused by multiple water uses. However, the basin scale has been put forward largely on the basis of experience in temperate zones. Hence whether the basin scale is the best scale for management in other settings remains questionable. To address these questions this paper analyzes the economic viability and the political feasibility of alternative management options in the Kidron/Wadi Nar region. The Kidron/Wadi Nar is a small basin in which wastewater from eastern Jerusalem flows through the desert to the Dead Sea. Various options for managing these wastewater flows were analyzed ex ante on the basis of both a cost benefit and a multi-criteria analysis. The paper finds that due to economies of scale, a pure basin approach is not desirable from a physical and economic perspective. Furthermore, in terms of political feasibility, it seems that the option which prompts the fewest objections from influential stakeholder groups in the two entities under the current asymmetrical political setting is not a basin solution either, but a two plant solution based on an outsourcing arrangement. These findings imply that the river basin management approach can not be considered the best management approach for the arid transboundary case at hand, and hence is not unequivocally universally applicable.
Tectono-Sedimentary Analysis of Rift Basins: Insights from the Corinth Rift, Greece
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gawthorpe, Robert; Ford, Mary
2015-04-01
the Pliocene rift fill is similar to rift initiation in high sediment flux locations in the west and rift climax in low sediment flux locations in the east. Major shifts in the locus of fault activity within the Corinth Rift further complicate tectono-stratigraphy analysis of its basin fill. Pliocene depocentres are largely located onshore, south of the present-day Gulf of Corinth and involved activity that was distributed among north- and south-dipping faults. A northward shift in the southern rift margin in the early Pleistocene, established the present-day Gulf of Corinth as the site of several main depocentres and caused abandonment, uplift and reworking of a large portion of the Pliocene rift. Changes in the locus of fault activity during the Pleistocene record a change from activity on north- and south-dipping faults to mainly north-dipping faults. Such shifts in fault activity have a profound effect on the basin fill, with new footwall areas subject to subaerial exposure and incision while contemporaneous hangingwall depocentres undergo rapid subsidence and drowning. Such local complexity is not surprising, but factors such as major antecedent sediment transport pathways and marked temporal and spatial shifts in fault activity make application of conventional tectono-sedimentary subdivsions of pre-, syn-, and post-rift difficult to apply at the basin-scale.
Drought analysis in the Eastern Nile basin using the standardized precipitation index.
Elkollaly, Mohamed; Khadr, Mosaad; Zeidan, Bakenaz
2017-01-31
Drought is considered by many researchers to be the most complex but least understood of all natural hazards, affecting more people than any other hazard. Drought affects many aspects of community and environment, and any future increases in the water demand will be most critical in periods of severe drought. Geospatial analysis of the historical drought events and their causes can be used to mitigate drought impacts and to develop preparedness plans. This study aimed to identify the changes in drought frequency, magnitude, duration, and intensity in the Eastern Nile basin during the period 1965-2000, using the standardized precipitation index (SPI). An SPI program based on C sharp language was developed to monitor drought in the study area. Twenty-eight meteorological stations distributed on the Eastern Nile basin were chosen to collect monthly precipitation data. For drought analysis, SPI series of 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 24-month timescales have been calculated. Results showed that the study area received several drought events during the long rainy season (June to September) and the short rainy season (March to May) as well. Annual analysis of SPI time series indicated that the study area received several drought events, and the most severity event was during the year 1984.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abboud, Iyad Ahmed; Nofal, Ramadan A.
2017-02-01
Wadi Khumal, a triangular drainage system basin located at the Radwa Mountains of the south Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, has been chosen to assess certain morphometric parameters that influence water supply for basin hydrology. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) information was used to produce Digital Elevation Model (DEM), aspect network, and descent graphs. Geographic Information System (GIS) is utilized for the assessment of linear, areal, and relief landmarks of morphometric aspects. Morphometric analysis of the drainage system network and the Khumal basin showed it has fifth-order wadi network with an elongated shape and possesses dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. These pattern points in the Khumal basin have similarity of lithology, moderate to steep slope, and an effective structural system. The various values of bifurcation ratios (Rb) versus low form factor results with circularity ratio (Rc) and elongation ratio (Re) highly suggested a geologically higher permeability and a structurally planned drainage system through intermediate to low drainage density (Dd), moderate stream frequency (Fs); moderately coarse drainage texture (Rt) with high relief indicates tectonic activity with high slope terrain made from loose materials with good permeability efficient for the recharging of ground water. The low value of asymmetrical factor (AF) showed great distortion quotient of the lithology in all sub-basins proving the great and broad tectonic influence in the Khumal basin. A high relief ratio (Rh) of 0.028, with low zigzag path and a highly steep ridge during the Khumal basin indicated a continuation of youth of the basin with continuously local uplifting. A very low value Rt of 0.646 versus a very low Fs of 0.177 and a Dd of 556.33 m/km2 demonstrated that the basin was having extremely resistant rocks in a very high relief ground which indicates late tectonic activity.
Modeling of rainfall events and trends through multifractal analysis on the Ebro River Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valencia, Jose Luis; María Tarquis, Ana; Saá-Requejo, Antonio; Villeta, María; María Gascó, Jose
2015-04-01
Water supplies in the Ebro River Basin present high seasonal fluctuations, with extreme rainfall events during autumn and spring, and demands are increasingly stressed during summer. At the same time, repeated anomalous annual fluctuations in recent decades have become a serious concern for regional hydrology, agriculture and several related industries in the region. In fact, it has had a devastating impact, both socially and economically. In addition it has resulted in debate over the changing seasonal patterns of rainfall and the increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events. The aim of this work is to evaluate these challenges on the Ebro River Basin.For this purpose, 132 complete and regular spatial rainfall daily datasets (from 1931 to 2009) were analyzed. Each dataset corresponds to a grid of 25 km x 25 km and belongs to the area studied. First, classical statistical tests were applied to the series at annual scale to check the randomness and trends. No trends where found. Then, we analyzed the change in the rainfall variability pattern in the Ebro River Basin. We have used universal multifractal (UM) analysis, which estimates the concentration of the data around the precipitation average (C1, codimension average), the degree of multiscaling behavior in time (α index) and the maximum probable singularity in the rainfall distribution (γs). Daily rainfall series were subdivided (1931-1975 and 1965-2009) to study the difference between the two periods in these three UM parameters, in an attempt to relate them to geographical coordinates and relative positions in the river basin. The variations observed in C1 and α in some areas of the Ebro River Basin indicate that a precipitation regime change has begun in the last few decades, and therefore, this change should be considered in terms of its potential effects on the social and economical development of the region. This confirms some postulates drawn by conservative scientists who reject a catastrophic
Measurement of the Operating Parameters and Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical Subsystem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Božek, Pavol; Turygin, Yuri
2014-08-01
Submission is focused on completing the information system about quality, operation, automatic testing and new evaluating method of vehicle subsystem. Numeric analysis is carried out on the base of automatic collection and systematic recording of commercial car operation. Proposed new information system about operation and trial process allows verification according to the proposed method. Critical components verified in laboratory conditions are detected by numeric analysis of reliability. Quality level increasing not only for final product, but also related automatic test laboratory for cars is the result of respecting these principles.
Numerical analysis of the steam flow field in shell and tube heat exchanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartoszewicz, Jarosław; Bogusławski, Leon
2016-06-01
In the paper, the results of numerical simulations of the steam flow in a shell and tube heat exchanger are presented. The efficiency of different models of turbulence was tested. In numerical calculations the following turbulence models were used: k-ɛ, RNG k-ɛ, Wilcox k-ω, Chen-Kim k-ɛ, and Lam-Bremhorst k-ɛ. Numerical analysis of the steam flow was carried out assuming that the flow at the inlet section of the heat exchanger were divided into three parts. The angle of steam flow at inlet section was determined individually in order to obtain the best configuration of entry vanes and hence improve the heat exchanger construction. Results of numerical studies were verified experimentally for a real heat exchanger. The modification of the inlet flow direction according to theoretical considerations causes the increase of thermal power of a heat exchanger of about 14%.
A numerical analysis of tonal acoustics in rotor-stator interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rangwalla, A. A.; Rai, M. M.
1993-01-01
In this study, the unsteady, thin-layer, Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a system of patched grids for a rotor-stator configuration of an axial turbine. The study focuses on the plurality of spinning modes that are present in such an interaction. The propagation of these modes in the upstream and downstream regions is analyzed and compared with numerical results. It was found that the numerically calculated tonal acoustics could be affected by the type of numerical boundary conditions employed at the inlet and exit of the computational boundaries and the grid spacing in the upstream and downstream regions. Results in the form of surface pressure amplitudes and the spectra of turbine tones and their far field behavior are presented. Numerical results and experimental data are compared wherever possible. The 'mode-content' for different harmonics of blade-passage frequency is shown to conform with that predicted by a kinematical analysis.
Analysis of Rainfall Changes in Transnational Basins in Portugal and Spain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerreiro, S. B.; Kilsby, C. G.; Serinaldi, F.
2012-04-01
The impact of climate regime variability on the hydrology and water resources of the major transnational basins in Iberia (Portugal and Spain) is being studied. Spain is the source of the three major rivers that flow through Portugal, leaving this country in a vulnerable position. There is a strong interannual precipitation variability in Iberia, with very wet and very dry years occurring frequently. Situations of water scarcity are already frequent in the south of Portugal and Spain, so in the future, a critical problem of water availability for Iberia might arise. An analysis of changes in rainfall records covering the three major transnational basins was performed, using data from Spain and Portugal which are normally considered separately. This study area, defined by basins instead of countries, is more coherent for water resources analysis. Change point and trend analysis was performed on rainfall records in the transnational basins of rivers Douro, Tagus and Guadiana for the period 1961 to 2009. Non-parametric tests (Pettitt test, cusum test and Mann-Kendall test) were used in order not to have to assume a specific distribution for the data. Field significance was taken into account when calculating trends and change points. The importance of spatial correlation when calculating field significance was demonstrated. As well as finding changes in rainfall which have great significance for water resources, some important issues are raised as to the nature of changes in rainfall to be expected. Significant decreases in rainfall were found for the month of February and, to a lesser extent, March. Significant increases in rainfall were found for October in the Spanish side of Douro and Tagus catchments. The NAO index was considered as a possible explanation for the changes detected. It was also demonstrated that changes in rainfall cannot always be interpreted as trends or change points because the pattern of change can be more complex than these two simplistic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Trincardi, Fabio; Foglini, Federica; Campiani, Elisabetta; Pellegrini, Claudio
2016-04-01
The Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the western continental margin that surround the Southern Adriatic basin mainly consists of contourite depositional systems. The architectural stacking pattern of the contourites-linked bodies is sometimes interrupted by the presence of large-scale mass-transport complexes (MTCs). MTCs are spatially diffused along the margin and are characterized by high variability in size, morphology and geometries. In the northern sector of the margin MTCs derive from the remobilisation of upper-slope contourite drifts, whereas in the southern sector of the margin sedimentary instability involves shelf-margin, progradational deposits. The most prominent MTC of the northern sector of the margin is the Gondola Slide (GS) a large, deep-seated MTC composed of at least three distinct MTDs involving up to 40km3 of sediments. The events that have generated these MTDs have been enclosed within a robust chronological framework using sedimentary shallow piston-cores collected along the continental slope. The reconstruction of the age of these MTDs indicates that failures have repeatedly occurred along the margin during at least the last 55,000 years. Therefore, the GS case indicates that sediment instability processes can span a large portion of a sea-level cycle, pointing to triggering mechanisms that are independent from variations in the relative sea level position. The repeated GS failure events are therefore interpreted to be mainly triggered by earthquake shocks. The Southern Adriatic basin represents a seismically active area and earthquakes are generally cluster along long-lived shear zones. One of these zones, the Gondola Zone, which run across the shelf and the slope, close to the GS-MTC, has been site of paleoseismology analysis, indicating recent (younger than 5.5 kyr) tectonic deformation through E-W strike-slip faulting . Basin-scale MTDs characterize also the southern sector of the continental margin. MTDs are present both
[GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].
Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin
2004-07-01
The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tandon, Kush; Tuncay, Kagan; Hubbard, Kyle; Comer, John; Ortoleva, Peter
2004-01-01
A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic
Tandon, K.; Tuncay, K.; Hubbard, K.; Comer, J.; Ortoleva, P.
2004-01-01
A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic
Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.
Simulation analysis of the ground-water flow system in the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington
Morgan, David S.; McFarland, William D.
1994-01-01
A numerical model of the ground-water flow-system in the Portland Basin, Oregon and Washington, was used to test and refine the conceptual understanding of the flow system and estimate the effects of past and future human-caused changes to the ground-water system. Recharge to the basin in 1987-88 consisted primarily of 1,440 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) from direct infiltration of precipitation, but was augmented in unsewered urban areas by 62 ft3/s from runoff to drywells and 27 ft3/s from on-site waste disposal systems. Forty-nine percent of the recharge in the basin infiltrates through the Troutdale gravel aquifer and 22 percent through the unconsoli- dated sedimentary aquifer. The unconsolidated sedimentary aquifer and Troutdale gravel aquifer supplied 85 percent of 1987-88 pumpage. Recharge under pre-development conditions was 180 ft3/s (12 percent) more than in 1987-88 owing to the lack of impervious surfaces associated with urbanization. Simulation of the effects of the increased recharge and no well discharge indicates that water levels could have declined as much as 50 feet within the Troutdale gravel in southern Clark County in response to municipal pumping. The combination of reduced recharge and increased pumpage could have reduced discharge to large rivers by 25 percent, and discharge to small rivers and streams by 16 percent, since pre-development conditions. One hypothetical condition for future ground-water development was simulated to test the effects of additional pumping stress on the ground-water system. Pumpage estimates in this condition were based on projected municipal supply demands in Clark County through the year 2010 and on limited use of the City of Portland Columbia South Shore well-field. The hypothetical pumpage was 55 percent (92 ft3/s) greater than 1987-88 pumpage. Equilibrium water-level declines were as much as 20-40 ft in the Troutdale gravel aquifer in Clark County and in the Troutdale sandstone aquifer underlying the Columbia
Numerical simulation analysis on Wenchuan seismic strong motion in Hanyuan region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, X.; Gao, M.; Guo, J.; Li, Z.; Li, T.
2015-12-01
69227 deaths, 374643 injured, 17923 people missing, direct economic losses 845.1 billion, and a large number houses collapse were caused by Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake in Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008, how to reproduce characteristics of its strong ground motion and predict its intensity distribution, which have important role to mitigate disaster of similar giant earthquake in the future. Taking Yunnan-Sichuan Province, Wenchuan town, Chengdu city, Chengdu basin and its vicinity as the research area, on the basis of the available three-dimensional velocity structure model and newly topography data results from ChinaArray of Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, 2 type complex source rupture process models with the global and local source parameters are established, we simulated the seismic wave propagation of Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake throughout the whole three-dimensional region by the GMS discrete grid finite-difference techniques with Cerjan absorbing boundary conditions, and obtained the seismic intensity distribution in this region through analyzing 50×50 stations data (simulated ground motion output station). The simulated results indicated that: (1)Simulated Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) response and the main characteristics of the response spectrum are very similar to those of the real Wenchuan earthquake records. (2)Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) and the response spectra of the Plain are much greater than that of the left Mountain area because of the low velocity of the shallow surface media and the basin effect of the Chengdu basin structure. Simultaneously, (3) the source rupture process (inversion) with far-field P-wave, GPS data and InSAR information and the Longmenshan Front Fault (source rupture process) are taken into consideration in GMS numerical simulation, significantly different waveform and frequency component of the ground motion are obtained, though the strong motion waveform is distinct asymmetric
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heldenfels, Richard R
1951-01-01
A numerical method is presented for the stress analysis of stiffened-shell structures of arbitrary cross section under nonuniform temperature distributions. The method is based on a previously published procedure that is extended to include temperature effects and multicell construction. The application of the method to practical problems is discussed and an illustrative analysis is presented of a two-cell box beam under the combined action of vertical loads and a nonuniform temperature distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soria, J. M.; Alfaro, P.; Fernández, J.; Viseras, C.
2001-04-01
The Bajo Segura Basin is located in the eastern Betic Cordillera, at present connected with the Mediterranean Sea to the east. It has a complete stratigraphic record from the Tortonian to the Quaternary, which has been separated into six units bounded by unconformities. This paper is concerned with the northern edge of the basin, controlled by a major strike-slip fault (the Crevillente Fault Zone, CFZ), where the most complete stratigraphic successions are found. The results obtained (summarised below) are based on an integrated analysis of the sedimentary evolution and the subsidence-uplift movements. Unit I (Early Tortonian) is transgressive on the basin basement and is represented by ramp-type platform facies, organised in a shallowing-upward sequence related to tectonic uplift during the first stages of movement along the CFZ. Unit II (lower Late Tortonian) consists of shallow platform facies at bottom and pelagic basin facies at top, forming a deepening-upward sequence associated with tectonic subsidence due to sinistral motion along the CFZ. Unit III (middle Late Tortonian) is made up of exotic turbiditic facies related to a stage of uplift and erosion of the southern edge of the basin. Unit IV (upper Late Tortonian) consists of pelagic basin facies at bottom and shallow platform facies at top, defining a shallowing-upward sequence related to tectonic uplift during continued sinistral movement on the basin-bounding fault. Units V (latest Tortonian-Messinian) and VI (Pliocene-Pleistocene p.p.) consist of shallowing-upward sequences deposited during folding and uplift of the northern margin of the basin. No definitive evidence of any major eustatic sea-level fall, associated with the 'Messinian salinity crisis', has been recorded in the stratigraphic sections studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.
1985-01-01
A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavetski, D.; Clark, M. P.; Fenicia, F.
2011-12-01
Hydrologists often face sources of uncertainty that dwarf those normally encountered in many engineering and scientific disciplines. Especially when representing large scale integrated systems, internal heterogeneities such as stream networks, preferential flowpaths, vegetation, etc, are necessarily represented with a considerable degree of lumping. The inputs to these models are themselves often the products of sparse observational networks. Given the simplifications inherent in environmental models, especially lumped conceptual models, does it really matter how they are implemented? At the same time, given the complexities usually found in the response surfaces of hydrological models, increasingly sophisticated analysis methodologies are being proposed for sensitivity analysis, parameter calibration and uncertainty assessment. Quite remarkably, rather than being caused by the model structure/equations themselves, in many cases model analysis complexities are consequences of seemingly trivial aspects of the model implementation - often, literally, whether the start-of-step or end-of-step fluxes are used! The extent of problems can be staggering, including (i) degraded performance of parameter optimization and uncertainty analysis algorithms, (ii) erroneous and/or misleading conclusions of sensitivity analysis, parameter inference and model interpretations and, finally, (iii) poor reliability of a calibrated model in predictive applications. While the often nontrivial behavior of numerical approximations has long been recognized in applied mathematics and in physically-oriented fields of environmental sciences, it remains a problematic issue in many environmental modeling applications. Perhaps detailed attention to numerics is only warranted for complicated engineering models? Would not numerical errors be an insignificant component of total uncertainty when typical data and model approximations are present? Is this really a serious issue beyond some rare isolated
Metagenomics Analysis of Microorganisms in Freshwater Lakes of the Amazon Basin
Toyama, Danyelle; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Soares-Costa, Andrea; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon
2016-01-01
The Amazon Basin is the largest hydrographic basin on the planet, and the dynamics of its aquatic microorganisms strongly impact global biogeochemical cycles. However, it remains poorly studied. This metagenome project was performed to obtain a snapshot of prokaryotic microbiota from four important lakes in the Amazon Basin. PMID:28007865
Metagenomics Analysis of Microorganisms in Freshwater Lakes of the Amazon Basin.
Toyama, Danyelle; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Soares-Costa, Andrea; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; Henrique-Silva, Flávio
2016-12-22
The Amazon Basin is the largest hydrographic basin on the planet, and the dynamics of its aquatic microorganisms strongly impact global biogeochemical cycles. However, it remains poorly studied. This metagenome project was performed to obtain a snapshot of prokaryotic microbiota from four important lakes in the Amazon Basin.
GIS Analysis of Size Relationships between Drainage Basins and Alluvial Fans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, S. N.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.
2014-12-01
Imagery from the global database of modern sedimentary basins compiled by Weissman et al. (2010) allows us to test whether a size relationship between drainage basin area and distributive fluvial system (DFS) area exists. We are testing this hypothesis using a combination of SRTM-based digital elevation models and Landsat satellite imagery in ArcGIS. Sedimentary basins are delineated by preforming a Gaussian smoothing on the DEM, followed by optimal edge detection through application of a modified Canny edge detector. The pour points defining the link between contributing hydrologic basins and these sedimentary basins are then located by generating a stream network in ArcGIS and intersecting the stream network arcs with the sedimentary basin polygons. From these pour points we delineate the adjacent contributing drainage basin using the watershed tool in ArcGIS. We manually digitize the boundary and geometry of the DFS identified for each drainage basin, using the higher resolution imagery found on Google Earth for visual confirmation if the scale or resolution of the Landsat imagery requires it. We then extract drainage basins and DFS polygon parameters and calculate areal extents in order to evaluate whether such a size relationship exists within basins, regionally across several basins, or across different basin types (e.g., endorheic vs exhoreic). A limitation of this approach is that we cannot evaluate sediment volumes, only aerial coverage. Results from this study may provide a better understanding of extrabasinal processes that control DFS shape and size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaanda, Mohammed S.; Jerrett, Rhodri; Grimes, Stephen T.; Price, Gregory D.; Anderson, Mark
2014-05-01
The Petrockstow and Bovey basins are two similar pull apart (strike slip) basins belonging to the Sticklepath - Lustleigh Fault Zone (SLFZ) in Devon, SW England. The SLFZ is one of the several faults on the Cornubian Peninsula and may be linked to Variscan structures rejuvenated in Palaeogene times. The bulk of the basins' fill consists of clays, silts, lignites and sands of Palaeogene age, comparable to the Lough Neagh Basin (Northern Ireland), which is also thought to be part of the SLFZ. The greater part of the British Isles was a land area throughout the Palaeogene. The basin-fills therefore, provide rare, potentially expanded sections through the Palaeocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), and the Eocene-Oligocene (Oi-1) cooling event in the U.K. Facies analysis has been undertaken on sediments of the Petrockstow and Bovey basins in order to provide a tectonic and palaeoenvironmental context for palaeoclimate reconstructions using palynology, organic geochemistry Methylation Branched Tetraethers/Cyclisation Branched Tetraethers and carbon isotope analyses which have identified the Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) associated with the PETM. The following lithofacies types from two boreholes from the Petrockstow Basin (boreholes 1A and 1B) and from outcrop exposed in the Bovey Basin. The lithofacies identified are (a): Silty clay; (b): Red mottled and sideritic clay; (c): laminated silty clay; (d): Minor sand and gravel; (e): Major coarse sand and granules and (f): Lignite. Our new facies model involves: firstly Sand filled fluvial channels, secondly a lake with ready supply of organic debris, and thirdly a lake prone to drying-out. The abrupt transition from sand filled fluvial channels to Lake Facies is coincident with the recognition of the CIE. The possible effect of the Oi-1 glaciation may be linked to the third phase of a lake prone to drying-out facies which is ambiguous in the Bovey Basin. Repeated sub aerial exposure suggests that the lakes present in both
2000-12-01
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINED DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS, WITH APPLICATIONS TO DYNAMIC CONTACT OF SOLIDS, NONLINEAR ELASTODYNAMICS AND FLUID-STRUCTURE...2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Numerical Analysis of Constrained Dynamical Systems, with 5b. GRANT NUMBER Applications to Dynamic...This extension allows the analysis of fluid-structure interfaces through the Lagrangian contact logic previously developed. Similarly, we have developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.
Regional L-Moment-Based Flood Frequency Analysis in the Upper Vistula River Basin, Poland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rutkowska, A.; Żelazny, M.; Kohnová, S.; Łyp, M.; Banasik, K.
2017-02-01
The Upper Vistula River basin was divided into pooling groups with similar dimensionless frequency distributions of annual maximum river discharge. The cluster analysis and the Hosking and Wallis (HW) L-moment-based method were used to divide the set of 52 mid-sized catchments into disjoint clusters with similar morphometric, land use, and rainfall variables, and to test the homogeneity within clusters. Finally, three and four pooling groups were obtained alternatively. Two methods for identification of the regional distribution function were used, the HW method and the method of Kjeldsen and Prosdocimi based on a bivariate extension of the HW measure. Subsequently, the flood quantile estimates were calculated using the index flood method. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and the generalised least squares (GLS) regression techniques were used to relate the index flood to catchment characteristics. Predictive performance of the regression scheme for the southern part of the Upper Vistula River basin was improved by using GLS instead of OLS. The results of the study can be recommended for the estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged sites, in flood risk mapping applications, and in engineering hydrology to help design flood protection structures.
Regional L-Moment-Based Flood Frequency Analysis in the Upper Vistula River Basin, Poland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rutkowska, A.; Żelazny, M.; Kohnová, S.; Łyp, M.; Banasik, K.
2016-05-01
The Upper Vistula River basin was divided into pooling groups with similar dimensionless frequency distributions of annual maximum river discharge. The cluster analysis and the Hosking and Wallis (HW) L-moment-based method were used to divide the set of 52 mid-sized catchments into disjoint clusters with similar morphometric, land use, and rainfall variables, and to test the homogeneity within clusters. Finally, three and four pooling groups were obtained alternatively. Two methods for identification of the regional distribution function were used, the HW method and the method of Kjeldsen and Prosdocimi based on a bivariate extension of the HW measure. Subsequently, the flood quantile estimates were calculated using the index flood method. The ordinary least squares (OLS) and the generalised least squares (GLS) regression techniques were used to relate the index flood to catchment characteristics. Predictive performance of the regression scheme for the southern part of the Upper Vistula River basin was improved by using GLS instead of OLS. The results of the study can be recommended for the estimation of flood quantiles at ungauged sites, in flood risk mapping applications, and in engineering hydrology to help design flood protection structures.
An ecometric analysis of the fossil mammal record of the Turkana Basin
Žliobaitė, Indrė; Kaya, Ferhat; Bibi, Faysal; Bobe, René; Leakey, Louise; Leakey, Meave; Patterson, David; Rannikko, Janina; Werdelin, Lars
2016-01-01
Although ecometric methods have been used to analyse fossil mammal faunas and environments of Eurasia and North America, such methods have not yet been applied to the rich fossil mammal record of eastern Africa. Here we report results from analysis of a combined dataset spanning east and west Turkana from Kenya between 7 and 1 million years ago (Ma). We provide temporally and spatially resolved estimates of temperature and precipitation and discuss their relationship to patterns of faunal change, and propose a new hypothesis to explain the lack of a temperature trend. We suggest that the regionally arid Turkana Basin may between 4 and 2 Ma have acted as a ‘species factory’, generating ecological adaptations in advance of the global trend. We show a persistent difference between the eastern and western sides of the Turkana Basin and suggest that the wetlands of the shallow eastern side could have provided additional humidity to the terrestrial ecosystems. Pending further research, a transient episode of faunal change centred at the time of the KBS Member (1.87–1.53 Ma), may be equally plausibly attributed to climate change or to a top-down ecological cascade initiated by the entry of technologically sophisticated humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298463
Systemic analysis of desertification processes taking place in the Limpopo river basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Messina, Mario; Attorre, Fabio; Vitale, Marcello
2016-04-01
Desertification and land degradation are phenomena that ranks among the greatest environmental challenges of our time. Desertification is a global issue, with serious implications worldwide for biodiversity, socio-economic stability and sustainable development. Biophysical indicators of land degradation and desertification, like Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and Total Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) were provided by remote sensing technology (MODIS). The study aims to evaluate the dynamical changes of NPP and Reco in the Limpopo river basin, a Southern African region that includes, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe, during the time period 2001-2010. In particular, the relations between NPP, Reco, environmental, physiological and land use parameters have been widely investigated through the application of a new and powerful statistical classifier, the Random Forest Analysis (RFA), and a general non-linear model, the Response Surface Regression Model (GRM). RFA highlighted that Temperature is one of the most important predictors affecting NPP and Reco in the Limpopo river basin. Conversely, other environmental parameters like, Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Vegetation cover rarely influence NPP and Reco. Our results provide information on desertification and land degradation phenomena and a first step for identifying practices to mitigate their negative impacts. However, it must be taken into account that NPP and Reco depend by a multitude of factors (e.g. human activities, socio-economic policies) and can vary in relation to spatial and temporal scale. In order to achieve a better understanding of land degradation and desertification processes, land use and socio-economic variables should be considered.
McMillen, K.J.; Colvin, M.D.
1985-04-01
The Ivishak Formation forms a regressive-transgressive deposit. The stratigraphic divisions are (1) a lower prograding deltaic unit of massive sandstone; (2) a middle fluvial unit of sandstone, shale, and minor conglomerate; and (3) an upper destructive deltaic unit of thin-bedded to massive sandstone, these Ivishak units defined in ANWR are recognized in the subsurface and traced over much of the North Slope. Basin analysis consisted of isopach and percent-sandstone mapping and paleocurrent measurement of 15 outcrops. Formation thickness averages 400 ft (120 m) with a northeast-trending depocenter axis through the Romanzof Mountains. Paleocurrent data define two main provenances of quartz-chert sands: northeast and east. Paleocurrents are oriented normal to, and dip toward, the basin axis. Outcrops located within the axis record bidirectional transport. A Lower Cretaceous unconformity (LCU) truncates the Ivishak in the Sadlerochit Mountains. Here, Neocomian pebble shale rests atop the Ivishak, with Shublik through Kingak formations missing. The LCU truncation is part of a regional unconformity that occurs along the north side of the North Slope. Ivishak units thin near the unconformity, suggesting an older high, which the authors term the Nularvik high. This high is part of a regional trend extending through ANWR from the Point Thomson area to bathtub syncline.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrisi, L.; Italiano, A.; Torrisi, A.
2016-11-01
Bronze coins coming from the area of the Mediterranean basin, dated back the II-X Cent. A.D., were analyzed using different physical analytical techniques. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence was used with electrons and photons, in order to investigate the elemental composition of both the surface layers and bulk. Moreover, the quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled to laser ablation (LAMQS technique) in high vacuum was used to analyse typical material compounds from surface contamination. Mass spectrometry, at high resolution and sensitivity, extended up to 300 amu, allowed measuring the 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratios into the coins. Quantitative relative analyses of these isotopic ratios identify the coin composition such as a ;fingerprint; depending on the mineral used to extract the lead. Isotopic ratios in coins can be compared to those of the possible minerals used to produce the bronze alloy. A comparison between the measured isotope ratios in the analyzed coins and the literature database, related to the mineral containing Pb as a function of its geological and geophysical extraction mine, is presented. The analysis, restricted to old coins and the mines of the Mediterranean basin, indicates a possible correlation between the coin compositions and the possible geological sites of the extracted mineral.
Holmquist-Johnson, C. L.
2009-01-01
River spanning rock structures are being constructed for water delivery as well as to enable fish passage at barriers and provide or improve the aquatic habitat for endangered fish species. Current design methods are based upon anecdotal information applicable to a narrow range of channel conditions. The complex flow patterns and performance of rock weirs is not well understood. Without accurate understanding of their hydraulics, designers cannot address the failure mechanisms of these structures. Flow characteristics such as jets, near bed velocities, recirculation, eddies, and plunging flow govern scour pool development. These detailed flow patterns can be replicated using a 3D numerical model. Numerical studies inexpensively simulate a large number of cases resulting in an increased range of applicability in order to develop design tools and predictive capability for analysis and design. The analysis and results of the numerical modeling, laboratory modeling, and field data provide a process-based method for understanding how structure geometry affects flow characteristics, scour development, fish passage, water delivery, and overall structure stability. Results of the numerical modeling allow designers to utilize results of the analysis to determine the appropriate geometry for generating desirable flow parameters. The end product of this research will develop tools and guidelines for more robust structure design or retrofits based upon predictable engineering and hydraulic performance criteria. ?? 2009 ASCE.
Sensitivity of a numerical wave model on wind re-analysis datasets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan; Friedrich, Daniel
2017-03-01
Wind is the dominant process for wave generation. Detailed evaluation of metocean conditions strengthens our understanding of issues concerning potential offshore applications. However, the scarcity of buoys and high cost of monitoring systems pose a barrier to properly defining offshore conditions. Through use of numerical wave models, metocean conditions can be hindcasted and forecasted providing reliable characterisations. This study reports the sensitivity of wind inputs on a numerical wave model for the Scottish region. Two re-analysis wind datasets with different spatio-temporal characteristics are used, the ERA-Interim Re-Analysis and the CFSR-NCEP Re-Analysis dataset. Different wind products alter results, affecting the accuracy obtained. The scope of this study is to assess different available wind databases and provide information concerning the most appropriate wind dataset for the specific region, based on temporal, spatial and geographic terms for wave modelling and offshore applications. Both wind input datasets delivered results from the numerical wave model with good correlation. Wave results by the 1-h dataset have higher peaks and lower biases, in expense of a high scatter index. On the other hand, the 6-h dataset has lower scatter but higher biases. The study shows how wind dataset affects the numerical wave modelling performance, and that depending on location and study needs, different wind inputs should be considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaudoin, N.; Bellahsen, N.; Lacombe, O.; Emmanuel, L.; Pironon, J.
2012-04-01
While fluid flows associated with thin-skinned folded structures have been extensively studied, reconstructions of paleofluid systems associated with thick-skinned tectonics remain scarce. In addition, major thrusts are usually considered as the preferential channels for fluids: investigating the role of diffuse fracture sets as potential drains for fluids has received poor attention. In this work, we tentatively reconstruct the paleofluid system related to the Bighorn basin (Wyoming, USA), a Sevier-Laramide foreland basin affected by large basement uplifts during the Laramide thick-skinned tectonic event. Fracture pattern and related paleofluid flow were studied in selected folds within this basin. For this purpose, Oxygen, Carbon and Strontium isotopic studies were performed on host rocks as well as on pre-folding and on fold-related calcite veins; these studies were combined to fluid inclusion chemical and microthermometric analysis. The results suggest a strong control of fluid chemistry by the tectonic style: our work evidences migration of exotic hydrothermal fluids (temperatures of homogenisation of fluid inclusion reaching 140°C) in basement-cored, thrust-related folds, while in detachment folds, only intra-formational fluids were characterized.At the scale of the entire basin, the open paleofluid system reconstructed in basement-cored folds appears to be consistent, with oxygen isotopic signature ranging from -25‰ to -5‰ PDB. Indeed, the scattering of oxygen isotopic signatures in cemented veins shows different degree of mixing between local basinal fluids and exotic hydrothermal fluids remaining unequilibrated with surrounding limestones. Strontium isotopic analyses suggest that these exotic hydrothermal fluids are a mixing of meteoric fluids and basinal fluids that havemigrated in basement rocks, likely deeper than the basement/cover interface. The timing of the fast upward flow of these fluids through the cover is given by, and related to
On the use of stability regions in the numerical analysis of initial value problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenferink, H. W. J.; Spijker, M. N.
1991-07-01
This paper deals with the stability analysis of one-step methods in the numerical solution of initial (-boundary) value problems for linear, ordinary, and partial differential equations. Restrictions on the stepsize are derived which guarantee the rate of error growth in these methods to be of moderate size. These restrictions are related to the stability region of the method and to numerical ranges of matrices stemming from the differential equation under consideration. The errors in the one-step methods are measured in arbitrary norms (not necessarily generated by an inner product). The theory is illustrated in the numerical solution of the heat equation and some other differential equations, where the error growth is measured in the maximum norm.
Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea.
Chang, Heejun
2008-07-01
Spatial patterns of water quality trends for 118 sites in the Han River basin of South Korea were examined for eight parameters-temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). A non-parametric seasonal Mann-Kendall's test determined the significance of trends for each parameter for each site between 1993 and 2002. There are no significant trends in temperature, but TN concentrations increased for the majority of the monitoring stations. DO, BOD, COD, pH, SS, and TP show increasing or decreasing trends with approximately half of the stations exhibiting no trends. Urban land cover is positively associated with increases in water pollution and included as an important explanatory variable for the variations in all water quality parameters except pH. Topography and soil factors further explain the spatial variations in pH, COD, BOD, and SS. BOD, COD, SS, and TP variations are consistently better explained by 100m buffer scale analysis, but DO are better explained by the whole basin scale analysis. Local water quality management or geology could further explain some variations of water quality. Non-point-source pollution exhibits strong positive spatial autocorrelation as measured by Moran's I, indicating that the incorporation of spatial dimensions into water quality assessment enhances our understanding of spatial patterns of water quality. The spatial regression models, compared to ordinary least square (OLS) models, always better explain the variations in water quality. This study suggests that spatial analysis of watershed data at different scales should be a vital part of identifying the fundamental spatio-temporal distribution of water quality.
Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.
2010-12-01
Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions
de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paech, S. J.; Phillips, D.; Walters, J. T.; Coulter, Richard L.; Martin, Tim J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.; Kastendeuch, P. P.; Marley, Nancy A.; Retama, A.; Molina, Luisa T.
2008-03-03
The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosoundings and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis is used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns will enable the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N. M.; Bohms, S.; Demissie, Y.; Gebremichael, M.
2014-12-01
The Nile River is the longest in the world with a length of 6,800 km. However, the contrast between the length of the river or the size of the basin and the comparatively small volume of basin runoff generated is a unique feature of the Nile Basin. Due to non-availability of in-situ hydrologic data, we do not clearly understand the spatial distribution of hydrologic sources and sinks and how much they control input-output dynamics? In this study, we integrated satellite-derived precipitation, and modeled evapotranspiration data (2000-2012) to describe spatial variability of hydrologic sources and sinks in the Nile Basin. We also used long-term gridded runoff and river discharge data (1869-1984) to understand the discrepancy in the observed and expected flow along the Nile River. Results indicate that over 2000-2012 period, 4 out of 11 countries (Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) in the Nile basin showed a positive water balance while three downstream countries (South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt) showed a negative balance. The top three countries that contribute most to the flow are Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. The study revealed that ~85% of the runoff generated in the Equatorial region is lost in an inter-station basin that includes the Sudd wetlands in South Sudan; this proportion is higher than the reported loss of 50% at the Sudd wetlands alone. The loss in runoff and flow volume at different sections of the river tend to be more than what can be explained by evaporation losses, suggesting a potential recharge to deeper aquifers that are not connected to the Nile channel systems. On the other hand, we also found that the expected average annual Nile flow at Aswan is larger (97 km3) than the reported amount (84 km3). Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mass deviation in storage data analysis showed that at annual time-scales, the Nile Basin shows storage change is substantial while over longer-time periods, it is minimal (<1% of basin precipitation
The formation of tabular compaction-band arrays: Theoretical and numerical analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chemenda, A. I.
2009-05-01
The bifurcation analysis of compaction banding is extended to the formation of a tabular discrete compaction-band array. This analysis, taken together with the results of finite-difference simulations, shows that the bifurcation results in the formation of intermittent loading (elastic-plastic) and unloading (elastic) bands. The obtained analytical solution relates the spacing parameter χ (the ratio between the band thickness to the band-to-band distance) to all constitutive and stress-state parameters. Both this solution and numerical models reveal strong dependence of χ on the hardening modulus h: χ increases with h reduction. The band thickness in the numerical models is mesh dependent, but in terms of mesh-zone-size varies only from ˜2 to 4 depending on the constitutive parameters and independently on the mesh resolution. The thickness of the "elementary" compaction bands in real granular materials is equal to a few grain sizes. It follows that one grid zone in the numerical models corresponds approximately to one grain in the real material. The numerical models reproduce both discrete and continuous propagating compaction banding observed in the rock samples. These phenomena were shown to be dependent on the evolution of h and the dilatancy factor with deformation.
Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Favaretto, Elena; Carniel, Emanuele Luigi; Natali, Arturo Nicola
2014-09-01
The aim of this work is to provide a numerical approach for the investigation of the mechanical behaviour of the forefoot soft tissues. The development of reliable numerical models of biological structures requires the definition of constitutive formulations that actually interpret the mechanical response of the constituent biological tissues and their structural arrangement. A specific visco-hyperelastic constitutive model is provided to account for the typical features of soft plantar tissue mechanics, as geometric and material non-linearity, almost-incompressible behaviour and time-dependent phenomena. Constitutive parameters are evaluated by the analysis of experimental data from compression and stress relaxation tests on tissue samples. A three-dimensional finite element model of the forefoot region is developed starting from the analysis of biomedical images, leading to the evaluation of overall structural response. The reliability of model and analyses is assessed by the comparison of experimental and numerical results pertaining to indentation tests. The numerical model developed allows to evaluate the mechanical response of plantar soft tissue in terms of stress and strain distribution.
Development of a numerical model for vehicle-bridge interaction analysis of railway bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hee Ju; Cho, Eun Sang; Ham, Jun Su; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Tae Heon
2016-04-01
In the field of civil engineering, analyzing dynamic response was main concern for a long time. These analysis methods can be divided into moving load analysis method and moving mass analysis method, and formulating each an equation of motion has recently been studied after dividing vehicles and bridges. In this study, the numerical method is presented, which can consider the various train types and can solve the equations of motion for a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis by non-iteration procedure through formulating the coupled equations for motion. Also, 3 dimensional accurate numerical models was developed by KTX-vehicle in order to analyze dynamic response characteristics. The equations of motion for the conventional trains are derived, and the numerical models of the conventional trains are idealized by a set of linear springs and dashpots with 18 degrees of freedom. The bridge models are simplified by the 3 dimensional space frame element which is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. The rail irregularities of vertical and lateral directions are generated by PSD functions of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA).
A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea: Skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gräwe, Ulf; Flöser, Götz; Gerkema, Theo; Duran-Matute, Matias; Badewien, Thomas H.; Schulz, Elisabeth; Burchard, Hans
2016-07-01
A baroclinic three-dimensional numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea of the German Bight in the southern North Sea is first assessed by comparison to field data for surface elevation, current velocity, temperature, and salinity at selected stations and then used to calculate fluxes of volume and salt inside the Wadden Sea and the exchange between the Wadden Sea and the adjacent North Sea through the major tidal inlets. The model is simulating the reference years 2009-2011. An overview of tidal prisms and residual volume fluxes of the main inlets and their variability is given. In addition, data from an intensive observational campaign in a tidal channel south of the island of Spiekeroog as well as satellite images and observations of sea surface properties from a ship of opportunity are used for the skill assessment. Finally, the intensity of estuarine overturning circulation and its variability in the tidal gullies are quantified and analyzed as function of gravitational and wind straining using various estimates including Total Exchange Flow (TEF). Regional differences between the gullies are assessed and drivers of the estuarine circulation are identified. For some inlets, the longitudinal buoyancy gradient dominates the exchange flow, for some others wind straining is more important. Also the intensity of tidal straining (scaled covariance of eddy viscosity and vertical shear) depends on buoyancy gradient and wind forcing in different ways, depending on local topography, orientation toward the main wind direction, and influence by freshwater run off inside or outside the tidal basin.
Southern California Alluvial Basins Regional Aquifer-Systems analysis; a bibliography
Moyle, W.R.; Martin, Peter; Schluter, R.C.; Woolfenden, L.R.; Downing, Karen; Elliott, A.L.; Maltby, D.E.
1986-01-01
A bibliography for the Southern California Alluvial Basins Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis includes references for about 3,500 publications related to the geohydrology of the 75,000 sq-mi region, which encompasses all of southern California except the Central Valley, the Channel Islands and the Pacific Ocean floor off southern California, and parts of adjacent states and Mexico. The report indexes the publications in six geographic categories and induces a list of sources of publications. Because of the large number of references in the bibliography, a system was developed for computer storage and retrieval. References can be retrieved by geographic location, author, or geohydrologic discipline and subject. The computer system allows for updating and addition of references. (USGS)
Shedrow, C.B.
1999-11-29
The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.
Vegetation analysis in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming from ERTS-1 imagery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, M. A.; Redfern, F. R.
1973-01-01
The author has identified the following significant results. The application of ERTS-1 imagery to vegetation mapping and identification was tested and confirmed by field checking. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation and density contour mapping allows definition of minute vegetation features and estimation of vegetative biomass and species composition. Large- and small-scale vegetation maps were constructed for test areas in the Laramie Basin and Laramie mountains of Wyoming. Vegetative features reflecting grazing intensity, moisture availability, changes within the growing season, cutting of hay crops, and plant community constituents in forest and grassland are discussed and illustrated. Theoretical considerations of scattering, sun angle, slope, and instrument aperture upon image and map resolution were investigated. Future suggestions for applications of ERTS-1 data to vegetative analysis are included.
Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin
Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.
1995-03-01
This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.
Greene, K.E.; Slade, R.M.
1995-01-01
Effects of selected reservoirs on streamflow in the four basins also were studied. Predicted peak streamflow into the Gulf from the Apalachicola River was about 23 percent less for the 50- year peak streamflow after reservoir construction. Although one large reservoir was built on the Pearl River and many reservoirs have been built on the Trinity River and its tributaries, peak streamflow into the Gulf of Mexico from these rivers has not been affected during the past 50 years. Estimates from a water-budget analysis showed that the annual mean streamflow to the Gulf from the Nueces River was reduced by about 24 percent from 1985 through 1990 as a result of filling and evaporation at Choke Canyon Reservoir.
Hydropower potential mapping in mountain basins by high-resolution hydrological and GIS analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claps, P.; Gallo, E.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Masoero, A.
2013-12-01
Even in regions with mature hydropower development, needs for stable renewable power sources suggest to revise plans of exploitation of water resources, in compliance to the framework of international and national environmental regulations. This goal requires high-resolution hydrological analysis, that allows to : i) comply with the effects of existing hydropower plants or of other types of water withdrawals; ii) to assist the planner to figure out potential of new plants with still high marginal efficiency; iii) to assist the regulator in the process of comparing projects based on different solutions and different underlying hydrologic estimation methods. Flow duration curves (FDC) are the tool usually adopted to represent water availability and variability for hydropower purposes. They are usually determined in ungauged basins by means of regional statistical analysis. For this study, a 'spatially smooth' regional estimation method (SSEM) has been developed for FDC estimation, with some evolutions from a previous version: i) the method keeps the estimates of mean annual runoff congruent in the confluences by considering only raster-summable explanatory variables; ii) the presence of existing reservoirs and hydropower plants is taken into account by restoring the ';natural' statistics of the curve. The SSEM reconstructs the the FDC in ungauged basins using its L-moments from regressions on geomorphoclimatic descriptors. Relations are obtained on more than 100 gauged basins located in Northwestern Italy. To support the assessment of residual hydropower potential on two specific mountain watersheds the model has been applied extensively (Hi-Res) by mapping the estimated mean flow for each pixel of a DEM-derived river network raster model. 25000 sections were then identified over the network extracted from a 50m-resolution DTM. Spatial algorithms and data management were developed using Free&OpenSource Software (FOSS) (GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL/PostGIS), with the
Uncertainty evaluation of copula analysis of hydrological droughts in the East River basin, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.
2015-06-01
The joint probability behaviors of extreme hydro-meteorological events, such as droughts, have been receiving increasing attentions in recent years. Since extreme hydro-meteorological events are reflected by more than one variable, such as duration and intensity, copula functions have been widely applied. However, uncertainties of copula-based analysis of hydrological droughts as a result of selection of marginal distribution and copulas have not yet received significant concerns. The aim of this study is to evaluate such uncertainties based on Bayesian approach. The method is used to analyze hydrological drought in the East River basin (China), which is the principal supplier of water resources for megacities in the Pearl River Delta and also for Hong Kong. The results indicate that the credible intervals of most likely design drought events with a return period of 20 years in terms of drought severity and duration are considerably large at all stations in the East River basin, covering the drought event curves at return periods of 10 and 50 years. Also the influences of heavy-tailed marginal distribution on the uncertainty evaluation of joint distribution have been investigated. Results show that the stronger the heavy-tailed marginal distribution, the greater the uncertainty of the joint distribution, especially for the extreme event. Results of this study provide a technical reference for uncertainty evaluation in copula-based analysis of drought events at regional and global scales. The large credible interval of drought severity and duration greatly challenges measures of mitigation of drought hazards and water resource management.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Y.; Yanagi, T.; Nishimura, J.
In recent 40-50 years, rapid environmental changes are shown in the arid and semi-arid regions of the inland areas in each continent. The environment change situation is especially remarkable at closed lakes and their vicinity of the Asian continent inland. This study aimed to investigate the environmental change and its cause in Dzungar basin of the central Asia through the analysis of multi-temporal satellite data sets. The multi temporal and multi stage satellite data sets were firstly created by using high spatial resolution satellite data such as LANDSAT/MSS TM, Terra/ASTER, and JERS-1/OPS, and wide observation satellite data such as NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS. Next, the fluctuations of the past about 50 years in water area of lakes were investigated in detail by analyzing the data sets, and also changes in the irrigated agricultural lands along the inflow rivers, and the snow and glacier covering the mountainous district were investigated. Finally, hydrological change situation and its cause in the object area were examined by comparing the analyzed results with meteorological data and auxiliary sources. The results of this study are summarized as follows; Most of closed lakes in Dzungar basin have shown the rapid shrinkages in the past about 50 years. However, it changed into the remarkable expansion of the water area since 2001. According to the analysis results of changes in the irrigated agricultural lands, snow and glacier extents, it was shown that the influence of human activities such as development of irrigation lands was bigger than the influence of the nature fluctuation based on the global warming as a cause of the change in closed lakes.
Flood Frequency Analysis For Partial Duration Series In Ganjiang River Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
zhangli, Sun; xiufang, Zhu; yaozhong, Pan
2016-04-01
Accurate estimation of flood frequency is key to effective, nationwide flood damage abatement programs. The partial duration series (PDS) method is widely used in hydrologic studies because it considers all events above a certain threshold level as compared to the annual maximum series (AMS) method, which considers only the annual maximum value. However, the PDS has a drawback in that it is difficult to define the thresholds and maintain an independent and identical distribution of the partial duration time series; this drawback is discussed in this paper. The Ganjiang River is the seventh largest tributary of the Yangtze River, the longest river in China. The Ganjiang River covers a drainage area of 81,258 km2 at the Wanzhou hydrologic station as the basin outlet. In this work, 56 years of daily flow data (1954-2009) from the Wanzhou station were used to analyze flood frequency, and the Pearson-III model was employed as the hydrologic probability distribution. Generally, three tasks were accomplished: (1) the threshold of PDS by percentile rank of daily runoff was obtained; (2) trend analysis of the flow series was conducted using PDS; and (3) flood frequency analysis was conducted for partial duration flow series. The results showed a slight upward trend of the annual runoff in the Ganjiang River basin. The maximum flow with a 0.01 exceedance probability (corresponding to a 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) was 20,000 m3/s, while that with a 0.1 exceedance probability was 15,000 m3/s. These results will serve as a guide to hydrological engineering planning, design, and management for policymakers and decision makers associated with hydrology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooke, Michele L.; Kameda, Ayako
2002-07-01
Mechanical models examine deformation within eight different structural cross sections proposed by Davis et al. [1989] and Shaw and Suppe [1996] along a northeast-southwest transect across the Los Angeles Basin, California. Horizontal contraction of the models, constrained by geodetic measurements, yields varying dip-slip rates along frictionally sliding faults within the different cross sections. Mechanical efficiency analysis using effective stiffness and strain energy density assesses the overall fault system deformation as well as the partitioning of work between fault slip and host rock strain. The cross section interpreted by Shaw and Suppe [1996] has the best fit to paleoseismically determined slip rates and the greatest mechanical efficiency (greatest proportion of work toward fault slip); however, this model produces excessive reverse slip along the Newport-Inglewood fault. A modified fault configuration with a wedge or blind Puente Hills thrust fault rather than a ramp-detachment configuration better matches the paleoseismic data with slightly lower mechanical efficiency. Slip rates in the mechanical models based on interpretations of Shaw and Suppe [1996] have much closer match to the geologically determined rates than those estimated from kinematic models. This difference is due to (1) differing time spans of slip rate estimates and (2) deformable rather than rigid host rock in the mechanical models. The mechanical efficiency analysis provides quantitative indicators of overall fault system deformation, including the cumulative effect of interaction between individual faults. Assessment of effective stiffness and strain energy density furthers our understanding of two-dimensional fault interactions in the Los Angeles Basin and offers great potential for future applications.
Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs
Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma
2008-10-01
The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable
Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin
Baker, R.B.
1997-04-30
This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity.
Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K east basin
Baker, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford
1996-05-20
This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K East Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment used removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-008) established for this sampling and characterization activity.
Numerical analysis of Laser Driven Rayleigh-Tayor instability at short wavelength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Mima, Kunioki; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Sawada, Keisuke; Takabe, Hideaki
2001-10-01
For the inertial confinement fusion, it is important to simulate and predict the hydrodynamic instabilities. An integrated implosion simulation code was developed in ILE Osaka for IFE and other application usage. This new 2-D implosion code is based on ALE algorithm extended from CIP method which is robust and less numerical dissipation. To validate the code, various simulations of implosion and planner target were performed. In this presentation, the analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability will be shown mainly. In recent experiment by GXII Laser, the growth of RT instability at the range of short wavelength of the perturbation below the 30μm were measured with precision. Numerical analysis of the same condition using the new code was performed. The detail result will be shown in this presentation.
A Numerical Analysis on the Local Deformation of a Spacer Grid Structure for Nuclear Fuel Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Shin, Hyunho; Kim, Jong-Bong
2016-08-01
The result of a preliminary numerical investigation on local deformation characteristics of a multi-layered spacer-grid structure with five guide tubes is reported based on implicit finite element analysis. For the numerical analysis, displacements of top and bottom cross sections of each guide tube in a single-layer model were constrained while a lateral displacement was imposed on the single layer. Unlike the impact hammer test that is generally employed to characterize the deformation characteristics of the space-grid structure, the buckling phenomenon occurs locally in this study; it takes place at the inner grids around each tube and the degree of bucking is more apparent for tubes near the lateral surface where the lateral displacement was imposed.
Transient analysis of a pulsed detonation combustor using the numerical propulsion system simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasler, Anthony Scott
The performance of a hybrid mixed flow turbofan (with detonation tubes installed in the bypass duct) is investigated in this study and compared with a baseline model of a mixed flow turbofan with a standard combustion chamber as a duct burner. Previous studies have shown that pulsed detonation combustors have the potential to be more efficient than standard combustors, but they also present new challenges that must be overcome before they can be utilized. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) will be used to perform the analysis with a pulsed detonation combustor model based on a numerical simulation done by Endo, Fujiwara, et. al. Three different cases will be run using both models representing a take-off situation, a subsonic cruise and a supersonic cruise situation. Since this study investigates a transient analysis, the pulse detonation combustor is run in a rig setup first and then its pressure and temperature are averaged for the cycle to obtain quasi-steady results.
Numerical Analysis of Helicopter Rotor Hovering in Close Proximity to the Ground with a Wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoga, Noriaki; Iboshi, Naohiro; Horimoto, Mitsumasa; Saito, Shigeru; Tanabe, Yasutada
In rescue operations and emergency medical services, helicopters are frequently required to operate near the ground with obstacles such as buildings and sidewalls of highway. In this paper, numerical analysis of helicopter rotor hovering in close proximity to the ground with an obstacle is done by solving unsteady 3D compressible Euler equations with an overlapped grid system. The obstacle is simulated by a wall vertically set up on the ground. The parameters for numerical analysis are the rotor height and distance from the rotor-hub-center to the wall. The effects of combinations of these parameters on the flowfields around the rotor, inflow distributions on the rotor disc and behaviors of blade flapping motion are discussed. It is also clarified the cause that the helicopter rotor hovering in close proximity to the ground with a wall does not have the enough ground effect depending on the combinations of these parameters.
Anisotropic P-wave velocity analysis and seismic imaging in onshore Kutch sedimentary basin of India
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behera, Laxmidhar; Khare, Prakash; Sarkar, Dipankar
2011-08-01
The long-offset P-wave seismic reflection data has observable non-hyperbolic moveout, which depend on two parameters such as normal moveout velocity ( Vnmo) and the anisotropy parameter( η). Anisotropy (e.g., directional dependence of velocity at a fixed spatial location in a medium) plays an important role in seismic imaging. It is difficult to know the presence of anisotropy in the subsurface geological formations only from P-wave seismic data and special analysis is required for this. The presence of anisotropy causes two major distortions of moveout in P-wave seismic reflection data. First, in contrast to isotropic media, normal-moveout (NMO) velocity differs from the vertical velocity; and the second is substantial increase of deviations in hyperbolic moveout in an anisotropic layer. Hence, with the help of conventional velocity analysis based on short-spread moveout (stacking) velocities do not provide enough information to determine the true vertical velocity in a transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axis (VTI media). Therefore, it is essential to estimate the single anisotropic parameter ( η) from the long-offset P-wave seismic data. It has been demonstrated here as a case study with long-offset P-wave seismic data acquired in onshore Kutch sedimentary basin of western India that suitable velocity analysis using Vnmo and η can improve the stacking image obtained from conventional velocity analysis.
Klein, Max; Sharma, Rati; Bohrer, Chris H; Avelis, Cameron M; Roberts, Elijah
2017-01-15
Data-parallel programming techniques can dramatically decrease the time needed to analyze large datasets. While these methods have provided significant improvements for sequencing-based analyses, other areas of biological informatics have not yet adopted them. Here, we introduce Biospark, a new framework for performing data-parallel analysis on large numerical datasets. Biospark builds upon the open source Hadoop and Spark projects, bringing domain-specific features for biology.
Numerical analysis of rheological and tribological behavior influence on 16MnCr5 forging fibering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrus, A.; Pintilie, D.; Nedelcu, R.
2016-10-01
The present research work is focus on the influence of the rheological constitutive equation and friction law formulation on 16MnCr5 forging fibering. Numerical analysis using FE Forge® and Abaqus code show the importance of the rheological softening terms on the metals fibers morphology and position coordinate. Calibration of friction law and sensitivity of softening parameters corresponding to a Hansel-Spittel rheological equation have been studied.
Nonequilibrium flow computations. I - An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1989-01-01
Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.
Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1: An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
1988-01-01
Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed.
Numerical and experimental analysis of propane-hydrogen mixture ignition in air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sevrouk, K. L.; Krivosheyev, P. N.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Torohov, S. A.; Titova, N. S.; Starik, A. M.
2016-11-01
The addition of hydrogen to the various hydrocarbon fuels being examined as a promising method for increasing the efficiency of the engine while improving their emission characteristics. This work is dedicated to experimental investigation of the ignition delay time C3H8-H2 mixture in the air and analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of chain reactions with the addition of hydrogen in propane, based on numerical simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Tao; Xie, Yaowen; Jiang, Youyan
2015-12-01
In the paper, the use of 1994 and 2005 Landsat TM data monitors the land use and changes of the Shiyang river basin with remote sensing classification comparison under the support of GIS. The result shows that from 1994 to 2005, the area of farmland and settlement land increased greatly and that of grass and forest reduces obviously in this basin; Minqin which is in the lower reaches of Shiyang river basin has a serious desertification with low grass coverage degradation into desert. With a comprehensive analysis about the driving factors of nature and human, population pressure and irrational use of water resource are the key factors of the Land use change and between the natural factor and human factor, human acts leading role.
Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located on the floor and in the pits of the 105-K basins
BAKER, R.B.
1998-11-20
This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the sampling of the sludge found on the floor and in the remote pits of the 105-K Basins to provide: (1) basic data for the sludges that have not been characterized to-date and (2) representative Sludge material for process tests to be made by the SNF Project/K Basins sludge treatment process subproject. The sampling equipment developed will remove representative samples of the radioactive sludge from underwater at the K Basins, depositing them in shielded containers for transport to the Hanford Site laboratories. Included in the present document is the basic background logic for selection of the samples to meet the requirements established in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO), HNF-2033, for this sampling activity. The present document also includes the laboratory analyses, methods, procedures, and reporting that will be required to meet the DQO.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, Jeong L.
1988-01-01
The purpose of the study is the evaluation of the numerical accuracy of FIDAP (Fluid Dynamics Analysis Package). Accordingly, four test problems in laminar and turbulent incompressible flows are selected and the computational results of these problems compared with other numerical solutions and/or experimental data. These problems include: (1) 2-D laminar flow inside a wall-driven cavity; (2) 2-D laminar flow over a backward-facing step; (3) 2-D turbulent flow over a backward-facing step; and (4) 2-D turbulent flow through a turn-around duct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelioudakis, Dimitrios G.; Hobbs, Richard W.; Caiado, Camila C. S.
2016-04-01
Quantifying the depths of target horizons from seismic reflection data is among the most important aspects of exploration geophysics. In order to constrain these depths we need a reliable and accurate velocity model. Here, we apply Bayesian methods, such as Gaussian process emulators, to estimate the uncertainties of the depths of key horizons near the well DSDP-258 located in the Mentelle Basin, south west of Australia, and compared the results with the drilled core extracted from that well. Eventually, this method will be applied to identify the drilling targets for the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), leg 369. The Mentelle Basin is a sparsely explored, deep water sedimentary basin, located between the Naturaliste Plateau and the southern part of the Western Australian Shelf. Its main depocenter, is believed to contain sediments that span from Cretaceous to Holecene, but most importantly it hosts a continuous shale sequence that it is over a kilometer thick, the study of which, is crucial for the correlation between the paleoclimate conditions and the tectonic history of the region. Using two 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles around the drill site, we generate detailed anisotropic velocity models for the well location in order to construct initially the optimum Pre -- stack time (PSTM) and eventually the Pre - stack depth migrated (PSDM) subsurface images. Moreover, in order to enhance the sub - basalt imaging of the region of interest with the goal to constrain the tectonic models of the area, we apply deterministic deconvolution filters using the source function extracted from our seismic data. The best velocity model created from the initial processing serves as the prior information to the Bayesian model. The final goal is to try to build a multi-layered model of n layers and estimate the zero offset two way time, t0, and the interval velocities,Vi, both for isotropic (Vxi ≈ Vzi) and anisotropic (Vxi ≠ Vzi) cases, in terms of a
Mars Elysium Basin - Geologic/volumetric analysis of a young lake and exobiologic implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scott, D. H.; Chapman, M. G.
1991-01-01
Geologic, physiographic, and topographic data on the Elysium Basin on the Martial lowland plains are used to determine the former volume of water in the basin and the sources of this water. The maximum extent of the paleolake was estimated to be about 2,000,000 sq km, with a water volume of 850,000 cu km or more, supplied to the basin from many sources in the highlands via inflow channels. The climatic and biological implications that the Elysium-Basin sea or lake might have had are discussed.
Impact of Entropy Generation on Stagnation-Point Flow of Sutterby Nanofluid: A Numerical Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azhar, Ehtsham; Iqbal, Z.; Maraj, E. N.
2016-09-01
The present article dicusses the computational analysis of entropy generation for the stagnation-point flow of Sutterby nanofluid over a linear stretching plate. The Sutterby fluid is chosen to study the effect for three major classes of non-Newtonian fluids, i.e. pseudoplastic, Newtonian, and dilatant. The effects of pertinent physical parameters are examined under the approximation of boundary layer. The system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations is simplified by incorporating suitable similarity transformation into a system of non-linear-coupled ordinary differential equations. Entropy generation analysis is conducted numerically, and the results are displayed through graphs and tables. Significant findings are listed in the closing remarks.
A numerical method for the design and analysis of counter-rotating propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Playle, S. C.; Korkan, K. D.; Von Lavante, E.
1986-01-01
A numerical method has been developed using the techniques of Lock and Theodorsen as described by Davidson to design and analyze counter-rotating propellers. The design method develops the optimum propeller geometry by calculating the planform and twist distribution for each propeller disk through the use of specific inputs of engine shaft horsepower, diameter, and disk spacing. The analysis method calculates the performance of a given counter-rotating propeller system at any flight condition. Using the NACA four-digit airfoil family, the performance of a counter-rotating propeller design for a given flight condition was investigated in the design and analysis mode.
Numerical analysis of stress distribution in embedded highly birefringent PANDA fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesiak, Piotr; Woliński, Tomasz
2015-09-01
The paper presents numerical analysis compared with experimental data of influence of polymerization shrinkage on highly birefringent (HB) PANDA optical fibers embedded in a composite material. Since polymerization is a chemical process consisting in combining single molecules in a macromolecular compound [1], principal directions of the polymerization shrinkage depend on a number of the composite layers associated with this process. In this paper a detailed analysis of the piezo-optic effects occurring in HB optical fibers before and after the lamination process answers the question to what extent a degree of the material degradation can be properly estimated.
Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the exhaust gas flow in a diesel power generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brito, C. H. G.; Maia, C. B.; Sodré, J. R.
2016-09-01
This work presents a numerical study of heat transfer in the exhaust duct of a diesel power generator. The analysis was performed using two different approaches: the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the Finite Volume Method (FVM), this last one by means of a commercial computer software, ANSYS CFX®. In FDM, the energy conservation equation was solved taking into account the estimated velocity profile for fully developed turbulent flow inside a tube and literature correlations for heat transfer. In FVM, the mass conservation, momentum, energy and transport equations were solved for turbulent quantities by the K-ω SST model. In both methods, variable properties were considered for the exhaust gas composed by six species: CO2, H2O, H2, O2, CO and N2. The entry conditions for the numerical simulations were given by experimental data available. The results were evaluated for the engine operating under loads of 0, 10, 20, and 37.5 kW. Test mesh and convergence were performed to determine the numerical error and uncertainty of the simulations. The results showed a trend of increasing temperature gradient with load increase. The general behaviour of the velocity and temperature profiles obtained by the numerical models were similar, with some divergence arising due to the assumptions made for the resolution of the models.
Scattering of guided waves from discontinuities in cylinders: Numerical and experimental analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benmeddour, Farouk; Laguerre, Laurent; Treyssède, Fabien
2012-05-01
The aim of this work is to study the fundamental compressional (L(0,1)) Pochhammer-Chree mode interaction with nonaxisymmetric damages in cylinders. To this end, experimental and numerical investigations of non-axisymmetric vertical cracks are considered. A non-contact magnetostrictive device is used for experimental investigations. Magnetostrictive transducers are used to generate and receive compressional guided waves. These are enabled by using an axisymmetric and longitudinal magnetic polarising field. Both, the incident and the reflected signals are acquired by the same receiver which allows a direct calculation of the reflected power flow. Different vertical cracks with various depths milled in steel cylinders are considered. The power flows are compared with those obtained by a three dimensional numerical method. This numerical method is based on a hybrid three dimensional (3D) approach combining the classical finite element (FE) method with the semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) technique. The near field surrounding the damage is analysed with the 3D FE method whereas transparent conditions are applied to the wave guide sections for the far field analysis. These transparent conditions are based on modal expansions on cross-sections. The SAFE technique is used to compute the eigenmodes. Eigenforces and modal power flows are post-processed on a straightforward way. First, the hybrid method is validated with published results in the literature obtained for a free-end cylinder. Finally, numerical and experimental results are compared with success.
Hydrologic properties of coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana I. Geophysical log analysis
Morin, R.H.
2005-01-01
As part of a multidisciplinary investigation designed to assess the implications of coal-bed methane development on water resources for the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene-age coal beds along a 31-km east-west transect within the Tongue River drainage basin. Analysis of geophysical logs obtained in these wells provides insight into the hydrostratigraphic characteristics of the coal and interbedded siliciclastic rocks and their possible interaction with the local stress field. Natural gamma and electrical resistivity logs were effective in distinguishing individual coal beds. Full-waveform sonic logs were used to determine elastic properties of the coal and an attendant estimate of aquifer storage is in reasonable agreement with that computed from a pumping test. Inspection of magnetically oriented images of the borehole walls generated from both acoustic and optical televiewers and comparison with coal cores infer a face cleat orientation of approximately N33??E, in close agreement with regional lineament patterns and the northeast trend of the nearby Tongue River. The local tectonic stress field in this physiographic province as inferred from a nearby 1984 earthquake denotes an oblique strike-slip faulting regime with dominant east-west compression and north-south extension. These stress directions are coincident with those of the primary fracture sets identified from the televiewer logs and also with the principle axes of the drawdown ellipse produced from a complementary aquifer test, but oblique to apparent cleat orientation. Consequently, examination of these geophysical logs within the context of local hydrologic characteristics indicates that transverse transmissivity anisotropy in these coals is predominantly controlled by bedding configuration and perhaps a mechanical response to the contemporary stress field rather than solely by cleat structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safavi, Hamid R.; Golmohammadi, Mohammad H.; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel
2016-08-01
The goal of this study is to develop and analyze three scenarios in the Zayandehrud river basin in Iran using a model already built and calibrated by Safavi et al. (2015) that has results for the baseline scenario. Results from the baseline scenario show that water demands will be supplied at the cost of depletion of surface and ground water resources, making this scenario undesirable and unsustainable. Supply Management, Demand Management, and Meta (supply and demand management) scenarios are the selected scenarios in this study. They are to be developed and declared into the Zayandehrud model to assess and evaluate the imminent status of the basin. Certain strategies will be employed for this purpose to improve and rectify the current management policies. The five performance criteria of time-based and volumetric reliability, resilience, vulnerability, and maximum deficit will be employed in the process of scenario analysis and evaluation. The results obtained from the performance criteria will be summed up into a so-called 'Water Resources Sustainability Index' to facilitate comparison among the likely trade-offs. Uncertainties arising from historical data, management policies, rainfall-runoff model, demand priorities, and performance criteria are considered in the proposed conceptual framework and modeled by appropriate approaches. Results show that the Supply Management scenario can be used to improve upon the demand supply but that it has no tangible effects on the improvement of the resources in the study region. In this regard, the Demand Management scenario is found to be more effective than the water supply one although it still remains unacceptable. Results of the Meta scenario indicate that both the supply and demand management scenarios must be applied if the water resources are to be safeguarded against degradation and depletion. In other words, the supply management scenario is necessary but not adequate; rather, it must be coupled to the demand
Molecular Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis for Numerous Spines on the Fruit of Cucumber.
Zhang, Shengping; Liu, Shulin; Miao, Han; Wang, Min; Liu, Panna; Wehner, Todd C; Gu, Xingfang
2016-09-01
Number of spines on the fruit is an important quality trait in cucumber. The inheritance and identification of molecular markers for fruit spine density gene can provide a basis for breeding and lay the foundation for gene cloning. Cucumber inbred lines NCG-122 with numerous spines and NCG-121 with few spines were used for genetic analysis and gene mapping in this study. Genetic analysis showed that the numerous spines trait in NCG-122 was qualitative, and a single recessive nuclear gene (ns) controlled this trait. The few spines trait was dominant over the numerous spines trait. In the preliminary genetic mapping of the ns gene, 8 SSR markers were found to be linked to ns, which mapped to chromosome 2 (Chr.2) of cucumber. The closest flanking markers SSR22338 and SSR11596 were linked to the ns gene, with genetic distances of 10.2 and 1.7cM, respectively. One-hundred and thirty pairs of new SSR primers and 28 pairs of Indel primers were developed based on sequence information in the preliminary mapping region of ns Fifteen SSR markers and 2 Indel markers were identified to be linked to the ns gene after analysis on the F2 mapping population using the new molecular markers. The 2 closest flanking markers, SSRns-127 and SSR04219, were 0.7 and 2.4 cM from ns, respectively. The physical distance between SSRns-127 and SSR04219 was 266.1kb, containing 27 predicted genes. Csa2G285390 was speculated as the probable candidate gene for numerous spines. The accuracy of the closest linked marker to the ns gene, SSRns-127, for MAS breeding was 95.0%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, J.; Lowe, C.
2005-12-01
The Bowser and Sustut basins occupy an area of more than 60,000 km2 in northern British Columbia, Canada. They comprise three, dominantly sedimentary, stratigraphic successions, in part overlapping in age: the Bowser Lake Group, the Skeena Group, and the Sustut Group. These three successions overlie arc volcanic and volcaniclastic strata of Stikinia, an allochtonous island arc terrane that accreted to the western margin of North America in the Early Jurassic to early Middle Jurassic. All three basin successions and underlying Stikinia were deformed during development of a thin-skinned fold and thrust belt (the Skeena Fold and Thrust Belt) in Cretaceous and possibly into earliest Tertiary time. Recently, the basins have been the focus of intense geological studies which have resulted in major revisions to the stratigraphic and structural framework of the basins and demonstrated that they have significantly higher petroleum potential than had been previously recognized. To advance these new findings further requires better imaging of the three-dimensional geometry and architecture of the basins. In this study we harness existing magnetic anomaly data to provide the first quantitative estimates of sedimentary thickness across the entire extents of both basins. Our results, which are in general in accord with geological interpretations, indicate that basin-fill is relatively thin and fairly uniform in the Sustut Basin (2.5-3 km), but highly variable in the Bowser Basin, ranging from less than 2 km to more than 6 km. Overall, sedimentary fill is thicker in the northern half of Bowser Basin compared to the south and is typically less than 2 km near the basins northern, western and southern margins. In addition, we demonstrate how a large, buried intrusion beneath the northeast part of Bowser Basin can account for an observed magnetic anomaly and explain the high coalification gradients and localized high maturation levels of the overlying sedimentary rocks. Neither of
Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Robert L.
1992-01-01
The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km 2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources—prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of
Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records
Michel, R.L.
1992-01-01
The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources-prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of the
Peters, J.G.
1987-01-01
The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) is developing water-management policies designed to assess the effects of irrigation and other water uses on water supply in the basin. In support of this effort, the USGS, in cooperation with IDNR, began a study to evaluate appropriate methods for analyzing the effects of pumping on ground-water levels and streamflow in the basin 's glacial aquifer systems. Four analytical models describe drawdown for a nonleaky, confined aquifer and fully penetrating well; a leaky, confined aquifer and fully penetrating well; a leaky, confined aquifer and partially penetrating well; and an unconfined aquifer and partially penetrating well. Analytical equations, simplifying assumptions, and methods of application are described for each model. In addition to these four models, several other analytical models were used to predict the effects of ground-water pumping on water levels in the aquifer and on streamflow in local areas with up to two pumping wells. Analytical models for a variety of other hydrogeologic conditions are cited. A digital ground-water flow model was used to describe how a numerical model can be applied to a glacial aquifer system. The numerical model was used to predict the effects of six pumping plans in 46.5 sq mi area with as many as 150 wells. Water budgets for the six pumping plans were used to estimate the effect of pumping on streamflow reduction. Results of the analytical and numerical models indicate that, in general, the glacial aquifers in the basin are highly permeable. Radial hydraulic conductivity calculated by the analytical models ranged from 280 to 600 ft/day, compared to 210 and 360 ft/day used in the numerical model. Maximum seasonal pumping for irrigation produced maximum calculated drawdown of only one-fourth of available drawdown and reduced streamflow by as much as 21%. Analytical models are useful in estimating aquifer properties and predicting local effects of pumping in areas with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji
2016-11-01
Basin response to precipitation variability by terrestrial hydrological processes may be manifested at different timescales and vary from one basin to another. A quantitative grasp of natural variability modulation is desirable for characterizing basin tendency or vulnerability on floods and droughts; quantification is not always straightforward, however. Using a macro-scale hydrological model, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, the hydrological time series (runoff, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration) were obtained for the 10 sub-basins over the Pearl River basin in South China for the period 1952-2000. A continuous wavelet transform was used to identify the characteristics of the temporal scales of basin-featured extreme events and related multiple-scale variabilities. By use of wavelet coherence analysis and rank correlation method, the cross correlations of monthly anomalies of hydrological processes were examined. The results showed that the runoff correlated most with, and the evapotranspiration had less response to, the precipitation variability. The analyzed results revealed that the attenuation effect of runoff in response to precipitation variability was mainly within the timescale of 2 yr in the Pearl River basin. The soil moisture variability can extend precipitation variation along with timescales. With understanding of the variability features of the terrestrial hydrological processes, this paper showed one geomorphic index, a basin form factor (FF), can represent the wavelet-based indices for high- and low-frequency responses to precipitation variability. It was found that, for a sub-basin with a higher FF value, precipitation variability can be represented more by runoff variability at less than 2-yr timescales; such a sub-basin is apt to have serious floods. With a lower FF value, a sub-basin has longer memory of soil moisture, leading to severe droughts during dry periods. This finding would be valuable to evaluate the tendency on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas
2003-10-01
Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the
The numerical analysis of the rotational theory for the formation of lunar globules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, J.; Bastin, J.; Stewart, K.
1982-01-01
The morphology of lunar globules is studied through the application of a numerical analysis of their rotation in space during cooling. It is assumed that molten rock is shot from the surface of the moon, solidifies in space above the moon and then falls back to the surface. The rotational theory studied makes the following assumptions: the volume of the molten rock does not change during cooling; the angular momentum is conserved; there are no internal motions because of the high viscosity of the molten rock, i.e., in equilibrium the globule is rotating as a rigid body; finally, the kinetic reaction of the globule to the forces is fast relative to the rate of cooling, i.e., the globule reaches equilibrium at constant energy. These assumptions are subjected to numerical analysis yielding good agreement between the actual globule shapes and the numerical results, but leaving some doubt as to the validity of the rotational theory due to the failure to establish the existence of true local minima and an incomplete understanding of the thermokentics.
Stress analysis and damage evaluation of flawed composite laminates by hybrid-numerical methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Yii-Ching
1992-01-01
Structural components in flight vehicles is often inherited flaws, such as microcracks, voids, holes, and delamination. These defects will degrade structures the same as that due to damages in service, such as impact, corrosion, and erosion. It is very important to know how a structural component can be useful and survive after these flaws and damages. To understand the behavior and limitation of these structural components researchers usually do experimental tests or theoretical analyses on structures with simulated flaws. However, neither approach has been completely successful. As Durelli states that 'Seldom does one method give a complete solution, with the most efficiency'. Examples of this principle is seen in photomechanics which additional strain-gage testing can only average stresses at locations of high concentration. On the other hand, theoretical analyses including numerical analyses are implemented with simplified assumptions which may not reflect actual boundary conditions. Hybrid-Numerical methods which combine photomechanics and numerical analysis have been used to correct this inefficiency since 1950's. But its application is limited until 1970's when modern computer codes became available. In recent years, researchers have enhanced the data obtained from photoelasticity, laser speckle, holography and moire' interferometry for input of finite element analysis on metals. Nevertheless, there is only few of literature being done on composite laminates. Therefore, this research is dedicated to this highly anisotropic material.
Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases
Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Li, Lin
2012-05-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.
Numerical studies of motion of vortex filaments - Implementing the asymptotic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, C. H.; Tavantzis, J.; Ting, L.
1984-01-01
A computational code is developed for the integro-differential equations governing the motion of the centerlines of vortex filaments submerged in a background potential flow. These equations, which are derived from the method of matched asymptotic analysis, include the effect of the decaying large-magnitude circumferential and axial velocity components in the vortical cores. Numerical examples are presented to assess the effect of a large axial velocity and that of nonsimilar initial profiles in the vortical cores. The initial configurations of the filaments are chosen so as to fulfill the basic assumption of the asymptotic analysis, which is that the effective vortical core size is much smaller than all the other length scales in the flowfield, e.g., the radius of curvature and the interfilament distance. The computations are continued until the basic assumption is no longer valid, that is when the merging or intersection of filaments has begun. A classification of the various types of local or global merging or intersection of filaments is made and demonstrated by numerical examples. It is then shown that the asymptotic solution not only provides the initial data but also can be used to formulate the appropriate boundary conditions for the numerical solution of a merged region.
The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.
2011-12-01
With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the
Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata
2013-04-01
Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the
Brown, C. Erwin
1987-01-01
Sixty-two Schlumberger electrical soundings were made in the Durham Triassic basin in an effort to determine basin structural geometry, depth of the sedimentary layers, and spatial distribution of individual rock facies. A digital computer program was used to invert the sounding curves of apparent resistivity versus distance to apparent resistivity versus depth. The apparent-resistivity-versus-depth data from the computer-modeling program were used to construct a geoelectric model of the basin that is believed to accurately represent the subsurface geology of the basin. The largest depth to basement in the basin along a resistivity profile (geoelectric section) was determined to be 1,800 m. A resistivity decrease was observed on certain soundings from depths of 100 to 1,000 m; below a 1,000-m depth, apparent resistivity increased to the bottom of the basin. Resistivity values for basement rocks were greater than 1,000 ohm-m and less than 350 ohm-m for the sedimentary layers in the basin. The data suggest that the basin contains a system of step faults near its eastern boundary. ?? 1987.
Analysis of the flamelet concept in the numerical simulation of laminar partially premixed flames
Consul, R.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Carbonell, D.; de Goey, L.P.H.
2008-04-15
The aim of this work is to analyze the application of flamelet models based on the mixture fraction variable and its dissipation rate to the numerical simulation of partially premixed flames. Although the main application of these models is the computation of turbulent flames, this work focuses on the performance of flamelet concept in laminar flame simulations removing, in this way, turbulence closure interactions. A well-known coflow methane/air laminar flame is selected. Five levels of premixing are taken into account from an equivalence ratio {phi}={infinity} (nonpremixed) to {phi}=2.464. Results obtained using the flamelet approaches are compared to data obtained from the detailed solution of the complete transport equations using primitive variables. Numerical simulations of a counterflow flame are also presented to support the discussion of the results. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of the scalar dissipation rate modeling. (author)
Numerical Analysis of Incipient Separation on 53 Deg Swept Diamond Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.
2015-01-01
A systematic analysis of incipient separation and subsequent vortex formation from moderately swept blunt leading edges is presented for a 53 deg swept diamond wing. This work contributes to a collective body of knowledge generated within the NATO/STO AVT-183 Task Group titled 'Reliable Prediction of Separated Flow Onset and Progression for Air and Sea Vehicles'. The objective is to extract insights from the experimentally measured and numerically computed flow fields that might enable turbulence experts to further improve their models for predicting swept blunt leading-edge flow separation. Details of vortex formation are inferred from numerical solutions after establishing a good correlation of the global flow field and surface pressure distributions between wind tunnel measurements and computed flow solutions. From this, significant and sometimes surprising insights into the nature of incipient separation and part-span vortex formation are derived from the wealth of information available in the computational solutions.
Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M; Rajaraman, Prathish K; Heys, Jeffrey J; Belohlavek, Marek
2013-01-01
The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics.
Samak, M. Mosleh E. Abu; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.; Kashif, Muhammad; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkifly
2016-01-01
This paper discusses numerical analysis methods for different geometrical features that have limited interval values for typically used sensor wavelengths. Compared with existing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods, the alternating direction implicit (ADI)-FDTD method reduces the number of sub-steps by a factor of two to three, which represents a 33% time savings in each single run. The local one-dimensional (LOD)-FDTD method has similar numerical equation properties, which should be calculated as in the previous method. Generally, a small number of arithmetic processes, which result in a shorter simulation time, are desired. The alternating direction implicit technique can be considered a significant step forward for improving the efficiency of unconditionally stable FDTD schemes. This comparative study shows that the local one-dimensional method had minimum relative error ranges of less than 40% for analytical frequencies above 42.85 GHz, and the same accuracy was generated by both methods.
Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Heys, Jeffrey J.
2013-01-01
The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics. PMID:23690874
Numerical and experimental analysis of the porous medium reservoir at Pittsfield, Illinois
Wiles, L.E.; Erikson, R.L.; Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.
1981-08-01
Numerical and experimental predictions of the St. Peter sandstone reservoir behavior at Pittsfield, Illinois, are being conducted. These analyses are based upon field and laboratory determinations of structural dimensions and physical properties and upon operating CAES design conditions. Numerical modeling addresses bubble development, water coning, thermal development and reservoir dehydration. Air injection rate is calculated as a function of time. The advance of the 50% saturation front during bubble development is depicted in depth versus radius curves for time periods up to 60 days. Experimental analysis embraces ground water chemistry, permeability and dehydration. Permeability of the St. Peter is highly variable due to vertical changes in lithology and variable friability. The new CAES porous media flow facility simulates field conditions of air flow rate, confining pressure, desaturation profile and dynamic stress.
Numerical analysis of key factors for the appearance of grassy ELMs in tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aiba, N.; Oyama, N.
2012-11-01
Numerical stability analysis of edge-localized MHD mode is performed to identify the origin of small-amplitude ‘grassy ELMs’ on the basis of current understanding of kinetic effects on ballooning mode stability. These qualitative and quantitative analyses show that short wavelength ballooning mode can play an important role in a grassy ELM stability even when kinetic effects are taken into account. After showing the importance of kinetic effects for discussing grassy ELM physics, impacts of plasma parameters important for realizing a grassy ELM plasma experimentally are investigated numerically from the viewpoint of the edge-localized MHD stability including these kinetic effects. These analyses show that low plasma ellipticity is preferable to realize a grassy ELM plasma due to destabilizing ballooning mode by preventing access to the second stability region of the ballooning mode.
Numerical analysis of the beam position monitor pickup for the Iranian light source facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafiee, M.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.
2017-03-01
In this paper, we describe the design of a button type Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the low emittance storage ring of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF). First, we calculate sensitivities, induced power and intrinsic resolution based on solving Laplace equation numerically by finite element method (FEM), in order to find the potential at each point of BPM's electrode surface. After the optimization of the designed BPM, trapped high order modes (HOM), wakefield and thermal loss effects are calculated. Finally, after fabrication of BPM, it is experimentally tested by using a test-stand. The results depict that the designed BPM has a linear response in the area of 2×4 mm2 inside the beam pipe and the sensitivity of 0.080 and 0.087 mm-1 in horizontal and vertical directions. Experimental results also depict that they are in a good agreement with numerical analysis.
McTaggart, Lisa R.; Brown, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Susan E.
2016-01-01
Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the
Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong
2016-03-01
Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.
Analysis of the Water Resources on Baseflow River Basin in Jeju Island, Korea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, S.-K.; Jung, W.-Y.; Kang, M.-S.
2012-04-01
Jeju Island is a volcanic island located at the southernmost of Korea, and is the heaviest raining area in Korea, but due to its hydrological / geological characteristics different from those of inland areas, most streams are of the dry form, and it relies on groundwater for water resources. As for some streams, however, springwater is discharged at a point near the downstream of the final discharge to maintain the flow of the stream; this has been developed as the source for water supply since the past, but the studies on detail observations and analysis are yet inadequate. This study utilizes the ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) hydrometer to regularly observe the flow amount of base run-off stream, and the water resources of base discharge basin of Jeju Island were analyzed using the SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) model. The detail water resource analysis study using modeling and site observation with high precision for Jeju Island water resources is expected to become the foundation for efficient usage and security of water resources against future climate changes.
Towards an integrated analysis of rural systems: the case study of the Alento basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna
2014-05-01
The role and the functions of rural areas are undergoing considerable change due to economic, social and environmental drivers. The outcome of the transformation is the production of highly heterogeneous landscapes, rural mosaics, which are home to varying degrees of intensity of land-use and processes of deactivation, abandonment and land degradation. The identification of rural mosaics has implications both for determining the impacts on the stock of connected natural resources and for defining measures and policies able to support the resilience of rural territories and the identification of sustainable strategies for development. The study proposes a methodology for the integrated analysis of the rural territory which combines the analysis of land cover dynamics, using GIS, with an assessment of socio-economic dynamics, reconstructed through the combined use of indicators and local history, and which is aware that the differences and peculiarities within rural territories are the result of actions taken over time and of the different adaptive strategies undertaken by communities operating in different fields, under the influence of specific ecologic and environmental conditions. The methodology, applied to a socio-ecological system which is representative of the Mediterranean basin, is proposed as a tool to support the territorialisation of polices, opening the process up to perspectives able to better comprehend the dynamic evolution of rural territories, internalising that evolution in the definition of the instruments and measures to adopt.
Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage
Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. PMID:25202732
Stream network analysis from orbital and suborbital imagery, Colorado River Basin, Texas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, V. R. (Principal Investigator)
1973-01-01
The author has identified the following significant results. Orbital SL-2 imagery (earth terrain camera S-190B), received September 5, 1973, was subjected to quantitative network analysis and compared to 7.5 minute topographic mapping (scale: 1/24,000) and U.S.D.A. conventional black and white aerial photography (scale: 1/22,200). Results can only be considered suggestive because detail on the SL-2 imagery was badly obscured by heavy cloud cover. The upper Bee Creek basin was chosen for analysis because it appeared in a relatively cloud-free portion of the orbital imagery. Drainage maps were drawn from the three sources digitized into a computer-compatible format, and analyzed by the WATER system computer program. Even at its small scale (1/172,000) and with bad haze the orbital photo showed much drainage detail. The contour-like character of the Glen Rose Formation's resistant limestone units allowed channel definition. The errors in pattern recognition can be attributed to local areas of dense vegetation and to other areas of very high albedo caused by surficial exposure of caliche. The latter effect caused particular difficulty in the determination of drainage divides.
Drought analysis of the Haihe river basin based on GRACE terrestrial water storage.
Wang, Jianhua; Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB.
Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin
Not Available
1985-08-01
Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.
The Analysis and Design of Low Boom Configurations Using CFD and Numerical Optimization Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siclari, Michael J.
1999-01-01
The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the analysis of sonic booms generated by aircraft has been shown to increase the accuracy and reliability of predictions. CFD takes into account important three-dimensional and nonlinear effects that are generally neglected by modified linear theory (MLT) methods. Up to the present time, CFD methods have been primarily used for analysis or prediction. Some investigators have used CFD to impact the design of low boom configurations using trial and error methods. One investigator developed a hybrid design method using a combination of Modified Linear Theory (e.g. F-functions) and CFD to provide equivalent area due to lift driven by a numerical optimizer to redesign or modify an existing configuration to achieve a shaped sonic boom signature. A three-dimensional design methodology has not yet been developed that completely uses nonlinear methods or CFD. Constrained numerical optimization techniques have existed for some time. Many of these methods use gradients to search for the minimum of a specified objective function subject to a variety of design variable bounds, linear and nonlinear constraints. Gradient based design optimization methods require the determination of the objective function gradients with respect to each of the design variables. These optimization methods are efficient and work well if the gradients can be obtained analytically. If analytical gradients are not available, the objective gradients or derivatives with respect to the design variables must be obtained numerically. To obtain numerical gradients, say, for 10 design variables, might require anywhere from 10 to 20 objective function evaluations. Typically, 5-10 global iterations of the optimizer are required to minimize the objective function. In terms of using CFD as a design optimization tool, the numerical evaluation of gradients can require anywhere from 100 to 200 CFD computations per design for only 10 design variables. If one CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ndehedehe, Christopher E.; Agutu, Nathan O.; Okwuashi, Onuwa; Ferreira, Vagner G.
2016-09-01
Lake Chad has recently been perceived to be completely desiccated and almost extinct due to insufficient published ground observations. Given the high spatial variability of rainfall in the region, and the fact that extreme climatic conditions (for example, droughts) could be intensifying in the Lake Chad basin (LCB) due to human activities, a spatio-temporal approach to drought analysis becomes essential. This study employed independent component analysis (ICA), a fourth-order cumulant statistics, to decompose standardised precipitation index (SPI), standardised soil moisture index (SSI), and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) into spatial and temporal patterns over the LCB. In addition, this study uses satellite altimetry data to estimate variations in the Lake Chad water levels, and further employs relevant climate teleconnection indices (El-Niño Southern Oscillation-ENSO, Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation-AMO, and Atlantic Meridional Mode-AMM) to examine their links to the observed drought temporal patterns over the basin. From the spatio-temporal drought analysis, temporal evolutions of SPI at 12 month aggregation show relatively wet conditions in the last two decades (although with marked alterations) with the 2012-2014 period being the wettest. In addition to the improved rainfall conditions during this period, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.04 m/yr in altimetry water levels observed over Lake Chad between 2008 and 2014, which confirms a shift in the hydrological conditions of the basin. Observed trend in TWS changes during the 2002-2014 period shows a statistically insignificant increase of 3.0 mm/yr at the centre of the basin, coinciding with soil moisture deficit indicated by the temporal evolutions of SSI at all monthly accumulations during the 2002-2003 and 2009-2012 periods. Further, SPI at 3 and 6 month scales indicated fluctuating drought conditions at the extreme south
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pande, Chaitanya B.; Moharir, Kanak
2015-06-01
A morphometric analysis of Shanur basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. These techniques are found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Hence, from the study, it is concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM data of 30 m resolution) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool used in morphometric analysis and evaluation of linear, slope, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The combined outcomes have established the topographical and even recent developmental situations in basin. It will also change the setup of the region. It therefore needs to analyze high level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of water resource developmental plan and land resource development plan. The Shanur drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 281.33 km2. The slope of the basin varies from 1 to 10 %, and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The main stream length ratio of the basin is 14.92 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton (Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361, 1945), Miller (A quantitative geomorphologic study of drainage basin characteristics in the clinch mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee Columbia University, Department of Geology, Technical Report, No. 3, Contract N6 ONR 271-300, 1953), and Strahler (Handbook of applied hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1964). GIS based on analysis of all morphometric parameters and the erosional development of the area by the streams has been progressed well beyond maturity and lithology is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crow, W.; Gasda, S. E.; Williams, D. B.; Celia, M. A.; Carey, J. W.
2008-12-01
An important aspect of the risk associated with geological CO2 sequestration is the integrity of existing wellbores that penetrate geological layers targeted for CO2 injection. CO2 leakage may occur through multiple pathways along a wellbore, including through micro-fractures and micro-annuli within the "disturbed zone" surrounding the well casing. The effective permeability of this zone is a key parameter of wellbore integrity required for validation of numerical models. This parameter depends on a number of complex factors, including long-term attack by aggressive fluids, poor well completion and actions related to production of fluids through the wellbore. Recent studies have sought to replicate downhole conditions in the laboratory to identify the mechanisms and rates at which cement deterioration occurs. However, field tests are essential to understanding the in situ leakage properties of the millions of wells that exist in the mature sedimentary basins in North America. In this study, we present results from a field study of a 30-year-old production well from a natural CO2 reservoir. The wellbore was potentially exposed to a 96% CO2 fluid from the time of cement placement, and therefore cement degradation may be a significant factor leading to leakage pathways along this wellbore. A series of downhole tests was performed, including bond logs and extraction of sidewall cores. The cores were analyzed in the laboratory for mineralogical and hydrologic properties. A pressure test was conducted over an 11-ft section of well to determine the extent of hydraulic communication along the exterior of the well casing. Through analysis of this pressure test data, we are able estimate the effective permeability of the disturbed zone along the exterior of wellbore over this 11-ft section. We find the estimated range of effective permeability from the field test is consistent with laboratory analysis and bond log data. The cement interfaces with casing and/or formation are
Northern Powder River basin coal, Montana. Final environmental statement, regional analysis
Not Available
1980-01-01
This environmental statement is in two parts: a regional analysis and a site-specific analysis of coal development in the northern Powder River basin region of Montana. The regional analysis addresses cumulative impacts of coal development in the region by 1990, with emphasis on industry proposals that now require or have recently required action by Federal and state authorities. A site-specific analysis of the proposed mining and reclamation plan for the Pearl mine makes up volumes 2 and 4 of this FES. Total annual coal production from the designated region of southeastern Montana is estimated at about 39 million tons by 1980, 50 million tons by 1985, and 53 million tons by 1990. The Big Sky, Pearl, and Spring Creek mines would collectively produce approximately 15% of the total by 1980, 26.5% by 1985, and 25% by 1990. Three impacts were determined to be locally significant. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for total suspended particulates would frequently be exceeded near all three minesites during mine life. Degradation of air quality would cause subtle injury to vegetation within about 1 mile of the mines and about 4 miles of the generating units, slightly reducing vegetative productivity. Wildlife populations, primarily antelope, mule deer, and sage grouse, would be significantly reduced during mine life and probably for several decades after mining. No threatened or endangered species would be adversely affected.Social impacts would be significant in Colstrip and Forsyth - comparable to those experienced during the construction of Colstrip units 1 and 2. At least during the 2 or 3 years of most rapid growth, local governments, formal and informal institutions, and social networks in Colstrip and Forsyth would not be able to meet the demands placed on them. Comment letters and responses are included.
Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis in aircraft design: an industrial perspective.
Sharma, Sanjiv; Coetzee, Etienne B; Lowenberg, Mark H; Neild, Simon A; Krauskopf, Bernd
2015-09-28
Bifurcation analysis is a powerful method for studying the steady-state nonlinear dynamics of systems. Software tools exist for the numerical continuation of steady-state solutions as parameters of the system are varied. These tools make it possible to generate 'maps of solutions' in an efficient way that provide valuable insight into the overall dynamic behaviour of a system and potentially to influence the design process. While this approach has been employed in the military aircraft control community to understand the effectiveness of controllers, the use of bifurcation analysis in the wider aircraft industry is yet limited. This paper reports progress on how bifurcation analysis can play a role as part of the design process for passenger aircraft.
Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA
Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.
1994-12-31
Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Lollino, P.; Calò, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Lanari, R.; Guzzetti, F.; Manunta, M.
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to perform inverse numerical modelling of slow landslides that combines the potentialities of both numerical approaches and well-known remote-sensing satellite techniques. In particular, through an optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm, we minimize, with respect to a proper penalty function, the difference between the modelled displacement field and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) deformation time series. The proposed methodology allows us to automatically search for the physical parameters that characterize the landslide behaviour. To validate the presented approach, we focus our analysis on the slow Ivancich landslide (Assisi, central Italy). The kinematical evolution of the unstable slope is investigated via long-term DInSAR analysis, by exploiting about 20 years of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellite acquisitions. The landslide is driven by the presence of a shear band, whose behaviour is simulated through a two-dimensional time-dependent finite element model, in two different physical scenarios, i.e. Newtonian viscous flow and a deviatoric creep model. Comparison between the model results and DInSAR measurements reveals that the deviatoric creep model is more suitable to describe the kinematical evolution of the landslide. This finding is also confirmed by comparing the model results with the available independent inclinometer measurements. Our analysis emphasizes that integration of different data, within inverse numerical models, allows deep investigation of the kinematical behaviour of slow active landslides and discrimination of the driving forces that govern their deformation processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunetti, J.; Massi, F.; Saulot, A.; Renouf, M.; D`Ambrogio, W.
2015-06-01
Mechanical systems present several contact surfaces between deformable bodies. The contact interface can be either static (joints) or in sliding (active interfaces). The sliding interfaces can have several roles and according to their application they can be developed either for maximizing the friction coefficient and the energy dissipation (e.g. brakes) or rather to allow the relative displacement at joints with a maximum efficiency. In both cases the coupling between system and local contact dynamics can bring to system dynamics instabilities (e.g. brake squeal or squeaking of hip prostheses). This results in unstable vibrations of the system, induced by the oscillation of the contact forces. In the literature, a large number of works deal with such kind of instabilities and are mainly focused on applied problems such as brake squeal noise. This paper shows a more general numerical analysis of a simple system constituted by two bodies in sliding contact: a rigid cylinder rotating inside a deformable one. The parametrical Complex Eigenvalue Analysis and the transient numerical simulations show how the friction forces can give rise to in-plane dynamic instabilities due to the interaction between two system modes, even for such a simple system characterized by one deformable body. Results from transient simulations highlight the key role of realistic values of the material damping to have convergence of the model and, consequently, reliable physical results. To this aim an experimental estimation of the material damping has been carried out. Moreover, the simplicity of the system allows for a deeper analysis of the contact instability and a balance of the energy flux among friction, system vibrations and damping. The numerical results have been validated by comparison with experimental ones, obtained by a specific test bench developed to reproduce and analyze the contact friction instabilities.
Fractured porous medium flow analysis using numerical manifold method with independent covers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi-Hua; Lin, Shao-Zhong; Xie, Zhi-Qiang; Su, Hai-Dong
2016-11-01
Due to the complexity of geometry and the difficulty of mesh discretization of 3D (three-dimensional) blocks cut by complexly distributed fractures, explicitly considering arbitrary fracture network in fractured porous medium (FPM) flow analysis is very challenging for various numerical methods. In this study, we developed a FPM flow model by taking full advantage of numerical manifold method (NMM) with independent covers. With the independent covers, arbitrarily-shaped 3D blocks identified by block-cutting analysis can be directly used as basic computational elements. Along the boundaries of the divided blocks, fractures elements are generated according to the fractures' apertures. Therefore, it is able to handle very complicated fracture network in 3D flow analysis without need to subdivide 3D blocks into computational meshes. In order to refine the meshes, we introduced artificial fractures with same material properties as surrounding rock into a fracture network, without need to coordinate with the shapes of the blocks. We demonstrated our new model on different 2D examples. At last, we applied our model to 2D and 3D examples with complexly distributed fractures, and achieved reasonable results. The results show that our model is very powerful to analyze fluid flow in arbitrarily and complexly fractured rock mass in 3D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivola, Alessandro; Troncossi, Marco
2014-10-01
The development of high-performance vehicle engines requires advanced investigations in order to provide engineers with proper analysis tools to optimize the system design. The elastodynamic behaviour of the engine powertrain may be critical at high velocities (when the flexibility of the system components can have a major role on the overall performance) with consequences on the valve timing and the transmission of dynamic loads. A thorough numerical/experimental investigation was performed on the timing system of a racing motorbike engine. The timing system included the geartrain, which transmits power from the crankshaft to the camshafts, and the valve train, formed by the camshafts and the cam-follower mechanisms for the valve actuation. An experimental campaign was designed and carried out with the purpose of inspecting the timing system behaviour for different velocities and different design parameters. A numerical model was developed in order to provide a simulation/analysis tool that permits the design optimization of the main system components. The present work focuses on the geartrain elastodynamic analysis, which is the main novelty of a long-lasting activity carried out by the authors in collaborations with Ducati Motor Holding S.p.a. (Bologna, Italy). The experimental campaign, the model development and validation, and some simulation results are reported and discussed.
Exploration of a Basin and Range-Type Geothermal System Using Soil pH Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, L.; Hill, G.; Norman, D. I.
2005-12-01
The Socorro Peak, NM Known Geothermal Reservoir Area (KGRA) is a Basin and Range-type extentional-fault geothermal system boasting thermal gradients upwards of 420 mW/m3 in