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Sample records for basin west sumatra

  1. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T.

    1996-12-31

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia`s oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra`s magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  2. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T. Petroleum Co., Lagos )

    1996-01-01

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia's oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra's magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  3. Ichnological constraints on the depositional environment of the Sawahlunto Formation, Kandi, northwest Ombilin Basin, west Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, J.-P.; Zaim, Y.; Rizal, Y.; Ciochon, R. L.; Bettis, E. A.; Aswan; Gunnell, G. F.

    2012-02-01

    A low diversity trace fossil assemblage is described from the Oligocene Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi, in the northwestern part of the Ombilin Basin in western Sumatra, Indonesia. This trace fossil assemblage includes six ichnogenera attributed to invertebrate infaunal and epifaunal activities ( Arenicolites, Diplocraterion, Planolites, Monocraterion/ Skolithos and Coenobichnus) and two ichnotaxa attributed to vertebrate activity (avian footprints: two species of Aquatilavipes). Arenicolites, Diplocraterion and Monocraterion/ Skolithos record the suspension feeding activities of either arthropods (most likely amphipods) or vermiform organisms. Planolites reflects the presence of an infaunal deposit feeder. Coenobichnus records the walking activities of hermit crabs. Both the Coenobichnus and the avian footprints record the surficial detritus scavenging of epifaunal organisms within a subaerial setting. These traces occur within a fine-grained sandstone succession characterized by planar laminae and low-relief, asymmetrical, commonly mud-draped (locally bidirectional) ripples. The presence of traces attributable to suspension feeders implies deposition in a subaqueous setting. Their occurrence (particularly the presence of Arenicolites and Diplocraterion) in a sandstone bed characterized by mud-draped and bidirectional ripples implies emplacement in a tidally-influenced marine to marginal marine setting. Co-occurrence of these traces with well-preserved avian footprints ( Aquatilavipes) further implies periodic subaerial exposure. Thus, it is most likely that the Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi records deposition within an intertidal flat setting. Definitive evidence of marine influences in the Oligocene interval of the Ombilin Basin implies a more complex tectono-stratigraphic history than has previously been implied.

  4. Seismic-stratigraphic framework of the forearc basin off central Sumatra, Sunda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudry, Desiree; Moore, Gregory F.

    1981-06-01

    New multichannel seismic reflection data provide information on the stratigraphic framework and geologic history of the forearc basin west of central Sumatra. We recognize six seismic-stratigraphic sequences that reflect the Cenozoic history and development of the outer continental shelf and forearc basin southeast of Nias Island. These sequences indicate several episodes of uplift of the subduction complex and filling of the forearc basin. Early in the development of this margin, Paleogene slope deposits prograded onto the adjacent basin floor. Onlapping this assemblage are two units interpreted as younger Paleogene(?) trough deposits. Uplift associated with rejuvenation of subduction in the late Oligocene led to erosion of the Sumatra shelf and formation of a regional unconformity. The early Miocene was a period of significant progradation. A Miocene limestone unit partly downlaps and partly onlaps the older Paleogene deposits. It is characterized by shallow shelf and oblique progradational facies passing into basin floor facies. A buried reef zone occurs near the shelf edge. The cutting of an erosional unconformity on the shelf and slope in late Miocene/early Pliocene time culminated this episode of deposition. In the late Pliocene, a large flexure developed at the western boundary of the basin, displacing the outer-arc ridge upward relative to the basin. Over 1 km of Pliocene to Recent sediment was deposited as a wedge in the deep western portion of the basin landward of the outer-arc ridge. These deposits are characterized by flat-lying, high-amplitude, continuous reflections that overstep the late Miocene unconformity. Up to 800 m of shallow-water limestone have been deposited on the shelf since mid-Pliocene time.

  5. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces, Indonesia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed gas resource in the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces of Indonesia.

  6. Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lipoeto, N I; Mmedsci; Agus, Z; Oenzil, F; Masrul, M; Wattanapenpaiboon, N

    2001-01-01

    Diet has a strong relationship with food culture and changes in it are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of newly emergent degenerative diseases. To obtain in-depth opinions about the food culture of Minangkabau people, focus group discussions were conducted in a Minangkabau region, represented by four villages in West Sumatra, Indonesia, from January to March 1999. The members of the discussion groups were principally women aged from 35 to 82 years old. Minangkabau culture is matriarchal and matrilineal which accounts for female gender dominants in the discussions. Rice, fish, coconut and chilli are the basic ingredients of the Minangkabau meals. Meat, especially beef and chicken, is mainly prepared for special occasions; pork is not halal and therefore not eaten by Muslim Minangkabau people; and for reasons of taste preference and availability, lamb, goat and wild game are rarely eaten. However, rendang, a popular meat dish, has been identified as one of the Minangkabau food culture characteristic dishes. Vegetables are consumed daily. Fruit is mainly seasonal, although certain kinds of fruit, such as banana, papaya and citrus, can be found all year around. Coconut has an important role in Minangkabau food culture and is the main source of dietary fat. While almost all food items consumed by the Minangkabau can be cooked with coconut milk, fried food with coconut oil is considered to be a daily basic food. Desiccated coconut is also used as a food ingredient on about a weekly basis and in snack foods almost every day. Although there have been no changes in food preparation and there is a slight difference in taste preference between the young and the old generations, there has been a dramatic shift in food preferences, which is reflected in the changing percentage of energy consumed over the past 15 years. The traditional combination of rice, fish and coconut in Minangkabau culture goes back hundreds of years, long before the emergence of the degenerative

  7. Structural controls on a geothermal system in the Tarutung Basin, north central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukman, Mochamad; Moeck, Inga

    2013-09-01

    The Sumatra Fault System provides a unique geologic setting to evaluate the influence of structural controls on geothermal activity. Whereas most of the geothermal systems in Indonesia are controlled by volcanic activity, geothermal systems at the Sumatra Fault System might be controlled by faults and fractures. Exploration strategies for these geothermal systems need to be verified because the typical pattern of heat source and alteration clays are missing so that conventional exploration with magnetotelluric surveys might not provide sufficient data to delineate favorable settings for drilling. We present field geological, structural and geomorphological evidence combined with mapping of geothermal manifestations to allow constraints between fault dynamics and geothermal activity in the Tarutung Basin in north central Sumatra. Our results indicate that the fault pattern in the Tarutung Basin is generated by a compressional stress direction acting at a high angle to the right-lateral Sumatra Fault System. NW-SE striking normal faults possibly related to negative flower structures and NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW oriented dilative Riedel shears are preferential fluid pathways whereas ENE-WSW striking faults act as barriers in this system. The dominant of geothermal manifestations at the eastern part of the basin indicates local extension due to clockwise block rotation in the Sumatra Fault System. Our results support the effort to integrate detailed field geological surveys to refined exploration strategies even in tropical areas where outcrops are limited.

  8. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 689 million barrels of continuous shale oil and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the South Sumatra Basin Province in Indonesia.

  9. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  10. The effects of local culture on hospital administration in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Semiarty, Rima; Fanany, Rebecca

    2017-02-06

    Purpose Problems in health-care leadership are serious in West Sumatra, Indonesia, especially in hospitals, which are controlled locally. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of three hospitals in balancing the conflicting demands of the national health-care system and the traditional model of leadership in the local community. Design/methodology/approach Three case studies of the hospital leadership dynamic in West Sumatra were developed from in-depth interviews with directors, senior administrators and a representative selection of employees in various professional categories. Findings An analysis of findings shows that traditional views about leadership remain strong in the community and color the expectations of hospital staff. Hospital directors, however, are bound by the modern management practices of the national system. This conflict has intensified since regional autonomy which emphasizes the local culture much more than in the past. Research limitations/implications The research was carried out in one Indonesian province and was limited to three hospitals of different types. Practical implications The findings elucidate a potential underlying cause of problems in hospital management in Indonesia and may inform culturally appropriate ways of addressing them. Originality/value The social and cultural contexts of management have not been rigorously studied in Indonesia. The relationship between local and national culture reported here likely has a similar effect in other parts of the country.

  11. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  12. Revisiting the magnetic anomalies along the West Australian margin identifies a new continental fragment that accreted to Sumatra during the Early Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, A.; Whittaker, J. M.; Müller, P.

    2010-12-01

    Plate models reconstructing the formation of the West Australian margin differ in their treatment of the section of the Australian margin extending from the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone to the tip of the Exmouth Plateau. Some reconstructions model Greater India as the conjugate, while others do not model any conjugate plate at all. The formation of the passive margin on the Australian plate implies that there must have been a conjugate continental plate that rifted away. Our revised reconstruction that includes all the abyssal plains along the West Australian margin reveals that, apart from Greater India and Argoland, a third continental block (Gascoyneland) must also have rifted from Australia since the Jurassic. From 132 Ma, while initially moving about the same Euler pole as Greater India, it formed the stretched continental crust of the Exmouth Plateau and then the oceanic crust of the Gascoyne and Cuvier abyssal plains. At 115 Ma Gascoyneland began moving in a northerly direction while Greater India continued westward only later moving northward from approximately 95 Ma when it was located entirely west of Gascoyneland. Gascoyneland did not pass west of the Investigator Ridge, a north-south-oriented linear feature at 98°E marking the western limits of the curved fracture zones of the Wharton Basin. Gascoyneland’s change in direction of plate motion would have formed these curved fracture zones and, assuming the N-S orientation of the Investigator Ridge continued into now subducted oceanic crust, would have reached West Sumatra at around 60 Ma. Plate tectonic models indicate that Sumatra was derived from accreted continental fragments originating from Gondwana (Metcalfe, 1996), although the continuity of Triassic sediments in West Sumatra, Sibumasu and East Malaya contradict this (Barber and Crow, 2003). The Woyla Group, consisting of the Sikuleh, Natal and Bengkulu terranes located along the west coast of Sumatra, has been identified as an oceanic arc

  13. South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia; the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced from the onshore South Sumatra Basin Province. The province consists of Tertiary half-graben basins infilled with carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying pre-Tertiary metamorphic and igneous rocks. Eocene through lower Oligocene lacustrine shales and Oligocene through lower Miocene lacustrine and deltaic coaly shales are the mature source rocks. Reserves of 4.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent have been discovered in reservoirs that range from pre-Tertiary basement through upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates deposited as synrift strata and as marine shoreline, deltaic-fluvial, and deep-water strata. Carbonate and sandstone reservoirs produce oil and gas primarily from anticlinal traps of Plio-Pleistocene age. Stratigraphic trapping and faulting are important locally. Production is compartmentalized due to numerous intraformational seals. The regional marine shale seal, deposited by a maximum sea level highstand in early middle Miocene time, was faulted during post-depositional folding allowing migration of hydrocarbons to reservoirs above the seal. The province contains the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system with one assessment unit, South Sumatra.

  14. Tsunami threat in the Indian Ocean from a future megathrust earthquake west of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, John; Antonioli, Andrea; Piatanesi, Alessio; Sieh, Kerry; Steacy, Sandy; Nalbant, Suleyman; Cocco, Massimo; Giunchi, Carlo; Huang, JianDong; Dunlop, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Several independent indicators imply a high probability of a great ( M > 8) earthquake rupture of the subduction megathrust under the Mentawai Islands of West Sumatra. The human consequences of such an event depend crucially on its tsunamigenic potential, which in turn depends on unpredictable details of slip distribution on the megathrust and how resulting seafloor movements and the propagating tsunami waves interact with bathymetry. Here we address the forward problem by modelling about 1000 possible complex earthquake ruptures and calculating the seafloor displacements and tsunami wave height distributions that would result from the most likely 100 or so, as judged by reference to paleogeodetic data. Additionally we carry out a systematic study of the importance of the location of maximum slip with respect to the morphology of the fore-arc complex. Our results indicate a generally smaller regional tsunami hazard than was realised in Aceh during the December 2004 event, though more than 20% of simulations result in tsunami wave heights of more than 5 m for the southern Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu. The extreme events in these simulations produce results which are consistent with recent deterministic studies. The study confirms the sensitivity of predicted wave heights to the distribution of slip even for events with similar moment and reproduces Plafker's rule of thumb. Additionally we show that the maximum wave height observed at a single location scales with the magnitude though data for all magnitudes exhibit extreme variability. Finally, we show that for any coastal location in the near field of the earthquake, despite the complexity of the earthquake rupture simulations and the large range of magnitudes modelled, the timing of inundation is constant to first order and the maximum height of the modelled waves is directly proportional to the vertical coseismic displacement experienced at that point. These results may assist in developing tsunami

  15. Seismic and deformation precursory to the small explosions of Marapi Volcano, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, D.; Patria, C.; Gunawan, H.; Taisne, B.; Nurfiani, D.; Avila, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Marapi Volcano is one of the active volcanoes of Indonesia located near the city of Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Its activity is characterized by small vulcanian explosions with occasional VEI 2 producing tephra and pyroclastic flows. Due to its activity, it is being monitored by Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). Four seismic stations consists of 2 broadband and 2 short period instruments have been established since 2009. In collaboration with CVGHM, Earth Observatory of Singapore added 5 seismic stations around the volcano in 2014, initially with short period instruments but later upgraded to broadbands. We added one tilt station at the summit of Marapi. These seismic and tilt stations are telemetered by 5.8GHz radio to Marapi Observatory Post where data are archived and displayed for Marapi observers for their daily volcanic activity monitoring work. We also archive the data in the EOS and CVGHM main offices. Here we are presenting examples of seismic and deformation data from Marapi prior, during, and after the vulcanian explosion. Our study attempt to understand the state of the volcano based on monitoring data and in order to enable us to better estimate the hazards associated with the future eruptions of this or similar volcano.

  16. Earthquake and tsunami hazard in West Sumatra: integrating science, outreach, and local stakeholder needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Lubis, A. M.; Huang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Hill, E. M.; Eriksson, S.; Sieh, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) is building partnerships with local to provincial government agencies, NGOs, and educators in West Sumatra to inform their policymaking, disaster-risk-reduction, and education efforts. Geodetic and paleoseismic studies show that an earthquake as large as M 8.8 is likely sometime in the coming decades on the Mentawai patch of the Sunda megathrust. This earthquake and its tsunami would be devastating for the Mentawai Islands and neighboring areas of the western Sumatra coast. The low-lying coastal Sumatran city of Padang (pop. ~800,000) has been the object of many research and outreach efforts, especially since 2004. Padang experienced deadly earthquakes in 2007 and 2009 that, though tragedies in their own right, served also as wake-up calls for a larger earthquake to come. However, there remain significant barriers to linking science to policy: extant hazard information is sometimes contradictory or confusing for non-scientists, while turnover of agency leadership and staff means that, in the words of one local advocate, "we keep having to start from zero." Both better hazard knowledge and major infrastructure changes are necessary for risk reduction in Padang. In contrast, the small, isolated villages on the outlying Mentawai Islands have received relatively fewer outreach efforts, yet many villages have the potential for timely evacuation with existing infrastructure. Therefore, knowledge alone can go far toward risk reduction. The tragic October 2010 Mentawai tsunami has inspired further disaster-risk reduction work by local stakeholders. In both locations, we are engaging policymakers and local NGOs, providing science to help inform their work. Through outreach contacts, the Mentawai government requested that we produce the first-ever tsunami hazard map for their islands; this aligns well with scientific interests at EOS. We will work with the Mentawai government on the presentation and explanation of the hazard map, as

  17. Extensional fault-bend folding and synrift deposition: An example from the Central Sumatra basin, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.H.; Hook, S.C.; Sitohang, E.P.

    1997-03-01

    We describe an analytical method for interpreting the geometry and structural history of asymmetric half grabens in rift basins with extensional fault-bend fold theory. Using seismic reflection profiles from the Central Sumatra basin and balanced forward models, we show how local variations in tectonic subsidence relative to deposition rates yield distinctive patterns of folded synrift strata and unconformities that record basin history. If the deposition rate exceeds the local subsidence rate, folded growth strata form upwardly narrowing kink bands that have been described previously as growth triangles. In contrast, if the deposition rate is less than or equals the local subsidence rate, growth strata are folded and truncated at the surface on half-graben margins. Subsequent increases in deposition rate relative to subsidence rate form angular unconformities near the half-graben margins. These unconformities develop without the necessity of erosion and are folded by continuing fault slip. Strata above and below the unconformities are concordant in the deeper parts of the half grabens. Thus, angular unconformities on half-graben margins are helpful for defining sequence boundaries that may reflect changes in deposition and tectonic subsidence rates. In addition, fault-bend fold interpretations yield fault geometry and measures of horizontal extension, both of which control three-dimensional half-graben geometry and accommodation space. We show how along-strike variations in fault geometry produce intrabasinal structures that may form prospective fair-ways or local depocenters.

  18. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  19. Primary Health Centre disaster preparedness after the earthquake in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The West Sumatra earthquake that occurred on September 30, 2009, caused severe damage in some districts, including Padang Pariaman. As Padang Pariaman is an earthquake-prone area, disaster and emergency management is necessary. Due to the limited health facilities, the health services completely rely on Puskesmas (Primary Health Centres, PHCs). This study is aimed at assessing the preparedness of PHCs to response to potential disasters in their surrounding area. Findings Padang Pariaman district was used in a case study setting to assess the readiness and preparedness of the PHCs there to face disasters. Self-administered questionnaire, key informant interview, and direct observation were used to obtain the data on human resources, facilities preparedness, and the procedures. The investigation focused on measuring four aspects, i.e. human resources, facilities preparedness, standard operating procedure (SOP), and policy. Due to the limited co-operation of the head of the PHCs, three PHCs were directly observed as a subsample. The evaluation was performed six months after the impact phase of the earthquake and three months after the PHCs' health staff training on improving the primary health care services. The number and quality of health staff in Padang Pariaman was far below ideal. Fewer than half of the PHCs had emergency facilities and only one considered the need for triage and fire management, whereas the transportation mode was still limited. An SOP and policy for facing disasters were not available in any of the PHCs. Therefore, promoting disaster preparedness, technical provision, including health staff training, is necessary. Conclusions Padang Pariaman district has not yet prepared its PHCs to face disaster, so it is apparent that PHCs' disaster preparedness in Padang Pariaman and also other earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia should be promoted. This should include increasing the number of doctors, providing training for health staff, and

  20. Geological Investigation and analysis in response to Earthquake Induced Landslide in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Salahudin, S.; Sudarno, I.; Burton, P.

    2009-12-01

    Substantial socio-economical loss occurred in response to the September 30. 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake with magnitude of 7.6. Damage of houses and engineered structures mostly occurred at the low land of alluvium sediments due to the ground amplification, whilst at the high land of mountain slopes several villages were buried by massive debris of rocks and soils. It was recorded that 1115 people died due to this disasters. Series of geological investigation was carried out by Geological Engineering Department of Gadjah Mada University, with the purpose to support the rehabilitation program. Based on this preliminary investigation it was identified that most of the house and engineered structural damages at the alluvial deposits mainly due to by the poor quality of such houses and engineered structures, which poorly resist the ground amplification, instead of due to the control of geological conditions. On the other hand, the existence and distribution of structural geology (faults and joints) at the mountaineous regions are significant in controlling the distribution of landslides, with the types of rock falls, debris flows and debris falls. Despite the landslide susceptibility mapping conducted by Geological Survey of Indonesia, more detailed investigation is required to be carried out in the region surrounding Maninjau Lake, in order to provide safer places for village relocation. Accordingly Gadjah Mada University in collaboration with the local university (Andalas University) as well as with the local Government of Agam Regency and the Geological Survey of Indonesia, serve the mission for conducting rather more detailed geological and landslide investigation. It is also crucial that the investigation (survey and mapping) on the social perception and expectation of local people living in this landslide susceptible area should also be carried out, to support the mitigation effort of any future potential earthquake induced landslides.

  1. Radiocarbon Content of Intermediate Waters off West Sumatra During the Last 45,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pol-Holz, R.; Mohtadi, M.; Southon, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon content of intermediate waters originating from the Southern Ocean is held as a likely smoking gun of the events that triggered the atmospheric CO2 rise and its radiocarbon decline during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Late Glacial depleted radiocarbon water masses have been found at intermediate depths off the coast of Baja California, the Galapagos, the Arabian Sea, but not unequivocally elsewhere. Knowing the route of the old water is therefore central for the required mechanistic linkage of Southern Ocean processes and the atmospheric response. A common approach to search for the old water reservoir is the radiocarbon difference between planktonic and benthic foraminifera or 'apparent ventilation age'. Caveats of this approach are due to the fact that it relies strongly on the knowledge of the surface water reservoir age. In this study, we present a high-resolution radiocarbon difference between surface and intermediate depth waters off west Sumatra in the attempt to elucidate a possible route of the old water from its hypothetical source in the high latitudes near Antarctica on its way to the lower latitude sites where it has been observed. Samples come from core SO189-39KL (0°47'S, 99°55'E, 517 m), a 1350 cm hemipelagic sedimentary sequence that spans the last 45,000 years. Radiocarbon determinations were made at centennial time resolution on both planktonic and benthic species. Calibration of the planktonic radiocarbon as age control points allowed us to infer the Δ14C of the intermediate waters. Our results show that throughout the LGM and the entire deglaciation, radiocarbon content of intermediate depths in the area remained with an almost constant age difference with the contemporaneous atmosphere. Unless we have grossly underestimated the local planktonic reservoir age, our results discard this area as a probable route for the spreading of the old water along its way to northern latitudes. In light of recent evidence from the

  2. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in the skeletons of massive Porites corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral δ13C response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias-Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M ∼ 8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral δ13C was 0.6 ± 0.1 ‰ /m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and -0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll δ13C is 2.3 ‰ /m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites. Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal δ13C, we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceeding Mw ∼ 7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral 13C /12C paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral δ13C, light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the

  3. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios () in the skeletons of massive Porites   corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral  response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M∼8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral  was 0.6±0.1‰/m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and −0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites  microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll  is2.3‰/m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites  . Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal , we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceedingMw∼7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral  paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral , light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the same principles

  4. Male replacement and stability of territorial boundary in a group of agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis agilis) in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Nurulkamilah, Santi; Rizaldi; Sugiura, Hideki; Bakar, Amsir; Masataka, Nobuo

    2012-10-01

    We report membership change in a group of wild agile gibbons, Hylobates agilis agilis, in West Sumatra, Indonesia. During 6-month observational periods, we focused on a particular unit of individuals known as the B group. We confirmed that the group consisted of five individuals: one adult female, one adult male, one subadult male, one subadult female, and one infant male. During our observations, the resident adult male and the two subadult individuals dispersed or disappeared, and a new adult male took over the group. We examined the effects of the male replacement on the territorial boundary, using the auditory census technique. The boundary was stable. We also documented the succession of the home range. Our results indicate a flexible social structure in this species and contribute some useful data to an ongoing debate on their social dynamics.

  5. Bicentennial Earthquake Supercycles Inferred from Relative Sealevel Changes in Corals off West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Meltzner, A. J.; Shen, C.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Galetzka, J.; Li, K.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2008-12-01

    Records of strain accumulation and relief extracted from corals of the Mentawai islands, Sumatra, imply that this 700-km-long section of the Sunda megathrust has generated sequences of great earthquakes about every two centuries for at least the past 700 years. Episodes in the 14th and 16th/17th centuries resemble broadly the great rupture pair of 1797-1833. The MW8.4 earthquake of September 2007 represents the first in a series of large partial failures of the Mentawai section that will likely occur within the next several decades.

  6. 41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle Basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, PUget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  7. Tsunamis as geomorphic crises: Lessons from the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Raphaël; Wassmer, Patrick; Sartohadi, Junun; Lavigne, Franck; Barthomeuf, Benjamin; Desgages, Emilie; Grancher, Delphine; Baumert, Philippe; Vautier, Franck; Brunstein, Daniel; Gomez, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Large tsunamis are major geomorphic crises, since they imply extensive erosion, sediment transport and deposition in a few minutes and over hundreds of kilometres of coast. Nevertheless, little is known about their geomorphologic imprints. The December 26, 2004 tsunami in Sumatra (Indonesia) was one of the largest and deadliest tsunamis in recorded human history. We present a description of the coastal erosion and boulder deposition induced by the 2004 tsunami in the Lhok Nga Bay, located to the West of Banda Aceh (northwest Sumatra). The geomorphological impact of the tsunami is evidenced by: beach erosion (some beaches have almost disappeared); destruction of sand barriers protecting the lagoons or at river mouths; numerous erosion escarpments typically in the order of 0.5-1.5 m when capped by soil and more than 2 m in dunes; bank erosion in the river beds (the retreat along the main river is in the order of 5-15 m, with local retreats exceeding 30 m); large scars typically 20-50 cm deep on slopes; dislodgement of blocks along fractures and structural ramps on cliffs. The upper limit of erosion appears as a continuous trimline at 20-30 m a.s.l., locally reaching 50 m. The erosional imprints of the tsunami extend to 500 m from the shoreline and exceed 2 km along riverbeds. The overall coastal retreat from Lampuuk to Leupung was 60 m (550,000 m 2) and locally exceeded 150 m. Over 276,000 m 3 of coastal sediments were eroded by the tsunami along the 9.2 km of sandy coast. The mean erosion rate of the beaches was ~ 30 m 3/m of coast and locally exceeded 80 m 3/m. The most eroded coasts were tangent to the tsunami wave train, which was coming from the southwest. The fringing reefs were not efficient in reducing the erosional impact of the tsunami. The 220 boulders measured range from 0.3 to 7.2 m large (typically 0.7-1.5 m), with weights from over 50 kg up to 85 t. We found one boulder, less than 1 m large, at 1 km from the coastline, but all the others were

  8. Geothermal resource of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, M.P. . Geothermal Inst.); Sudarman, Sayogi . Geothermal Section)

    1993-06-01

    There are at least 30 high temperatures systems (with inferred reservoir temperatures > 200 C) along the active Sumatra Arc that transfer heat from crustal intrusions to the surface. These systems, together with eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano (Lake Toba), are controlled by the Sumatra Fault Zone, an active mega shear zone that follows the median axis of the arc. At least half of the active and degassing volcanoes are associated with volcanic geothermal reservoirs containing magmatic gases and acid fluids. Large, low temperature resources exist in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of east Sumatra (back-arc region), where anomalously higher thermal gradients (up to 8 C/100 m) have been measured. Volcanic activity was not continuous during the Cenozoic; subduction and arc volcanism probably decreased after the Eocene as a result of a clockwise rotation of Sumatra. In the Late Miocene, subduction started again, and andesitic volcanism reached a new peak of intensity in the Pliocene and has been continuous ever since. Rhyolitic volcanism, which has produced voluminous ignimbrite flows, began later (Pliocene/Pleistocene). All known rhyolitic centers associated with ignimbrite flows appear to lie along the Sumatra Fault Zone.

  9. Polyphase deformation in Marathon basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, D.; Morris, A.

    1989-03-01

    Marathon basin, Texas, is the westernmost window into the Ouachita orogene. Interpreted as a result of northwest-southeast compression, intermittent orogenic pulses began in the Mississippian and continued into the Early Permian (Wolfcampian). However, the northeastern portion of the basin contains structures that could not have resulted from a single compression orientation and indicate that deformation continued to affect Wolfcampian and Leonardian rocks. Their work confirms the protracted nature of upper Paleozoic deformation and indicates that late- and postorogenic events were not related to the northwest-southeast compression manifest throughout the Marathon basin. The northeastern part of the basin exposes Morrowan( )-Desmoinesian rocks. The authors recognize a duplex thrust system, traceable for 10 km, rooted in the uppermost Morrowan( ) Tesnus Formation and creating a double thickness of (Morrowan-Atokan) Dimple Limestone. The duplex is folded by 50 to 2000-m half-wavelength northwestverging folds which plunge gently southwestward. Dimple thickness is further increased by a large number of contraction faults, each with up to 2 m of stratigraphic throw. Superimposed upon these structures are southeast-plunging, 10-20-m half-wavelength open kinks with vergence sympathetic with the regional trend variation apparent in this part of the basin. The superimposed structures are the result of a northeast-southwest compressive event. North of the Ouachita exposure, rocks containing lower Leonardian fusulinids are deformed into gentle east-west-trending 500-m half-wavelength folds which are likely the result of another distinct compression orientation trending north-south. Pervasive east-west extension in all Pennsylvania-age rocks is indicated by subvertical, calcite-filled veins.

  10. View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of reserve basin of submarine trout and frigate Edward E. McDonnell - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane at a Marine Methane Seep in a Forearc Sediment Basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Teichert, Barbara; Wiedicke, Michael; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A cold methane seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep center of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was reflected by 13C-depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO2 was confirmed in a 13C-labeling experiment. Methane fueled a vital microbial community with cell numbers of up to 4 × 109 cells cm−3 sediment. The microbial community was analyzed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CARD–FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9, and Anaerolineaceae) were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM-related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible. PMID:22207865

  12. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane at a Marine Methane Seep in a Forearc Sediment Basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Teichert, Barbara; Wiedicke, Michael; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A cold methane seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep center of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was reflected by (13)C-depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO(2) was confirmed in a (13)C-labeling experiment. Methane fueled a vital microbial community with cell numbers of up to 4 × 10(9) cells cm(-3) sediment. The microbial community was analyzed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CARD-FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9, and Anaerolineaceae) were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM-related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible.

  13. The December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0, earthquake and the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    Long-term seismic activity prior to the December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0 earthquake was investigated using the Harvard CMT catalogue. It is observed that before this great earthquake, there exists an accelerating moment release (AMR) process with the temporal scale of a quarter century and the spatial scale of 1 500 km. Within this spatial range, the M W=9.0 event falls into the piece-wise power-law-like frequency-magnitude distribution. Therefore, in the perspective of the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation, the failure to forecast/predict the approaching and/or the size of this earthquake is not due to the physically intrinsic unpredictability of earthquakes.

  14. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-689. Unknown Photographer, 1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. 1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING TOWARD PLANE 9 WEST. BASIN HAS BEEN DRAINED AND SLOPE OF PLANE 9 IS VISIBLE BETWEEN ROW OF TREES IN BACKGROUND. STONEWORK ON LEFT IS ABUTMENT TO BRIDGE THAT CROSSED OVER THE CANAL. - Morris Canal, Inclined Plane 9 West, Port Warren, Warren County, NJ

  16. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibe, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  17. Geology and petroleum resources of West Siberian Basin, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.; Klemme, H.D.; Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The West Siberian basin occupies an area of approximately 3.3 million km/sup 2/ (1.3 million mi/sup 2/) in northwestern Siberia east of the Ural Mountains. Thickness of the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover ranges from approximately 3-5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) in the central area of the basin, to 8-12 km (25,000-40,000 ft) in the northern part. The basin is filled with approximately 10 million km/sup 3/ (2.4 million mi/sup 3/) of Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic sedimentary rocks ranging in thickness from 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) in the central area to 6-9 km (20,000-30,000 ft) in the north. The basement in the basin is Precambrian and Precambrian-Paleozoic granitic rocks and in places is highly metamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. In other parts of the basin, Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks are only lightly metamorphosed and are targets for petroleum exploration. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill was initiated in the northern part of the basin during the Triassic. By the Late Jurassic, marine clastic deposition had spread throughout the basin, and the basin configuration was established for the remainder of geologic time. Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks are primarily shallow marine shelf, coastal plain, and lowland clastic deposits formed during several transgressive-regressive phases. Major oil accumulations, mainly in Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic sandstone reservoirs, are located in the central and west-central parts of the basin. The largest reserves of natural gas in the world are located in the northern part of the basin, primarily in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) sandstone reservoirs. In 1982, estimated cumulative production from the basin was approximately 10 billion bbl of oil. Estimated mean undiscovered resources (1981) are approximately 80 billion bbl of oil and 700 tcf of gas.

  18. 40. View west of Wickersham Basin in vicinity of McHugh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. View west of Wickersham Basin in vicinity of McHugh Basin, looking west. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  19. Livelihood Change and Livelihood Sustainability in the Uplands of Lembang Subwatershed, West Sumatra, Indonesia, in a Changing Natural Resource Management Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes livelihood change and livelihood sustainability of households in the upland part of the Lembang subwatershed, West Sumatra, in response to changes in the natural resource management context during the last decade. Using the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF), we measured livelihood changes at two separate points in time, 1996 and 2006, and assessed their environmental, economic, social, and institutional sustainability. We found that people with a low income had less access to capital assets than people from middle- and high-income groups. Our analysis revealed, however, that access to capital assets increased over time, and that poor households experienced economic improvement, indicating an overall increase in economic sustainability. Environmental sustainability, however, is threatened by intensive agricultural practices such as high agrochemical input and intensive soil tillage on steep slopes, leading to pollution and soil erosion. Social sustainability is also a matter of concern: while social exclusion has been reduced, income inequity has increased. Institutional sustainability is likely to remain uncertain, as local institutions for natural resource management are still weak, despite the fact that decentralization has been implemented during the last 8 years. External facilitation is needed to improve the livelihood of upland people while, at the same time, enhancing the sustainability of watershed management. Strengthening local institutions, conserving natural resources, and promoting environmentally sound agricultural practices are the three most important policies to be promoted within the watershed.

  20. Geochemistry, strontium isotope data, and potassium-argon ages of the andesite-rhyolite association in the Padang area, West Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leo, G.W.; Hedge, C.E.; Marvin, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes in the Padang area on the west coast of Sumatra have produced two-pyroxene, calc-alkaline andesite and volumetrically subordinate rhyolitic and andesitic ash-flow tuffs. A sequence of andesite (pre-caldera), rhyolitic tuff and andesitic tuff, in decreasing order of age, is related to Maninjau caldera. Andesite compositions range from 55.0 to 61.2% SiO2 and from 1.13 to 2.05% K2O. Six K-Ar whole-rock age determinations on andesites show a range of 0.27 ?? 0.12 to 0.83 ?? 0.42 m.y.; a single determination on the rhyolitic ashflow tuff gave 0.28 ?? 0.12 m.y. Eight 57Sr/26Sr ratios on andesites and rhyolite tuff west of the Semangko fault zone are in the range 0.7056 - 0.7066. These ratios are higher than those elsewhere in the Sunda arc but are comparable to the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand and calc-alkaline volcanics of continental margins. An 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7048 on G. Sirabungan east of the Semangko fault is similar to an earlier determination on nearby G. Marapi (0.7047), and agrees with 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the rest of the Sunda arc. The reason for this distribution of 87Sr/86Sr ratios is unknown. The high 87Sr/86Sr ratios are tentatively regarded to reflect a crustal source for the andesites, while moderately fractionated REE patterns with pronounced negative Eu anomalies suggest a residue enriched in plagioclase with hornblende and/or pyroxenes. Generation of associated andesite and rhyolite could have been caused by hydrous fractional melting of andesite or volcanogenic sediments under adiabatic decompression. ?? 1980.

  1. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  2. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

    1999-08-10

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

  3. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms

  5. Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

  6. The stratigraphy of the Taoudeni basin, west Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, K.T.; Moody, R.T.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The Taoudeni basin is one of the major structural units of the west African craton, with an areal extent in excess of 2,000,000 km[sup 2]. Sediment thicknesses can reach over 3000 m, but have an average thickness of 1250 m. The majority of the basin-fill sediments are Precambrian to Carboniferous, with Mesozoic rocks present in the eastern margin adjacent to the Adrar des Iforas. Due to the paucity of exploration in the Taoudoni basin, there are no detailed works on source potential, maturity, or reservoir quality. However, within the sediment pile, there are excellent potential reservoirs, in the form of poorly cemented sandstones, and apparently organic-rich sediments, which may have source potential. Three major Paleozoic tectono-sedimentary units are recognized within the basin, all of which are found in the Adrar de Mauritania, which is taken as the [open quotes]type section[close quotes] for the Taoudeni basin. Unit 1 (Upper Riphean) is composed of alternating sandstones, limestones, and mudstones, which show rapid lateral thickness variations. Units 2 and 3 are far more uniform in thickness and distribution. Unit 2 (late Precambrian-Lower Ordovician) is composed of shales and sandstones with minor limestones. The base of this unit is composed of the Triad, or the Eocambrian glacial deposits that can be correlated across west Africa. Unit 3 (Upper Oedovician-Devonian) is composed of a variety of lithofacies varying from a basal glacial unit through basinal graptolitic shales into shallow marine/continental deposits. Each of these units will be discussed in detail and the petroleum potential of the constituent lithofacies considered.

  7. Fishing farmers or farming fishers? Fishing typology of inland small-scale fishing households and fisheries management in singkarak lake, west sumatra, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  8. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  9. Gravity-driven structures and rift basin evolution: Rio Muni Basin, offshore equatorial West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    Offshore Equatorial Guinea, west Africa, gravity-driven nappes, more than 1 km thick and 15 km from head to toe, provide key evidence in reconstructing the late synrift: evolution of this part of the South Atlantic margin basin system. Furthermore, Aptian-Cenomanian carbonate and clastic rocks in the nappes` allochthonous hanging walls are attracting interest as a new exploration play in west Africa. The nappes exhibit a range of geometries that suggest they share many of the same deformation processes as thin-skin thrust and linked extensional fault systems. Not only are these structures significant in their own right, representing a rare example of gravity tectonics in the virtual absence of major halokinesis, but their presence may record an other-wise undetectable process active during the transition from a rift basin to a passive continental margin. A review of Equatorial Guinea in its pre-Atlantic configuration, alongside neighboring basins in Brazil (the Sergipe-Alagoas basin) and Gabon, suggests that gravity gliding was sustained by a relatively steep, westward paleoslope promoted by east-ward offset of the locus of thermal uplift from the rift basin (i.e., a simple shear model of basin formation). In contrast to gravity-driven structures in most postrift settings, the Equatorial Guinea nappes developed at the close of the Aptian-Albian synrift episode in response to a growing bathymetric deep caused by rapid subsidence outpacing restricted sedimentation.

  10. Normal-mode frequency band view of the Off-the-West-Coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, M.; Tanimoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies with body-wave and long-period surface wave analyses on the Off-the-West-coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012, have already pointed out complexities of this event (e.g., Meng et al., 2012). A sequence of events with fairly wide spatial and temporal extent are clearly needed to explain many facets of seismic data. In this study, we attempt to summarize a few distinct features from the normal-mode frequency band (0.3-2.0 mHz) which are obviously much simpler by their long wavelength and long periods. We analyzed long-period seismic data from STS1 and KS54000 sensors for the first 12 hours of the main event using the time-domain waveform fitting technique (Tanimoto, et al., 2012). Adoption of this short time series is partly to avoid uncertain Q parameters on amplitudes but also to avoid the effects from two earthquakes in Oregon (Mw6.0) and Mexico (Mw6.7) that occurred about 23rd hour on the same day. These events are much smaller but their effects cannot be ignored in seismic stations in North America. Two major events reported by the Global CMT project, the Mw8.6 main shock and the Mw8.2 aftershock that occurred two hours later, are clearly not sufficient to explain the amplitude data at about 1 mHz (0.6-1.5 mHz). Synthetic seismograms for the two events under-predicts data by about 30 percent. Amplitudes also show two-theta azimuthal variation that indicates a necessity of at least one hidden event (if not rupture propagation). This necessity has already been pointed out by various groups (e.g., Duputel et al., 2012, Shao et al., 2012). Duputel et al. (2012), for example, reports that the Mw8.6 main event by GCMT should be split up by two large events, the Mw8.5 main event and Mw8.3 event that occurred 70 seconds later. Our analysis shows that their three-source solution, including the Mw8.2 event two hours later, satisfies overall amplitude data in the normal-mode frequency band. However, their solution still shows two

  11. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  12. 33 CFR 165.777 - Security Zone; West Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arrival of a cruise ship at the West Basin of Port Canaveral Harbor during MARSEC Levels 2 and 3 or when... will not be deactivated until the departure of all cruise ships from the West Basin. The zone is... security zone is activated by the display of a red ball on a 50-foot pole located at the east end of...

  13. 33 CFR 165.777 - Security Zone; West Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arrival of a cruise ship at the West Basin of Port Canaveral Harbor during MARSEC Levels 2 and 3 or when... will not be deactivated until the departure of all cruise ships from the West Basin. The zone is... security zone is activated by the display of a red ball on a 50-foot pole located at the east end of...

  14. 33 CFR 165.777 - Security Zone; West Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arrival of a cruise ship at the West Basin of Port Canaveral Harbor during MARSEC Levels 2 and 3 or when... will not be deactivated until the departure of all cruise ships from the West Basin. The zone is... security zone is activated by the display of a red ball on a 50-foot pole located at the east end of...

  15. 33 CFR 165.777 - Security Zone; West Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arrival of a cruise ship at the West Basin of Port Canaveral Harbor during MARSEC Levels 2 and 3 or when... will not be deactivated until the departure of all cruise ships from the West Basin. The zone is... security zone is activated by the display of a red ball on a 50-foot pole located at the east end of...

  16. 33 CFR 165.777 - Security Zone; West Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arrival of a cruise ship at the West Basin of Port Canaveral Harbor during MARSEC Levels 2 and 3 or when... will not be deactivated until the departure of all cruise ships from the West Basin. The zone is... security zone is activated by the display of a red ball on a 50-foot pole located at the east end of...

  17. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  18. Seismic Stratigraphy of the Ross Island Flexural Basin, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenman, C. P.; Harry, D. L.; Jha, S.

    2014-12-01

    Marine seismic reflection data collected over the past 30+ years in the Ross Sea region of southwest Antarctica has been tied to the ANDRILL and CIROS boreholes to develop a seismic stratigraphic model that constrains the spatial and temporal evolution of the flexural basin surrounding Ross Island. Ross Island was formed from 4.6 Ma to present by extrusive volcanism in the Ross Sea at the southern end of the Terror Rift. Preliminary mapping has identified a hinge zone trending northeastward from Mt. Bird, separating the well-developed flexural moat on the west side of the island from sub-horizontal strata on the northeast and east sides. The flexural moat on the west and north-northwest sides of the island is approximately 40-45 km wide with sediment fill thickness of roughly 1100 m. Seismic lines to the east and northeast of the island do not indicate the presence of a flexural moat. Instead, the thickness of strata on the east side of the island that are time-equivalent to the infill of the flexural moat on the west side remains constant from the Coulman High westward to within ~28 km of Ross Island (the landward extent of the seismic data coverage). The concordant post-Miocene strata on the east and northeast sides of Ross Island imply either that the flexural basin does not extend more than ~28 km eastward from the Ross Island shoreline, or that the flexural basin is not present on that side of the island. The first scenario requires that the elastic strength of the lithosphere differ on either side of the hinge. The second scenario can be explained by a mechanical rupture in the lithosphere beneath Ross Island, with Ross Island acting as an end-load on a mechanical half-plate that forms the lithosphere beneath Ross Island and westward. In this model, the lithosphere east of Ross Island and the hinge forms a second half-plate, bearing little or none of the Ross Island volcanic load.

  19. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  20. Tsunami Damage in Northwest Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of the northern Sumatra. This pair of images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite shows the Aceh province of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 17, 2004, before the quake (bottom), and on December 29, 2004 (top), three days after the catastrophe. Although MODIS was not specifically designed to make the very detailed observations that are usually necessary for mapping coastline changes, the sensor nevertheless observed obvious differences in the Sumatran coastline. On December 17, the green vegetation along the west coast appears to reach all the way to the sea, with only an occasional thin stretch of white that is likely sand. After the earthquake and tsunamis, the entire western coast is lined with a noticeable purplish-brown border. The brownish border could be deposited sand, or perhaps exposed soil that was stripped bare of vegetation when the large waves rushed ashore and then raced away. Another possibility is that parts of the coastline may have sunk as the sea floor near the plate boundary rose. On a moderate-resolution image such as this, the affected area may seem small, but each pixel in the full resolution image is 250 by 250 meters. In places the brown strip reaches inland roughly 13 pixels, equal to a distance of 3.25 kilometers, or about 2 miles. On the northern tip of the island (shown in the large image), the incursion is even larger. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the MODIS Rapid Response team and the Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC.

  1. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Pool, Karl N.

    2016-03-01

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present

  2. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  3. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  4. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Sumatra and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Bernardino, Melissa; Dannemann, Fransiska; Smoczyk, Gregory; Briggs, Richard W.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The plate boundary southwest of Sumatra is part of a long tectonic collision zone that extends over 8,000 km from Papua, New Guinea, in the east to the Himalayan front in the west. The Sumatra-Andaman part of the collision zone forms a subduction zone plate boundary, which accommodates convergence between the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates. This convergence is responsible for the intense seismicity in Sumatra. The Sumatra Fault, a major transform structure that bisects Sumatra, accommodates the northwest-increasing lateral component of relative plate motion. Most strain accumulation and release between the two plates occurs along the Sunda megathrust. The increasingly oblique convergence moving northwest is accommodated by crustal seismicity along several transform and normal faults, including the Sumatra Fault. Plate-boundary related deformation is also not restricted to the subduction zone and overriding plate: the Indo-Australian plate actually comprises two somewhat independent plates (India and Australia) that are joined along a broad, actively deforming region that produces seismicity up to several hundred kilometers west of the trench. This deformation is exemplified by the recent April 2012 earthquake sequence, which includes the April 11 M 8.6 and M 8.2 strike-slip events and their subsequent aftershocks. Since 2004, much of the Sunda megathrust between the northern Andaman Islands and Enggano Island, a distance of more than 2,000 km, has ruptured in a series of large subduction zone earthquakes—most rupturing the plate boundary south of Banda Aceh. These events include the great M 9.1 earthquake of December 26, 2004; the M 8.6 Nias Island earthquake of March 28, 2005; and two earthquakes on September 12, 2007, of M 8.5 and M 7.9. On October 25, 2010, a M 7.8 on the shallow portion of the megathrust to the west of the Mentawai Islands caused a substantial tsunami on the west coast of those islands.

  5. Geology of the Douala basin, offshore Cameroon, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pauken, R.J.; Thompson, J.M.; Schumann, J.R. ); Cooke, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The Douala basin is predominantly an offshore basin extending from the Cameroon volcanic line in the north to the Corisco arch in the south near the Equatorial Guinea-Gabon border. The basin lies wholly within the territorial borders of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Douala basin is one of a series of divergent margin basins occurring along the southwest African coastline resulting from the rifting of Africa from South America. Continental rifting in the Doula basin was initiated at least by Aptian-Albian time and possibly as early as Jurassic. The rift stage persisted until Albian time when the onset of drifting occurred. The sedimentary section in the basin has a maximum thickness of 8-10 km, based on exploration drilling and gravity and magnetics modeling. The synrift section consists of Aptian-Albian sands and shales, deposited primarily as submarine fans, fan-deltas, and turbidite deposits. These are overlain by salt, thought to be equivalent to the Ezagna salt of Aptian age in the Gabon basin to the south. The synrift section is separated from the overlying postrift shale sequence of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age by a major late Albian unconformity. The Douala basin has been explored for hydrocarbons intermittently over the last 25 years. Results show a distinct tendency for gas-proneness. The largest field recorded to date is the Sanaga Sud gas field, discovered in 1979, offshore, near the coastal city of Kribi.

  6. Shallow subsurface morpho-tectonics at the Northern offshore Sumatra subduction system using high resolution reflection and refraction seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, D.; Dibakar Ghosal*, S. C. Singh, A. P. S. Chauhan, H. Carton, N. D. Hananto

    2011-12-01

    The oblique subduction of Indo-Australian plate below the Eurosian plate regulates the subsurface geology of the Sumatra subduction system from south to north. Although many geological, geophysical and geodetic studies have been carried over since several decades nevertheless a high resolution subsurface image describing the detailed structural features over the Northern Sumatra is still missing. To scrutinize the northern part of this subduction system we had carried out a multi channel seismic (MCS) and OBS survey using a 12 km long streamer and 56 ocean bottom seismometers in 2006 and procured a high resolution deep seismic reflection and refraction data over a 500 km long profile mapping the whole subduction setting from the subduction front, forearc high and basin, Sumatra platform, Sumatra fault and volcanic arc. The acoustic basement along the profile is very complex because of its extremities lies in a range of 300 m to 5000 m. In order to overcome the imaging-intricacies caused due to the abrupt changes of water depth, we have downward continued the 12 km streamer data to the seafloor, which provides refraction arrivals from near zero offsets to 12 km, and subsequently a high-resolution travel time tomography keeping node spacing of 50m x 50m has accomplished to procure a detail velocity structure along the profile. We have conducted our analysis in two important areas at northern offshore Sumatra: (1) subduction front and accretionary settings and (2) forearc high and West Anadman Fault. Our main goal lies to observe the nature of shallow subsurface velocity distribution over these regions. Tomographic result of the subduction front demonstrates the changes in velocity gradient along up-dip. The 1D velocity gradients become shallower toward the subduction trench inferring the fact of lithification of accreted sediments around the accretionary wedge. At the forearc high adjacent to the Aceh basin a pile of 1 km thick low velocity sediments is underlain by

  7. Hydrogeology of the West Branch Delaware River basin, Delaware County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, began a study of the hydrogeology of the West Branch Delaware River (Cannonsville Reservoir) watershed. There has been recent interest by energy companies in developing the natural gas reserves that are trapped within the Marcellus Shale, which is part of the Hamilton Group of Devonian age that underlies all the West Branch Delaware River Basin. Knowing the extent and thickness of stratified-drift (sand and gravel) aquifers within this basin can help State and Federal regulatory agencies evaluate any effects on these aquifers that gas-well drilling might produce. This report describes the hydrogeology of the 455-square-mile basin in the southwestern Catskill Mountain region of southeastern New York and includes a detailed surficial geologic map of the basin. Analysis of surficial geologic data indicates that the most widespread surficial geologic unit within the basin is till, which is present as deposits of ablation till in major stream valleys and as thick deposits of lodgment till that fill upland basins. Till and colluvium (remobilized till) cover about 89 percent of the West Branch Delaware River Basin, whereas stratified drift (outwash and ice-contact deposits) and alluvium account for 8.9 percent. The Cannonsville Reservoir occupies about 1.9 percent of the basin area. Large areas of outwash and ice-contact deposits occupy the West Branch Delaware River valley along its entire length. These deposits form a stratified-drift aquifer that ranges in thickness from 40 to 50 feet (ft) in the upper West Branch Delaware River valley, from 70 to 140 ft in the middle West Branch Delaware River valley, and from 60 to 70 ft in the lower West Branch Delaware River valley. The gas-bearing Marcellus Shale underlies the entire West Branch Delaware River Basin and ranges in thickness from 600 to 650 ft along the northern divide of the basin to 750 ft thick

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  9. Tectonic evolution of the West Florida Basin, Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Andrea Christine

    Basement geometry of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico developed following the breakup of Pangea and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico in Late Triassic time. Nine 2-D pre-stack depth migrated seismic profiles and a structural restoration provide insight into the evolution and development of the southern West Florida Basin, located west of the Florida Escarpment in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Seismic reflection profiles reveal basement structures probably developed following a combination of Late Triassic extension and extension and subsequent oceanic crust emplacement in Middle Jurassic time. During Late Triassic rifting, the West Florida Basin developed as a rift graben; however, the graben was later dissected during the Middle Jurassic drift episode. Absence of faulting, syn-rift deposition and sagging in the Lower Cretaceous seismic section indicates that extension and rotation of the Yucatan block must have stopped prior to Cretaceous time. After extension terminated and the Gulf of Mexico reached its modern day configuration, subsidence from lithospheric cooling and sediment loading dominated throughout Cretaceous time. A structural restoration confirms that following Late Triassic rifting, basement topography remains relatively elevated to the south in the West Florida Basin. Subsequent extension and subsidence further dissected the basement allowing for the deposition of Middle and Late Jurassic syn-rift and Cretaceous post-rift sediments. Because of the lack of well control in the West Florida Basin, seismic packages are correlated northward to the northern margin of the West Florida Basin and slope, the Tampa Embayment, and the Apalachicola Basin and southward to the Straits of Florida and Yucatan. Seismic interpretations reveal two syn-rift packages, Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) and Jurassic-Cretaceous (JK), and one post rift package, Early Cretaceous (EK), were deposited prior to the Mid-Cretaceous Sequence Boundary, a basin-wide unconformity that marks the

  10. Exploration of drought evolution using numerical simulations over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji; Sun, Liqun

    2015-07-01

    The knowledge of drought evolution characteristics may aid the decision making process in mitigating drought impacts. This study uses a macro-scale hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate terrestrial hydrological processes over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China. Three drought indices, namely standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and soil moisture anomaly index (SMAI), are employed to examine the spatio-temporal and evolution features of drought events. SPI, SRI and SMAI represent meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought, respectively. The results reveal that the drought severity depicted by SPI and SRI is similar with increasing timescales; SRI is close to that of SPI in the wet season for the Liu River basin as the high-frequency precipitation is conserved more by runoff; the time lags appear between SPI and SRI due to the delay response of runoff to precipitation variability for the You River basin. The case study in 2010 spring drought further shows that the spatio-temporal evolutions are modulated by the basin-scale topography. There is more consistency between meteorological and hydrological droughts for the fan-like basin with a converged river network. For the west area of the Xijiang basin with the high elevation, the hydrological drought severity is less than meteorological drought during the developing stage. The recovery of hydrological and agricultural droughts is slower than that of meteorological drought for basins with a longer mainstream.

  11. Data compliation report: K West Basin fuel storage canister liquid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-12-21

    Sample analysis data from the 222-S Laboratory are reported. The data are for liquid samples taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the 105 K West Basin during March 1995. An analysis and data report from the Special Analytical Studies group of Westinghouse Hanford Company regarding these samples is also included. Data analysis is not included herein.

  12. Tracing and age-dating injected groundwater of the west basin barrier project, Los Angeles, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, Gp; Hudson, G B; Koester, C

    1999-03-26

    This preliminary report summarizes results from isotopic data recently generated on water collected for the West Basin Municipal Water District (WBMWD). Samples comprised monitoring and production wells up to 3.5 miles form the injection barrier, in addition to barrier product and blend water.

  13. LIFE HISTORY MONITORING OF SALMONIDS IN THE WEST FORK SMITH RIVER, UMPQUA BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a life-cycle monitoring basin for the Oregon Salmon Plan, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has estimated adult returns, distribution and smolt outmigration of coho, chinook and winter steelhead in the West Fork Smith River since 1998. In 2001/2002, the Environmenta...

  14. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  15. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  16. EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST/WEST TRUCK BAY AREA OF TRANSFER BASIN CORRIDOR OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). PHOTO TAKEN LOOKING NORTHWEST. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-19-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 8/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Glacial geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burggraf, G.B.

    1980-08-01

    The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is performed on the density and weathering characteristics of the surficial boulders to determine their validity as indicators of relative age. (ACR)

  18. 40Ar/39Ar dates from the West Siberian Basin: Siberian flood basalt province doubled.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Marc K; Saunders, Andrew D; White, Rosalind V; Pringle, Malcolm S; Al'Mukhamedov, Alexander I; Medvedev, Alexander I; Kirda, Nikolay P

    2002-06-07

    Widespread basaltic volcanism occurred in the region of the West Siberian Basin in central Russia during Permo-Triassic times. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations on plagioclase grains from deep boreholes in the basin reveal that the basalts were erupted 249.4 +/- 0.5 million years ago. This is synchronous with the bulk of the Siberian Traps, erupted further east on the Siberian Platform. The age and geochemical data confirm that the West Siberian Basin basalts are part of the Siberian Traps and at least double the confirmed area of the volcanic province as a whole. The larger area of volcanism strengthens the link between the volcanism and the end-Permian mass extinction.

  19. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Qi, X.; Zheng, M.

    2015-12-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  20. Deforestation in Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Indonesia is rapidly losing its lowland forests to logging, much of it illegal. At present, logging is claiming the forests at a rate of nearly two million hectares (slightly less than 5 million acres: roughly the same area as the state of Massachusetts) each year. At this rate, the island of Sumatra will have no more lowland forests by 2005, a fate already befallen the island of Sulawesi. Indonesia's lowland forests are home to a wide variety of wildlife and are considered among the richest ecosystems in the world. Among the unique life forms in these forests are the Orangutan and the Sumatra Tiger. Sixteen percent of the entire world's bird species, eleven percent of its plants, and ten percent of all mammals on Earth call these forests home. Many are found nowhere else. In the two Landsat scenes shown above, the pattern of deforestation can be clearly discerned. Deep green in these images shows lush vegetation in the forest cover. In both scenes, deep and pale red shows areas where there is little or no vegetation, often bare ground from where forest has been completely stripped. The latter Landsat scene from 2001 not only shows extensive clear cut areas, but also new logging roads built into the remaining forest to facilitate future cutting. This lowland forest region is located on Indonesia's largest island, Sumatra, roughly 100 km southwest of the provincial capital of Jambi. The first image was acquired by Landsat 5's Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor on June 22, 1992, the second by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 14, 2001. Both are false-color composite images made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. The area shown above is roughly 30 km x 22 km (19 miles x 14 miles). The large versions of these images show the same general area covering 60 km x 60 km. Images provided by the Tropical Rain Forest Information Center (TRFIC) through the Basic Science and Remote Sensing Initiative (BSRSI) based at Michigan

  1. Basin Characteristics for Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations In and Near West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paybins, Katherine S.

    2008-01-01

    Basin characteristics have long been used to develop equations describing streamflow. In the past, flow equations used in West Virginia were based on a few hand-calculated basin characteristics. More recently, the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to generate basin characteristics from existing datasets has refined the process for developing equations to describe flow values in the Mountain State. These basin characteristics are described in this document for streamflow-gaging stations in and near West Virginia. The GIS program developed in ArcGIS Workstation by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI?) used data that included National Elevation Dataset (NED) at 1:24,000 scale, climate data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA), streamlines from the National Hydrologic Dataset (NHD), and LandSat-based land-cover data (NLCD) for the period 1999-2003. Full automation of data generation was not achieved due to some inaccuracies in the elevation dataset, as well as inaccuracies in the streamflow-gage locations retrieved from the National Water Information System (NWIS). A Pearson?s correlation examination of the data indicates that several of the basin characteristics are correlated with drainage area. However, the GIS-generated data provide a consistent and documented set of basin characteristics for resource managers and researchers to use.

  2. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming

    2013-03-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  3. Subsidence, erosion and thermal history of the West Carpathian Foredeep Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francu, J.; Šafanda, J.; Cermak, V.; Krejci, O.; Andriessen, P.

    2012-04-01

    The present shape of the West Carpathian Foredeep Basin (WCFB) in the Czech Republic is strikingly narrower than the Alpine Molasse Basin in Austria and Carpathian Foredeep in Poland. Our study presents data on heat flow and thermal maturity patterns in the WCFB and compares them with the relevant data in the underlying units and adjacent West Carpathian Flysch Belt in order to evaluate the extent of erosion. In general the heat flow is very low in the Vienna Basin and moderately increases to NE, where the highest values are observed above the coal-bearing Upper Silesian Basin. Lower to Middle Miocene rocks of the WCFB show very mild increase of thermal maturity of kerogen and low decrease in porosity with depth down to 5 km. Organic matter is thermally immature as deep as 4 km where the strata enter early oil window. The underlying Paleogene, Cretaceous, and Jurassic follow a very similar diagenetic trend and suggest only local erosion in incised valleys, where Eocene sediments replaced the removed Mesozoic rocks. Marked offset in thermal maturity is observed between the top of Carboniferous and younger units evidencing regional erosion of 1.8-5 km of Late Paleozoic strata. Significant difference in thermal maturity exists between the Miocene of the WCFB and West Carpathian Flysch Belt (FlB). The application of basin modeling suggests that the deepest burial and catagenesis of the Mesozoic to Tertiary sedimentary rocks occurred prior to imbrication and stacking of the tectonic slices. The uplift and erosion in the FlB increases from the frontal Zdanice and Subsilesian units to Silesian and Raca nappes situated closer to hinterland, while the Bile Karpaty nappe does not follow this rule and is less mature than Raca (Magura). The erosion and transport of sediments to the sink areas of the Vienna and Danube Basins occurred during the final phases of thrust propagation in the Early Miocene and continued to Middle (Upper?) Miocene. The fission track data suggest that

  4. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  5. Impact of climate change on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Y.; Koike, T.

    2012-12-01

    Future changes in terrestrial biomass distribution under climate change will have a tremendous impact on water availability and land productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Assessment of future change of biomass distribution in the regional or the river basin scale is strongly needed. An eco-hydrological model that fully couples a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with a distributed biosphere hydrological model is applied to multi-model assessment of climate change impact on vegetation dynamics in a West African river basin. In addition, a distributed and auto optimization system of parameters in DVM is developed to make it possible to model a diversity of phonologies of plants by using different parameters in the different model grids. The simple carbon cycle modeling in a distributed hydrological model shows reliable accuracy in simulating the seasonal cycle of vegetation on the river basin scale. Model outputs indicate that generally, an extension of dry season duration and surface air temperature rising caused by climate change may cause a dieback of vegetation in West Africa. However, we get different seasonal and spatial changes of leaf area index and different mechanisms of the degradation when we used different general circulation models' outputs as meteorological forcing of the eco-hydrological model. Therefore, multi-model analysis like this study is important to deliver meaningful information to the society because we can discuss the uncertainties of our prediction by this methodology. This study makes it possible to discuss the impact of future change of terrestrial biomass on climate and water resources in the regional or the river basin scale although we need further sophistications of the system. Performance of the eco-hydrological model (WEB-DHM+DVM) in Volta River Basin, with basin-averaged leaf area index from model (blue solid line) and AVHRR satellite-derived product (red rectangles).

  6. Vitrinite reflectance data for the Permian Basin, west Texas and southeast New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark; Barker, Charles E.; McDonald, Sargent

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data based on analyses of samples of drill cuttings collected from 74 boreholes spread throughout the Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico (fig. 1). The resulting data consist of 3 to 24 individual Ro analyses representing progressively deeper stratigraphic units in each of the boreholes (table 1). The samples, Cambrian-Ordovician to Cretaceous in age, were collected at depths ranging from 200 ft to more than 22,100 ft.The R0 data were plotted on maps that depict three different maturation levels for organic matter in the sedimentary rocks of the Permian Basin (figs. 2-4). These maps show depths at the various borehole locations where the R0 values were calculated to be 0.6 (fig. 2), 1.3 (fig. 3), and 2.0 (fig. 4) percent, which correspond, generally, to the onset of oil generation, the onset of oil cracking, and the limit of oil preservation, respectively.The four major geologic structural features within the Permian Basin–Midland Basin, Delaware Basin, Central Basin Platform, and Northwest Shelf (fig. 1) differ in overall depth, thermal history and tectonic style. In the western Delaware Basin, for example, higher maturation is observed at relatively shallow depths, resulting from uplift and eastward basin tilting that began in the Mississippian and ultimately exposed older, thermally mature rocks. Maturity was further enhanced in this basin by the emplacement of early and mid-Tertiary intrusives. Volcanic activity also appears to have been a controlling factor for maturation of organic matter in the southern part of the otherwise tectonically stable Northwest Shelf (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1987). Depths to the three different Ro values are greatest in the eastern Delaware Basin and southern Midland Basin. This appears to be a function of tectonic activity related to the Marathon-Ouachita orogeny, during the Late-Middle Pennsylvanian, whose affects were widespread across the Permian

  7. The habitat of petroleum in the Brazilian marginal and west African basins: A biological marker investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Soldan, A.L. ); Maxwell, J.R. ); Figueira, J. )

    1990-05-01

    A geochemical and biological marker investigation of a variety of oils from offshore Brazil and west Africa, ranging in age from Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary, has been done, with the following aims: (1) assessing the depositional environment of source rocks, (2) correlating the reservoired oils, (3) comparing the Brazilian oils with their west African counterparts. The approach was based in stable isotope data; bulk, elemental, and hydrous pyrolysis results; and molecular studies involving quantitative geological marker investigations of alkanes using GC-MS and GC-MS-MS. The results reveal similarities between groups of oils from each side of the Atlantic and suggest an origin from source rocks deposited in five types of depositional environment: lacustrine fresh water, lacustrine saline water, marine evaporitic/carbonate, restricted marine anoxic, and marine deltaic. In west Africa, the Upper Cretaceous marine anoxic succession (Cenomanian-Santonian) appears to be a major oil producer, but in Brazil it is generally immature. The Brazilian offshore oils have arisen mainly from the pre-salt sequence, whereas the African oils show a balance between origins from the pre-salt and marine sequences. The integration of the geochemical and geological data indicate that new frontiers of hydrocarbon exploration in the west African basins must consider the Tertiary reservoirs in the offshore area of Niger Delta, the reservoirs of the rift sequences in the shallow-water areas of south Gabon, Congo, and Cuanza basins, and the reservoirs from the drift sequences (post-salt) in the deep-water areas of Gabon, Congo Cabinda, and Cuanza basins.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  9. Structural style of the Cuyo-Bolsones basin complex of west-central Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gollop, I.G. )

    1991-03-01

    The Cuyo-Bolsones basin complex is part of a mosaic of basinal features that lie in the eastern Andean foreland. Sedimentary section ranges from Ordovician to Tertiary in age with the main petroleum source and reservoir potential in Carboniferous to Triassic clastics. Thick conglomerate units and widespread unconformities of both Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic age as well as localized volcanics indicate several periods of violent tectonic activity during late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic times. Triassic and older sediments are affected by normal faulting which in basins directly south extends up into the Lower Cretaceous. In the Cuyo-Bolsones basinal area, however this ancient tensional regime is entirely overprinted by relatively recent thrusting. This thrusting is late Tertiary in age, generally from east to west with very substantial relief. These thrust sheets are cut in places by later northeast-southwest strike-slip fault zones producing some localized flower structures. Nearly all the oil discovered in the Cuyo basin is produced from Triassic clastic reservoirs in compressional anticlines related to this thrusting. The major thrusts are well defined seismically, and seismic interpretations fit easily on balanced sections.

  10. Upper Permian (Guadalupian) facies and their association with hydrocarbons - Permian basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Harris, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    Outcrops of Guadalupian sedimentary rocks in the Permian basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico are a classic example of the facies relationships that span a carbonate shelf. In the subsurface, these rocks form classic hydrocarbon-facies taps. Proceeding from basin to the updip termination of the shelf, the facies are (1) deep-water basin, (2) an apron of allochthonous carbonates, (3) carbonate shelf margin or reef, (4) carbonate sand flats, (5) carbonate barrier islands, (6) lagoon, and (7) coastal playas and supratidal salt flats (sabkhas). Over a half century of exploration drilling has shown that hydrocarbons in the Permian rocks of the Permian basin have accumulated at the updip contact of the lagoonal dolomites and clastics with the coastal evaporites, and in the basinal channel-fill clastics. The shelf marginal (reef) facies contain cavernous porosity, but commonly are water saturated. These facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences provide an exploration model with which to explore and rank hydrocarbon potential in other carbonate provinces. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  11. DOE West Coast Basin program, California Basin Study: Progress report 4, (July 1986-June 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.; Huh, Chih-An

    1987-06-01

    The overall objective of our research is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of selected metabolically active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. One focus is to examine the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight, with particular reference to C, N and certain radionuclides and trace metals. A second focus is to examine these same radionuclides and trace metals in other reservoirs besides the zooplankton (i.e., in seawater, sediment trap material and bottom sediments). Knowledge of the rates, routes and reservoirs of these nuclides and metals should lead to a cogent model for these elements in Santa Monica/San Pedro Basins. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. ); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  13. Test plan for techniques to measure and remove coatings from K West Basin fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, A.E.

    1998-06-17

    Several types of coatings have previously been visually identified on the surface of 105-K East and 105-K West Basins fuel elements. One type of coating (found only in K West Basin) in particular was found to be a thick translucent material that was often seen to be dislodged from the elements as flakes when the elements were handled during visual examinations (Pitner 1997). Subsequently it was determined (for one element only in a hot cell) that this material, in the dry condition, could easily be removed from the element using a scraping tool. The coating was identified as Al(OH){sub 3} through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and to be approximately 60 {micro}m thick via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, brushing under water in the basin using numerous mechanical strokes failed to satisfactorily remove these coatings in their thickest form as judged by appearance. Such brushing was done with only one type of metal brush, a brush design previously found satisfactory for removing UO{sub 4}.xH{sub 2}O coatings from the elements.

  14. California Basin study (CaBS): DOE west coast basin program

    SciTech Connect

    Small, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of our research continues to be elucidation of the transport pathways and transformations of organic matter in the California Basins region, with particular reference to the role of macrozooplankton in upper waters. We have concentrated on C and N pathways and fluxes to data, and will continue to investigate these further (seasonal aspects, and the role of zooplankton carnivory in zooplankton-medicated C and N flux, for example).

  15. Long-Term Water Balance of the Volta River Basin in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Taylor, J.; Steenhuis, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Volta River drains approximately 400,000 km2 of the semi-arid to sub-humid savanna of West Africa. Average rainfall is about 1000 mm per year. The interannual variation is relatively low with a coefficient of variation of 0.07. Most rainfall returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration and only 9% becomes available as river runoff. The interannual variation of river flow is much higher than that of rainfall and has a coefficient of variation of 0.57. In this presentation, the coupling between interannual variation in rainfall and runoff is examined. To a large extent, the high variability in river flow can be explained with the relatively small differences in rainfall between years; the watershed strongly amplifies the atmospheric input. The amplifying effect is, however, not constant over space and time. Over all, the basin received less rain than before in the past two decades. Some parts of the basin did indeed produce less runoff but other parts actually produced more runoff, most likely due to changes in landuse. No clear increase or decrease in the interannual variability could be found for different parts of the basin. To examine the interannual variability of water resources availability under future climates, the applicability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) was examined for West Africa. Comparison of historical and GCM rainfall data showed large discrepancies. Different approaches exist to adjust GCM rainfall with the aid of historical rainfall data but for West Africa some problems remained. This presentation concludes with a focus on differences in mid-term (2-10 years) persistence in annual river flow as produced by historical and GCM data.

  16. Impact of future climate change on streamflow in the White Volta river basin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuobie, E.; Diekkrüger, B.; Liebe, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied in the White Volta river basin, West Africa, to simulate the streamflow and to estimate the impact of future climate change on the streamflow. The White Volta river basin is one of the three major sub-basins of the Volta river basin, and drains an area of about 106,000 km2 mainly shared by the riparian countries, Burkina Faso and Ghana. The model was calibrated and validated using daily measured streamflow data from the stream gage at Nawuni, for the period 1980-2000. Impact of future climate change on streamflow was estimated by simulating streamflow of two time slices, the present (1990-2000) and future (2030-2039), using the calibrated SWAT model and stochastically generated daily climate series and comparing their mean annual values. The generated future climate series reflected monthly changes in precipitation and temperature forecasted by the meso-scale climate model MM5, which was downscaled from ECHAM4 scenario IS92a. The results show that SWAT is able to accurately reproduce the streamflow in the White Volta Basin. The coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency were found to be, respectively, higher than 0.8 and 0.7, for both the calibration and validation periods. Compared to the present, the future mean annual streamflow and the annual coefficient of variation of the streamflow in the basin are expected to increase by 33% and 52%, respectively, as a result of future climate change.

  17. Thermal springs in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Payette River basin, characterized by steep, rugged mountains and narrow river valleys, occupies an area of about 3 ,300 square miles in west-central Idaho. Predominant rock types in the basin include granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith and basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Waters from thermal springs in the basin, temperatures of which range from 34 to 86 degrees Celsius, are sodium bicarbonate types and are slightly alkaline. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 173 to 470 milligrams per liter. Reservoir temperatures determined from the sodium-potassium-calcium and silicic acid-corrected silica geothermometers range from 53 to 143 degrees Celsius. Tritium, present in concentrations between 0 and 2 tritium units, indicate sampled thermal waters are at least 100 years old and possibly more than 1,000 years old. Stable isotope data indicate it is unlikely any of the nonthermal waters sampled are representative of precipitation that recharges the thermal springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged about 5,700 acre-feet of water in 1979. Associated convective heat flux is 1.1x10 to the 7th power calories per second. (USGS)

  18. Flood of July 9-11, 1993, in the Raccoon River basin, west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, D.A.; Koppensteiner, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water-surface-elevation profiles and peak discharges for the flood of July 9-11, 1993, in the Raccoon River Basin, west-central Iowa, are presented in this report. The profiles illustrate the 1993 flood along the Raccoon, North Raccoon, South Raccoon, and Middle Raccoon Rivers and along Brushy and Storm Creeks in the west-central Iowa counties of Carroll, Dallas, Greene, Guthrie, and Polk. Water-surface-elevation profiles for the floods of June 1947, March 1979, and June 29- July 1, 1986, in the Raccoon River Basin also are included in the report for comparative purposes. The July 9-11, 1993, flood is the largest known peak discharge at gaging stations Brushy Creek near Templeton (station number 05483318) 19,000 cubic feet per second, Middle Raccoon River near Bayard (station number 05483450) 27,500 cubic feet per second, Middle Raccoon River at Panora (station number 05483600) 22,400 cubic feet per second, South Raccoon River at Redfield (station number 05484000) 44,000 cubic feet per second, and Raccoon River at Van Meter (station number 05484500) 70,100 cubic feet per second. The peak discharges were, respectively, 1.5, 1.3, 1.1,1.2, and 1.3 times larger than calculated 100-year recurrence-interval discharges. The report provides information on flood stages and discharges and floodflow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations in the Raccoon River Basin using flood information collected through 1996. A flood history summarizes rainfall conditions and damages for floods that occurred during 1947, 1958, 1979, 1986, 1990, and 1993. Information on temporary bench marks and reference points established in the Raccoon River Basin during 1976-79 and 1995-97 also is included in the report.

  19. Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

  20. Mantle density structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanova, Y. V.; Artemieva, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a mantle density model of the Proterozoic- Paleozoic West Siberian basin (WSB) and the Archean -Proterozoic Siberian craton (SC) based on free-board constraints. Given complex tectonic evolution of both WSB and SC, a strong compositional heterogeneity of mantle lithosphere is expected, but has never been documented so far in regional geophysical studies. In particular, the Siberian craton, formed by amalgamation of Archean terranes, has been significantly affected by Proterozoic collisional and extensional events, Devonian rifting of the Vilyui rift, and several pulses of kimberlite magmatism. The basement of the West Siberian basin, the largest in the world intracontinental basin, was formed by amalgamation of island arcs, terranes, micro-continents, and relict ocean basins during late Proterozoic-Paleozoic orogenic events, and was later affected by the Permian-early Triassic rifting, followed by emplacement of the Siberian traps, which cover much of the SC and the WSB. Their source region and geodynamic origin are still a subject of debate, although a strong reworking of the lithosphere is expected to be associated with the Siberian LIP. The present-day West Siberian basin and the Siberian craton lack significant surface topography variations, whereas the crustal structure is highly heterogeneous with large lateral variations in crustal thickness (ca. 20 km), thickness of sediments (ca. 15 km), and average crustal density (Cherepanova et al., 2013). Similarly, thermal regime of the lithosphere is also heterogeneous, ranging from typical cold cratonic geotherms in much of the SC with up-to 350 km thick lithosphere to hot geotherms in the rifted part of the WSB, where the lithosphere thickness is ca. 90-130 km (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001). Nonetheless, free air gravity is near-zero for much of Siberia suggesting that it is close to isostatic equilibrium. Topography, through the lithosphere buoyancy, is controlled by the structure of the mantle

  1. Tectonic features of the southern Sumatra-western Java forearc of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, H. U.; Gaedicke, C.; Roeser, H. A.; Schreckenberger, B.; Meyer, H.; Reichert, C.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Prexl, A.

    2002-10-01

    Multichannel reflection seismic profiles along the active Sunda Arc, where the Indo-Australian plate subducts under the overriding Eurasian margin revealed two accretionary wedges: The inner wedge I is of assumed Paleogene age, and the outer wedge II is of Neogene to Recent age. The inner wedge I is composed of tectonic flakes stretching from southeast Sumatra across the Sunda Strait to northwest Java, implying a similar plate tectonic regime in these areas at the time of flake development during upper Oligocene. Today, wedge I forms the outer arc high and the backstop for the younger outer wedge II. The missing outer arc high of the southern Sunda Strait is explained by a combination of Neogene transtension due to a clockwise rotation of Sumatra with respect to Java and by arc-parallel strike-slip movements. The rotation created transtensional pull-apart basins along the western Sunda Strait (Semangka Graben) as opposed to transpression and inversion on the eastern Sunda Strait, within the new detected Krakatau Basin. The arc-parallel transpressional Mentawai strike-slip fault zone (MFZ) was correlated from the Sumatra forearc basin to the northwest Java forearc basin. Off the Sunda Strait, northward bending branches of the MFZ are connected with the right-lateral Sumatra fault zone (SFZ) along the volcanic arc segment on Sumatra. It is speculated that the SFZ was attached to the Cimandiri-Pelabuhan Ratu strike-slip fault of Java prior to the presumed rotation of Sumatra, and that since the late lower Miocene the main slip movement shifted from the volcanic arc position to the forearc basin area due to increasingly oblique plate convergence.

  2. Geological evolution of the West Luzon Basin (South China Sea, Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfai, J.; Franke, D.; Gaedicke, C.; Lutz, R.; Schnabel, M.; Ramos, E. G.

    2010-05-01

    Interpretation of new multichannel seismic data sheds insights into the geologic evolution of the West Luzon Basin (WLB), Philippines. The basin stretches for about 200 km in north-south direction and for up to 50 km in east-west direction. The West Luzon Basin is a sediment-filled trough that is located between the island of Luzon and the outer arc high of the eastward directed subduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust at the Manila Trench. However, at the southern end of the Manila Trench, where its trend changes from N-S to NW-SE and projects towards Mindoro, continental collision occurs (e.g. Lewis & Hayes, 1985). In 2008 approximately 1000 line-kilometres of regional multichannel seismic (MCS) data were obtained in the area of the WLB during a cruise with the German research vessel SONNE. In our MCS data six major unconformities in the WLB separate major stratigraphic units. We interpret high-amplitude, low-frequency reflection bands as acoustic basement that is dissected by normal faults. In the deep parts (4.5-5 s; TWT) of our E-W running seismic profiles we can trace a major fault system with a fault offset of 1-1.5 s (TWT). We suggest an initial development of the structure as a normal fault system, which later was inverted locally. A major change in the depositional regime occurs in the lower part of the sedimentary infill. A distinct bottom simulating reflector (BSR) is commonly observed. Grid calculations of the sediment thickness of the lower stratigraphic units give detailed values of deposition shifts and reveal variations in subsidence of the basin. Based on the depth of bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) heat flow values of 35-40 mW/m2 were calculated, which are typical for forearc basins. Two peculiarities of the WLB are not well in accordance with a forearc setting: The acoustic basement was affected by extensional deformation resulting in normal faulting with fault offsets up to 400 ms (TWT) but extension did not affect sedimentary layers

  3. Age and tectonic evolution of the northwest corner of the West Philippine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chang, Ching-Ming

    2015-09-01

    To understand the tectonic characteristics and age of the northwestern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), multi-beam bathymetry and geomagnetic data have been collected and analyzed. The seafloor morphology obviously shows NW-SE trending seafloor fabrics and NE-SW trending fracture zones, indicating a NE-SW seafloor spreading direction. An overlapping spreading center near 22°20'N and 125°E is identified. Besides, numerous seamounts indicate an excess supply of magma during or after the oceanic crust formation. A V-shaped seamount chain near 21°52'N and 124°26'E indicates a southeastward magma propagation and also indicates the location of the seafloor spreading ridge. On the basis of the newly collected geomagnetic data, the magnetic anomaly shows NW-SE trending magnetic lineations. Both bathymetry and geomagnetic data reveal NE-SW seafloor spreading features between the Gagua Ridge and the Luzon Okinawa fracture zone (LOFZ). Our magnetic age modeling indicates that the age of the northwestern corner of the WPB west of the LOFZ is between 47.5 to 54 Ma (without including overlapping spreading center), which is linked to the first spreading phase of the WPB to the east of the LOFZ. In addition, the age of the Huatung Basin is identified to be between 33 to 42 Ma, which is similar to the second spreading phase of the WPB.

  4. Epidemiology of West Nile Disease in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin from 2009 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Bruno, Rossana; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Cito, Francesca; Iannetti, Simona; Narcisi, Valeria; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) transmission has been confirmed in the last four years in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. An increasing concern towards West Nile disease (WND) has been observed due to the high number of human and animal cases reported in these areas confirming the importance of this zoonosis. A new epidemiological scenario is currently emerging: although new introductions of the virus from abroad are always possible, confirming the epidemiological role played by migratory birds, the infection endemisation in some European territories today is a reality supported by the constant reoccurrence of the same strains across years in the same geographical areas. Despite the WND reoccurrence in the Old World, the overwintering mechanisms are not well known, and the role of local resident birds or mosquitoes in this context is poorly understood. A recent new epidemiological scenario is the spread of lineage 2 strain across European and Mediterranean countries in regions where lineage 1 strain is still circulating creating favourable conditions for genetic reassortments and emergence of new strains. This paper summarizes the main epidemiological findings on WNV occurrence in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin from 2009 to 2013, considering potential future spread patterns. PMID:25302311

  5. Apatite fission-track thermochronology of the southern Appalachian Basin: Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, M.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Apatite fission-track apparent ages (246 {plus minus} 37 to 95 {plus minus} 18 Ma) for 26 samples of upper Devonian (Hampshire and Chemung Formations) and middle Devonian age (Tioga Ash Bed) from the southern Appalachian Basin of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia, along with confined track length distributions for 13 of these samples, suggest that uplift was contemporaneous with Triassic-Jurassic extension along the Atlantic continental margin. Uplift, as measured by apatite fission-track analysis, began earliest in the northwestern section on the Cumberland Plateau at {approximately}225 {plus minus} 25 Ma. This area probably required the least amount of erosional unroofing ({approximately}3.1 km). Samples from the Valley and Ridge Province of northern West Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland yield progressively younger apatite fission-track apparent ages to the east (ranging from 163 {plus minus} 10 to 95 {plus minus} 18 Ma). This is consistent with deeper burial in the eastern Appalachian Basin as indicated by increasing CAI indices and geodynamic modeling. The southwestern Virginia samples yield a mean apatite fission-track apparent age of 176 {plus minus} 11 Ma, which agrees with the Middle Jurassic apatite fission-track ages to the north.

  6. Diatom distribution as an environmental indicator in surface sediments of the West Philippine Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Linnan; Chen, Min; Lan, Binbin; Qi, Hongshuai; Zhang, Aimei; Lan, Dongzhao; Fang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of diatoms from surface sediments of the West Philippine Basin was analyzed, with 68 species and varieties of diatoms from 26 genera identified. Diatom abundance varied spatially, with the absolute abundance of diatoms ranging from 0 to 3.4×104 frustules/g. The seven tropical pelagic diatoms were Alveus marinus, Azpeitia africana, Azpeitia nodulifera, Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Hemidiscus cuneiformis var. ventricosus, Roperia tesselata and Rhizosolenia bergonii. The relative abundance of these species was greater than 20%, and their distribution pattern in the sediments was overlaid by the flow of the Kuroshio Current. Ethmodiscus rex was present at 159 stations, formed the most abundant and dominant species in the diatomaceous ooze, and thus referred to as Ethmodiscus ooze. Ethmodiscus rex was also a major contributor to primary production in the region. A principal component analysis was employed to explain the relationship between samples and variations in diatom species from the WPB. Four diatom assemblages were distinguished, representing different oceanographic conditions; their spatial distributions were closely related with the North Equatorial Current and Kuroshio Current patterns in the region. These diatom assemblages can therefore be useful in deciphering late Quaternary palaeoceanographic reconstructions of the West Philippine Basin.

  7. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Pool, Karl N.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2006-07-25

    This report provides physical and radiochemical characterization results from examinations and laboratory analyses performed on {approx}0.55-inch diameter rod pieces found in the 105 K West (KW) Basin that were suspected to be from nuclear reactor fuel. The characterization results will be used to establish the technical basis for adding this material to the contents of one of the final Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) that will be loaded out of the KW Basin in late FY2006 or at a later time depending on project priorities. Fifteen fuel rod pieces were found during the clean out of the KW Basin. Based on lack of specific credentials, documentation, or obvious serial numbers, none of the items could be positively identified nor could their sources or compositions be described. Item weights and dimensions measured in the KW Basin indicated densities consistent with the suspect fuel rods containing uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium metal, or being empty. Extensive review of the Hanford Site technical literature led to the postulation that these pieces likely were irradiated test fuel prepared to support of the development of the Hanford ''New Production Reactor'', later called N Reactor. To obtain definitive data on the composition of the suspect fuel, 4 representative fuel rod pieces, with densities corresponding to oxide fuel were selected from the 15 items, and shipped from the KW Basin to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL; also known at the 325 Building) for examinations and characterization. The three fuel rod that were characterized appear to contain slightly irradiated UO2 fuel, originally of natural enrichment, with zirconium cladding. The uranium-235 isotopic concentrations decreased by the irradiation and become slightly lower than the natural enrichment of 0.72% to range from 0.67 to 0.71 atom%. The plutonium concentrations, ranged from about 200 to 470 grams per metric ton of uranium and ranged in

  8. Techniques for simulating flood hydrographs and estimating flood volumes for ungaged basins in east and west Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    A dimensionless hydrograph developed for a variety of basin conditions in Georgia was tested for its applicability to streams in East and West Tennessee by comparing it to a similar dimensionless hydrograph developed for streams in East and West Tennessee. Hydrographs of observed discharge at 83 streams in East Tennessee and 38 in West Tennessee were used in the study. Statistical analyses were performed by comparing simulated (or computed) hydrographs, derived by application of the Georgia dimensionless hydrograph, and dimensionless hydrographs developed from Tennessee data, with the observed hydrographs at 50 and 75% of their peak-flow widths. Results of the tests indicate that the Georgia dimensionless hydrography is virtually the same as the one developed for streams in East Tennessee, but that it is different from the dimensionless hydrograph developed for streams in West Tennessee. Because of the extensive testing of the Georgia dimensionless hydrograph, it was determined to be applicable for East Tennessee, whereas the dimensionless hydrograph developed from data on streams in West Tennessee was determined to be applicable in West Tennessee. As part of the dimensionless hydrograph development, an average lagtime in hours for each study basin, and the volume in inches of flood runoff for each flood event were computed. By use of multiple-regression analysis, equations were developed that relate basin lagtime to drainage area size, basin length, and percent impervious area. Similarly, flood volumes were related to drainage area size, peak discharge, and basin lagtime. These equations, along with the appropriate dimensionless hydrograph, can be used to estimate a typical (average) flood hydrograph and volume for recurrence-intervals up to 100 years at any ungaged site draining less than 50 sq mi in East and West Tennessee. (USGS)

  9. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  10. Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M. ); Oleg, M.; Igirgi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic interval correlative to the reservoir sandstone pinches-out against the foreset of the preceding clinoform. This geometric relationship, and the sharp-based log pattern of sandstones along the more landward margin of the sandstone body, suggests that the sandstone may have been deposited as a consequence of marked downward shift in baselevel as part of a lowstand prograding complex, or possibly as a late highstand forced regression deposit. The Sugmut field, located in the northeast part of the study area, is 12 km wide east-west and 75 km long north-south, and grades laterally into shale to the west, south and east. Relative to the regressive phase isopach, the transgressive phase isopach thick shifts slightly northward and eastward indicating the direction of littoral drift and marginward transgression. In the northern part of the field the shelf-edge sandstone interval may correlate with a thin depositional-dip oriented shelf sandstone mapped within the transgressive interval. This mapped pattern may be interpreted as lowstand incision of a fluvial system supplying sand to a shelf-edge delta followed by infilling of the fluvial valley during transgression. Subsequent down-to-the-north regional tilt resulted in structural closure forming the Sugmut field trap.

  11. Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.; Oleg, M.; Igirgi, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic interval correlative to the reservoir sandstone pinches-out against the foreset of the preceding clinoform. This geometric relationship, and the sharp-based log pattern of sandstones along the more landward margin of the sandstone body, suggests that the sandstone may have been deposited as a consequence of marked downward shift in baselevel as part of a lowstand prograding complex, or possibly as a late highstand forced regression deposit. The Sugmut field, located in the northeast part of the study area, is 12 km wide east-west and 75 km long north-south, and grades laterally into shale to the west, south and east. Relative to the regressive phase isopach, the transgressive phase isopach thick shifts slightly northward and eastward indicating the direction of littoral drift and marginward transgression. In the northern part of the field the shelf-edge sandstone interval may correlate with a thin depositional-dip oriented shelf sandstone mapped within the transgressive interval. This mapped pattern may be interpreted as lowstand incision of a fluvial system supplying sand to a shelf-edge delta followed by infilling of the fluvial valley during transgression. Subsequent down-to-the-north regional tilt resulted in structural closure forming the Sugmut field trap.

  12. Cenozoic uplift on the West Greenland margin: active sedimentary basins in quiet Archean terranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Scott; Stephenson, Randell; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic is believed by some authors to have experienced tectonically induced uplift within the Cenozoic. Examination of evidence, onshore and offshore, has been interpreted to imply the presence of kilometre scale uplift across the margins of the Barents Sea, North Sea, Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea. Development of topography on the West Greenland margin (Baffin Bay), in particular, has been subject to much discussion and dispute. A series of low temperature thermochronological (AFT and AHe) studies onshore and interpretation of seismic architecture offshore have suggested uplift of the entire margin totalling ~3km. However, challenges to this work and recent analysis on the opposing margin (Baffin Island) have raised questions about the validity of this interpretation. The present work reviews and remodels the thermochronological data from onshore West Greenland with the aim of re-evaluating our understanding of the margin's history. New concepts within the discipline, such as effect of radiation damage on Helium diffusivity, contemporary modelling approaches and denudational mapping are all utilised to investigate alternative interpretations to this margins complex post rift evolution. In contrast to earlier studies our new approach indicates slow protracted cooling across much of the region; however, reworked sedimentary samples taken from the Cretaceous Nuussuaq Basin display periods of rapid reheating and cooling. These new models suggest the Nuussuaq Basin experienced a tectonically active Cenozoic, while the surrounding Archean basement remained quiet. Faults located within the basin appear to have been reactivated during the Palaeocene and Eocene, a period of well-documented inversion events throughout the North Atlantic, and may have resulted in subaerial kilometre scale uplift. This interpretation of the margin's evolution has wider implications for the treatment of low temperature thermochronological data and the geological history of the North

  13. Geology of oil fields and future exploration potential in west African Aptian Salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.D.; Edwards, A.D.

    1987-05-01

    The Aptian Salt basin of west Africa, extends from Equatorial Guinea southward to Angola, contains recoverable reserves estimated at nearly 4 billion BOE, and is current producing 600,000 BOPD. The basin developed as a result of tensional forces between west Africa and South America initiated at the end of the Jurassic. The prospective sedimentary sequences ranged in age from Early Cretaceous (uppermost Jurassic in places) to Holocene and is divided by the Aptian transgressive sand and salt into a pre-salt, nonmarine, syn-rift sequence and a post-salt, marine, post-rift sequence. Both the pre- and post-salt sequences contain several successful exploration plays, the most prolific of which are the Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstone fields in tilted fault blocks of Gabon and Cabinda; Early Cretaceous carbonate buildups on the margins of basement highs in Cabinda; Early Cretaceous transgressive marine sandstone fields in anticlines draped over basement highs in Gabon; Late Cretaceous shallow marine sandstone and carbonate fields in salt-related structures in the Congo, Zaire, Cabinda, and Angola; Late Cretaceous dolomites in structural/stratigraphic traps in Angola; Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary deltaic/estuarine sandstone traps formed by salt movement in Gabon, Cabinda, and angola; and Tertiary marine turbidite fields in Cabinda and Angola. Despite the exploration success in these trends, much of the basin is under or poorly explored. The major problems for exploration are the poor quality of seismic definition beneath the salt, which makes it difficult to predict pre-salt structure and stratigraphy, and the importance of a stratigraphic element in many of the post-salt traps, also difficult to detect on seismic.

  14. Thermal Properties of West Siberian Sediments in Application to Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romushkevich, Raisa; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Artem; Kazak, Andrey; Belenkaya, Irina; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya

    2016-04-01

    Quality of heat flow and rock thermal property data is the crucial question in basin and petroleum system modeling. A number of significant deviations in thermal conductivity values were observed during our integral geothermal study of West Siberian platform reporting that the corrections should be carried out in basin models. The experimental data including thermal anisotropy and heterogeneity measurements were obtained along of more than 15 000 core samples and about 4 500 core plugs. The measurements were performed in 1993-2015 with the optical scanning technique within the Continental Super-Deep Drilling Program (Russia) for scientific super-deep well Tyumenskaya SG-6, parametric super-deep well Yen-Yakhinskaya, and deep well Yarudeyskaya-38 as well as for 13 oil and gas fields in the West Siberia. Variations of the thermal conductivity tensor components in parallel and perpendicular direction to the layer stratification (assessed for 2D anisotropy model of the rock studied), volumetric heat capacity and thermal anisotropy coefficient values and average values of the thermal properties were the subject of statistical analysis for the uppermost deposits aged by: T3-J2 (200-165 Ma); J2-J3 (165-150 Ma); J3 (150-145 Ma); K1 (145-136 Ma); K1 (136-125 Ma); K1-K2 (125-94 Ma); K2-Pg+Ng+Q (94-0 Ma). Uncertainties caused by deviations of thermal conductivity data from its average values were found to be as high as 45 % leading to unexpected errors in the basin heat flow determinations. Also, the essential spatial-temporal variations in the thermal rock properties in the study area is proposed to be taken into account in thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon recovery with thermal methods. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. D. Habel

    2008-03-18

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-8:4 Fuel Storage Basin West Side Adjacent and Side Slope Soils. The rectangular-shaped concrete basin on the south side of the 105-F Reactor building served as an underwater collection, storage, and transfer facility for irradiated fuel elements discharged from the reactor.

  16. Crustal shear-wave velocity structure beneath Sumatra from receiver function modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-05-01

    We estimated the shear-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs ratio of the crust beneath the Sumatra region by inverting stacked receiver functions from five three-component broadband seismic stations, located in diverse geologic setting, using a well known non-linear direct search approach, Neighborhood Algorithm (NA). Inversion results show significant variation of sediment layer thicknesses from 1 km beneath the backarc basin (station BKNI and PMBI) to 3-7 km beneath the coastal part of Sumatra region (station LHMI and MNAI) and Nias island (station GSI). Average sediment layer shear velocity (Vss) beneath all the stations is observed to be less (∼1.35 km/s) and their corresponding Vp/Vs ratio is very high (∼2.2-3.0). Crustal thickness beneath Sumatra region varies between 27 and 35 km, with exception of 19 km beneath Nias island, with average crustal Vs ∼3.1-3.4 km/s (Vp/Vs ∼1.8). It is well known that thick sediments with low Vs (and high Vp/Vs) amplify seismic waves even from a small-magnitude earthquake, which can cause huge damage in the zone. This study can provide the useful information of the crust for the Sumatra region. Since, Sumatra is an earthquake prone zone, which suffered the strong shaking of Great Andaman-Sumatra earthquake; this study can also be helpful for seismic hazard assessment.

  17. Dissolution of evaporites in and around the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico and west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    permian evaporites in the Ochoan Castile, Salado, and Rustler Formations in the Delaware Basin of southeast New Mexico and west Texas have been subjected to various degrees of dissolution (notably of halite and gypsum) through geologic time. Eastward tilting of the Delaware Basin has resulted in the exhumation and erosion of Ochoan rocks in the western part of the basin. Waters in the Capitan, Rustler, Castile, and Bell Canyon Formations have previously been proposed as agents or consequences of evaporite dissolution according to four principal models: solution-and-fill, phreatic dissolution, brine density flow, and stratabound dissolutin (along bedding planes). Several geomorphological features of positive and negative relief have previously been cited as indicators of evaporite dissolution. Brine density flow has been used to explain the selective dissolution of certain evaporite horizons during the late Cenozoic. A review of available geological data has revealed that: Halite deposition was probably not so extensive as formerly believed. Waters with potential to dissolve evaporites are in the Rustler and Capitan, but not in the Bell Canyon, Salado mine seeps, or the Castile brine reservoirs. Brine density flow has not been active in removing most of the missing halite, nor are point-source dissolution features likely to have their roots at the Bell Canyon. Major evaporite dissolution has not been confined to the late Cenozoic, but much of it took place during the Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Tertiary periods. The Bell Canyon Formation has been a sink for dissolution-derived brine.

  18. Influence of Transcontinental arch on Cretaceous listric-normal faulting, west flank, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Seismic studies along the west flank of the Denver basin near Boulder and Greeley, Colorado illustrate the interrelationship between shallow listric-normal faulting in the Cretaceous and deeper basement-controlled faulting. Deeper fault systems, primarily associated with the Transcontinental arch, control the styles and causative mechanisms of listric-normal faulting that developed in the Cretaceous. Three major stratigraphic levels of listric-normal faulting occur in the Boulder-Greeley area. These tectonic sensitive intervals are present in the following Cretaceous formations: Laramie-Fox Hills-upper Pierre, middle Pierre Hygiene zone, and the Niobrara-Carlile-Greenhorn. Documentation of the listric-normal fault style reveals a Wattenberg high, a horst block or positive feature of the greater Transcontinental arch, was active in the east Boulder-Greeley area during Cretaceous time. Paleotectonic events associated with the Wattenberg high are traced through analysis of the listric-normal fault systems that occur in the area. These styles are important to recognize because of their stratigraphic and structural influence on Cretaceous petroleum reservoir systems in the Denver basin. Similar styles of listric-normal faulting occur in the Cretaceous in many Rocky Mountain foreland basins.

  19. Seismotectonics of a diffuse plate boundary: Observations off the Sumatra-Andaman trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2016-05-01

    The actively deforming Indo-Australian intraplate region off the Sumatra-Andaman trench hosted the largest strike-slip earthquake recorded by modern instruments, the 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin earthquake, closely followed by a Mw 8.2 aftershock. These two large events ruptured either parallel north-south trending faults or a series of north-south and nearly perpendicular east-west fault planes. No active east-west faults had been identified in the region prior to these earthquakes, and the seismic rupture for these two earthquakes extended past the 800°C isotherm for lithosphere of this age, deep into the oceanic mantle and possibly beyond the inferred transition to ductile failure. To investigate the seismic behavior of this region, we calculate moment tensors with teleseismic body waves for 6.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 8.0 intraplate strike-slip earthquakes. The centroid depths are located throughout the seismogenic mantle and could extend through the oceanic crust, but are generally well constrained by the 600°C isotherm and do not appear to rupture beyond the 800°C isotherm. We conclude that while many earthquakes are consistent with a thermal limit to depth, large magnitude earthquakes may be able to rupture typically aseismic zones. We also perform finite-fault modeling for Mw ≥ 7.0 earthquakes and find a slight preference for rupture on east-west oriented faults for the 2012 Mw 7.2 and 2005 Mw 7.2 earthquakes. This lends support for the presence of active east-west faults in this region, consistent with the majority of previously published models of the 2012 M8+ earthquakes.

  20. Permian-triassic paleogeography and stratigraphy of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect

    Speksnijder, A. )

    1993-09-01

    During the Permian, the present West Netherlands basin (WNB) was situated at the southernmost margin of the southern Permian basin (SPB). The thickness of Rotilegende sandstones therefore is very much reduced in the WNB. The relatively thin deposits of the Fringe Zechstein in the WNB, however, also contrast strongly in sedimentary facies with thick evaporite/carbonate alternations in the main SPB to the north, although the classic cyclicity of Zechstein deposition still can be recognized. The Fringe Zechstein sediments are mainly siliciclastic and interfinger with both carbonates and anhydrites toward the evaporite basin. End members are thin clay layers that constitute potential seals to underlying Rotliegende reservoirs and relatively thick sandstones (over 100 m net sand) in the western part of the WNB. Nevertheless, favorable reservoir/seal configurations in the Fringe Zechstein seem to be sparse because only minor hydrocarbon occurrences have been proven in the area to date. The situation is dramatically different for the Triassic in the WNB. The [open quotes]Bunter[close quotes] gas play comprises thick Fringe Buntsandstein sandstones (up to 250 m), vertically sealed by carbonates and anhydritic clays of the Muschelkalk and Keuper formations. The Bunter sandstones are largely of the same age as the classic Volpriehausen, Detfurth, and Hardegsen alluvial sand/shale alternations recognized elsewhere, but the upper onlapping transgressive sands and silts correlate with evaporitic clays of the Roet basin to the north. A total volume of 65 x 10[sup 9]m[sup 3] of gas has so far been found in the Triassic Bunter sandstones of the WNB.

  1. Evolution of Mesozoic fluvial systems along the SE flank of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Buslov, Micha M.; Davies, Clare; Richards, Keith; Safonova, Inna

    2008-07-01

    The Mesozoic stratigraphy in the subsurface of the West Siberian Basin contains prolific hydrocarbon accumulations, and thus the depositional environments of marine and marginal marine Jurassic and Cretaceous age sediments are well-established. However, no information is currently available on strata of equivalent age that crop out along the SE basin margin in the Mariinsk-Krasnoyarsk region, despite the potential of these exposures to supply important information on the sediment supply routes into the main basin. Detailed sedimentological analysis of Jurassic-Cretaceous clastic sediments, in conjunction with palaeo-botanical data, reveals five facies associations that reflect deposition in a range of continental environments. These include sediments that were deposited in braided river systems, which were best developed in the Early Jurassic. These early river systems infilled the relics of a topography that was possibly inherited from earlier Triassic rifting. More mature fluvial land systems evolved in the Mid to Late Jurassic. By the Mid Jurassic, well-defined overbank areas had become established, channel abandonment was commonplace, and mudrocks were deposited on floodplains. Coal deposition occurred in mires, which were subject to periodic incursions by crevasse splay processes. Cretaceous sedimentation saw a renewed influx of sand-grade sediment into the region. It is proposed that landscape evolution throughout the Jurassic was driven simply by peneplanation rather than tectonic processes. By contrast, the influx of sandstones in the Cretaceous is tentatively linked to hinterland rejuvenation/ tectonic uplift, possibly coeval with the growth of large deltaic clinoform complexes of the Neocomian in the basin subsurface.

  2. Wake Vortices and Tropical Cyclogenesis Downstream of Sumatra over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Caitlin Marie

    A myriad of processes acting singly or in concert may contribute to tropical cyclogenesis, including convectively coupled waves, breakdown of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), or upper-level troughs. This thesis investigates the role that topographic effects from the island of Sumatra may play in initiating tropical cyclogenesis (TC genesis) in the eastern Indian Ocean. If easterly flow is split by the mountains of Sumatra, counter-rotating lee vortices may form downstream. Because Sumatra straddles the equator, though the wake vortices rotate in opposite directions, they will both be cyclonic when winds are easterly upon Sumatra, and may intensify further into tropical cyclones. The phenomenon of crossequatorial cyclone pairs, or "twin" tropical cyclones, in the Indian Ocean originating from Sumatra was first noted by Kuettner (1989). TC genesis appears to be particularly favored during the pre-onset phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), when easterly flow encroaches upon Sumatra and the resulting cyclonic wake vortices encounter convectively coupled waves and enhanced moisture associated with the MJO in the Indian Ocean. Operational analysis data from the Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) and Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) campaigns were used to evaluate the impacts of Sumatra's topography upon the flow. The YOTC data encompass two years, from May 2008 to April 2010, while the special observing period of DYNAMO was conducted from October to December 2011. This research also presents three case studies of twin tropical cyclones west of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean, which were all determined to originate from Sumatran wake vortices and occurred between October and December of 2008, 2009, and 2011. Multiple cyclonic wake vortices and vorticity streamers were observed downstream of Sumatra during periods of easterly flow, most frequently between October and December. Froude numbers calculated for the region upstream of Sumatra

  3. Pulsed growth of the West Qinling at 30 Ma in northeastern Tibet: Evidence from Lanzhou Basin magnetostratigraphy and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weitao; Zhang, Peizhen; Liu, Caicai; Zheng, Dewen; Yu, Jingxing; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yizhou; Zhang, Huiping; Chen, Xiuyan

    2016-11-01

    The development of Cenozoic basins in the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau is central to understanding the dynamics of plateau growth. Here we present a magnetostratigraphy from the Lanzhou Basin, dating the terrestrial deposits from the Eocene ( 47 Ma) to the middle Miocene ( 15 Ma). The stratigraphic observation, palocurrent, and sediment provenance analysis suggest that the Lanzhou Basin (subbasin of the Longzhong Basin) probably initiated as a topographically enclosed depression during Eocene to early Oligocene ( 47-30 Ma). We suspect that right-lateral transtensional deformation inherited from the Cretaceous may result in formation of the Lanzhou Basin at the Eocene. Subsequently, changes in paleocurrent, sandstone and conglomerate compositions and detrital zircon provenance reflect the pulsed growth of the West Qinling at 30 Ma, which triggered not only the formation of new flexural subsidence to the north of the West Qinling, but also renewed subsidence of Lanzhou Basin into the broad foreland basin system. We compare this growth history with major NE Tibet deformation and suggest that it may result from northeastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau due to the onset of Altyn Tagh Fault activity at Oligocene.

  4. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.; Sloto, R.A.; Reif, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin. West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  5. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Chippewa River basin, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.; Krumrie, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Chippewa River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  6. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  7. Marine ice sheet collapse potentially under way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Joughin, Ian; Smith, Benjamin E; Medley, Brooke

    2014-05-16

    Resting atop a deep marine basin, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has long been considered prone to instability. Using a numerical model, we investigated the sensitivity of Thwaites Glacier to ocean melt and whether its unstable retreat is already under way. Our model reproduces observed losses when forced with ocean melt comparable to estimates. Simulated losses are moderate (<0.25 mm per year at sea level) over the 21st century but generally increase thereafter. Except possibly for the lowest-melt scenario, the simulations indicate that early-stage collapse has begun. Less certain is the time scale, with the onset of rapid (>1 mm per year of sea-level rise) collapse in the different simulations within the range of 200 to 900 years.

  8. Surface deformation on the west portion of the Chapala lake basin: uncertainties and facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Marin, M.; Pacheco-Martinez, J.; Ortiz-Lozano, J. A.; Araiza-Garaygordobil, G.; Ramirez-Cortes, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this study we investigate different aspects of land subsidence and ground failures occurring in the west portion of Chapala lake basin. Currently, surface discontinuities seem to be associated with subsiding bowls. In an effort to understand some of the conditioning factors to surface deformation, two sounding cores from the upper sequence (11 m depth) were extracted for analyzing physical and mechanical properties. The upper subsoil showed a predominant silty composition and several lenses of pumice pyroclastic sand. Despite the relative predominance of fine soil, the subsoil shows mechanical properties with low clay content, variable water content, low plasticity and variable compressibility index, amongst some others. Some of these properties seem to be influenced by the sandy pyroclastic lenses, therefore, a potential source of the ground failure could be heterogeneities in the upper soil.

  9. Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal Basin in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, U; Sikdar, P K; McArthur, J M

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the Bengal Basin is badly polluted by arsenic (As) which adversely affects human health. To provide low-As groundwater for As mitigation, it was sought across 235 km(2) of central West Bengal, in the western part of the basin. By drilling 76 boreholes and chemical analysis of 535 water wells, groundwater with <10 µg/L As in shallow aquifers was found under one-third of a study area. The groundwater is in late Pleistocene palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of weathered brown sand that are capped by a palaeosol of red clay. The aquifers form two N-S trending lineaments that are bounded on the east by an As-polluted deep palaeo-channel aquifer and separated by a shallower palaeo-channel aquifer. The depth to the top of the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers is mostly between 35 and 38 m below ground level (mbgl). The palaeo-interfluvial aquifers are overlain by shallow palaeo-channel aquifers of gray sand in which groundwater is usually As-polluted. The palaeosol now protects the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers from downward migration of As-polluted groundwater in overlying shallow palaeo-channel aquifers. The depth to the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of 35 to 38 mbgl makes the cost of their exploitation affordable to most of the rural poor of West Bengal, who can install a well cheaply to depths up to 60 mbgl. The protection against pollution afforded by the palaeosol means that the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers will provide a long-term source of low-As groundwater to mitigate As pollution of groundwater in the shallower, heavily used, palaeo-channel aquifers. This option for mitigation is cheap to employ and instantly available.

  10. Basement configuration of the West Bengal sedimentary basin, India as revealed by seismic refraction tomography: its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodara, N.; Rao, V. Vijaya; Sain, Kalachand; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.; Murty, A. S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the sedimentary thickness, structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin is attempted using pseudo 3-D configuration derived from the first arrival seismic refraction data. Velocity images of the West Bengal basin are derived using traveltime tomography along four profiles. The models are assessed for their reliability through chi-squares estimates, rms residual, traveltime fit, rays traced through the models and resolution by checkerboard tests. Tomographic images depict smooth velocity variations of Recent, Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of velocity 1.8-4.3 km s-1 deposited over the Rajmahal trap of 4.8 km s-1 velocity and the basement (5.9 km s-1) down to a maximum depth of 16 km. The present study indicates a south-easterly dip of basin as evidenced from the pseudo 3-D configuration. The basement depth along the seismic profiles varies from 1 to 16 km depending on its location in the basin. It is shallow in the north & west and deep in the east & south. The depth of the basement on the stable shelf of the basin in the west gently increases to about 8 km and dips to a maximum depth of 16 km in the deep basin part within a short distance in the east. The study identifies a regional feature, known as the Shelf break or the Hinge zone, where stable Indian shield ends and a sharp increase in sediment thickness occurs. The Hinge zone may represent the relict of continental and proto-oceanic crustal boundary formed during the rifting of India from Antarctica. The regional gravity map of the Bengal basin prepared in this study clearly brings out the Hinge zone with a linear gravity high that is compatible with seismic data. Presence of Shelf break/Hinge zone and Rajmahal volcanism in the basin suggests the influence of rifting of India from the combined Antarctica-Australia at ˜130 Ma due to mantle plume activity on the structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin. These features along with the elevated rift shoulder are in agreement with the

  11. Basement configuration of the West Bengal sedimentary basin, India as revealed by seismic refraction tomography: its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodara, N.; Rao, V. Vijaya; Sain, Kalachand; Prasad, Asssrs; Murty, Asn

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYUnderstanding the sedimentary thickness, structure and tectonics of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> is attempted using pseudo 3-D configuration derived from the first arrival seismic refraction data. Velocity images of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> are derived using traveltime tomography along four profiles. The models are assessed for their reliability through chi-squares estimates, rms residual, traveltime fit, rays traced through the models, and resolution by checkerboard tests. Tomographic images depict smooth velocity variations of Recent, Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of velocity 1.8-4.3 km/s deposited over the Rajmahal trap of 4.8 km/s velocity and the basement (5.9 km/s) down to a maximum depth of 16 km. The present study indicates a south-easterly dip of <span class="hlt">basin</span> as evidenced from the pseudo 3-D configuration. The basement depth along the seismic profiles varies from 1 km to 16 km depending on its location in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. It is shallow in the north & <span class="hlt">west</span> and deep in the east & south. The depth of the basement on the stable shelf of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the <span class="hlt">west</span> gently increases to about 8 km and dips to a maximum depth of 16 km in the deep <span class="hlt">basin</span> part within a short distance in the east. The study identifies a regional feature, known as the Shelf break or the Hinge zone, where stable Indian shield ends and a sharp increase in sediment thickness occurs. The Hinge zone may represent the relict of continental and proto-oceanic crustal boundary formed during the rifting of India from Antarctica. The regional gravity map of the Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span> prepared in this study clearly brings out the Hinge zone with a linear gravity high that is compatible with seismic data. Presence of Shelf break / Hinge zone and Rajmahal volcanism in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> suggests the influence of rifting of India from the combined Antarctica-Australia at ˜130 Ma due to mantle plume activity on the structure and tectonics of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal <span class="hlt">basin</span>. These features along with the elevated rift shoulder are in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894874','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894874"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Pool, Karl N.; Thornton, Brenda M.</p> <p>2006-09-15</p> <p>This report provides physical and radiochemical characterization results from examinations and laboratory analyses performed on ~0.55-inch diameter rod pieces found in the 105 K <span class="hlt">West</span> (KW) <span class="hlt">Basin</span> that were suspected to be from nuclear reactor fuel. The characterization results will be used to establish the technical basis for adding this material to the contents of one of the final Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) that will be loaded out of the KW <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in late FY2006 or at a later time depending on project priorities. Fifteen fuel rod pieces were found during the clean out of the KW <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Based on lack of specific credentials, documentation, or obvious serial numbers, none of the items could be positively identified nor could their sources or compositions be described. Item weights and dimensions measured in the KW <span class="hlt">Basin</span> indicated densities consistent with the suspect fuel rods containing uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium metal, or being empty. Extensive review of the Hanford Site technical literature led to the postulation that these pieces likely were irradiated test fuel prepared to support of the development of the Hanford “New Production Reactor,” later called N Reactor. To obtain definitive data on the composition of the suspect fuel, 4 representative fuel rod pieces, with densities corresponding to oxide fuel were selected from the 15 items, and shipped from the KW <span class="hlt">Basin</span> to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL; also known at the 325 Building) for examinations and characterization. The three fuel rod that were characterized appear to contain slightly irradiated UO2 fuel, originally of natural enrichment, with zirconium cladding. The uranium-235 isotopic concentrations decreased by the irradiation and become slightly lower than the natural enrichment of 0.72% to range from 0.67 to 0.71 atom%. The plutonium concentrations, ranged from about 200 to 470 grams per metric ton of uranium and ranged in Plutonium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6...71M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6...71M"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctic ice <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mengel, M.; Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise has recently been increasing. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance. Under unabated greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctica's Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The ice <span class="hlt">basin</span>'s retrograde bed slope would allow for an unstable ice-sheet retreat, but the buttressing of the large ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. It is unclear whether future ice loss will be dominated by ice instability or anthropogenic forcing. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding-line retreat, that the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne ice <span class="hlt">basin</span> is not dominated by ice instability and follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. We find that the ice loss reduces after each pulse of projected warm water intrusion. The long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice-sheet instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860878"><span id="translatedtitle">CRITICALITY SAFETY CONTROL OF LEGACY FUEL FOUND AT 105-K <span class="hlt">WEST</span> FUEL STORAGE <span class="hlt">BASIN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>JENSEN, M.A.</p> <p>2005-08-19</p> <p>In August 2004, two sealed canisters containing spent nuclear fuel were opened for processing at the Hanford Site's K <span class="hlt">West</span> fuel storage <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The fuel was to be processed through cleaning and sorting stations, repackaged into special baskets, placed into a cask, and removed from the <span class="hlt">basin</span> for further processing and eventual dry storage. The canisters were expected to contain fuel from the old Hanford C Reactor, a graphite-moderated reactor fueled by very low-enriched uranium metal. The expected fuel type was an aluminum-clad slug about eight inches in length and with a weight of about eight pounds. Instead of the expected fuel, the two canisters contained several pieces of thin tubes, some with wire wraps. The material was placed into unsealed canisters for storage and to await further evaluation. Videotapes and still photographs of the items were examined in consultation with available retired Hanford employees. It was determined that the items had a fair probability of being cut-up pieces of fuel rods from the retired Hanford Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Because the items had been safely handled several times, it was apparent that a criticality safety hazard did not exist when handling the material by itself, but it was necessary to determine if a hazard existed when combining the material with other known types of spent nuclear fuel. Because the PRTR operated more than 40 years ago, investigators had to rely on a combination of researching archived documents, and utilizing common-sense estimates coupled with bounding assumptions, to determine that the fuel items could be handled safely with other spent nuclear fuel in the storage <span class="hlt">basin</span>. As older DOE facilities across the nation are shut down and cleaned out, the potential for more discoveries of this nature is increasing. As in this case, it is likely that only incomplete records will exist and that it will be increasingly difficult to immediately characterize the nature of the suspect fissionable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PCE....33..141A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PCE....33..141A"><span id="translatedtitle">Monthly streamflow prediction in the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa: A SISO NARMAX polynomial modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N.; Rogers, C.; Andah, W. E. I.; Friesen, J.</p> <p></p> <p>Single-input-single-output (SISO) non-linear system identification techniques were employed to model monthly catchment runoff at selected gauging sites in the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa. NARMAX (Non-linear Autoregressive Moving Average with eXogenous Input) polynomial models were fitted to <span class="hlt">basin</span> monthly rainfall and gauging station runoff data for each of the selected sites and used to predict monthly runoff at the sites. An error reduction ratio (ERR) algorithm was used to order regressors for various combinations of input, output and noise lags (various model structures) and the significant regressors for each model selected by applying an Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to independent rainfall-runoff validation series. Model parameters were estimated from the Matlab REGRESS function (an orthogonal least squares method). In each case, the sub-model without noise terms was fitted first followed by a fitting of the noise model. The coefficient of determination ( R-squared), the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency criterion (NSE) and the F statistic for the estimation (training) series were used to evaluate the significance of fit of each model to this series while model selection from the range of models fitted for each gauging site was done by examining the NSEs and the AICs of the validation series. Monthly runoff predictions from the selected models were very good, and the polynomial models appeared to have captured a good part of the rainfall-runoff non-linearity. The results indicate that the NARMAX modelling framework is suitable for monthly river runoff prediction in the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The several good models made available by the NARMAX modelling framework could be useful in the selection of model structures that also provide insights into the physical behaviour of the catchment rainfall-runoff system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999HyPr...13.1989B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999HyPr...13.1989B"><span id="translatedtitle">Snowmelt and runoff modelling of an Arctic hydrological <span class="hlt">basin</span> in <span class="hlt">west</span> Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bøggild, C. E.; Knudby, C. J.; Knudsen, M. B.; Starzer, W.</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>This paper compares the performance of a conceptual modelling system and several physically-based models for predicting runoff in a large hydrological <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Tasersuaq, in <span class="hlt">west</span> Greenland. This <span class="hlt">basin</span>, which is typical of many Greenland <span class="hlt">basins</span>, is interesting because of the fast hydrological response to changing conditions. Due to the predominance of exposed bedrock surface and only minor occurrence of sediments and organic soils, there is little restraint to run-off, making the treatment of the snowmelt component of primary importance.Presently a conceptual modelling system, HBV, is applied in Greenland and also in most of the arctic regions of Scandinavia for operational forecasting. A general wish to use hydrological models for other purposes, such as to improve data collection and to gain insight into the hydrological processes has promoted interest in the more physically-based hydrological models. In this paper, two degree-day models, the Danish version of the physically-based SHE distributed hydrological modelling system (MIKE SHE) and the conceptual HBV model are compared with a new model that links MIKE SHE and a distributed energy balance model developed for this study, APUT.The HBV model performs the best overall simulation of discharge, which presently makes it most suited for general forecasting. The combination of MIKE SHE and APUT i.e. a physically based modelling system shows promising results by improving the timing of the initiation of spring flood, but does not perform as well throughout the remaining part of the snowmelt season. The modelling study shows that local parameters such as the snow depletion curve, the temporal snow albedo and perhaps also melt water storage need to be more precisely determined from field studies before physically-based modelling can be improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/789251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/789251"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Clastic Reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>), Class III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.</p> <p>2001-11-04</p> <p>The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/780435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/780435"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Clastic Reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>), Class III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.</p> <p>2001-05-08</p> <p>The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5155/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5155/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Setting and Conceptual Hydrologic Model of the Walker River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lopes, Thomas J.; Allander, Kip K.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Walker River is the main source of inflow to Walker Lake, a closed-<span class="hlt">basin</span> lake in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Nevada. Between 1882 and 2008, agricultural diversions resulted in a lake-level decline of more than 150 feet and storage loss of 7,400,000 acre-ft. Evaporative concentration increased dissolved solids from 2,500 to 17,000 milligrams per liter. The increase in salinity threatens the survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a native species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. This report describes the hydrologic setting of the Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span> and a conceptual hydrologic model of the relations among streams, groundwater, and Walker Lake with emphasis on the lower Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span> from Wabuska to Hawthorne, Nevada. The Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span> is about 3,950 square miles and straddles the California-Nevada border. Most streamflow originates as snowmelt in the Sierra Nevada. Spring runoff from the Sierra Nevada typically reaches its peak during late May to early June with as much as 2,800 cubic feet per second in the Walker River near Wabuska. Typically, 3 to 4 consecutive years of below average streamflow are followed by 1 or 2 years of average or above average streamflow. Mountain ranges are comprised of consolidated rocks with low hydraulic conductivities, but consolidated rocks transmit water where fractured. Unconsolidated sediments include fluvial deposits along the active channel of the Walker River, valley floors, alluvial slopes, and a playa. Sand and gravel deposited by the Walker River likely are discontinuous strata throughout the valley floor. Thick clay strata likely were deposited in Pleistocene Lake Lahontan and are horizontally continuous, except where strata have been eroded by the Walker River. At Walker Lake, sediments mostly are clay interbedded with alluvial slope, fluvial, and deltaic deposits along the lake margins. Coarse sediments form a multilayered, confined-aquifer system that could extend several miles from the shoreline</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43D2370H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43D2370H"><span id="translatedtitle">A Seismic Gap Study in the western offshore of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haridhi, H. A.; Rizal, S.; Ridha, M.; Lee, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The extremely destructive earthquake in December 26th 2004 and by the resulting tsunami was the worst natural disasters in recorded human history. However, the tsunami earthquakes continue to strike the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> in the last 8 years. There are at least 12 events, the earthquake Magnitude between M = 7 to 8.9. The tragedies continue to add up to the already damaged coastal zone. In 2010 (after 6 years of the 2004 event), an earthquake of a magnitude 7.8 resulting a destructive tsunami was also happened near Mentawai Island at <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Province. Several thousand of people died and many houses buried. In order to have a better understanding of the seismic stress distribution and prepare for a future study including an IODP drilling in this area, we adopt the previous studies by French, Japan and German together with the absolute gravity data and seismic networks by the IRIS and Taiwan Central Weather Bureau for this research. In the last eight years, the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region already experienced two domains of the tsunami earthquake swamps, one in the north of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the other in the south. Here, we present broadband earthquake data from the IRIS-NEIC catalogue between 2004 and 2010. The result shows that there is a possible of seismic gap in the border of central - southern domain of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region. This region included in the Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Province near Batu Island. The historical earthquake along the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> margin since 17th century showed that the last big rapture in this border of central - southern domain was occurred in 1797 by the magnitude of 8.8 (Lange et al., 2010). In the other hand, the free-air gravity anomaly (Barber et al., 2005) shows high values correspond to the N-S oceanic fracture zone. All the high value was found near the trench of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> subduction zone and gradually lower value through the south. Regarding to the stress release of the subducting Indo-Australian Oceanic Plate beneath Eurasian Plate, we also</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036376','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036376"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain <span class="hlt">basin</span> and range province, flint creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of <span class="hlt">basin</span> fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a <span class="hlt">west</span>-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/16916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/16916"><span id="translatedtitle">Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, R.B.</p> <p>1997-04-30</p> <p>This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H53C1274B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.H53C1274B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basin</span> Hydrology and Substrate Controls on Mountain Stream Morphology: Highlands of Southeastern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burks, T. W.; Springer, G. S.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Evolution of mountain drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span> across a broad spectrum of geologic, tectonic, and climatic conditions is an active area of investigation in the field of fluvial geomorphology. Mountain streams are typified by steep channel gradients (>0.002), high channel roughness, rapid changes in drainage area, and high spatial and low temporal variability in channel morphology, leading to complexities in landscape modeling relative to their lowland counterparts. Factors driving this recent investigative trend are the refinement and generation of digital topographic data and terrain analysis software, and more importantly, the demand for a multidiscipline approach to the assessment, restoration, and management of entire watersheds. A significant volume of research has been conducted in mountain drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span> of the western United States, with particular attention paid to tectonically active regions of the Pacific Northwest, which also contain federally listed threatened and endangered salmonid populations. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), native to the highlands of the eastern margin of the Appalachian Plateau are impacted by acid rain deposition; however, geomorphic research into landscape modeling, applicable to restoration and management of lotic ecosystems of the eastern United States, is comparatively lacking. This current research explores the potential for modeling channel morphology in mountain streams; specifically, how downstream trends in channel substrate resistance and unit stream power effect the partitioning of mountain stream morphology along and downstream of the fluvial/colluvial transition. In order to address this issue, two mountain drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the headwaters of the Gauley River watershed on the Appalachian Plateau of southeastern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia were chosen. The westerly flowing Cranberry (250 sqkm) and Cherry (429 sqkm) rivers incise gently northwestward dipping Carboniferous-aged strata (shale, minor coal, siltstone, sandstone, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6921361','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6921361"><span id="translatedtitle">Reservoir geology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Yates Formation, Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Platform, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Casavant, R.R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Computer slice maps and proprietary three-dimensional interactive graphics were used to reconstruct the paleodeposition and to map reservoir variations within the Yates Formation of <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas. The prolific Yates Formation is a major reservoir in the North Ward Estes field, Ward County, Texas. The Upper Permian (Guadalupian) Yates Formation is an overall regressive shallowing-upward package containing variable sequences of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal strata. Sediment types include various siliciclastics mixed with sabkha-type carbonates and evaporites. The types of rocks and their structures indicate that these sediments were deposited in a prograding tidal flat-lagoonal setting located behind a shelf margin edge on the western flank of the positive Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> platform during the Guadalupian. The cyclic nature of the Yates is largely the result of lagoonal expansion and construction that caused environmental belts on both sides of the lagoon to converge and diverge. These rapid migrations of facies coupled with diagenetic processes created the heterogeneities that characterize this large reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162486','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162486"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">basin</span> hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foley, M.G.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJEaS.tmp...19Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJEaS.tmp...19Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Provenance evolution of the Jurassic northern Qaidam <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (<span class="hlt">West</span> China) and its geological implications: evidence from detrital zircon geochronology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Long; Xiao, Ancheng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yuntao; Rittner, Martin; Lou, Qianqian; Pan, Xiaotian</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Jurassic system is the major hydrocarbon source rock and of crucial importance for understanding the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in <span class="hlt">West</span> China. This paper presents systematic detrital zircon geochronology of the Jurassic outcropping at the Dameigou locality in the northern Qaidam <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, and reports 1000 single-grain U-Pb zircon ages that have implications for the provenance, the corresponding <span class="hlt">basin</span> property as well as the tectonic setting of <span class="hlt">West</span> China during Jurassic. Zircon ages exhibit two major clusters at 250 and 2400 Ma whereas two minor clusters at 450 and 850 Ma, suggesting primary sources from the East Kunlun Shan and Oulongbuluke Block, secondary sources from the North Qaidam UHP belt and South Qilian Shan. Combined with observation of lithology and sedimentary facies, two rifting periods were inferred in the earliest Jurassic and the early stage of the Middle Jurassic, respectively, accompanied by further extension throughout the Jurassic. Our results do not support a foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span> related to the Jurassic southward thrusting of the South Qilian Shan, but favor that the Mesozoic intra-continental tectonics in <span class="hlt">West</span> China were characterised by pulsed responses to specific collisions rather than a persisting contractional setting during Jurassic period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1438K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1438K"><span id="translatedtitle">Variety, State and Origin of Drained Thaw Lake <span class="hlt">Basins</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span>-Siberian North</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirpotin, S.; Polishchuk, Y.; Bryksina, N.; Sugaipova, A.; Pokrovsky, O.; Shirokova, L.; Kouraev, A.; Zakharova, E.; Kolmakova, M.; Dupre, B.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Drained thaw lake <span class="hlt">basins</span> in Western Siberia have a local name "khasyreis" [1]. Khasyreis as well as lakes, ponds and frozen mounds are invariable element of sub-arctic frozen peat bogs - palsas and tundra landscapes. In some areas of <span class="hlt">West</span>-Siberian sub-arctic khasyreis occupy up to 40-50% of total lake area. Sometimes their concentration is so high that we call such places ‘khasyrei's fields". Khasyreis are part of the natural cycle of palsa complex development [1], but their origin is not continuous and uniform in time and, according to our opinion, there were periods of more intensive lake drainage and khasyrei development accordingly. These times were corresponding with epochs of climatic warming and today we have faced with one of them. So, last years this process was sufficiently activated in the south part of <span class="hlt">West</span>-Siberian sub-arctic [2]. It was discovered that in the zone of continuous permafrost thermokarst lakes have expanded their areas by about 10-12%, but in the zone of discontinuous permafrost the process of their drainage prevails. These features are connected with the thickness of peat layers which gradually decreases to the North, and thus have reduced the opportunity for lake drainage in northern areas. The most typical way of khasyrei origin is their drainage to the bigger lakes which are always situated on the lower levels and works as a collecting funnels providing drainage of smaller lakes. The lower level of the big lake appeared when the lake takes a critical mass of water enough for subsidence of the lake bottom due to the melting of underlaying rocks [2]. Another one way of lake drainage is the lake intercept by any river. Lake drainage to the subsurface (underlaying rocks) as some authors think [3, 4] is not possible in Western Siberia, because the thickness of permafrost is at list 500 m here being safe confining bed. We mark out few stages of khasyrei development: freshly drained, young, mature and old. This row reflects stages of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAfES..65....1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAfES..65....1D"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing the structural events in the Palaeoproterozoic Bolé-Nangodi belt terrane and adjacent Maluwe <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> African craton, in central-<span class="hlt">west</span> Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Kock, G. S.; Théveniaut, H.; Botha, P. M. W.; Gyapong, W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p> deposited concordantly on the submerged Sunyani strata after a hiatus of 20 million years. After cessation of the NW-SE-directed compression the early Tanina Suite intruded as batholiths, dykes and sheets and produced garnet, staurolite, sillimanite and kyanite in their thermal aureoles. Docking of the Sunyani <span class="hlt">basin</span> produced the DE2 thrust related folding and stacking in the deformed and granitoid invaded Maluwe <span class="hlt">basin</span> as well as the single stage sin- and anticlinoria in the Sunyani and Banda Groups. In the Maluwe <span class="hlt">basin</span> the Abulembire fragment acted as a resistor and the approaching front rotated anticlockwise and clockwise around the barrier to form <span class="hlt">west</span>- and north-directed piggy-back thrust-stacking and deformation of the Tanina Suite granitoids. Due to the low metamorphic conditions the DE2 fabric is limited to crenulation cleavages in the more psammitic and pelitic units. The fold axes are double plunging (N-S and E-W) up to 60° with the axial planar fabric subvertical. Post-D2 tectonic relaxation has allowed the emplacement of the last Tanina Suite calc-alkaline melts and was succeeded by N-S extension fracturing (DE3) along which mantle derived Wakawaka gabbroids and syenite intruded. The DE1 folding occurred between 2125 and 2122 Ma and DE2 before 2119 Ma. The tectonic relaxation occurred at 2118 Ma. Around 2100 Ma, NE-SW directed strike-slip shearing (DE4), fractured the Bolé-Nangodi terrane and enhanced the <span class="hlt">basin</span>-belt boundary. Along the boundary, the displacement was dextral along vertical faults but, southward, it became more east-over-<span class="hlt">west</span> thrust related. Associated tension gashes are filled with vein quartz and pegmatite and typical of the brittle sector of the crust. Tectonism in this part of the intraoceanic accretionary arc back-arc complex was concluded by limited, right-lateral strike-slip (DE5) movement which formed some breccias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAESc..23..435H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAESc..23..435H"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Sarulla graben geothermal area, North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickman, R. G.; Dobson, P. F.; van Gerven, M.; Sagala, B. D.; Gunderson, R. P.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The Sarulla graben is a composite Plio-Pleistocene <span class="hlt">basin</span> developed along the northwest striking, dextral-slip <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault in a region where the fault coincides with the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> volcanic arc. Offset of the 0.27±0.03 Ma Tor Sibohi rhyodacite dome by an active strand of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault, the Tor Sibohi fault (TSF), indicates a slip rate of about 9 mm/y. This value is lower than previous regional estimates of ˜25-30 mm/y for Holocene slip on the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault determined from stream offsets in the Taratung region. This discrepancy may be due to (1) a difference between Holocene and late Quaternary rates of slip and (2) additional slip on other faults in the Sarulla area. Since the magnitude of undated stream offsets along the TSF in the Sarulla area is similar to those in the Taratung area, the discrepancy is likely to be due largely to a change in slip rate over time. Within the Sarulla area, major volcanic centers include the Sibualbuali stratavolcano (˜0.7-0.3 Ma), the Hopong caldera (˜1.5 Ma), and the Namora-I-Langit dacitic dome field (0.8-0.1 Ma). These centers generated the majority of the ash-flow tuffs and tuffaceous sediments filling the Sarulla graben, and appear to have been localized by structural features related to the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault zone. Four geothermal systems within the Sarulla area are closely linked to major faults and volcanic centers. In three of the systems, reservoir permeability is clearly dominated by specific structures within the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault system. In the fourth geothermal system, Namora-I-Langit geothermal field, permeability may be locally influenced by faults, but highly permeable fractures are widely distributed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212665','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212665"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mogutcheva, N.K.</p> <p>2009-06-15</p> <p>Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk <span class="hlt">basins</span> and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk <span class="hlt">basins</span> and <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/755452','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/755452"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>), Class III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.</p> <p>2000-05-24</p> <p>The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33A0781H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33A0781H"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditions for Land Subsidence and Ground Failure in Lacustrine Sediments, the Case of <span class="hlt">West</span> Chapala <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez-Marin, M.; Pacheco, J.; Ortiz-Lozano, J. A.; Ramirez-Cortes, A.; Araiza, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Surface deformation in the form of land subsidence and ground failure in the Chapala <span class="hlt">Basin</span> has caused serious damage to structures, mostly homes. In this work, the conditions for the occurrence of deformation particularly regarding the physical and mechanical properties of the soil are discussed. In 2012 a maximum land subsidence of 7.16 cm in a short period of 8 months was recorded with maximum velocities of deformation close to 0.89 centimeters per month. Natural conditions of the zone of study include a lacustrine low land with the perennial Chapala Lake, surrounded by ranges formed by volcanic extrusive rocks, mostly basalts and andesites. Two soil cores of 11 meters depth show the predominance of fine soil but with the incrustation of several sandy lenses of volcanic ash. In the first core closer to the piedmont, the volcanic ash presents an accumulated thickness close to three meters, starting at 4.5 meters depth; on the contrary, this thickness in the second core closer to the lake is critically reduced to no more than 50 centimeters. Even though the predominance of fine soil is significant, water-content averages 100 % and the liquid limit is low, suggesting amongst other possibilities, low content of clay or at least low content of smectites or allophanes in the clayey portion. Other properties of the soil are being determined for analyses. The occurrence of three alignments of ground failures in the community of Jocotepec at the <span class="hlt">west</span>, mostly faults, suggests highly heterogeneous subsoil. The high volumes of groundwater withdrawn from the local aquifers mainly for agriculture are directly contributing to the increase of the effective stress and surface deformation, however, the relationship between level descents and surficial deformation is still not clear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43I..08K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43I..08K"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur in submarine eruptions: Observations and preliminary data from <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata, NE Lau <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keller, N. S.; Rubin, K. H.; Clague, D. A.; Michael, P. J.; Resing, J. A.; Cooper, L. B.; Shaw, A. M.; Ono, S.; Tamura, Y.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Sulfur in its various oxidation states is a major component of magmatic volatiles; its abundance and isotopic composition constrain degassing processes as well as sulfur sources, and have been used as a tool to study sulfur cycling at convergent plate margins. However, there are almost no sulfur isotope data on active submarine eruptions as such eruptions have only been witnessed in recent years. Little is known on the effect of water depth and eruptive processes on the isotopic composition of all sulfur-bearing phases, in particular on the relationship between δ33S and δ34S. Therefore, the active eruption observed at <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata Volcano during a NOAA/NSF rapid response cruise to the NE Lau <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in May 2009 provided a unique opportunity to study lavas, fluids and native sulfur from an ongoing submarine eruption. <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata is situated about 40 km <span class="hlt">west</span> of the northern termination of the Tonga Arc and its summit is at a water depth of 1193 m. Two main areas of active vents were discovered near the summit, named Hades and Prometheus. The observed eruptive processes consisted of pyroclastic activity and degassing at both vents; additionally, extrusion of tubular pillows was observed at Hades. The eruption plumes had a pronounced yellow color, due to the presence of large quantities of native sulfur globules. Five ROV Jason 2 dives on and around the summit area returned samples of pillows, sheet flows, spatter fragments, pyroclastic deposits, as well as gas and fluid samples. The pyroclastic deposits close to the vents contain numerous sulfur droplets, whereas sediment scoops taken further from the vents are free of native sulfur, suggesting that the droplets disintegrate and dissolve over time, so their presence may be a qualitative age indicator for the eruptive material. The sulfur globules are generally quasi perfect spheres up to 5 mm in diameter, mostly yellow, but sometimes pink, orange or grey. Several droplets were found to have elongated or twisted shapes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6002200','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6002200"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural relations between Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware <span class="hlt">basins</span> of <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, G.R.; Smith, K.J.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware <span class="hlt">basins</span> and related uplifts formed the major structural elements of the southwestern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic. In contrast with the relatively simple relationships where the southern Oklahoma aulacogen intersects the Ouachita orogenic belt, structural relationships in the area of these <span class="hlt">basins</span> are very complex. Various geologic evidence points to an allochthonous Marathon <span class="hlt">basin</span>. However, a prominent gravity anomaly is associated with the Ouachita system as it extends from western Arkansas through Oklahoma and Texas into northern Mexico. If this anomaly is the signature of the early Paleozoic continental margin, then the location of the Marathon <span class="hlt">basin</span> with respect to this anomaly suggests lateral displacements have been only on the scale of tens of kilometers. The Delaware <span class="hlt">basin</span> seems clearly analogous to the Anadarko <span class="hlt">basin</span> in that it formed as a result of reactivation of a major crustal flaw (not necessarily a rift). This reactivation was a result of the Ouachita orogeny. The Marfa <span class="hlt">basin</span> is also flanked by a linear gravity high and basement uplift. The relationship of this anomaly to the gravity high associated with the Ouachita system suggests that the Marfa <span class="hlt">basin</span> may be more analogous to the Delaware <span class="hlt">basin</span> that foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span> such as the Ft. Worth and Arkoma. A prominent gravity high that extends into northern Mexico is associated with the Devil's River uplift, and the relationships between this feature, the Val Verde <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and adjacent structures suggest major deformation on a crustal scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1003/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1003/"><span id="translatedtitle">In search of a Silurian Total Petroleum System in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Lentz, Erika E.; Avary, K. Lee; Harper, John A.; Kappel, William M.; Rea, Ronald G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This report provides an evaluation of the source rock potential of Silurian strata in the U.S. portion of the northern Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, using new TOC and RockEval data. The study area consists of all or parts of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. The stratigraphic intervals that were sampled for this study are as follows: 1) the Lower Silurian Cabot Head Shale, Rochester Shale, and Rose Hill Formation; 2) the Lower and Upper Silurian McKenzie Limestone, Lockport Dolomite, and Eramosa Member of the Lockport Group; and 3) the Upper Silurian Wills Creek Formation, Tonoloway Limestone, Salina Group, and Bass Islands Dolomite. These Silurian stratigraphic intervals were chosen because they are cited in previous publications as potential source rocks, they are easily identified and relatively continuous across the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and they contain beds of dark gray to black shale and (or) black argillaceous limestone and dolomite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3115/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2007/3115/"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and Southeast New Mexico, 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schenk, Christopher J.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Harry E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province of <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas and southeast New Mexico. The assessment was geology based and used the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system are petroleum source rocks (quality, source rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy, petrophysical properties), and traps (trap formation and timing). This study assessed potential for technically recoverable resources in new field discoveries only; field growth (or reserve growth) of conventional oil and gas fields was not included. Using this methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 41 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas and a mean of 1.3 billion barrels of undiscovered oil in the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020188','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020188"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas hydrates in the Messoyakha gas field of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> - a re-examination of the geologic evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Collett, Timothy S.; Ginsburg, Gabriel D.; ,</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The amount of natural gas within the gas hydrate accumulations of the world is believed to greatly exceed the volume of known conventional natural gas reserves. The hydrocarbon production history of the Russian Messoyakha field, located in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, has been used as evidence that gas hydrates are an immediate source of natural gas that can be produced by conventional means. Re-examination of available geologic, geochemical, and hydrocarbon production data suggests, however, that gas hydrates may not have contributed to gas production in the Messoyakha field. More field and laboratory studies are needed to assess the historical contribution of gas hydrate production in the Messoyakha field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035532','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035532"><span id="translatedtitle">Deciphering the mid-Carboniferous eustatic event in the central Appalachian foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span>, southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Blake, B.M.; Beuthin, J.D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A prominent unconformity, present across shallow shelf areas of the Euramerican paleoequatorial <span class="hlt">basins</span>, is used to demark the boundary between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian subsystems. This unconformity, the mid-Carboniferous eustatic event, is generally attributed to a major glacio-eustatic sea-level fall. Although a Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity is recognized throughout most of the Appalachian region, the record of the mid-Carboniferous eustatic event in the structurally deepest part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> has been controversial. Based on early reports that suggested the most complete Pennsylvanian section was present in southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, various conceptual depositional models postulated continuous sedimentation between the youngest Mississippian Bluestone Formation and the oldest Penn-sylvanian Pocahontas Formation. In contrast, tabular-erosion models envisioned axial drainage systems that evolved in response to changing <span class="hlt">basin</span> dynamics. These models predicted a Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. All these models suffered from a lack of biostratigraphic control. The presence of a sub-Pocahontas paleovalley, herein named the Lashmeet paleovalley, has been confirmed in southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. The Lashmeet paleovalley was incised over 35 m into Bluestone strata and filled by lithic sands derived from the Appalachian orogen to the northeast and east. The polygenetic Green Valley paleosol complex marks the Bluestone-Pocahontas contact on associated interfluves. Together, these features indicate a substantial period of subaerial exposure and argue strongly in favor of a Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. Paleontologic data from the Bluestone Formation, including marine invertebrates and conodonts from the marine Bramwell Member and paleofloral data, support a late, but not latest, Arnsbergian age assignment. Marine fossils are not known from the Pocahontas Formation, but macrofloral and palynomorph taxa support a Langsettian age for most of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512852N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512852N"><span id="translatedtitle">New insights on aerosol sources and properties of Organics in the <span class="hlt">west</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolas, José B.; Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Féron, Anais; Dulac, François; Hamonou, Eric; Gros, Valérie; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Sauvage, Stéphane; Léonardis, Thierry; Tison, Emmanuel; Colomb, Aurélie; Fresney, Evelyn; Pichon, Jean-Marc; Bouvier, Laetitia; Bourrianne, Thierry; Roberts, Gregory</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean <span class="hlt">basin</span> exhibits high PM concentrations for a marine area, in particular during the dry season (summer), associated with high photochemistry. The large population of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> is impacted by both natural and anthropogenic aerosols of various sources from Europe and North Africa. Simulations predict significant climate changes in that area, with less precipitation and hotter temperatures, reinforced by an increasing anthropogenic pressure, which will be linked by higher emissions of pollutants and also by higher impacts on the health. Nevertheless the aerosol models in that area currently suffer from large uncertainties, due to a lack of knowledge in organic aerosol (OA) sources and processes. As part of the French program ChArMEx (The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), a 5-week intensive campaign has been performed in June - July 2012 at the new Cape Corsica station (see Dulac et al. in that session), and aiming at a better characterization of anthropogenic versus biogenic aerosols, long range transport versus local influence, with a focus on fine OA. A complete instrumental strategy was deployed thanks to the contribution of a large French community: PM1 concentration every 6 min with a TEOM-FDMS 1405 (Thermo), major aerosol components in PM1 every 30 min (Organics, SO4, NO3, NH4) by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Aerodyne), Equivalent Black Carbon every 5 min with a 7-? aethalometer AE31 (Magee Scientific), on-line major anions and cations (incl. light organics like oxalate & MSA) every 10 min with Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS, Metrohm) coupled with Ion Chromatographs (Dionex), on-line water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) every 4 min with a PILS (Applikon) coupled with a Total Organic Carbon instrument (Ionics). Filter sampling in PM2.5 and PM10 was also performed every 12h for quality purposes (PM, EC/OC, ions) and for complementary measurements (metals by ICP-MS and organic tracers by LC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri974077/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri974077/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the Horse Creek <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Florida, October 1992-February 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lewelling, B.R.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A baseline study of the 241-square-mile Horse Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> was undertaken from October 1992 to February 1995 to assess the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of one of the last remaining undeveloped <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Florida. During the period of the study, much of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> remained in a natural state, except for limited areas of cattle and citrus production and phosphate mining. Rainfall in 1993 and 1994 in the Horse Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> was 8 and 31 percent, respectively, above the 30-year long-term average. The lowest and highest maximum instantaneous peak discharge of the six daily discharge stations occurred at the Buzzard Roost Branch and the Horse Creek near Arcadia stations with 185 to 4,180 cubic feet per second, respectively. The Horse Creek near Arcadia station had the lowest number of no-flow days with zero days and the Brushy Creek station had the highest number with 113 days. During the study, the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork Horse Creek subbasin had the highest daily mean discharge per square mile with 30.6 cubic feet per second per square mile, and the largest runoff coefficient of 43.7 percent. The Buzzard Roost Branch subbasin had the lowest daily mean discharge per square mile with 5.05 cubic feet per second per square mile, and Brushy Creek and Brandy Branch shared the lowest runoff coefficient of 0.6 percent. Brandy Branch had the highest monthly mean runoff in both 1993 and 1994 with 11.48 and 19.28 inches, respectively. During the high-baseflow seepage run, seepage gains were 8.87 cubic feet per second along the 43-mile Horse Creek channel. However, during the low-baseflow seepage run, seepage losses were 0.88 cubic foot per second. Three methods were used to estimate average annual ground-water recharge in the Horse Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>: (1) well hydrograph, (2) chloride mass balance, and (3) streamflow hydrograph. Estimated average annual recharge using these three methods ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 inches. The high percentage of carbonate plus bicarbonate analyzed at</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA283736','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA283736"><span id="translatedtitle">Socioeconomic Impact of Infill Drilling Recovery from Carbonate Reservoirs in the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>revenues of infill drilling and the creation of jobs in the Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span> communities, and ( 3 ) develops a correlation between the increased tax...1 3 viii Page CHAPTER IV THE AMOUNT OF REVENUE FROM OIL PRODUCTION...the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> ........................ 32 4.5 Percent of Federal Income Tax ............................................ 3 33 4.6 Rule of Thumb in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3700009','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3700009"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Merem, Edmund C.; Twumasi, Yaw A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river <span class="hlt">basins</span> particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the <span class="hlt">West</span> African sub-region within the Senegal River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> for decision-making and monitoring. While the <span class="hlt">basin</span> offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19151444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19151444"><span id="translatedtitle">Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river <span class="hlt">basins</span> particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the <span class="hlt">West</span> African sub-region within the Senegal River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> for decision-making and monitoring. While the <span class="hlt">basin</span> offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5574491','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5574491"><span id="translatedtitle">New hydrocarbon plays and prospects in the Douala <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Cameroon, <span class="hlt">west</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kilenyi, T. )</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>New seismic data acquired by GECO together with reprocessing of old data and geochemical analysis have thrown a new light on the petroleum geology of the Douala <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The seismic data show a variety of possible traps, particularly in the offshore part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, including submarine fans, buried paleohighs, salt-induced structures, updip wedging out of reservoirs, etc. Geochemical data based on advanced analytical method indicate that none of the potential source rocks encountered in wells actually matches the oils; therefore new sourcing of the known reservoirs has to be considered. Geochemical fossils indicate derivation from two sources, one probably Late Cretaceous deep marineshales now in a far offshore position while a second one is of Early Cretaceous age and of lacustrine origin. All new data indicate that the Douala <span class="hlt">basin</span> is likely to turn out to be a prolific oil <span class="hlt">basin</span> and not a gas <span class="hlt">basin</span> as suggested by some earlier publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717483"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for <span class="hlt">West</span> Nile Disease in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Central Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">West</span> Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">basin</span> and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">basin</span> and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for <span class="hlt">West</span> Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.1164C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.1164C"><span id="translatedtitle">Stabilization of large drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span> over geological time scales: Cenozoic <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa, hot spot swell growth, and the Niger River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chardon, Dominique; Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Rouby, Delphine; Beauvais, Anicet; Christophoul, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the evolving geometry of large river catchments over geological time scales is crucial to constraining yields to sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span>. In the case of Africa, it should further help deciphering the response of large cratonic sediment routing systems to Cenozoic growth of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>-and-swell topography of the continent. Mapping of dated and regionally correlated lateritic paleolandscape remnants complemented by onshore sedimentological archives allows the reconstruction of two physiographic configurations of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa in the Paleogene. Those reconstructions show that the geometry of the drainage is stabilized by the late early Oligocene (29 Ma) and probably by the end of the Eocene (34 Ma), allowing to effectively link the inland morphoclimatic record to offshore sedimentation since that time, particularly in the case of the Niger catchment—delta system. Mid-Eocene paleogeography reveals the antiquity of the Senegambia catchment back to at least 45 Ma and suggests that a marginal upwarp forming a continental divide preexisted early Oligocene connection of the Niger and Volta catchments to the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Such a drainage rearrangement was primarily enhanced by the topographic growth of the Hoggar hot spot swell and caused a stratigraphic turnover along the Equatorial margin of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/213053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/213053"><span id="translatedtitle">Precambrian basement geology of the Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span> region of <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas and Eastern New Mexico: A geophysical perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adams, D.C.; Keller, G.R.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Because most of the Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span> region of <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas and southern New Mexico is covered by Phanerozoic rocks, other means must be found to examine the Precambrian upper crustal geology of the region. We have combined geologic information on the Precambrian from outcrops and wells with geophysical information from gravity and magnetic surveys in an integrated analysis of the history and structure of basement rocks in the region. Geophysical anomalies can be related to six Precambrian events: formation of the Early Proterozoic outer tectonic belt, igneous activity in the southern Granite-Rhyolite province, an episode of pre-Grenville extension, the Grenville orogeny, rifting to form the Delaware aulacogen, and Eocambrian rifting to form the early Paleozoic continental margin. Two geophysical features were studied in detail: the Abilene gravity minimum and the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> platform gravity high. The Abilene gravity minimum is shown to extend from the Delaware <span class="hlt">basin</span> across north-central Texas and is interpreted to be caused by a granitic batholith similar in size to the Sierra Nevada batholith in California and Nevada. This batholith appears to be related to formation of the southern Granite- Rhyolite province, possibly as a continental margin arc batholith. Because of this interpretation, we have located the Grenville tectonic front southward from its commonly quoted position, closer to the Llano uplift. Middle Proterozoic mafic intrusions are found to core the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> platform and the Roosevelt uplift. These intrusions formed at about 1.1 Ga and are related in time to both the Mid-Continent rift system and the Grenville orogeny in Texas. Precambrian basement structures and changes in lithology have influenced the structure and stratigraphy in the overlying Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and thus have potential exploration significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801166','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/801166"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability of Potential Multi-Canister Overpack Loading System Drop of Proof Load in the K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> South Loadout Pit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>SHULTZ, M.V.</p> <p>2000-01-20</p> <p>This document presents the results of a probabilistic analysis of the potential for load drop during the load test of the K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> South Loadout Pit Gantry. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject load test of the gantry. The purpose of this calculation note is to document the probabilistic calculation of the per lift potential for drop of a test load by the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Loading System (MLS) during load testing at the K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> south loadout pit. The MLS subproject needs to load test the MLS in the K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> south loadout pit. To perform this test, a basket mockup weighing approximately 4,500 lb (125% of a fully loaded MCO basket accounting for water displacement) needs to be used for one or more load tests. The test load will comprise a standard basket lifting attachment with several ring-shaped steel segments to provide the required weight. The test load will exceed the K <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Safety Analysis Report (WHC-SD-WM-SAR-062) (SAR) allowances for load drop in the K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> south loadout pit. This probabilistic calculation will be used as part of the basis for seeking U.S. Department of Energy approval to use an MLS test weight that exceeds SAR allowances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016345','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016345"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of low-temperature cooling history on a transect across the Colorado Plateau-<span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range boundary, <span class="hlt">west</span> central Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bryant, B.; Naeser, C.W.; Fryxell, J.E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Fission track ages of apatite and zircon from metamorphic, plutonic, and sedimentary rocks along a 80-km transect across the Colorado Plateau-<span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range boundary in <span class="hlt">west</span> central Arizona show differences in the low-temperature cooling histories between the provinces. The transect extends from Cypress Mountain in the Colorado Plateau transition zone to the eastern Buckskin Mountains in the <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1985/0552/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1985/0552/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentation and water quality in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Shade River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Ohio, 1984 water year</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Childress, C.J.; Jones, R.L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Sedimentation in, and flooding of, the <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Shade River and its tributaries have been major concerns of residents and State and local officials. The area was extensively surface mined for coal between the mid-1940 's and the early 1960's. Reclamation efforts immediately after mining were unsuccessful. The results have been elevated sediment loads and the subsequent loss of channel conveyance. Two sediment and stream gaging stations were established on <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Shade River in the area of past mining to provide data to evaluate the effectiveness of current reclamation activities on reducing sediment loads. A third station was established on the East Branch Shade River in an unmined area as a control. From October 1983 through September 1984, the annual suspended sediment yield/acre-ft of runoff was approximately two times as high for <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Shade River (0.51 ton/acre-ft of runoff) as for East Branch Shade River (0.28 ton/acre-ft). In addition, water quality of <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch indicates that acidity is higher, pH is lower, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and metals are higher than for East Branch. The concentration of coal in bed material increased in the downstream direction along <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Shade River. The concentration downstream in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch was more than 20 times greater than in the East Branch. (Author 's abstract)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/237267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/237267"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>). Technical progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, S.P.</p> <p>1996-04-30</p> <p>The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford <span class="hlt">West</span> field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. One the reservoir-characterization study of both field is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to: (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area; (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments; and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill well will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and producibility problem characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5226/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5226/"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and <span class="hlt">West</span> Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, North Carolina and Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garcia, Ana Maria</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound <span class="hlt">basin</span> and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) <span class="hlt">West</span> Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and <span class="hlt">West</span> Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for <span class="hlt">West</span> Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for <span class="hlt">West</span> Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7432','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7432"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Clastic Reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.</p> <p>1999-06-08</p> <p>The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1244..317L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1244..317L"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel Cost Estimation for <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Grid System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liun, Edwaren</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3083/fs20163083.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3083/fs20163083.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and shale-gas resources in the Bazhenov Formation of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province, Russia, 2016</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.</p> <p>2016-11-10</p> <p>Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 12 billion barrels of oil and 75 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bazhenov Formation of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province, Russia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri034065/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri034065/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">Basins</span>, Los Angeles County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Historical ground-water development of the Central and <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">Basins</span> in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the <span class="hlt">basins</span> were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two <span class="hlt">basins</span> is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..74...41C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..74...41C"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesozoic lacustrine system in the Parnaíba <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, northeastern Brazil: Paleogeographic implications for <span class="hlt">west</span> Gondwana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardoso, Alexandre Ribeiro; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Abrantes, Francisco Romério; Rabelo, Cleber Eduardo Neri</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The fragmentation of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Gondwana during Early Triassic to Cretaceous was marked by intense climatic changes, concomitant with the establishment of extensive desertic/lacustrine systems. These deposits succeeded the emplacement and extrusion of lava flows, related to the pre-rift phase and initial opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The thermal phase is recorded in the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Pastos Bons Formation, exposed mainly in southeast parts of the Parnaíba <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Northeastern Brazil. The sedimentary facies of this unit were grouped in two facies associations (FA), representative of a shallow lacustrine system, influenced by episodic hyperpycnal and oscillatory flows. Central lake facies association (FA1) is composed by laminated mudstone (Ml), sandstone/mudstone rhythmite (S/Mr) and sandstone with even-parallel lamination (Sel). Flysch-like delta front (FA2) consists in sandstones with wave structures (Sw), sandstones with even-parallel stratification (Ses), massive sandstones (Sm), sandstones with soft-sediment deformation structures (Sd) and laminated mudstones (Ml). FA1 was deposited in the deepest portions of the lake, characterized by low energy, episodically disturbed by siliciclastic influx. FA2 presents sandy deposits generated by unconfined flow, probably fed by ephemeral stream flows that generated thickening upward of tabular sandstone beds. The progressive filling of the lake resulted in recurrent shoaling up of the water level and reworking by wave action. The installation of Pastos Bons lakes was controlled by thermal subsidence, mainly in restricted depocenters. The siliciclastic fluvial inflow can be related to the adjacent humid desertic facies, formed under climatic attenuation, typical of post-Triassic period, with reduced biological activity. Smectite and abundant feldspars, in lacustrine facies, corroborate an arid climate, with incipient chemical weathering. The new facies and stratigraphic data present in this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4696814','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4696814"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for <span class="hlt">West</span> Nile Disease in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">West</span> Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">basin</span> and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">basin</span> and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for <span class="hlt">West</span> Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S41C1938V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S41C1938V"><span id="translatedtitle">Receiver function studies of Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volti, T.; Gorbatov, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> subduction zone is distinguished by the occurrence of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman megathrust earthquake and has a peculiar subduction of two major bathymetric structures; the Investigator fracture zone and the Wharton fossil ridge. Four stations in Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (BSI, PSI, PPI, GSI) and two stations in Malaysia (KUM and KOM) have been selected to construct migrated images based on receiver functions (RF) in order to study Earth structure and subduction processes in the region. Waveforms from 304 teleseismic earthquakes with Mb >5.5 and a distance range of 30o to 95o recorded from April 2006 to December 2008 were used for the analysis. The number of RF for each station varies from 20 to 192 depending on the signal/noise ratio. The computed RF clearly show pS conversions at major seismic velocity discontinuities associated with the subduction process where the Moho is visible at 5.5, 4, 3.5, and 2 sec for BSI, PSI, PPI, and GSI, respectively. RF for KUM and KOM have only conversions at the Moho near ~4 sec. The subducted slab is visible below <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> as a positive amplitude conversion preceded by a negative one, which we interpret as a low-velocity structure above the subducted slab. RF for PSI located at Toba supervolcano reveal pockets of low-velocity zones extending from a ~50 km depth down to the subducted slab. Forward modellings of RF suggest that seismic velocity contrasts can reach ~18% that is in accordance with previous local tomographic studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800612"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismology: energy radiation from the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ni, Sidao; Kanamori, Hiroo; Helmberger, Don</p> <p>2005-03-31</p> <p>We determined the duration of high-frequency energy radiation from Indonesia's great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake (26 December 2004) to be about 500 seconds. This duration can be translated into a rupture length of about 1,200 km, which is more than twice as long as that inferred from body-wave analyses performed soon after the event. Our analysis was able rapidly to define the extent of rupture, thereby aiding the assessment of seismic hazard in the immediate future.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5376744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5376744"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">West</span> Atlantic mesozoic carbonates: comparison of Baltimore Canyon and offshore Nova Scotian <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eliuk, L.S.; Cearley, S.C.; Levesque, R.</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>Results of exploratory drilling, by Shell Offshore Inc., and its partners, of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous carbonate margin of the Baltimore Canyon (BC) <span class="hlt">basin</span> can be interpreted directly from the better understood, time-equivalent Nova Scotian (NS) <span class="hlt">basin</span> stratigraphy. The BC paleomargin was constructed in a depositional cycle of three successive stages: Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian progradation, Kimmeridgian-Berriasian aggradation, Berriasian-Valanginian drowning. The upper two stages in NS are the Baccaro and Artimon members of the Abenaki formation. The progradation of the lower sequence in BC results from high clastic input and has a parallel (not age equivalent) in NS only in proximity to the Sable Island paleodelta. Both <span class="hlt">basins</span> have similar, complementary, shelf-edge environments that form a single water-depth-controlled biotic zonation. This zonation is: shallow-water stromatoporoid-hexacoral biostromes and reefs; deeper water stromatactis and thrombolitic mud mounds; and deep-water lithistid sponge reefs. Associated environments are oncolitic reef flats, reef-apron skeletal sands, slope reef debris from sponge and coral reefs, and back-reef mollusk-rich skeletal and skeletal-oolitic sands. Major differences between the <span class="hlt">basins</span> are the pinnacle reefs of BC and the contrast between the mud-rich skeletal and nonskeletal megafacies of NS versus the dominantly skeletal sand-rich BC sediments. The higher subsidence rates of BC may explain both differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H11F0869G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H11F0869G"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Climate Risks on the Investment Plans in the Niger River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghile, Y. B.; Brown, C. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>There is growing concern that the Niger River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (NRB) system is vulnerable to climate variability and climate change. The projected impacts of climate change, in particular, may induce some potential risks to an investment plan of $7.8 billion for building new water infrastructures in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. For this reason, water resource managers and policy makers seek the best possible sources of climate change projections and information to assist their decision making needs. In this presentation, we describe and demonstrate a bottom-up, risk-based framework for the analysis of climate impacts on water resources systems in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The process focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal hydrologic variability with a hydrologic model, modeling the NRB system using the Mike <span class="hlt">Basin</span> model, identifying climate risks, and assessing those risks using climate information centered on 2030, 2050 and 2070 from multiple sources. Generally, the assessment indicates that some potential risks for hydro-electricity, navigation and environmental flows. The approach used in this study may help policy makers to understand the general pattern of climate change risks in the NRB, and it may assist them to address the multitude of future uncertainties that affect the investment plans in the NRB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR23C..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMMR23C..08B"><span id="translatedtitle">Contemporary stress and structural permeability in the Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, North <span class="hlt">West</span> Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bailey, A. H.; King, R.; Holford, S. P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Western Australia is Australia's pre-eminent hydrocarbon province, yet the in-situ stress regime in this <span class="hlt">basin</span> is poorly defined and there is little to no understanding of the contribution that naturally occurring fractures make to structural permeability. In this study a large dataset of recent geophysical data from petroleum wells is analysed from the offshore Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in order to remedy this deficiency. Borehole failure features are known to be caused as a result of the in-situ stress regime, and be used to reliably identify the orientation of principle stresses. Over 290 borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures were identified from resistivity image logs from 15 wells in the Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, giving a maximum horizontal stress orientation of approximately 100°N. This orientation shows little variation across the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the three principle stresses are calculated from geophysical well data. The resulting strike-slip faulting regime can be used to predict the reactivation potential of faults and fractures as well as to assess trap integrity. We also identified a total of 550 naturally occurring fractures using the same resistivity image logs. Fractures strike approximately NE-SE, with fractures that are aligned in the in-situ stress field optimally oriented for reactivation, and hence, likely to be open to fluid flow. Fractures are identifiable as being either resistive or conductive sinusoids on the resistivity image logs used in this study. Resistive fractures, of which 350 were identified, are considered to be cemented with electrically resistive cements (such as quartz or calcite) and thus closed to fluid flow. Conductive fractures, of which 200 were identified, are considered to be uncemented and open to fluid flow, and thus important for their possible contributions to permeability. Two 3D seismic datasets are scrutinised using 3D seismic attributes, notably complex multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JVGR...33..263W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JVGR...33..263W"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical evidence for sundering of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Mariana arc in miocene ash from the Parece Vela <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Warner, Russell J.; Flower, Martin F. J.; Rodolfo, Kelvin S.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>Glass and mineral fragments from discrete volcanic ash layers were sampled from DSDP/IPOD Site 450 in the Parece Vela <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Philippine Sea and analyzed by electron microprobe. The ashes are interpreted as eruptive products of the adjacent <span class="hlt">West</span> Mariana arc system between 25 and 14 Ma B.P., and have compositions between basaltic andesite and rhyolite, and rarely, boninite. 'Continuous' chemical trends appear to reflect mixing of mafic and silicic magmas. 'Discontinuous' trends between these end-members are relatively few, and are consistent with 'liquid lines' produced by fractional crystallization. Andesitic tephra become progressively richer in MgO and CaO through the middle Miocene, while boninite appears towards the end of the sequence, between 14 and 15 Ma B.P. Coeval rhyolitic glasses become richer in K 2O and Na 2O, with maximum concentrations at about 15 Ma B.P. Chronologic changes in fractionation type and composition of parent magmas are interpreted to reflect the subaerial volcanic evolution of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Mariana arc. The appearance of boninite is believed to signal early stages of arc sundering, and corresponds temporally with regional uplift of the sea floor above the carbonate compensation depth, precursor to a new pulse of back-arc spreading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173434','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173434"><span id="translatedtitle">Cambarus (Puncticambarus) smilax, a new species of crayfish (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the Greenbrier River <span class="hlt">basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cambarus (Puncticambarus) smilax is a stream-dwelling crayfish that appears to be endemic to the Greenbrier River <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the Valley and Ridge province of <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. Within the Greenbrier system it occurs primarily in tributaries to the Greenbrier mainstem, with stable populations in the East and <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork, and Thorny, Knapp, and Deer creeks. The new species is morphologically most similar to C. (P.) robustus, from which it can be distinguished by a combination of the following characters: adult palm length comprising 73–76% of palm width as opposed to 63–70% in C. (P.)robustus; ventral surface of chela of cheliped with 0–2 subpalmar tubercles compared to 3–6 subpalmar tubercles in C. (P.) robustus; lack of tubercles on the dorsal surface of chela; longer, more tapering, less rectangular rostrum (47–52% rostrum width/length ratio) compared to C. (P.) robustusshorter, less tapering rectangular rostrum (54–63% rostrum width/length ratio); and the central projection of the form-I male gonopod curved ≤90 degrees to the shaft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/307858','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/307858"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Platform, Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, and Midland <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.; Ortoleva, P.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/127653','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/127653"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mkrtchyan, O.M.; Armentrout, J.M.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The Neocomian strata of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water <span class="hlt">basin</span> formed during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Each transgressive-regressive sequence is defined by a coarsening-upward cycle of shale, siltstone and sandstone, and is considered a chronostratigraphic subdivision of the prograding complex. Each sequence boundary is regionally correlatable on seismic reflection profiles, and is identified on well logs by sharp contacts between regressive sandstones below and thin transgressive shales above. Subordinate progradational wedges are locally developed within these sequences and contain major hydrocarbon reserves. These depositional wedges map as lens-shaped packages downlapping the outermost shelf (Priob zone) or as narrow progradational wedges downlapping the foreset reflections of the slope clinoforms immediately beyond the shelf break (Sugmut zone). Regressive facies of the shelf consist of thin but wide spread sandstones that also contain major hydrocarbon reserves. Pervasive sediment starvation during the Late Neocomian resulted in deposition of thin regionally extensive shales that provide top-seal to the Neocomian hydrocarbon system. At the Priob field, a deep erosional incision has been mapped at the AS11 shelf-edge. Sands transported through this incised valley were deposited as a prograding wedge along the shoreline, forming the reservoir facies for the Priob hydrocarbon accumulation. Stratigraphic aspects of the Priob trap include top and lateral shale seals and subtle regional structural tilt. Types of stratigraphic traps are discussed and the possibility of predicting additional such traps are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655561','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4655561"><span id="translatedtitle">Collapse of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctic Ice Sheet after local destabilization of the Amundsen <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feldmann, Johannes; Levermann, Anders</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet represents the largest uncertainty in sea-level projections of this and upcoming centuries. Recently, satellite observations and high-resolution simulations have suggested the initiation of an ice-sheet instability in the Amundsen Sea sector of <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctica, caused by the last decades’ enhanced basal ice-shelf melting. Whether this localized destabilization will yield a full discharge of marine ice from <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctica, associated with a global sea-level rise of more than 3 m, or whether the ice loss is limited by ice dynamics and topographic features, is unclear. Here we show that in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, a local destabilization causes a complete disintegration of the marine ice in <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctica. In our simulations, at 5-km horizontal resolution, the region disequilibrates after 60 y of currently observed melt rates. Thereafter, the marine ice-sheet instability fully unfolds and is not halted by topographic features. In fact, the ice loss in Amundsen Sea sector shifts the catchment's ice divide toward the Filchner–Ronne and Ross ice shelves, which initiates grounding-line retreat there. Our simulations suggest that if a destabilization of Amundsen Sea sector has indeed been initiated, Antarctica will irrevocably contribute at least 3 m to global sea-level rise during the coming centuries to millennia. PMID:26578762</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578762"><span id="translatedtitle">Collapse of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctic Ice Sheet after local destabilization of the Amundsen <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feldmann, Johannes; Levermann, Anders</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>The future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet represents the largest uncertainty in sea-level projections of this and upcoming centuries. Recently, satellite observations and high-resolution simulations have suggested the initiation of an ice-sheet instability in the Amundsen Sea sector of <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctica, caused by the last decades' enhanced basal ice-shelf melting. Whether this localized destabilization will yield a full discharge of marine ice from <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctica, associated with a global sea-level rise of more than 3 m, or whether the ice loss is limited by ice dynamics and topographic features, is unclear. Here we show that in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, a local destabilization causes a complete disintegration of the marine ice in <span class="hlt">West</span> Antarctica. In our simulations, at 5-km horizontal resolution, the region disequilibrates after 60 y of currently observed melt rates. Thereafter, the marine ice-sheet instability fully unfolds and is not halted by topographic features. In fact, the ice loss in Amundsen Sea sector shifts the catchment's ice divide toward the Filchner-Ronne and Ross ice shelves, which initiates grounding-line retreat there. Our simulations suggest that if a destabilization of Amundsen Sea sector has indeed been initiated, Antarctica will irrevocably contribute at least 3 m to global sea-level rise during the coming centuries to millennia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2202"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Clastic Reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in <span class="hlt">basinal</span> sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989E%26PSL..93..371C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989E%26PSL..93..371C"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and magnetic studies of crustal structure across the Porcupine <span class="hlt">basin</span> <span class="hlt">west</span> of Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conroy, J. J.; Brock, A.</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>Gravity, magnetic and seismic data from a profile across the Porcupine <span class="hlt">basin</span> are used to suggest a model for the crustal structure in the region. The 280 km long profile bears WSW off the southwest coast of Ireland, and overlaps partially with the COOLE 3A and 3B lines of Makris et al. [13]. The gravity data are processed to produce an isostatic residual anomaly which is then modelled by two-and-a-half dimensional methods using the seismic data to provide geometrical constraints. Similar modelling techniques are used for the magnetic data. The final model shows crystalline crust which thins from 28 km at the eastern end of the profile to less than 8 km beneath the central part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The thinned crust is intruded by dense magnetic bodies, whilst the eastern margin is underlain by a large low-density body which is assumed to be a granite. These new findings have parallels in other <span class="hlt">basins</span> on thinned and rifted crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2384/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2384/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of underground mining and mine collapse on the hydrology of selected <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hobba, William A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The effects of underground mining and mine collapse on areal hydrology were determined at one site where the mined bed of coal lies above major streams and at two sites where the bed of coal lies below major streams. Subsidence cracks observed at land surface generally run parallel to predominant joint sets in the rocks. The mining and subsidence cracks increase hydraulic conductivity and interconnection of water-bearing rock units, which in turn cause increased infiltration of precipitation and surface water, decreased evapotranspiration, and higher base flows in some small streams. Water levels in observation wells in mined areas fluctuate as much as 100 ft annually. Both gaining and losing streams are found in mined areas. Mine pumpage and drainage can cause diversion of water underground from one <span class="hlt">basin</span> to another. Areal and single-well aquifer tests indicated that near-surface rocks have higher transmissivity in a mine-subsided <span class="hlt">basin</span> than in unmined <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Increased infiltration and circulation through shallow subsurface rocks increase dissolved mineral loads in streams, as do treated and untreated contributions from mine pumpage and drainage. Abandoned and flooded underground mines make good reservoirs because of their increased transmissivity and storage. Subsidence cracks were not detectable by thermal imagery, but springs and seeps were detectable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH32A..08T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH32A..08T"><span id="translatedtitle">Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and motorbikes immediately after the earthquake. If one TEP is built, ~46,000 could reach safe ground within 30 minutes, and if three were built ~72,000 could. GHI has acquired permission to build a prototype TEP in the northern part of Padang that would accommodate about 25,000 people during the time of a tsunami. This would cost about 4.7 million, amounting to a cost-per-life-saved of ~US200, far lower than the per capita cost of the other options. The cost of replication should be less. This interdisciplinary, international effort demonstrated that TEPs offer the best option for Padang because they have the potential to save thousands of lives, are relatively simple to build and maintain, invite everyday recreational use by the community, and have attracted strong Indonesian government support as a possible means to manage the country's tsunami risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1987/4010/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1987/4010/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Relation between ground water and surface water in the Hillsborough River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wolansky, R.M.; Thompson, T.H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The relation between groundwater and surface water in the Hillsborough River <span class="hlt">basin</span> was defined through the use of: seismic-reflection profiling along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River, and evaluation of streamflow, rainfall, groundwater levels, water quality, and geologic data. Major municipal well fields in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> are Morris Bridge and Cypress Creek where an averages of 15.3 and 30.0 million gal/day (mgd), respectively, were pumped in 1980. Mean annual rainfall for the study area is 53.7 inches. Average rainfall for 1980, determined from eight rainfall stations, was 49.7 inches. Evapotranspiration, corrected for the 5% of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> that is standing water, was 35.7 in/year. The principal geohydrologic units in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer and confining beds, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. Total pumpage of groundwater in 1980 was 98.18 mgd. The surficial aquifer and the intermediate aquifer are not used for major groundwater supply in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Continuous marine seismic-reflection data collected along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River were interpreted to define the riverbed profile, the thickness of surficial deposits, and the top of persistent limestone. Major areas of groundwater discharge near the Hillsborough River and its tributaries are the wetlands adjacent to the river between the Zephyrhills gaging stations and Fletcher Avenue and the wetlands adjacent to Cypress Creek. An estimated 20 mgd seeps upward from the Upper Floridan aquifer within those wetland areas. The runoff/sq mi is greater at the Zephyrhills station than at Morris Bridge. However, results of groundwater flow models and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that groundwater is flowing upward along the Hillsborough River between the Zephyrhills gage and the Morris Bridge gage. This upward leakage is lost to evapotranspiration. An aquifer test conducted in 1978 at the Morris Bridge well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5079/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5079/"><span id="translatedtitle">Evapotranspiration from the Lower Walker River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Nevada, Water Years 2005-07</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Allander, Kip K.; Smith, J. LaRue; Johnson, Michael J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Evapotranspiration is the ultimate path of outflow of nearly all water from the Lower Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Walker Lake is the terminus of the topographically closed Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and the lake level has been declining at an average rate of about 1.6 feet per year (ft/yr) since 1917. As a result of the declining lake level, dissolved-solids concentrations are increasingly threatening the fishery and ecosystem health of the lake. Uncertainties in the water budget components of the Lower Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span> led the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to undertake an investigation to refine estimates of the water budget. Evapotranspiration from the Lower Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span> represents a major component of this water budget. The specific objectives of this report are to provide estimates of total and net evapotranspiration for water years 2005-07 for areas in the Lower Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span> in which annual evapotranspiration exceeds annual precipitation, and to summarize these results for areas of similar vegetation and soil characteristics, hydrographic subareas, and Walker Lake and Weber Reservoir. The three hydrographic subareas include the area along Walker River north of Walker Lake, the area of and adjacent to Walker Lake, and the area south of Walker Lake. Areas of annual evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation were identified and mapped in the field and were further delineated using remote-sensing analysis. These areas were classified into 10 evapotranspiration units. A network of 11 evapotranspiration stations was operated in natural and agricultural vegetation and on Walker Lake. Measured evapotranspiration rates ranged from 0.5 ft/yr at a sparsely vegetated desert shrub site to 5.0 ft/yr from Walker Lake. The greatest evapotranspiration rate on land was 4.1 ft/yr at an irrigated alfalfa field, and the greatest rate for natural vegetation was 3.9 ft/yr in a riparian community along Walker River. At an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U14A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U14A..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">26th December 2004 Great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake: first insights from the summer 2005 Marion Dufresne cruise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sibuet, J.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The 26th December 2004 Great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake is the second biggest earthquake (Mw=9.3) recorded during the past century. It initiated at a depth of 20-30 km, close to an indentation of the Indonesian fore-arc. The rupture propagated about 1200 km northward and terminated north of Andaman Islands. The "<span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Aftershocks" cruise performed on the French R/V Marion Dufresne started July 15 in Jakarta and ended August 9, 2005 in Colombo. We carried out a complete swath-bathymetric survey in a 370*75 km stripe located between northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the Indonesia/India boundary and from the trench to northeast of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault. 20 OBSs were deployed in the area and recorded about 2000 earthquakes during that period. Coring, heat-flow and piezometer measurements were also carried out. Offshore northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, the Australia/Sundaland motion is 5 cm/yr in the N008° direction (Bock et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2003), which means that both strike-slip and normal components might occur along features parallel to the trench direction. However, focal mechanisms of the 26th December 2004 earthquake as well as co-seismic motions and 5-days post-seismic displacement field determined from GPS sites are essentially perpendicular to the trench direction (Vigny et al., Nature, 2005). There is consequently an apparent mismatch between deformations derived from plate motions and from co-seismic and immediate after-slip motions. This might suggest that long-term post-seismic motions might have also a significant component of strike-slip motion along features parallel to the trench direction. Between the trench and the backstop located southwest of the Aceh forearc <span class="hlt">basin</span>, numerous trench parallel piggy back <span class="hlt">basins</span> were mapped, suggesting the existence of numerous thrust faults. On the basis of morphology, coring and heat flow measurements, a major active thrust fault, which might correspond to an active splay fault, was identified southwest of the Aceh forearc <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGeo...54...29D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGeo...54...29D"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Neoproterozoic tectonic fabric on the origin of the Potiguar <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, northeastern Brazil and its links with <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa based on gravity and magnetic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Castro, David Lopes; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Sousa, Maria O. L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The Potiguar <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is a ˜6,000 m thick aborted NE-trending rift that was formed during the Cretaceous in the continental margin of northeastern Brazil. Its ˜E-W-trending offshore faults form part of the successful continental margin rift that evolved into the South Atlantic Ocean. The region represents one of the most significant pre-Pangea breakup piercing points between eastern South America and <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa. We used gravity, aeromagnetic, and geological data to assess the role of reactivated Precambrian shear zones and major terrain boundaries in the development of the Potiguar <span class="hlt">Basin</span> from the Cretaceous to the Cenozoic. We also looked for possible links between these structures in northeastern Brazil and their continuation in <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa. Our results indicate that the major fault systems of the Potiguar <span class="hlt">Basin</span> were superimposed on the Precambrian fabric. Both gravity and magnetic maps show lineaments related to the shear zones and major terrain boundaries in the Precambrian crystalline basement, which also characterize the architecture of the rift. For example, the Carnaubais fault, the master fault of the rift system, represents the reactivation of the Portalegre shear zone, the major tectonic boundary between Precambrian terrains in the crystalline basement. In addition, part of the Moho topography is controlled by these shear zones and developed during the period of main rift extension in the Neocomian. The shear zones bounding the Potiguar rift system continue in <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa around and underneath the Benue <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, where fault reactivation also took place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896540"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hatcher, Robert D</p> <p>2005-11-30</p> <p>This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier <span class="hlt">basin</span> is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51E1945A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51E1945A"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and Projections of Climatic Extremes in the Black Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa: Towards Climate Change Adaptation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aziz, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The water resources of the Black Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa constitute a major resource for the four countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali) that share it. For Burkina Faso and Ghana, the river is the main natural resource around which the development of the diverse sectors of the two economies is built. Whereas Ghana relies heavily on the river for energy, land-locked Burkina Faso continuously develops the water for agricultural purposes. Such important role of the river makes it an element around which there are potential conflicts: either among riparian countries or within the individual countries themselves. This study documents the changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the Black Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> region for the past (1981-2010) and makes projections for the mid-late 21st century (2051-2080) under two emission scenarios; RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. The Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) temperature- and precipitation-based indices are computed with the RClimdex software. Observed daily records and downscaled CORDEX data of precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures are used for historical and future trend analysis respectively. In general low emission scenarios show increases in the cold extremes. The region shows a consistent pattern of trends in hot extremes for the 1990's. An increasing trend in hot extremes is expected in the future under RCP 8.5 while RCP 2.5 shows reductions in hot extremes. Regardless of the emission scenario, projections show more frequent hot nights in the 21st century. Generally, the region shows variability in trends for future extreme precipitation indices with only a few of the trends being statistically significant (5% level). Results obtained provide a basic and first step to understanding how climatic extremes have been changing in the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> region and gives an idea of what to expect in the future. Such studies will also help in making informed decisions on water management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U14A..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U14A..03T"><span id="translatedtitle">Landslides and mass wasting offshore <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> - results from the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake HMS Scott survey January-February 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tappin, D. R.; Henstock, T.; McNeill, L.; Grilli, S.; Biscontin, G.; Watts, P.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Earthquakes are a commonly cited mechanism for triggering submarine landslides that have the potential to generate damaging tsunamis (e.g. Papua New Guinea 1998). Notwithstanding, the Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26th 2005 has been cited as the cause of both far field and local tsunami runups that have been measured at over 35 metres on the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. On the basis of present modelling this seems to be the case. However, if earthquakes are such a common trigger for landslides then the magnitude 9.3 earthquake of December 26th might be expected to have caused numerous seabed failures within the area of rupture that may have contributed to local tsunami runup. This contribution discusses the seabed morphology offshore of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> acquired during the survey carried out by HMS Scott in January and February 2005. Utilising a unique high resolution 12 kHz, 361-beam hull-mounted Sass IV sonar, over 40,000 square kilometres of seabed were mapped. The objective was to identify seabed movements that were the result of the earthquake and to identify submarine slope failures that may have contributed to the tsunami. This paper reports on the results of the survey using Fledermaus imaging software. The area mapped is an accretionary complex formed as the two plates have converged over the past 40 million years. From the data several seabed failure mechanisms of different ages have been identified. Along the plate margin in the <span class="hlt">west</span> of the survey area the deformation front comprises a series of young thrust folds up to 1000m in elevation and tens of kilometres in length. In places the seaward faces of these folds have failed cohesively and slumped blocks 100's of metres high and up to several kilometres long have been displaced up to 13 kilometres onto the inner trench floor. At other locations older episodes of failure are identified by the presence of displaced slumped blocks located on the crests of the folds; the slumps thus predating uplift. Where young</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T11D..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T11D..05S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Seismic Reflection Images of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Seismic and Aseismic Gaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, S. C.; Hananto, N. D.; Chauhan, A.; Carton, H. D.; Midenet, S.; Djajadihardja, Y.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> subduction zone is seismically most active region on the Earth, and has been the site of three great earthquakes only in the last four years. The first of the series, the 2004 Boxing Day earthquake, broke 1300 km of the plate boundary and produced the devastating tsunami around the Indian Ocean. The second great earthquake occurred three months later in March 2005, about 150 km SE of the 2004 event. The Earth waited for three years, and then broke again in September 2007 at 1300 km SE of the 2004 event producing a twin earthquake of magnitudes of 8.5 and 7.9 at an interval of 12 hours, leaving a seismic gap of about 600 km between the second and third earthquake, the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Seismic Gap. Seismological and geodetic studies suggest that this gap is fully locked and may break any time. In order to study the seismic and tsunami risk in this locked region, a deep seismic reflection survey (Tsunami Investigation Deep Evaluation Seismic -TIDES) was carried out in May 2009 using the CGGVeritas vessel Geowave Champion towing a 15 long streamer, the longest ever used during a seismic survey, to image the nature of the subducting plate and associated features, including the seismogenic zone, from seafloor down to 50 km depth. A total of 1700 km of deep seismic reflection data were acquired. Three dip lines traverse the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> subduction zone; one going through the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Seismic Gap, one crossing the region that broke during the 2007 great earthquake, and one going through the aseismic zone. These three dip profiles should provide insight about the locking mechanism and help us to understand why an earthquake occurs in one zone and not in aseismic zone. A strike-line was shot in the forearc <span class="hlt">basin</span> connecting the locked zone with broken zone profiles, which should provide insight about barriers that might have stopped propagation of 2007 earthquake rupture further northward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2004-5067/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2004-5067/"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground-water quality of coastal aquifer systems in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Los Angeles County, California, 1999-2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Land, Michael; Reichard, Eric G.; Crawford, Steven M.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Williams, Colin F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The extensive use of ground water throughout the Central and <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">Basins</span> of Los Angeles County during the first half of the 20th century resulted in declining water levels, widespread seawater intrusion, and deterioration of water quality along most reaches of the coast. In order to control seawater intrusion in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, freshwater is injected into a series of wells at two seawater barrier projects. In order to better understand the processes of seawater intrusion and the efficiency of current barrier operation, data were collected from multiple-well monitoring sites installed by the U.S. Geological Survey, from local observation wells, and from production wells. The occurrence and areal extent of native, saline, and recently injected ground water near the coast were defined through the collection and analysis of inorganic and isotopic water-quality data and geophysical logs. Most water in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">Basin</span> with a dissolved-solids concentration less than 500 milligrams per liter generally has a sodium-bicarbonate to sodium/calcium-bicarbonate character. Water with a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter also contains variable amounts of calcium and sodium, but chloride is predominant. Most of these high-dissolved-solids wells are perforated in the Upper aquifer systems; several have dissolved-chloride values near that of seawater. Elevated chloride concentrations were measured at many wells in both the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the barrier projects. Although water levels have increased in many wells over the last 30 years, some of the wells do not show a corresponding decrease in dissolved chloride. A detailed assessment of saline ground water was provided by examining the ratios of chloride to bromide, iodide, and boron. Seawater-freshwater mixing lines were constructed using all three ratios. These ion ratios also identify water affected by mixing with injected imported water and oil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..221Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..221Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and attribution of climate change at regional scale: case study of Karkheh river <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the <span class="hlt">west</span> of Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zohrabi, Narges; Goodarzi, Elahe; Massah Bavani, Alireza; Najafi, Husain</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This research aims at providing a statistical framework for detection and attribution of climate variability and change at regional scale when at least 30 years of observation data are available. While extensive research has been done on detecting significant observed trends in hydroclimate variables and attribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in large continents, less attention has been paid for regional scale analysis. The latter is mainly important for adaptation to climate change in different sectors including but not limited to energy, agriculture, and water resources planning and management, and it is still an open discussion in many countries including the <span class="hlt">West</span> Asian ones. In the absence of regional climate models, an informative framework is suggested providing useful insights for policymakers. It benefits from general flexibility, not being computationally expensive, and applying several trend tests to analyze temporal variations in temperature and precipitation (gradual and step changes). The framework is implemented for a very important river <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the <span class="hlt">west</span> of Iran. In general, some increasing and decreasing trends of the interannual precipitation and temperature have been detected. For precipitation annual time series, a reducing step was seen around 1996 compared with the gradual change in most of the stations, which have not experience a dramatical change. The range of natural forcing is found to be ±76 % for precipitation and ±1.4 °C for temperature considering a two-dimensional diagram of precipitation and temperature anomalies from 1000-year control run of global climate model (GCM). Findings out of applying the proposed framework may provide useful insights into how to approach structural and non-structural climate change adaptation strategies from central governments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5766359','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5766359"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution, lithology and ages of late Cenozoic volcanism on the eastern margin of the Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nash, W.P.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The eastern margin of the <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range province in central Utah is the locus of late Cenozoic volcanic activity and has witnessed several volcanic episodes within the last three million years. The Twin Peaks volcanic center became active 2.7 m.y. ago producing rhyodacite and rhyolite from a shallow silicic magma body accompanied by voluminous eruptions of basalt. Between about 1 and 0.3 m.y. ago there were eruptions of high silica rhyolite from a deep-seated magma source beneath the Mineral Mountains together with primitive and strongly fractionated mafic magmas of the Cove Fort subprovince. Within this volcanic area are two localities, Roosevelt Hot Springs and Sulfurdale, which have high temperature waters at or near the surface. To the north in the Black Rock Desert, volcanism extended from 1.5 m.y to only several hundred years ago. The activity was dominated by basaltic eruptions, but the area contains the youngest known rhyolite body in Utah (0.4 m.y.). Volcanic vents are located along major crustal discontinuities in the Black Rock Desert, along ring fracture systems at Twin Peaks, and are aligned along trends of north-south normal faulting in the Mineral Mountains and Cove Fort areas. The localization of volcanism is consistent with high strain rates on a regional scale associated with extension of the <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range. The variety of lithologies observed is consistent with a model of fundamentally basaltic magmatism which augments melting in the lower crust to produce silicic magmas. The majority of the mafic magmas that reach the surface are modified by fractionation with the most primitive varieties erupted to the <span class="hlt">west</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...38M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12...38M"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of source extension of 26 December 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake on character of tsunami wave propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazova, Raissa; Kisel'Man, Broneslav; Baranova, Natalya; Lobkovsky, Leopold</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The analysis of the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami on 26 December 2004 carried out in a number of works demonstrates that rupture process in the seismic source was realized during several minutes. In some works, there was suggested that a source probably consists of several segments with width near above hundred of kilometers and with total length more than 1000 km. Such a picture is consistent with subduction keyboard model of tsunamigenic earthquake (see, e.g. [1]) which treats the anomalously long source of Indian Ocean tsunami, caused by oblique subduction, as a multiblock piston mechanism with non-simultaneous realization of each block. Because of existing in literature uncertainty with source structure and movements at all its extent, it is interesting for given event to study in details the dependence of characteristics of surface water wave induced by seismic source on its extent [1,2]. In the work it was studied the influence of submarine seismic source extention to wave field distribution in <span class="hlt">basin</span> of Bengal bay and central part of Indian ocean. To analyze, it was considered separately the influence of large segment of seismic source for given tsunami. On the basis of keyboard model it is considered the earthquake origin with extension near 1200 km comprises 3 seismic source: Sumatran, Andaman and Nicobar ones, each of which comprises 6, 4 and 3 keyboard blocks, respectively (1, 2 and 3 scenarios). It was calculated the maximal vertical displacement of these segments on 2-5 meters. The velocity of block movement was taken in correspondence with available data on characteristic times in the source. For scenario 1 tsunami source, formed at the ocean surface, generates almost circular wave which, due to bathymetry of given <span class="hlt">basin</span>, preserve its form and propagates most quickly in <span class="hlt">west</span> and south-<span class="hlt">west</span> direction. To north-east, to Indian coast, the wave came with large delay, as compared with records of real mareographs. As follows from the wave field picture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425602','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425602"><span id="translatedtitle">A petroliferous transform-margin <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Cote d`Ivoire, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harms, J.C.; Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d`Ivoire <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian(?)-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d`lvoire <span class="hlt">Basin</span> provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6574430','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6574430"><span id="translatedtitle">A petroliferous transform-margin <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Cote d'Ivoire, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harms, J.C. ); Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d'Ivoire <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian( )-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d'lvoire <span class="hlt">Basin</span> provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11A2276M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11A2276M"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Constraints and Earthquake Recurrence Estimates for the <span class="hlt">West</span> Tahoe-Dollar Point Fault, Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maloney, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Brothers, D. S.; Baskin, R. L.; Babcock, J. M.; Noble, P. J.; Karlin, R. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Previous work in the Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (LTB), California, identified the <span class="hlt">West</span> Tahoe-Dollar Point Fault (WTDPF) as the most hazardous fault in the region. Onshore and offshore geophysical mapping delineated three segments of the WTDPF extending along the western margin of the LTB. The rupture patterns between the three WTDPF segments remain poorly understood. Fallen Leaf Lake (FLL), Cascade Lake, and Emerald Bay are three sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> of the LTB, located south of Lake Tahoe, that provide an opportunity to image primary earthquake deformation along the WTDPF and associated landslide deposits. We present results from recent (June 2011) high-resolution seismic CHIRP surveys in FLL and Cascade Lake, as well as complete multibeam swath bathymetry coverage of FLL. Radiocarbon dates obtained from the new piston cores acquired in FLL provide age constraints on the older FLL slide deposits and build on and complement previous work that dated the most recent event (MRE) in Fallen Leaf Lake at ~4.1-4.5 k.y. BP. The CHIRP data beneath FLL image slide deposits that appear to correlate with contemporaneous slide deposits in Emerald Bay and Lake Tahoe. A major slide imaged in FLL CHIRP data is slightly younger than the Tsoyowata ash (7950-7730 cal yrs BP) identified in sediment cores and appears synchronous with a major Lake Tahoe slide deposit (7890-7190 cal yrs BP). The equivalent age of these slides suggests the penultimate earthquake on the WTDPF may have triggered them. If correct, we postulate a recurrence interval of ~3-4 k.y. These results suggest the FLL segment of the WTDPF is near its seismic recurrence cycle. Additionally, CHIRP profiles acquired in Cascade Lake image the WTDPF for the first time in this sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>, which is located near the transition zone between the FLL and Rubicon Point Sections of the WTDPF. We observe two fault-strands trending N45°W across southern Cascade Lake for ~450 m. The strands produce scarps of ~5 m and ~2.7 m, respectively, on the lake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019389','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019389"><span id="translatedtitle">Ramah Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation - A new stratigraphic unit in the Zuni <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Anderson, O.J.; Stricker, G.D.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Nonmarine deposition accompanying and following a regression of the Cretaceous Interior Seaway during late Turonian time left a sedimentary sequence consisting of fluvial channel sandstones, thin overbank sandstones, and paludal shales containing thin coal beds. This unit is herein designated the Ramah Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation. The Ramah Member is locally well exposed in the Zuni <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Mexico where it rests on the Gallup Sandstone (marine) and is overlain by the distinctive, feldspathic Torrivio Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation (formerly of the Gallup Sandstone) Near Ramah, New Mexico the sequence overlies the F member of the Gallup but northward it overlies progressively younger members. These younger members are discrete sand-stone units associated with minor oscillations of relative sea level during a major regional-scale regression. North and east of Puerco Gap, near Gallup. New Mexico, the Ramah Member thins appreciably, and where unmappable it may be included with the Torrivio Member Southward from Gallup in the Zuni <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. the Ramah locally approaches 150 ft in thickness and contains minable coal beds. The interval was previously referred to as the coal-bearing member of the Gallup (Mapel and Yesberger, 1985) or the Ramah unit (Anderson and Stricker, 1904). In the northern part of the Zuni <span class="hlt">Basin</span> a problem may exist locally in determinig the top of the Ramah Member. This is due to the presence of fluviel sandstone with coarse-grained facies that looks much the s ame as the Torrivio Member, but underlines it Two criteria may be employed to distiguish the lower sandstone from the Torrivio and properly place it in the strartigraphic succession: (1) the lower sandstone is generally not as feldspathic as the Torrivio nor do the coarse-grained facies contain pebble-size material; and (2) the lower sandstone is not nearly as widespread as the overlying Torrivio. which has a blanket geometry. The type section of the Ramah</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5233/pdf/sir2014-5233.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5233/pdf/sir2014-5233.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality of groundwater and stream base flow in the Marcellus Shale Gas Field of the Monongahela River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, 2011-12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; Messinger, Terence; Mulder, Michon L.; Pelak, Adam J.; White, Jeremy S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study provides a baseline of water-quality conditions in the Monongahela River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia during the early phases of development of the Marcellus Shale gas field. Although not all inclusive, the results of this study provide a set of reliable water-quality data against which future data sets can be compared and the effects of shale-gas development may be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=3645&hterms=Tsunami&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTsunami','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=3645&hterms=Tsunami&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTsunami"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The island of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GGG....12OAF03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GGG....12OAF03C"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic morphology of <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata Volcano, NE Lau <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, based on high-resolution bathymetry and depth changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clague, David A.; Paduan, Jennifer B.; Caress, David W.; Thomas, Hans; Chadwick, William W., Jr.; Merle, Susan G.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>High-resolution (1.5 m) mapping from the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) D. Allan B. of <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata Volcano in the northern Lau <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is used to identify the processes that construct and modify the volcano. The surface consists largely of volcaniclastic debris that forms smooth slopes to the NW and SE, with smaller lava flows forming gently sloping plateaus concentrated along the ENE and WSW rift zones, and more elongate flows radiating from the summit. Two active volcanic vents, Prometheus and Hades, are located ˜50 and ˜150 m WSW of the 1159 m summit, respectively, and are slightly NW of the ridgeline so the most abundant clastic deposits are emplaced on the NW flank. This eruptive activity and the location of vents appears to have been persistent for more than a decade, based on comparison of ship-based bathymetric surveys in 1996 and 2008-2010, which show positive depth changes up to 96 m on the summit and north flank of the volcano. The widespread distribution of clastic deposits downslope from the rift zones, as well as from the current vents, suggests that pyroclastic activity occurs at least as deep as 2200 m. The similar morphology of additional nearby volcanoes suggests that they too have abundant pyroclastic deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Geo....26..451S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Geo....26..451S"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratigraphic hierarchy of organic carbon rich siltstones in deep-water facies, Brushy Canyon Formation (Guadalupian), Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sageman, Bradley B.; Gardner, Michael H.; Armentrout, John M.; Murphy, Adam E.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>The first systematic test for a predictive relationship between organic carbon content and stratigraphic hierarchy in a deep-water slope to <span class="hlt">basin</span>-floor deposit was performed. The studied section includes the Pipeline Shale, the Brushy Canyon Formation, and the lower part of the Cherry Canyon Formation of the Delaware Mountain Group, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas. This interval represents one large-scale, 3rd-order genetic sequence within which 4th- and 5th-order stratigraphic cycles are recognized. Samples of fine-grained facies throughout the section were collected from outcrop and analyzed for organic carbon content and hydrogen index. Degree of pyritization was also determined for a subset of the samples. The results indicate that organic enrichment is closely correlated to the stratigraphic hierarchy at the 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order levels. The data suggest that quantity and quality of preserved organic matter are controlled by changes in bulk sedimentation rate (dilution vs. condensation), which affect organic matter inputs to the sediment, as well as the balance between (1) burial and preservation of organic matter and (2) its degradation on the sea floor during times of sediment starvation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (CAI and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6587552','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6587552"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberia <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in [open quotes]snapshots[close quotes] by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425933','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425933"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberia <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...64M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApWS..tmp...64M"><span id="translatedtitle">Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1994/4147/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1994/4147/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeology and ground-water flow, fractured Mesozoic structural-<span class="hlt">basin</span> rocks, Stony Brook, Beden Brook, and Jacobs Creek drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Jersey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lewis, Jean C.; Jacobsen, Eric</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This study was undertaken to characterize ground- water flow in the Stony Brook, Beden Brook, and Jacobs Creek drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Jersey. The 89-square-mile study area is underlain by dipping beds of fractured siltstone, shale, and sandstone and by massive diabase sills. In all of the rocks, the density of interconnected fractures decreases with depth. A major fault extends through the study area, and rocks on both sides of the fault are extensively fractured. The average annual rates of precipitation and ground-water recharge in the study area are 45.07 inches and 8.58 inches, respectively. The rate of recharge to diabase rocks is about one-half the rate of recharge to other rocks. Part of the surface runoff from diabase rocks enters the ground-water system where it encounters more permeable rocks. Most ground water in the study area follows short, shallow flow paths. A three- dimensional finite-difference model of ground-water flow was developed to test hypotheses concerning geologic features that control ground-water flow in the study area. The decrease in the density of interconnected fractures with depth was represented by dividing the model into two layers with different hydraulic conductivity. The pinching out of water- bearing beds in the dip direction at land surface and at depth was simulated as a lower hydraulic conductivity in the dip direction than in the strike direction. This model can be used to analyze ground-water flow if the area of interest is more than about 0.5 square mile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386296"><span id="translatedtitle">Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the Comoe River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (<span class="hlt">West</span> Africa).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yéo, Wonnan Eugène; Goula, Bi Tié Albert; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Afouda, Abel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is impacting water users in many sectors: water supply, farming, industry, hydropower, fishing, housing, navigation and health. Existing situations, like population growth, movement of populations from rural to urban areas, poverty and pollution can aggravate the impacts of climate change. The aim of the study is to evaluate the vulnerability of different water user groups to climate change and define communities' adaptation strategies in the Comoe River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Information was collected on communities' concerns and perception on changes in climate and potential adaptation measures and strategies. Results show that 95 % of the sample in the study communities had heard of it and are aware that climate change is occurring. They have been experiencing changes in economic activity and cropping pattern, reduced water level in rivers, crop failure, delay in cropping season, new pests and diseases, food insecurity, drop in income and decline in crop yield. Results also show that communities employ various adaptation strategies including crops diversification, substitution and calendar redefinition, agroforestry, borrowing from friends and money lenders and increasing fertilizer application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/basins"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BASINS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (<span class="hlt">BASINS</span>) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/421130','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/421130"><span id="translatedtitle">V/Ni ratio in crude oil fractions from the <span class="hlt">west</span> Venezuelan <span class="hlt">Basin</span>: Correlation studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lo Monaco, S.; Lopez, L.; Rojas, A.; Lira, A.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>This study presents the analyses of S and the metals Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, Mo, V and Sr within the fractions of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins, and the IR spectroscopy analysis of these fractions for crudes of the Mara and Mara Oeste fields of the Maracaibo <span class="hlt">basin</span>. These results are discussed as related to their implications in oil-oil correlation, and studies of the possible metal-organic associations, and are compared with previous studies which analyzed S, V, and Ni in the total crude and its asphaltene and maltene fractions. In the saturated fraction, elements Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Sr were detected. In the aromatic fraction, in addition to the before mentioned elements, Cr and Ni were also detected; while in the resins elements Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mo, V and Sr were detected. S was detected in the three fractions studied, and IR spectra show bands that may be related to organic compounds that contain S. IR results for the aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins indicate the presence of carboxylic groups which can serve as ligands for metals in such fractions. The larger number of elements detected within resins, as well as their higher concentration vs. saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, may be due to the structure of the resins and their greater ability to form organometallic complexes. The relatively constant V/Ni ratios in crudes (11 +/- 1), maltene (15 +/- 1), asphaltenes (15 +/- 1) and resins (11 +/- 1) give support to a single group of crudes. These results indicate that the V/Ni ratio determined for the whole crude or its fractions may be used as a correlation parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1034642','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1034642"><span id="translatedtitle">TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF SYSTEMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING OF REMOTE-HANDLED SLUDGE FROM HANFORD K-<span class="hlt">WEST</span> FUEL STORAGE <span class="hlt">BASIN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>RAYMOND RE</p> <p>2011-12-27</p> <p>In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> Fuel Storage <span class="hlt">Basin</span> on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K <span class="hlt">Basin</span> sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 {mu}m to 6350 {mu}m mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PCE....31.1180O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PCE....31.1180O"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydroclimatology of the Volta River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa: Trends and variability from 1901 to 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oguntunde, Philip G.; Friesen, Jan; van de Giesen, Nick; Savenije, Hubert H. G.</p> <p></p> <p>Long-term historical records of rainfall ( P), runoff ( Q) and other climatic factors were used to investigate hydrological variability and trends in the Volta River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> over the period 1901-2002. Potential ( Ep) and actual evaporation ( E), rainfall variability index ( δ), Budyko’s aridity index ( IA), evaporation ratio ( CE) and runoff ratio ( CQ) were estimated from the available hydroclimatological records. Mann-Kendall trend analysis and non-parametric Sen’s slope estimates were performed on the respective time series variables to detect monotonic trend direction and magnitude of change over time. Rainfall variability index showed that 1968 was the wettest year ( δ = +1.75) while 1983 was the driest ( δ = -3.03), with the last three decades being drier than any other comparable period in the hydrological history of the Volta. An increase of 0.2 mm/yr 2 ( P < 0.05) was observed in Ep for the 1901-1969 sub-series while an increased of 1.8 mm/yr 2 ( P < 0.01) was recorded since 1970. Rainfall increased at the rate of 0.7 mm/yr 2 or 49 mm/yr between 1901 and 1969, whereas a decrease of 0.2 mm/yr 2 (6 mm/yr) was estimated for 1970-2002 sub-series. Runoff increased significantly at the rate of 0.8 mm/yr (23 mm/yr) since 1970. Runoff before dam construction was higher (87.5 mm/yr) and more varied (CV = 41.5%) than the post-dam period with value of 73.5 mm/yr (CV = 23.9%). A 10% relative decrease in P resulted in a 16% decrease in Q between 1936 and 1998. Since 1970, all the months showed increasing runoff trends with significant slopes ( P < 0.05) in 9 out of the 12 months. Possible causes, such as climate change and land cover change, on the detected changes in hydroclimatology are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5783529','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5783529"><span id="translatedtitle">Oil-productive Miocene algal and sea grass carbonate mudbanks, south <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Longman, M.W.; Beddoes, L.R. Jr.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>Ramba and Tanjung Laban oil fields, located about 70 km northwest of Palembang in southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, produce from wackestones and packstones in the lower Miocene Batu Raja Formation. Reservoir rocks are part of relatively small, undolomitized, low-relief carbonate buildups that accumulated on a widespread platform facies. Rocks in the platform facies are dominantly shaly nodular wackestones, whereas rocks in the buildup are dominantly nonshaly wackestones and packstones. The regional setting, the abundance of micrite in the buildups, the absence of both coralline algae and marine cements, and the geometry of the buildups suggest that noncalcareous algae and/or sea grasses were the dominant organisms responsible for forming these mudbanks. The absence of shale in the mudbanks has been important in forming the secondary porosity that yields most of the oil. Vugs and molds form as much as 30% of the rock in the best reservoir zones. Fractures formed by dissolution and collapse greatly enhance reservoir zones quality in many places. Another type of porosity, microintercrystalline, occurs within chalky micrites scattered through the upper part of the buildups. Porosity in these micrites reaches 25%, but permeability is very low. The recent discovery of oil in these low-energy carbonate mudbanks of the Batu Raja Formation has opened a new exploration play in the South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Many similar buildups will likely be found as exploration continues and the <span class="hlt">basin</span>'s paleogeography becomes better understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H23B1426V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H23B1426V"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the downstream impact of ensembles of small reservoirs with special reference to the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J.; Steenhuis, T.; Huber-Lee, A.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>After a strong reduction in investments in water infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, we now see a revival and increased interest to start water-related projects. The global political willingness to work towards the UN millennium goals are an important driver behind this recent development. Large scale irrigation projects, such as were constructed at tremendous costs in the 1970's and early 1980's, are no longer seen as the way forward. Instead, the construction of a large number of small, village-level irrigation schemes is thought to be a more effective way to improve food production. Such small schemes would fit better in existing and functioning governance structures. An important question now becomes what the cumulative (downstream) impact is of a large number of small irrigation projects, especially when they threaten to deplete transboundary water resources. The Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa is a transboundary river catchment, divided over six countries. Of these six countries, upstream Burkina Faso and downstream Ghana are the most important and cover 43% and 42% of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, respectively. In Burkina Faso (and also North Ghana), small reservoirs and associated irrigation schemes are already an important means to improve the livelihoods of the rural population. In fact, over two thousand such schemes have already been constructed in Burkina Faso and further construction is to be expected in the light of the UN millennium goals. The cumulative impact of these schemes would affect the Akosombo Reservoir, one of the largest manmade lakes in the world and an important motor behind the economic development in (South) Ghana. This presentation will put forward an analytical framework that allows for the impact assessment of (large) ensembles of small reservoirs. It will be shown that despite their relatively low water use efficiencies, the overall impact remains low compared to the impact of large dams. The tools developed can be used in similar settings elsewhere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri99-4269/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri99-4269/"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC53B0520W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC53B0520W"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Water Resources Assessment for <span class="hlt">West</span> African River <span class="hlt">Basins</span> Under Climate Change, Population Growth and Irrigation Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisser, D.; Ibrahim, B.; Proussevitch, A. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">West</span> Africa economies rely on rain-fed agriculture and are extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation. Results from the most recent generation of regional climate models suggest increases in rainy season rainfall variability (delayed rainy season onset, increased probability of dry spells, shorter rainy season duration) despite a moderate increase in rainy season total precipitation. These changes could potentially have detrimental effects on crop yield and food security. Additional pressures on water resources come from increased demand as a result of high population growth rates (~3% per year). Increased water storage and irrigation can help improve crop yields but future assessments of water resources are needed to prioritize irrigation development as an adaptation option. Increased water abstraction, in turn can impact water availability in downstream regions so that an integrated assessment of future water availability and demand is needed. We use a set of 15 RCM outputs from the CORDEX data archive to drive WBMplus, a hydrological model and simulate water availability under climate change. Based on estimated water constraints, we develop scenarios to expand irrigated areas (from the current 1% of all croplands) and calculate the effects on water scarcity, taking into account increased demand for domestic consumption and livestock water demand, at a spatial resolution of 10 km. Results around the 2050's indicate large potential to develop irrigated areas on ground and surface water and increase local water storage without increasing water scarcity downstream for many river <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the region that could help alleviate pressures on the cropping systems and thereby increase food security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2059/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2059/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnitudes, nature, and effects of point and nonpoint discharges in the Chattahoochee River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Atlanta to <span class="hlt">West</span> Point Dam, Georgia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stamer, J.K.; Cherry, Rodney N.; Faye, R.E.; Kleckner, R.L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>During the period April 1975 to June 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a river-quality assessment of the Upper Chattahoochee River <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Georgia. One objective of the study was to assess the magnitudes, nature, and effects of point and non-point discharges in the Chattahoochee River <span class="hlt">basin</span> from Atlanta to the <span class="hlt">West</span> Point Dam. On an average annual basis and during the storm period of March 1215, 1976, non-point-source loads for most constituents analyzed were larger than point-source loads at the Whitesburg station, located on the Chattahoochee River about 40 river miles downstream of Atlanta. Most of the non-point-source constituent loads in the Atlanta-to-Whitesburg reach were from urban areas. Average annual point-source discharges accounted for about 50 percent of the dissolved nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus loads, and about 70 percent of the dissolved phosphorus loads at Whitesburg. During weekends, power generation at the upstream Buford Dam hydroelectric facility is minimal. Streamflow at the Atlanta station during dry-weather weekends is estimated to be about 1,200 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Average daily dissolved-oxygen concentrations of less than 5.0 mg/L (milligrams per liter) occurred often in the river, about 20 river miles downstream from Atlanta during these periods from May to November. During a low-flow period, June 1-2, 1977, five municipal point sources contributed 63 percent of the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand, 97 percent of the ammonium nitrogen, 78 percent of the total nitrogen, and 90 percent of the total phosphorus loads at the Franklin station, at the upstream end of <span class="hlt">West</span> Point Lake. Average daily concentrations of 13 mg/L of ultimate biochemical oxygen demand and 1.8 mg/L of ammonium nitrogen were observed about 2 river miles downstream from two of the municipal point sources. Carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxygen demands caused dissolved-oxygen concentrations between 4.1 and 5.0 mg/L to occur in a 22-mile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T23I..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T23I..03P"><span id="translatedtitle">Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> g. Arias intensities of 0.4-1.7 to 7.9-33 m/s are estimated for the M = 6 and M = 9 events, respectively, are expected in the source regions of piggyback <span class="hlt">basins</span> for local slope failures. Typical sites have Dn means of 0.1, 1.6, 7.7, and 16 cm for earthquakes of M = 6, 7, 8, and 9; suggested thresholds for displacement range between 5 and 10 cm. Thus the observed turbidite stratigraphy in the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> piggyback <span class="hlt">basins</span> can be explained by local ground motions during earthquakes with magnitude greater than ~7, given the static stability and low sedimentation rates. The paleoseismic data to date suggest a repeat time of 240 years, insufficient to destabilize slopes though sediment accumulation alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014021','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014021"><span id="translatedtitle">Benthic invertebrate communities and their responses to selected environmental factors in the Kanawha River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chambers, Douglas B.; Messinger, Terence</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The effects of selected environmental factors on the composition and structure of benthic invertebrate communities in the Kanawha River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, Virginia and North Carolina were investigated in 1997 and 1998. Environmental factors investigated include physiography, land-use pattern, streamwater chemistry, streambed- sediment chemistry, and habitat characteristics. Land-use patterns investigated include coal mining, agriculture, and low intensity rural-residential patterns, at four main stem and seven tributary sites throughout the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Of the 37 sites sampled, <span class="hlt">basin</span> size and physiography most strongly affected benthic invertebrate-community structure. Land-use practices also affected invertebrate community structure in these <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The <span class="hlt">basins</span> that differed most from the minimally affected reference condition were those <span class="hlt">basins</span> in which coal mining was the dominant nonforest land use, as determined by comparing invertebrate- community metric values among sites. <span class="hlt">Basins</span> in which agriculture was important were more similar to the reference condition. The effect of coal mining upon benthic invertebrate communities was further studied at 29 sites and the relations among invertebrate communities and the selected environmental factors of land use, streamwater chemistry, streambed- sediment chemistry, and habitat characteristics analyzed. Division of coal-mining synoptic-survey sites based on invertebrate-community composition resulted in two groups?one with more than an average production of 9,000 tons of coal per square mile per year since 1980, and one with lesser or no recent coal production. The group with significant recent coal production showed higher levels of community impairment than the group with little or no recent coal production. Median particle size of streambed sediment, and specific conductance and sulfate concentration of streamwater were most strongly correlated with effects on invertebrate communities. These characteristics were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2005/5099/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2005/5099/"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibration parameters used to simulate streamflow from application of the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Model (HSPF) to mountainous <span class="hlt">basins</span> containing coal mines in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Atkins, John T.; Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Paybins, Katherine S.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This report presents the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Model (HSPF) parameters for eight <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the coal-mining region of <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. The magnitude and characteristics of model parameters from this study will assist users of HSPF in simulating streamflow at other <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the coal-mining region of <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. The parameter for nominal capacity of the upper-zone storage, UZSN, increased from south to north. The increase in UZSN with the increase in <span class="hlt">basin</span> latitude could be due to decreasing slopes, decreasing rockiness of the soils, and increasing soil depths from south to north. A special action was given to the parameter for fraction of ground-water inflow that flows to inactive ground water, DEEPFR. The basis for this special action was related to the seasonal movement of the water table and transpiration from trees. The models were most sensitive to DEEPFR and the parameter for interception storage capacity, CEPSC. The models were also fairly sensitive to the parameter for an index representing the infiltration capacity of the soil, INFILT; the parameter for indicating the behavior of the ground-water recession flow, KVARY; the parameter for the basic ground-water recession rate, AGWRC; the parameter for nominal capacity of the upper zone storage, UZSN; the parameter for the interflow inflow, INTFW; the parameter for the interflow recession constant, IRC; and the parameter for lower zone evapotranspiration, LZETP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5794168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5794168"><span id="translatedtitle">Depositional setting of Ordovician and Cambrian rocks in central Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> along a section from Morrow County, Ohio, to Calhoun County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryder, R.T.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>A 200-mi (320 km) long restored stratigraphic section from Morrow County, Ohio, to Calhoun County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, contrasts Ordovician and Cambrian rocks deposited on a relatively stable shelf with those deposited in rift and postrift <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Lithologic data are from commercial logs and from detailed descriptions of cores in five of the nine drill holes used to construct the section. Particularly instructive was the 2,352 ft (717 m) of core from the Hope Natural Gas 9634 Power Oil basement test in Wood County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. Rift <span class="hlt">basin</span> deposits are dominated by medium to dark-gray argillaceous limestone, argillaceous siltstone, and by green-gray to black shale of probable subtidal origin. Dolomite is the dominant rock type in the postrift <span class="hlt">basin</span> and adjacent stable shelf deposits. The upper part of the postrift sequence, composed of the Middle Ordovician Black River Limestone, the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone, and Middle and Upper Ordovician Antes (Utica) Shale with a high organic content, represents deposition in gradually deepening water on an open shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..88..218G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..88..218G"><span id="translatedtitle">A comprehensive model of postseismic deformation of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake deduced from GPS observations in northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunawan, Endra; Sagiya, Takeshi; Ito, Takeo; Kimata, Fumiaki; Tabei, Takao; Ohta, Yusaku; Meilano, Irwan; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Agustan; Nurdin, Irwandi; Sugiyanto, Didik</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the postseismic deformation of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake (SAE) using 5 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) data located in northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. Continuous GPS data from northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> suggest that the relaxation time in the vertical displacement is longer than horizontal displacements. This implies that there are multiple physical mechanisms that control the postseismic deformation, which refer to afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. In this study, we introduce an analysis strategy of postseismic deformation to simultaneously calculate multiple mechanisms of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. The afterslip inversion results indicate that the distribution of the afterslip and the coseismic slip are compensatory of each other. Also, afterslip has a limited contribution to vertical deformation in northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. In our rheology model, we use a gravitational Maxwell viscoelastic response and the result indicates that the elastic layer thickness is 65 ± 5 km and the Maxwell viscosity is 8.0 ± 1.0 × 1018 Pa s. We find that afterslip plus Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation are appropriate to explain the deformation in northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. We also find that our rheology model reproduces the long-term features of the GPS time series in Thailand. Applying our rheology model to the data in Andaman Islands our afterslip estimation is located at the down-dip part of the plate boundary. Finally, we showed that our rheology model is applicable to the GPS datasets of postseismic deformation of the 2004 SAE located in northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Thailand, and Andaman-Nicobar, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ofr03-133/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ofr03-133/"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span> within a 7-square-mile area in southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. Two of the small <span class="hlt">basins</span> had reclaimed valley fills, one <span class="hlt">basin</span> had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three <span class="hlt">basins</span> did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three <span class="hlt">basins</span> with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AdG....21...57L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AdG....21...57L"><span id="translatedtitle">The Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leemhuis, C.; Jung, G.; Kasei, R.; Liebe, J.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>In the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP) has developed a Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Water Allocation System (VB-WAS), a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH) serve as input data for a river <span class="hlt">basin</span> management model (MIKE <span class="hlt">BASIN</span>). MIKE <span class="hlt">BASIN</span> uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA088252','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA088252"><span id="translatedtitle">National Dam Safety Program. Campbells Pond Dam (NJ00517). Rahway River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Rahway River, Essex County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>TESI CHART NATIONAL BURIAU Sif ANARDS 19 1 A L... . .. .... ... - S- " i -- RAHWAY RIVER <span class="hlt">BASIN</span> <span class="hlt">WEST</span> BRANCH RAHWAY RIVER ESSEX COUNTY NEW JERSEY...written operating procedures and a periodic maintenance plan to ensure the safety of the dam within one year from the date of approval of this report. q ...IA4 0 £ ac C L. 0 ix E 0 EU> - 0) r Q . La #A 2 0 "o . 4-c 4.-n L S.0- 1- 0 &c =EU 4) 0 w ..0CL LW 0) L.do En 4) 4Ja) evI- to L (A4. WE OL 43 L00 WO0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019393','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019393"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated model for the tectonic development of the frontal Brooks Range and Colville <span class="hlt">Basin</span> 250 km <span class="hlt">west</span> of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cole, F.; Bird, K.J.; Toro, J.; Roure, F.; O'Sullivan, P. B.; Pawlewicz, M.; Howell, D.G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We present a kinematic model for the sequence of deformation and sedimentation in the frontal Brooks Range and adjacent Colville <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in the Etivluk River region, 250 km <span class="hlt">west</span> of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). The model is based on a tectonic subsidence analysis of the foreland <span class="hlt">basin</span>, combined with structural, stratigraphic, and thermal studies of the northern edge of the Brooks Range thrust belt. We interpret six discrete tectonic events that led to the present-day configuration of the thrust belt in this area: (1) emplacement of ophiolitic allochthons over the distal continental margin rocks in Valanginian time, hundreds of kilometers south of this study, (2) Hauterivian uplift of the Barrow Arch rift margin, affecting the northern part of the Colville <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, (3) Barremian contraction involving emplacement of distal continental margin and ophiolitic allochthons onto the Endicott Mountains allochthon and creation of a southward dipping flexural <span class="hlt">basin</span> on the North Slope autochthon, (4) mid-Cretaceous exhumation of imbricated rocks in the Brooks Range during northward propagation of the thrust front into the foreland, (5) minor thrusting in Late Cretaceous-Paleocene in the northern foreland to the northern limit of contractional structures, and (6) regional exhumation of the orogen and the foreland in Paleocene-Eocene time. This sequence of deformation agrees well with a simple model of a forward propagating thrust system. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1994/4181/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1994/4181/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the middle Connecticut River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Hampshire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Flanagan, S.M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Water Resources Division, to describe the geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the Middle Connecticut River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Hampshire Stratified-drift aquifers discontinuously underlie 123 mi2 (square miles) of the Middle Connecticut River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, which has a total drainage area of 987 mi 2. Saturated thicknesses of stratified drift in the study area are locally greater than 500 feet but generally are less than 100 feet. Aquifer transmissivity locally exceeds 4,000 ft2/d (feet squared per day) but is generally less than 1,000 ft2/d. In only 17.2 mi2 of the study area are the aquifers identified as having a transmissivity greater than 1,000 ft2/d. As of 1990, total groundwater withdrawals from stratified drift for municipal supply were about 1.5 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in the study area. Many of the stratified-drift aquifers underlying the study area are not developed to their fullest potential. The geohydrologic investigation of the stratified-drift aquifers focused on aquifer properties, including aquifer boundaries; recharge, discharge, and direction of ground-water flow; saturated thickness and storage; and transmissivity. Surficial-geologic mapping assisted in the determination of aquifer boundaries. Data from more than 1,000 wells, test borings, and springs were used to prepare maps of water-table altitude, saturated thickness, and transmissivity of stratified drift. More than 11 miles of seismic-refraction profiling at 95 sites was used in the preparation of the water-table-altitude and saturated-thickness maps. Seismic-reflection data collected along 1.6 miles of Mascoma Lake also were used in preparation of the saturated-thickness maps. Four stratified-drift aquifers in the towns of Franconia, Haverhill, and Lisbon were analyzed to estimate the water availability on the basis of analytical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/g8/pdf/pp1708_g8.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/g8/pdf/pp1708_g8.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Cambrian petroleum source rocks in the Rome trough of <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia and Kentucky, Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>: Chapter G.8 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, David C.; Gerome, Paul; Hainsworth, Timothy J.; Burruss, Robert A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Jarvie, Daniel M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The bitumen extract from the Rogersville Shale compares very closely with oils or condensates from Cambrian reservoirs in the Carson Associates No. 1 Kazee well, Homer gas field, Elliott County, Ky.; the Inland No. 529 White well, Boyd County, Ky.; and the Miller No. 1 well, Wolfe County, Ky. These favorable oil-source rock correlations suggest a new petroleum system in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> that is characterized by a Conasauga Group source rock and Rome Formation and Conasauga Group reservoirs. This petroleum system probably extends along the Rome trough from eastern Kentucky to at least central <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/g11/pdf/pp1708_g11.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/g11/pdf/pp1708_g11.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">In search of a Silurian total petroleum system in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia: Chapter G.11 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Lentz, Erika E.; Avary, K. Lee; Harper, John A.; Kappel, William M.; Rea, Ronald G.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the TOC analyses in this study indicate that good to very good source rocks are present in the Salina Group and Wills Creek Formation of southwestern Pennsylvania and northern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, data are insufficient to propose a new Silurian total petroleum system in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>. However, the analytical results of this investigation are encouraging enough to undertake more systematic studies of the source rock potential of the Salina Group, Wills Creek Formation, and perhaps the Tonoloway Formation (Limestone) and McKenzie Limestone (or Member).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G13A1002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G13A1002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematics of Slip Partitioning in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, K. E.; Feng, L.; Hill, E.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K.; Daryono, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Published geological slip rates of the Sumatran Fault, slip vectors of Sunda megathrust earthquakes, and the geodetic velocity field of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the forearc islands appear the require distributed and rapid stretching of the Sumatran forearc parallel to the Sunda Trench. We show that revised Sumatran Fault slip rates, earthquake slip vector azimuths, and the long-term geodetic velocity field are consistent instead with a non-deforming, rigid forearc block that overlies a heterogeneously coupled Sunda megathrust and is separated from the Sunda Block by the Sumatran Fault. Like previous studies, we conclude that rigid plate tectonics fails to describe the Sumatran subduction system; however, we attribute this failure to the well documented internal strain within the Eastern Indian Ocean lithosphere. We further constrain the along-strike variation in the rate of underthrusting of oceanic lithosphere beneath the Sumatran forearc, an important boundary condition for paleogeodetic studies of elastic strain accumulation within the forearc and the cycle of great Sunda megathrust earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25419471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25419471"><span id="translatedtitle">Nighttime lights time series of tsunami damage, recovery, and economic metrics in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillespie, Thomas W; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Chum, Kai Fung; Thomas, Duncan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake off the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of the northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia resulted in 160,000 Indonesians killed. We examine the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light imagery brightness values for 307 communities in the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a household survey in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> from 2004 to 2008. We examined night light time series between the annual brightness and extent of damage, economic metrics collected from STAR households and aggregated to the community level. There were significant changes in brightness values from 2004 to 2008 with a significant drop in brightness values in 2005 due to the tsunami and pre-tsunami nighttime light values returning in 2006 for all damage zones. There were significant relationships between the nighttime imagery brightness and per capita expenditures, and spending on energy and on food. Results suggest that Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime light imagery can be used to capture the impacts and recovery from the tsunami and other natural disasters and estimate time series economic metrics at the community level in developing countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5099/pdf/sir2013-5099.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5099/pdf/sir2013-5099.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic sources and concentrations of selenium in the <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Colorado, 2003-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paschke, Suzanne S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Beck, Jennifer A.; Webbers, Ank; Dupree, Jean A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Toll Gate Creek, in the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central part of the Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, is a perennial stream in which concentrations of dissolved selenium have consistently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Recent studies of selenium in Toll Gate Creek identified the Denver lignite zone of the non-marine Cretaceous to Tertiary-aged (Paleocene) Denver Formation underlying the watershed as the geologic source of dissolved selenium to shallow ground-water and surface water. Previous work led to this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Aurora Utilities Department, which investigated geologic sources of selenium and selenium concentrations in the watershed. This report documents the occurrence of selenium-bearing rocks and groundwater within the Cretaceous- to Tertiary-aged Denver Formation in the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central part of the Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed. The report presents background information on geochemical processes controlling selenium concentrations in the aquatic environment and possible geologic sources of selenium; the hydrogeologic setting of the watershed; selenium results from groundwater-sampling programs; and chemical analyses of solids samples as evidence that weathering of the Denver Formation is a geologic source of selenium to groundwater and surface water in the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central part of the Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, including Toll Gate Creek. Analyses of water samples collected from 61 water-table wells in 2003 and from 19 water-table wells in 2007 indicate dissolved selenium concentrations in groundwater in the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span> frequently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard and in some locations exceeded the primary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. The greatest selenium concentrations were associated with oxidized groundwater samples from wells completed in bedrock materials. Selenium analysis of geologic core samples indicates that total selenium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1041A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1041A"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed and Simulated High Amplitude Tsunami Offshore of Northern Banda Aceh During the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ando, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishida, M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Several isolated high waves were observed about 0.5 to 20 km away from the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> based from the interviews undertaken with fishermen who were on their fishing vessels when the December 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake occurred. The fishermen were on their wooden boats powered by motor engine manned by one to 20 crew members. Most of them felt the earthquake shocks and some of the crews immediately recognized the shaking phenomena as an earthquake based on their previous experiences. About half of interviewees had difficulties in controlling their boats during the shaking, which lasted about 10 to 15 min. About 5 to 15 minute after the shaking their boats were struck by the 10-20m high waves. Moreover, their boats, located more than several km off the coast of northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, were struck repeatedly by more or less isolated high waves. Based from these interviews it is ascertained that tsunami can also pose danger even offshore when the tsunami amplitudes are high and water depths are shallower than about 50m. These observations also provided new evidence that the 2004 tsunami is already high enough to damage or overturn ships offshore. We simulated tsunami waves using a source model of the 2004 earthquake by Fujii and Satake (2007). Since the seafloor topography is not clear for both continental shelf and slope in northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, the depth of 150m at 30 km off the coast varying gently towards the coast is presumed. This depth is assumed based on the type of fish caught in the area that are likely to live near the rocky seafloor at depths around 50m. For the numerical analysis, the non-linear long wave equation and the non-linear dispersive long wave equation were used for depths deeper and shallower than 150m, respectively. As a result, at depths around 20m, dispersive short- period solitary waves with height of 6-8m were generated that are similar to the waves that struck the fishing vessels. However, the tsunami waves that the fishermen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033238','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033238"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Belkin, H.E.; Tewalt, S.J.; Hower, J.C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1??wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GGG....10.8X07O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GGG....10.8X07O"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary, volcanic, and tectonic processes of the central Mariana Arc: Mariana Trough back-arc <span class="hlt">basin</span> formation and the <span class="hlt">West</span> Mariana Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oakley, A. J.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Goodliffe, A.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>We present new multichannel seismic profiles and bathymetric data from the central Marianas that image the <span class="hlt">West</span> Mariana Ridge (WMR) remnant arc, both margins of the Mariana Trough back-arc <span class="hlt">basin</span>, the modern arc, and Eocene frontal-arc high. These data reveal structure and stratigraphy related to three periods of arc volcanism and two periods of arc rifting. We interpret the boundary between accreted back-arc <span class="hlt">basin</span> and rifted arc crust along the Mariana Trough and support these findings with drilling results and recent seismic refraction and gravity studies. We show that with the exception of a few volcanoes behind the volcanic front that straddle the boundary between crustal types, the modern Mariana Arc is built entirely on rifted arc crust between 14 and 19°N. Our data indicate that there is more accreted back-arc seafloor to the <span class="hlt">west</span> of the Mariana Trough spreading axis than to the east, confirming previous evidence for an asymmetric <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The rifted margin of the WMR remnant arc forms a stepped pattern along the western boundary of the Mariana Trough, between 15°30' and 19°N. In this region, linear volcanic cross chains behind the WMR are aligned with the trend of Mariana Trough spreading segments, and the WMR ridges extend into the back-arc <span class="hlt">basin</span> along the same strike. These ridges are magmatic accommodation zones which, to the north along the Izu-Bonin Arc, punctuate tectonic extension. For the WMR we hypothesize that rift <span class="hlt">basins</span> are more commonly the sites where spreading segment offsets nucleate, whereas magmatic centers of spreading segments are sites where magmatism continues from arc volcanism, through rifting to back-arc spreading. The Mariana Trough is opening nonrigidly and is characterized by two predominant abyssal hill trends, NNW-SSE in the north and N-S in the south. Between the only two <span class="hlt">basin</span>-crossing fracture zones at ˜15.5 and 17.5°, N-S axes propagated north at the expense of NNW axes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5207/PDF/SIR2006_5207.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5207/PDF/SIR2006_5207.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã <span class="hlt">Basins</span>, Republic of Cape Verde, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa, 2005-06</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three <span class="hlt">basins</span> within the <span class="hlt">West</span> African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these <span class="hlt">basins</span>, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three <span class="hlt">basins</span> vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per <span class="hlt">basin</span>) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul <span class="hlt">Basins</span>. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each <span class="hlt">basin</span>, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1019/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1019/"><span id="translatedtitle">Burial and thermal history of the central Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>, based on three 2-D models of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rowan, Elisabeth L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Three regional-scale, cross sectional (2-D) burial and thermal history models are presented for the central Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> based on the detailed geologic cross sections of Ryder and others (2004), Crangle and others (2005), and Ryder, R.T., written communication. The models integrate the available thermal and geologic information to constrain the burial, uplift, and erosion history of the region. The models are restricted to the relatively undeformed part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and extend from the Rome trough in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia and Pennsylvania northwestward to the Findlay arch in Ohio. This study expands the scope of previous work by Rowan and others (2004) which presented a preliminary burial/thermal history model for a cross section (E-E') through <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia and Ohio. In the current study, the burial/thermal history model for E-E' is revised, and integrated with results of two additional cross sectional models (D-D' and C-C'). The burial/thermal history models provide calculated thermal maturity (Ro%) values for the entire stratigraphic sequence, including hydrocarbon source rocks, along each of the three cross sections. In contrast, the Ro and conodont CAI data available in the literature are sparse and limited to specific stratigraphic intervals. The burial/thermal history models also provide the regional temperature and pressure framework that is needed to model hydrocarbon migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.3387M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.3387M"><span id="translatedtitle">Relating seasonal dynamics of enhanced vegetation index to the recycling of water in two endorheic river <span class="hlt">basins</span> in north-<span class="hlt">west</span> China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matin, M. A.; Bourque, C. P.-A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This study associates the dynamics of enhanced vegetation index in lowland desert oases to the recycling of water in two endorheic (hydrologically closed) river <span class="hlt">basins</span> in Gansu Province, north-<span class="hlt">west</span> China, along a gradient of elevation zones and land cover types. Each river <span class="hlt">basin</span> was subdivided into four elevation zones representative of (i) oasis plains and foothills, and (ii) low-, (iii) mid-, and (iv) high-mountain elevations. Comparison of monthly vegetation phenology with precipitation and snowmelt dynamics within the same <span class="hlt">basins</span> over a 10-year period (2000-2009) suggested that the onset of the precipitation season (cumulative % precipitation > 7-8 %) in the mountains, typically in late April to early May, was triggered by the greening of vegetation and increased production of water vapour at the base of the mountains. Seasonal evolution of in-mountain precipitation correlated fairly well with the temporal variation in oasis-vegetation coverage and phenology characterised by monthly enhanced vegetation index, yielding coefficients of determination of 0.65 and 0.85 for the two <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Convergent cross-mapping of related time series indicated bi-directional causality (feedback) between the two variables. Comparisons between same-zone monthly precipitation amounts and enhanced vegetation index provided weaker correlations. Start of the growing season in the oases was shown to coincide with favourable spring warming and discharge of meltwater from low- to mid-elevations of the Qilian Mountains (zones 1 and 2) in mid-to-late March. In terms of plant requirement for water, mid-seasonal development of oasis vegetation was seen to be controlled to a greater extent by the production of rain in the mountains. Comparison of water volumes associated with in-<span class="hlt">basin</span> production of rainfall and snowmelt with that associated with evaporation seemed to suggest that about 90 % of the available liquid water (i.e. mostly in the form of direct rainfall and snowmelt in the mountains</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5222/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5222/"><span id="translatedtitle">Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, <span class="hlt">Basin</span>-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork White River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Indiana, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Frey, Jeffrey W.; Caskey, Brian J.; Lowe, B. Scott</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Data were gathered from July through September 2001 at 34 randomly selected sites in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork White River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Indiana for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). <span class="hlt">Basin</span> characteristics (drainage area and land use) and biological-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the <span class="hlt">basin</span> of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related, using Spearman's rho, to the seasonal algal-biomass, <span class="hlt">basin</span>-characteristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score, which was most influenced by ash-free dry mass, was negatively related to one (percent closed canopy) of nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one fish-community attribute (percent tolerant). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the periphyton PC1 was positively related to one attribute (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index) and one metric score (EPT index metric score). The periphyton PC1 was not related to the five <span class="hlt">basin</span>-characteristic or 12 nutrient variables examined. The seston PC1 site score, which was most influenced by particulate organic carbon, was negatively related to two of the 12 nutrient variables examined: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July) and total phosphorus (July). Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent). Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes and metric scores examined, the seston PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (EPT-to-total ratio). The seston PC1 was not related to the five <span class="hlt">basin</span>-characteristics or nine habitat variables</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048250','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048250"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the Puna (north-<span class="hlt">west</span> Argentina)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span> rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna <span class="hlt">basin</span> over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and <span class="hlt">basin</span> palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback <span class="hlt">basin</span>-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna <span class="hlt">basin</span> lakes in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01797&hterms=palm+oil+deforestation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpalm%2Boil%2Bdeforestation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01797&hterms=palm+oil+deforestation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpalm%2Boil%2Bdeforestation"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Radar Image of Central <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a radar image of the central part of the island of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..340G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..340G"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformed Neogene <span class="hlt">basins</span>, active faulting and topography in Westland: Distributed crustal mobility <span class="hlt">west</span> of the Alpine Fault transpressive plate boundary (South Island, New Zealand)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghisetti, Francesca; Sibson, Richard H.; Hamling, Ian</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Tectonic activity in the South Island of New Zealand is dominated by the Alpine Fault component of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. <span class="hlt">West</span> of the Alpine Fault deformation is recorded by Paleogene-Neogene <span class="hlt">basins</span> coeval with the evolution of the right-lateral/transpressive plate margin. Initial tectonic setting was controlled by N-S normal faults developed during Late Cretaceous and Eocene-early Miocene rifting. Following inception of the Alpine Fault (c. 25 Ma) reverse reactivation of the normal faults controlled tectonic segmentation that became apparent in the cover sequences at c. 22 Ma. Based on restored transects tied to stratigraphic sections, seismic lines and wells, we reconstruct the vertical mobility of the Top Basement Unconformity <span class="hlt">west</span> of Alpine Fault. From c. 37-35 Ma to 22 Ma subsidence was controlled by extensional faulting. After 22 Ma the region was affected by differential subsidence, resulting from eastward crustal flexure towards the Alpine Fault boundary and/or components of transtension. Transition from subsidence to uplift started at c. 17 Ma within a belt of basement pop-ups, separated by subsiding <span class="hlt">basins</span> localised in the common footwall of oppositely-dipping reverse faults. From 17 to 7-3 Ma reverse fault reactivation and uplift migrated to the WSW. Persistent reverse reactivation of the inherited faults in the present stress field is reflected by the close match between tectonic block segmentation and topography filtered at a wavelength of 25 km, i.e. at a scale comparable to crustal thickness in the region. However, topography filtered at wavelength of 75 km shows marked contrasts between the elevated Tasman Ranges region relative to regions to the south. Variations in thickness and rigidity of the Australian lithosphere possibly control N-S longitudinal changes, consistent with our estimates of increase in linear shortening from the Tasman Ranges to the regions located <span class="hlt">west</span> of the Alpine Fault bend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T13C3025Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T13C3025Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-phase Uplift of the Indo-Burman Ranges and Western Thrust Belt of Minbu Sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> (<span class="hlt">West</span> Myanmar): Constraints from Apatite Fission Track Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, P.; Qiu, H.; Mei, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The forearc regions in active continental margins are important keys to analysis geodynamic processes such as oceanic crust oblique subduction, mechanism of subduction zone, and sediments recycling. The <span class="hlt">West</span> Myanmar, interpreted as forearc silver, is the archetype example of such forearc regions subordinate to Sunda arc-trench system, and is widely debated when and how its forearc regions formed. A total of twenty-two samples were obtained from the Indo-Burman Ranges and western thrust belt of Minbu Sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> along Taungup-Prome Road in Southwestern Myanmar (Figure 1), and five sandstone samples of them were performed at Apatite to Zircon, Inc. Three samples (M3, M5, and M11) collected from Eocene flysch and metamorphic core at the Indo-Burman Ranges revealed apatite fission track (AFT) ages ranging from 19 to 9 Ma and 6.5 to 2 Ma. Two samples (M20 and M21) acquired from the western thrust belt of Minbu Sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> yielded AFT ages ranging from 28 to 13.5 Ma and 7.5 to 3.5 Ma. Time-temperature models based on AFT data suggest four major Cenozoic cooling episodes, Late Oligocene, Early to Middle Miocene, Late Miocene, and Pliocene to Pleistocene. The first to third episode, models suggest the metamorphic core of the Indo-Burman Ranges has experienced multi-phase rapidly uplifted during the early construction of the forearc regions. The latest episode, on which this study focused, indicated a fast westward growth of the Palaeogene accretionary wedge and a eastward propagation deformation of folding and thrusting of the western thrust belt of Minbu Sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>. We argued that above multi-phase uplifted and deformation of the forearc regions were results of India/<span class="hlt">West</span> Burma plate's faster oblique convergence and faster sedimentation along the India/Eurasia suture zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013225','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013225"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of mineral-solution equilibria to geochemical exploration for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in two <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">west</span> central Utah.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Miller, W.R.; Wanty, R.B.; McHugh, J.B.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This study applies mineral-solution equilibrium methods to the interpretation of ground-water chemistry in evaluating the uranium potential of the Beaver and Milford <span class="hlt">basins</span> in <span class="hlt">west</span> central Utah. Waters were collected mainly from wells and springs at 100 sites in limited areas in the <span class="hlt">basins</span>, and in part from mixed sources. The waters were analysed for T, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, SO4, Cl, F, NO3, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SiO2, Zn, Cu, Mo, As, U, V, Se, Li, Fe, Mn, and Al on different fractions. A computer model (WATEQ3) was used to calculate the redox potential and the state of saturation of the waters with respect to uraninite, coffinite, realgar and arsenopyrite. Mineral saturation studies have reliably predicted the location of known (none given here) U deposits and are more diagnostic of these deposits than are concentrations of indicator elements (U, Mo, As, Se). Several areas in the <span class="hlt">basins</span> have ground-water environments of reducing redox potential, favourable for precipitation of reduced U minerals, and some of these areas are saturated or near-saturated with respect to uraninite and coffinite. The approach shows only that the environment is favourable locally for precipitation of reduced U minerals, but thereby locates exploration targets for (modern?) sandstone-hosted U deposits.-G.J.N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/279692','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/279692"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs, <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in <span class="hlt">basinal</span> sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22224852','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22224852"><span id="translatedtitle">Successful Deployment of System for the Storage and Retrieval of Spent/Used Nuclear Fuel from Hanford K-<span class="hlt">West</span> Fuel Storage <span class="hlt">Basin</span>-13051</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Quintero, Roger; Smith, Sahid; Blackford, Leonard Ty; Johnson, Mike W.; Raymond, Richard; Sullivan, Neal; Sloughter, Jim</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>In 2012, a system was deployed to remove, transport, and interim store chemically reactive and highly radioactive sludge material from the Hanford Site's 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> Fuel Storage <span class="hlt">Basin</span> that will be managed as spent/used nuclear fuel. The Knockout Pot (KOP) sludge in the 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> was a legacy issue resulting from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) washing process applied to 2200 metric tons of highly degraded fuel elements following long-term underwater storage. The washing process removed uranium metal and other non-uranium constituents that could pass through a screen with 0.25-inch openings; larger pieces are, by definition, SNF or fuel scrap. When originally retrieved, KOP sludge contained pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging from 600 microns (μm) to 6350 μm mixed with inert material such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum wire, and graphite in the same size range. In 2011, a system was developed, tested, successfully deployed and operated to pre-treat KOP sludge as part of 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> cleanup. The pretreatment process successfully removed the vast majority of inert material from the KOP sludge stream and reduced the remaining volume of material by approximately 65 percent, down to approximately 50 liters of material requiring management as used fuel. The removal of inert material resulted in significant waste minimization and project cost savings because of the reduced number of transportation/storage containers and improvement in worker safety. The improvement in worker safety is a result of shorter operating times and reduced number of remote handled shipments to the site fuel storage facility. Additionally in 2011, technology development, final design, and cold testing was completed on the system to be used in processing and packaging the remaining KOP material for removal from the <span class="hlt">basin</span> in much the same manner spent fuel was removed. This system was deployed and successfully operated from June through September 2012, to remove and package the last</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3067/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3067/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Cross Section D-D' Through the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> from the Findlay Arch, Sandusky County, Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Hardy County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.; Crangle, Robert D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Lentz, Erika E.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hope, Rebecca S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Geologic cross section D-D' is the second in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Cross section D-D' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> from the Findlay arch in northwestern Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in eastern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, a distance of approximately 290 miles. The information shown on the cross section is based on geological and geophysical data from 13 deep drill holes, several of which penetrate the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and bottom in Mesoproterozoic (Grenville-age) crystalline basement rocks. This cross section is a companion to cross section E-E' (Ryder and others, 2008) that is located about 25 to 50 mi to the southwest. Although specific petroleum systems in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on information shown on the cross section. Cross section D-D' lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank), but it does provide a general geologic framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section. Also, cross section D-D' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.583...88L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.583...88L"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical evidence of Cretaceous volcanics in Logone Birni <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (Northern Cameroon), Central Africa, and consequences for the <span class="hlt">West</span> and Central African Rift System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loule, Jean-Pierre; Pospisil, Lubomil</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Detailed analyses and interpretation realized by combining existing 2D reflection seismic and Gravity/Magnetic data of the Logone Birni <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (LBB) in the <span class="hlt">West</span> and Central African Rift System (WCAS) have revealed the distribution of the main buried volcanic bodies as well as their relationships with the structural and tectonic evolution of this <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The volcanic activity in the LBB is restricted to the Cretaceous period. Three main volcanic episodes are identified and are associated to the Neocomian, Late Albian and Cenomanian-Turonian rifting phases respectively. The volcanic bodies within the Lower Cretaceous are either lying directly on basement or are mainly interbedded with the contemporaneous sediments whereas the Upper Cretaceous bodies are morphologically expressed in the forms of dykes and sills. The volcanic activity was more intense in the western region of the central LBB (Zina sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>) along the Cameroon-Nigeria border whereas it was scanty and scattered in the other parts of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The main volcanic dykes are found on the flanks of the major faults bounding basement horsts or in crestal positions in association with syndepositional faults. Although WCAS is associated with large amount of crustal extension and minor volcanism, the intense volcanic activity observed in LBB during the Cretaceous suggests that the intrusive zone during this period was confined to the basement beneath the study area flanked respectively to the north, south and southwest by the Lake Chad, Poli and Chum triple junctions. Tensional stresses generated by this localized domal uplift accounts for most of the observed tectonic structures where major faults transected the entire lithosphere, thus providing conduits for magma migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012287','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012287"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogeologic comparison of an acidic-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> with a neutral-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Adirondack Mountains, New York</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Peters, N.E.; Murdoch, Peter S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Two small headwater lake <span class="hlt">basins</span> that receive similar amounts of acidic atmospheric deposition have significantly different lake outflow pH values; pH at Panther Lake (neutral) ranges from about 4.7 to 7; that at Woods Lake (acidic) ranges from about 4.3 to 5. A hydrologic analysis, which included monthly water budgets, hydrograph analysis, examination of flow duration and runoff recession curves, calculation of ground-water storage, and an analysis of lateral flow capacity of the soil, indicates that differences in lakewater pH can be attributed to differences in the ground-water contribution to the lakes. A larger percentage of the water discharged from the neutral lake is derived from ground water than that from the acidic lake. Ground water has a higher pH resulting from a sufficiently long residence time for neutralizing chemical reactions to occur with the till. The difference in ground-water contribution is attributed to a more extensive distribution of thick till (<3m) in the neutral-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> than in the acidic-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span>; average thickness of till in the neutral-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> is 24m whereas that in the other is 2.3m. During the snowmelt period, as much as three months of accumulated precipitation may be released within two weeks causing the lateral flow capacity of the deeper mineral soil to be exceeded in the neutral-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span>. This excess water moves over and through the shallow acidic soil horizons and causes the lakewater pH to decrease during snowmelt.Two small headwater lake <span class="hlt">basins</span> that receive similar amounts of acidic atmospheric deposition have significantly different lake outflow pH values; pH at Panther Lake (neutral) ranges from about 4. 7 to 7; that at Woods Lake (acidic) ranges from about 4. 3 to 5. A hydrologic analysis, which included monthly water budgets, hydrograph analysis, examination of flow duration and runoff recession curves, calculation of ground-water storage, and an analysis of lateral flow capacity of the soil, indicates that</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_80828.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_80828.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratigraphic Framework and Depositional Sequences in the Lower Silurian Regional Oil and Gas Accumulation, Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>: From Licking County, Ohio, to Fayette County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation was named by Ryder and Zagorski (2003) for a 400-mile (mi)-long by 200-mi-wide hydrocarbon accumulation in the central Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> of the Eastern United States and Ontario, Canada. From the early 1880s to 2000, approximately 300 to 400 million barrels of oil and eight to nine trillion cubic feet of gas have been produced from the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation (Miller, 1975; McCormac and others, 1996; Harper and others, 1999). Dominant reservoirs in the regional accumulation are the Lower Silurian 'Clinton' and Medina sandstones in Ohio and westernmost <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia and coeval rocks in the Lower Silurian Medina Group (Grimsby Sandstone (Formation) and Whirlpool Sandstone) in northwestern Pennsylvania and western New York. A secondary reservoir is the Upper Ordovician(?) and Lower Silurian Tuscarora Sandstone in central Pennsylvania and central <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, a more proximal eastern facies of the 'Clinton' sandstone and Medina Group (Yeakel, 1962; Cotter, 1982, 1983; Castle, 1998). The Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation is subdivided by Ryder and Zagorski (2003) into the following three parts: (1) an easternmost part consisting of local gas-bearing sandstone units in the Tuscarora Sandstone that is included with the <span class="hlt">basin</span>-center accumulation; (2) an eastern part consisting predominantly of gas-bearing 'Clinton' sandstone-Medina Group sandstones that have many characteristics of a <span class="hlt">basin</span>-center accumulation (Davis, 1984; Zagorski, 1988, 1991; Law and Spencer, 1993); and (3) a western part consisting of oil- and gas-bearing 'Clinton' sandstone-Medina Group sandstones that is a conventional accumulation with hybrid features of a <span class="hlt">basin</span>-center accumulation (Zagorski, 1999). With the notable exception of the offshore part of Lake Erie (de Witt, 1993), the supply of oil and (or) gas in the hybrid-conventional part of the regional accumulation continues to decline because of the many</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10122625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10122625"><span id="translatedtitle">California <span class="hlt">Basin</span> study (CaBS): DOE <span class="hlt">west</span> coast <span class="hlt">basin</span> program. Progress report 8, 15 November 1989--14 November 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Small, L.F.</p> <p>1990-12-31</p> <p>The overall objective of our research continues to be elucidation of the transport pathways and transformations of organic matter in the California <span class="hlt">Basins</span> region, with particular reference to the role of macrozooplankton in upper waters. We have concentrated on C and N pathways and fluxes to data, and will continue to investigate these further (seasonal aspects, and the role of zooplankton carnivory in zooplankton-medicated C and N flux, for example).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11B2090H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11B2090H"><span id="translatedtitle">Geological evidences of the fifth model for the tsunami generation in ocean floor off northwest <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> during the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirata, K.; Permana, H.; Fujiwara, T.; Udrekh, U.; Gaffar, E. Z.; Kawano, M.; Djajadihardia, Y. S.; Arai, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A common character among fault models proposed for the 2004 Mw 9.3 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake is large slip off northwest <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, which is considered to be responsible for huge tsunami heights of more than 20 m on average, as measured in field surveys along the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of Aceh. However, the generation mechanism of the huge tsunami remains unresolved, although five hypothetical models have been proposed. Among them, the fifth hypothetical model was proposed by Hirata et al. [2008a, b] that the 2004 earthquake ruptured updip along the megathrust (plate interface) near the deformation front, but branched onto one of the outer-arc high splay faults: either the Middle Thrust or possibly the Lower Thrust of Sibuet et al.[2007]. To examine the fifth hypothetical model, we have conducted a multi-narrow beam swath bathymetry around the Middle Thrust and Lower Thrust within the well-developed outer-arc high region off northwest of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> as a task of a scientific research cruise KY09-09 using the JAMSTEC R/V Kaiyo during a period from 26 October 2009 to 20 November 2009. After the KY09-09 cruise, we then merged the bathymetry data into that, previously obtained by the previous Japanese research cruise NT05-02, and finally produced a detailed bathymetry data with its grid spacing of 37 m, which is much finer than those (about 100 - 150 m spacing) previously obtained by other foreign cruises. In the survey area, the water depth ranges from 300 m to 3300 m. A prominent feature in the detailed bathymetry is a series of ridge and trough structure trending along the arc in the direction of NNW-SSE, parallel to the strike of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Trench. In particular, we can identify a clearly distinguishable fault traces at around 50 km landward from the deformation front located in the toe of the accreationary prism. The fault traces cross, in turn from southeast to northwest, (a) the central axis of a NNW-SSE trending, narrow and long sedimentary trough in the southwest part of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/0162/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/0162/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the upper Minnesota River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Minnesota, northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sanocki, C.A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Upper Minnesota River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, located in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Minnesota, north-eastern South Dakota, and southeastern North Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both laker and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, highflow, and continuous-record gaging stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/9421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/9421"><span id="translatedtitle">Data quality objectives for sampling of sludge from the K <span class="hlt">West</span> and K East <span class="hlt">Basin</span> floor and from other <span class="hlt">Basin</span> areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MAKENAS, B.J.</p> <p>1998-10-21</p> <p>This document addresses the characterization strategy for those types of sludge not previously characterized or discussed in previous DQO documents. It seeks to ascertain those characteristics of uncharacterized Sludge which are unique with respect to the properties already determined for canister and K East <span class="hlt">Basin</span> floor Sludge. Also recent decisions have resulted in the need for treatment of the Sludge prior to its currently identified disposal path to the Hanford waste tanks. This has resulted in a need for process development testing for the treatment system development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/465840','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/465840"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, S.P.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford <span class="hlt">West</span> field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/465304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/465304"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>). Quarterly report, April 1,1996 - June 30, 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, S.P.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford <span class="hlt">West</span> field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Progress to date is summarized for reservoir characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/465319','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/465319"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas (Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span>). Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dutton, S.P.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and <span class="hlt">basin</span> clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford <span class="hlt">West</span> field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sup 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Accomplishments for this past quarter are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1981/0079/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1981/0079/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic characteristics and possible effects of surface mining in the northwestern part of <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Antelope Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Mercer County, North Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Crawley, Mark E.; Emerson, Douglas G.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Lignite beds and abundant discontinuous sandstone beds of the Paleocene Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation and sand and gravel beds in the Quarternary glaciofluvial deposits (Antelope Creek aquifer) are the most important aquifers for domestic and livestock water supplies in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Antelope Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>. In the Beulah-Zap lignite, ground water moves from highland area in the <span class="hlt">west</span> toward the Antelope Creek aquifer. Water levels in the basal Sentinel Butte sandstone appear to be controlled by the level of Lake Sakakawea. In the glaciofluvial deposits of the Antelope Creek aquifer water moves from a ground-water divide northwestward to Lake Sakakawea and southeastward toward the Knife River. Large water-level declines in wells completed in the lignite and shallower aquifers could be expected with mining. The effects probably would be limited to within 1 to 2 miles of an active mine. Surface-runoff duration could be altered by increased infiltration and retention in the reclaimed are and possible temporal extension of base flow could occur. Shallow ground water beneath mine sites would be expected to increase in dissolved solids and locally to contain large sodium and sulfate concentrations. In some locations movement of poor quality water toward the Antelope Creek aquifer would be expected. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2985/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2985/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Cross Section E-E' through the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> from the Findlay Arch, Wood County, Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Pendleton County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Crangle, Robert D.; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Geologic cross section E-E' is the first in a series of cross sections planned by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Cross section E-E' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> from the Findlay arch in northwestern Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in eastern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, a distance of approximately 380 miles (mi) (fig. 1, on sheet 1). Cross section E-E' updates earlier geologic cross sections through the central Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> by Renfro and Feray (1970), Bennison (1978), and Bally and Snelson (1980) and a stratigraphic cross section by Colton (1970). Although other published cross sections through parts of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> show more structural detail (for example, Shumaker, 1985; Kulander and Dean, 1986) and stratigraphic detail (for example, Ryder, 1992; de Witt and others, 1993; Hettinger, 2001), these other cross sections are of more limited extent geographically and stratigraphically. Although specific petroleum systems in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on information shown on the cross section. Cross section E-E' lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank), but it does provide a general framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section. Also, cross section E-E' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste (for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H31I..03V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H31I..03V"><span id="translatedtitle">An approach for reconstructing past streamflows using a water balance model and tree-ring records in the upper <span class="hlt">West</span> Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vittori, J. C.; Saito, L.; Biondi, F.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Historical streamflows in a given river <span class="hlt">basin</span> can be useful for determining regional patterns of drought and climate, yet such measured data are typically available for the last 100 years at most. To extend the measured record, observed streamflows can be regressed against tree-ring data that serve as proxies for streamflow. This empirical approach, however, cannot account for or test factors that do not directly affect tree-ring growth but may influence streamflow. To reconstruct past streamflows in a more mechanistic way, a seasonal water balance model has been developed for the upper <span class="hlt">West</span> Walker River <span class="hlt">basin</span> that uses proxy precipitation and air temperature data derived from tree-ring records as input. The model incorporates simplistic relationships between precipitation and other components of the hydrologic cycle, as well as a component for modeling snow, and operates at a seasonal time scale. The model allows for flexibility in manipulating various hydrologic and land use characteristics, and can be applied to other watersheds. The intent is for the model to investigate sources of uncertainty in streamflow reconstructions, and how factors such as wildfire or changes in vegetation cover could impact estimates of past flows, something regression-based models are not able to do. In addition, the use of a mechanistic water balance model calibrated against proxy climate records can provide information on changes in various components of the water cycle, including the interaction between evapotranspiration, snowmelt, and runoff under warmer climatic regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.208...75C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.208...75C"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Korea Bay <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in the northern part of the Yellow Sea, estimated by 3-D gravity forward modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Sungchan; Ryu, In-Chang; Götze, H.-J.; Chae, Y.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Although an amount of hydrocarbon has been discovered in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Korea Bay <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (WKBB), located in the North Korean offshore area, geophysical investigations associated with these hydrocarbon reservoirs are not permitted because of the current geopolitical situation. Interpretation of satellite-derived potential field data can be alternatively used to image the 3-D density distribution in the sedimentary <span class="hlt">basin</span> associated with hydrocarbon deposits. We interpreted the TRIDENT satellite-derived gravity field data to provide detailed insights into the spatial distribution of sedimentary density structures in the WKBB. We used 3-D forward density modelling for the interpretation that incorporated constraints from existing geological and geophysical information. The gravity data interpretation and the 3-D forward modelling showed that there are two modelled areas in the central subbasin that are characterized by very low density structures, with a maximum density of about 2000 kg m-3, indicating some type of hydrocarbon reservoir. One of the anticipated hydrocarbon reservoirs is located in the southern part of the central subbasin with a volume of about 250 km3 at a depth of about 3000 m in the Cretaceous/Jurassic layer. The other hydrocarbon reservoir should exist in the northern part of the central subbasin, with an average volume of about 300 km3 at a depth of about 2500 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..383C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..383C"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Korea Bay <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in the northern part of the Yellow Sea, estimated by 3D gravity forward modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Sungchan; Ryu, In-Chang; Götze, H.-J.; Chae, Y.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Although an amount of hydrocarbon has been discovered in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Korea Bay <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (WKBB), located in the North Korean offshore area, geophysical investigations associated with these hydrocarbon reservoirs are not permitted because of the current geopolitical situation. Interpretation of satellite- derived potential field data can be alternatively used to image the three-dimensional (3D) density distribution in the sedimentary <span class="hlt">basin</span> associated with hydrocarbon deposits. We interpreted the TRIDENT satellite-derived gravity field data to provide detailed insights into the spatial distribution of sedimentary density structures in the WKBB. We used 3D forward density modeling for the interpretation that incorporated constraints from existing geological and geophysical information. The gravity data interpretation and the 3D forward modeling showed that there are two modeled areas in the central subbasin that are characterized by very low density structures, with a maximum density of about 2000 kg/m3, indicating some type of hydrocarbon reservoir. One of the anticipated hydrocarbon reservoirs is located in the southern part of the central subbasin with a volume of about 250 km3 at a depth of about 3000 m in the Cretaceous/Jurassic layer. The other hydrocarbon reservoir should exist in the northern part of the central subbasin, with an average volume of about 300 km3 at a depth of about 2500 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035801','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035801"><span id="translatedtitle">Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Alabama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">Basin</span> at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH43A1291S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH43A1291S"><span id="translatedtitle">How Robust are Science-Based Disaster Preparedness Strategies? Lessons from Western <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; McDowell, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Forecasts of the next likely megathrust earthquake which will occur off the western coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, possibly in the near future, indicate that it will likely be tsunamigenic and could be more devastating than the 2004 event. Hundreds of simulations of potential earthquakes and their tsunamis show that, while the earthquake is fundamentally unpredictable, many scenarios would see dangerous inundation of low-lying areas along the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>; the cities of Padang and Bengkulu broadside-on to the areas of highest seismic potential have a combined population of over one million. Understanding how the science of unpredictable, high probability events is absorbed by society is essential for the development of effective mitigation and preparedness campaigns. A five month field investigation conducted in Padang and Bengkulu aimed to conceptualise the main issues driving risk perception of tsunami hazard, and explore its influence upon preparedness. Of specific interest was the role of scientifically quantified hazard information upon risk perception and hazard preparedness. Target populations were adult community members (n=270) and senior high school students (n=90). Preliminary findings indicate that scientific knowledge of earthquake and tsunami threat amongst respondents in both cities is good. However the relationship between respondent’s hazard knowledge, desired risk perception, and the adoption of preparedness measures was often non-linear and is susceptible to the negative effects of unscientific forecasts disseminated by government and mass media. Evidence suggests that ‘mystic’ predictions often portrayed in the media as being scientific, have been readily absorbed by the public; when these fail to materialise the credibility of authentic science and scientists plummets. As a result levels of sustainable earthquake and tsunami preparedness measures adopted by those living in tsunami threatened areas can be detrimentally impacted. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6546039','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6546039"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic sequence stratigraphy of upper Desmoinesian Oswego limestone along northern shelf margin of Anadarko <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Oklahoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Derstine, T.P.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Pennsylvania Oswego limestone (upper Desmoinesian) in the vicinity of the northern shelf break of the Anadarko <span class="hlt">basin</span> contains stratigraphic sequences and associated depositional facies that were controlled by eustatic variations in a slowly subsiding <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Core descriptions, detailed well-log correlations, and facies maps of Oswego limestone in Dewey and Custer Counties, Oklahoma, supplemented by seismic data along dip profile, define at least two principal stratigraphic sequences separated by regional unconformities. In this area, oil and gas have been produced from phylloid algal-bank deposits that formed at the shelf margin. The algal-bank deposits that contain vuggy and moldic porosity are bound northward by wackestones of shelf facies and southward by tightly calcite-cemented packstones that formed on the seaward margin in relatively high-energy environments. The detailed well-log correlations that consider genetic units illustrate the evolution of these carbonate and locally clastic deposits along Oswego shelf-ramp-<span class="hlt">basin</span> profiles as a consequence of sea level oscillations. Repeated succession of upward-coarsening shelf wackestones, algal-bank deposits with fringing packstones and scattered terrigenous clastics, and <span class="hlt">basinal</span> shales are a depositional system tract associated with sea level lowstand. This lowstand system is capped in one of the principal stratigraphic sequences by a thin shale that reflects an episode of rapid relative sea level rise and flooding of the Oswego carbonate shelf. Black shales deposited during this rapid flooding event form a problematic downlapping unit, because terrigenous sediment was evidently supplied from both the Oklahoma-Kansas area to the north and the Wichita-Amarillo high to the south. Highstand carbonate facies system are not present in the shaly cyclic sequences indicating drowning or backstepping of carbonate sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1598D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1598D"><span id="translatedtitle">Intraplate compressional deformation in <span class="hlt">West</span>-Congo and the Congo <span class="hlt">basin</span>: related to ridge-puch from the South Atlantic spreading ridge?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delvaux, Damien; Everaerts, Michel; Kongota Isasi, Elvis; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>After the break-up and separation of South America from Africa and the initiation of the South-Atlantic mid-oceanic ridge in the Albian, at about 120 Ma, ridge-push forces started to build-up in the oceanic lithosphere and were transmitted to the adjacent continental plates. This is particularly well expressed in the passive margin and continental interior of Central Africa. According to the relations of Wiens and Stein (1985) between ridge-push forces and basal drag in function of the lithospheric age of oceanic plates, the deviatoric stress reaches a compressional maximum between 50 and 100, Ma after the initiation of the spreading ridge, so broadly corresponding to the Paleocene in this case (~70-20 Ma). Earthquake focal mechanism data show that the <span class="hlt">West</span>-Congo margin and a large part of the Congo <span class="hlt">basin</span> are still currently under compressional stresses with an horizontal compression parallel to the direction of the active transform fracture zones. We studied the fracture network along the Congo River in Kinshasa and Brazzaville which affect Cambrian sandstones and probably also the late Cretaceous-Paleocene sediments. Their brittle tectonic evolution is compatible with the buildup of ridge-push forces related to the South-Atlantic opening. Further inland, low-angle reverse faults are found affecting Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous cores from the Samba borehole in the Congo <span class="hlt">basin</span> and strike-slip movements are recorded as a second brittle phase in the Permian cores of the Dekese well, at the southern margin of the Congo <span class="hlt">basin</span>. An analysis of the topography and river network of the Congo <span class="hlt">basin</span> show the development of low-amplitude (50-100 m) long wavelengths (100-300 km) undulations that can be interpreted as lithospheric buckling in response to the compressional intraplate stress field generated by the Mid-Atlantic ridge-push. Wiens, D.A., Stein, S., 1985. Implications of oceanic intraplate seismicity for plate stresses, driving forces and theology. Tectonophysics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896541','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896541"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robert D. Hatcher</p> <p>2004-05-31</p> <p>This report summarizes the second-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Second-year results include: All current milestones have been met and other components of the project have been functioning in parallel toward satisfaction of year-3 milestones. We also have been effecting the ultimate goal of the project in the dissemination of information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky have much greater extensibility than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that is generating considerable exploration interest. If this structure is productive, it will be one of the largest structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier <span class="hlt">basin</span> is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..835C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..835C"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake and Tsunami: Lessons Learned in Subduction Zone Science and Emergency Management for the Cascadia Subduction Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cassidy, John F.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The 26 December 2004, Mw 9.3 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake and tsunami was a pivotal turning point in our awareness of the dangers posed by subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis. This earthquake was the world's largest in 40 years, and it produced the world's deadliest tsunami. This earthquake ruptured a subduction zone that has many similarities to the Cascadia Subduction Zone. In this article, I summarize lessons learned from this tragedy, and make comparisons with potential rupture characteristics, slip distribution, deformation patterns, and aftershock patterns for Cascadia using theoretical modeling and interseismic observations. Both subduction zones are approximately 1,100-1,300 km in length. Both have similar convergence rates and represent oblique subduction. Slip along the subduction fault during the 26 December earthquake is estimated at 15-25 m, similar to values estimated for Cascadia. The width of the rupture, ~80-150 km estimated from modeling seismic and geodetic data, is similar to the width of the "locked and transition zone" estimated for Cascadia. Coseismic subsidence of up to 2 m along the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> coast is also similar to that predicted for parts of northern Cascadia, based on paleoseismic evidence. In addition to scientific lessons learned, the 2004 tsunami provided many critical lessons for emergency management and preparedness. As a result of that tragedy, a number of preparedness initiatives are now underway to promote awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards along the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of North America, and plans are underway to develop prototype tsunami and earthquake warning systems along Cascadia. Lessons learned from the great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake and tsunami tragedy, both through scientific studies and through public education initiatives, will help to reduce losses during future earthquakes in Cascadia and other subduction zones of the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1204/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1204/"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality in the Kanawha-New River <span class="hlt">basin</span>; <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina, 1996-98</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paybins, Katherine S.; Messinger, Terence; Eychaner, James H.; Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes major findings about water quality in the Kanawha-New River <span class="hlt">basin</span> that emerged from an assessment conducted between 1996 and 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared to conditions found in all 36 NAWQA study areas assessed to date. Findings also are explained in the context of selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25433386','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25433386"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the health status of wild fish inhabiting a cotton <span class="hlt">basin</span> heavily impacted by pesticides in Benin (<span class="hlt">West</span> Africa).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agbohessi, Prudencio T; Imorou Toko, Ibrahim; Ouédraogo, Alfred; Jauniaux, Thierry; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, Patrick</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>To determine the impact of agricultural pesticides used in cotton cultivation on the health status of fish living in a Beninese cotton <span class="hlt">basin</span>, we compared the reproductive and hepatic systems of fish sampled from rivers located in both contaminated and pristine conditions. Different types of biomarkers, including biometric indices (a condition factor K, a gonadosomatic index GSI, and a hepatosomatic index HSI), plasma levels of sex steroids (11-ketotestosterone 11-KT, testosterone T and estradiol-17β E2) and the histopathology of the gonads and liver, were investigated for two different trophic levels of the following two fish species: the Guinean tilapia Tilapia guineensis and the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The fish were captured during both the rainy season (when there is heavy use of pesticides on cotton fields) and the dry season from one site, in Pendjari River (reference site), which is located outside the cotton-producing <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and from three other sites on the Alibori River within the cotton-producing <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Comparing fish that were sampled from contaminated (high levels of endosulfan, heptachlor and DDT and metabolites) and reference sites, the results clearly indicated that agricultural pesticides significantly decreased K and GSI while they increased HSI, regardless of the season, species and sex of the fish. These pesticides also induced a decrease in the plasma levels of 11-KT and T and increased those of E2. The histopathology of the testes revealed, in both species, a high rate of testicular oocytes, up to 50% in the African catfish, downstream of the Alibori River, which indicated estrogenic effects from the pesticides. The disruption of male spermatogenesis primarily included necrosis, fibrosis and the presence of foam cells in the lobular lumen. The histopathology of the ovaries revealed high levels of pre-ovulatory follicular atresia, impaired oogenesis, a decrease in the oocyte vitellogenic diameter and other lesions, such as fibrosis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAfES..39..459K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAfES..39..459K"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust deposits in Souss?Massa <span class="hlt">basin</span>, South-<span class="hlt">West</span> of Morocco: granulometrical, mineralogical and geochemical characterisation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khiri, F.; Ezaidi, A.; Kabbachi, K.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Samples of dust deposits were periodically collected from July 1, 1997 to January 30, 1999, at Souss-Massa <span class="hlt">basin</span>, in the South of Morocco. Granulometrical, geochemical and mineralogical characterisations show that quartz, calcite and feldspars dominate the mineral contents of the dust deposit with a minor clay fraction. It indicates the mineralogical composition of dust collected in peri-Saharan regions. The material collected in the summer period is dominated by local dust against a mixture of local and proximal dusts in the winter period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011703','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011703"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Watts, W.A.; Bradbury, J.P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco <span class="hlt">basin</span> indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco <span class="hlt">basin</span> was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco <span class="hlt">basin</span> with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1202/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1202/"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality in the Allegheny and Monongahela River <span class="hlt">basins</span>, Pennsylvania, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, New York, and Maryland, 1996-98</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Anderson, Robert M.; Beer, Kevin M.; Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Clark, Mary E.; McAuley, Steven D.; Sams, James I.; Williams, Donald R.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Major influences and findings for ground water quality, surface water quality, and biology in the Allegheny and Monongahela River <span class="hlt">basins</span> are described and illustrated. Samples were collected in a variety of media to determine trace elements, sulfate, pesticides, nitrate, volatile organic compounds, organochlorine compounds, and radon-222. This report discusses the influences of several land-use practices, such as coal mining, urbanization, agriculture, and forestry. The report also includes a summary of a regional investigation of water quality and quality invertebrates in the Northern and Central Appalachian coal regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18229865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18229865"><span id="translatedtitle">Pentobarbital poisoning in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris <span class="hlt">sumatrae</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jurczynski, Kerstin; Zittlau, Erhard</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Three Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris <span class="hlt">sumatrae</span>) at the Heidelberg Zoo in Germany presented with severe neurologic signs. Physical examination and diagnostic tests did not reveal a definitive diagnosis. Two days after initial presenting signs, all of the animals appeared clinically normal. An investigation into this outbreak revealed that all animals received horse meat on the evening before the incident. A toxicologic examination was initiated and serum analysis of the affected female tiger cub and the horse meat revealed contamination with pentobarbital.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0577/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0577/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnitudes, nature, and effects of point and nonpoint discharges in the Chattahoochee River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Atlanta to <span class="hlt">West</span> Point Dam, Georgia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stamer, J.K.; Cherry, R.N.; Faye, R.E.; Kleckner, R.L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>On an average annual basis and during the storm period of March 12-15, 1976, nonpoint-source loads for most constituents were larger than point-source loads at the Whitesburg station, located on the Chattahoochee River about 40 miles downstream from Atlanta, GA. Most of the nonpoint-source constituent loads in the Atlanta to Whitesburg reach were from urban areas. Average annual point-source discharges accounted for about 50 percent of the dissolved nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus loads and about 70 percent of the dissolved phosphorus loads at Whitesburg. During a low-flow period, June 1-2, 1977, five municipal point-sources contributed 63 percent of the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand, and 97 percent of the ammonium nitrogen loads at the Franklin station, at the upstream end of <span class="hlt">West</span> Point Lake. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations of 4.1 to 5.0 milligrams per liter occurred in a 22-mile reach of the river downstream from Atlanta due about equally to nitrogenous and carbonaceous oxygen demands. The heat load from two thermoelectric powerplants caused a decrease in dissolved-oxygen concentration of about 0.2 milligrams per liter. Phytoplankton concentrations in <span class="hlt">West</span> Point Lake, about 70 miles downstream from Atlanta, could exceed three million cells per millimeter during extended low-flow periods in the summer with present point-source phosphorus loads. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRB..122..572B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRB..122..572B"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of the diffuse deformation of the Indian Ocean lithosphere for slip partitioning of oblique plate convergence in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, K. E.; Feng, L.; Hill, E. M.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Oblique plate convergence between Indian Ocean lithosphere and continental crust of the Sunda plate is distributed between subduction on the Sunda megathrust and upper plate strike-slip faulting on the Sumatran Fault Zone, in a classic example of slip partitioning. Over the last decade, a destructive series of great earthquakes has brought renewed attention to the mechanical properties of these faults and the intervening fore-arc crustal block. While observations of fore-arc deformation over the earthquake cycle indicate that the fore-arc crust is fundamentally elastic, the spatial pattern of slip vector azimuths for earthquakes sourced by rupture of the Sunda megathrust is strongly inconsistent with relative motion of two rigid plates. Permanent and distributed deformation therefore occurs in either the downgoing lithospheric slab or the overriding fore-arc crust. Previous studies have inferred from geodetic velocities and geological slip rates of the Sumatran Fault that the fore-arc crust is undergoing rapid trench-parallel stretching. Using new geological slip rates for the Sumatran Fault and an updated decadal GPS velocity field of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the fore-arc islands, we instead show that permanent deformation within the fore-arc sliver is minor and that the Sumatran Fault is a plate boundary strike-slip fault. The kinematic data are best explained by diffuse deformation within the oceanic lithosphere of the Wharton <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, which accommodates convergence between the Indian and Australian plates and has recently produced several large earthquakes well offshore of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. The slip partitioning system in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> is fundamentally linked with the mechanical properties of the subducting oceanic lithosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713385A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713385A"><span id="translatedtitle">A Remote Sensing-Based Land Surface Phenology Application for Cropland Monitoring in the Volta River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abd Salam El Vilaly, Mohamed; El Vilaly, Audra; Badiane, Ousmane</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Understanding the complex feedbacks between climate, environmental change, and human activities is essential to the development of sustainable agricultural systems. A key aspect of crop production that shows immediate response to climate change is crop phenology, which defines the shape and progress of the growing season and is an integrator of all environmental factors controlling crop production. This research aims to characterize remote sensing-based land surface phenology of cropped areas and compare them to the actual crop growing seasons recorded by farmers: planting, emergences, flowering, fruiting, and harvest date. We use the 2000-2013 MODIS Terra 16-day record of vegetation index to extract 4 phenometrics (Start and Length of Growing Season, Date of Growing Season Peak, and the Growing Season Cumulative Signal). Most of these metrics are simple time-related phenometrics. A spatiotemporal phenological characterization of cropped/managed lands in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> already shows distinct response patterns and trajectories along climate gradients. This permits us to monitor cropped lands and their responses to disturbances, such as drought, fire, flooding, and human activities. In turn, interviewing farmers in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and consulting their phenological records. This study will allow for robust validation of remote sensing LSP algorithms, and more crucially, will help characterize any remote sensing-based metrics that contrast with the actual biological phenophases of monitored crops. In terms of its larger significance, this study demonstrates the fundamental role that remote sensing plays in global agriculture in informing conservation and management practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005HESSD...2..449A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005HESSD...2..449A"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a spatio-temporal dynamic state-space model with the EM algorithm to patch gaps in daily riverflow series, with examples from the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amisigo, B. A.; van de Giesen, N. C.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>A spatio-temporal linear dynamic model has been developed for patching short gaps in daily river runoff series. The model was cast in a state-space form in which the state variable was estimated using the Kalman smoother (RTS smoother). The EM algorithm was used to concurrently estimate both parameter and missing runoff values. Application of the model to daily runoff series in the Volta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> of <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa showed that the model was capable of providing good estimates of missing runoff values at a gauging station from the remaining series at the station and at spatially correlated stations in the same sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1393/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1393/"><span id="translatedtitle">A Reconnaissance for Emerging Contaminants in the South Branch Potomac River, Cacapon River, and Williams River <span class="hlt">Basins</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, April-October 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chambers, Douglas B.; Leiker, Thomas J.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In 2003 a team of scientists from <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia Division of Natural Resources and the U. S. Geological Survey found a high incidence of an intersex condition, oocytes in the testes, among smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the South Branch Potomac River and the Cacapon River of <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, indicating the possible presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Possible sources of EDCs include municipal and domestic wastewater, and agricultural and industrial activities. Several sampling strategies were used to identify emerging contaminants, including potential EDCs, and their possible sources in these river <span class="hlt">basins</span> and at an out-of-<span class="hlt">basin</span> reference site. Passive water-sampling devices, which accumulate in-stream organic chemical compounds, were deployed for 40-41 days at 8 sampling sites. Sampler extracts were analyzed for a broad range of polar and non-polar organic compounds including pesticides, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal-care products. Analysis of passive-sampler extracts found 4 compounds; hexachloro-benzene; pentachloroanisole; 2,2',4,4',5-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 47); and 2,2',4,4',6-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 99) to be present at every sampled site, including the reference site, and several sites had detectable quantities of other compounds. No detectable quantity of any antibiotics was found in any passive-sampler extract. Effluent samples were analyzed for 39 antibiotics as tracers of human and agricultural waste. Additionally, poultry-processing plant effluent was sampled for roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound used as a poultry-feed additive, and other arsenic species as tracers of poultry waste. Antibiotics were detected in municipal wastewater, aquaculture, and poultry-processing effluent, with the highest number of antibiotics and the greatest concentrations found in municipal effluent. Arsenate was the only arsenic species detected in the poultry-processing plant effluent, at a concentration of 1.0 ?g</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..341..175A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..341..175A"><span id="translatedtitle">Permian paleogeography of <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Pangea: Reconstruction using sabkha-type gypsum-bearing deposits of Parnaíba <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Northern Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abrantes, Francisco R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Soares, Joelson L.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Extreme aridity during Late Permian - Early Triassic period was the main factor for resetting the entire paleoclimate of the planet. Permian evaporite <span class="hlt">basins</span> and lacustrine red beds were widely distributed along the supercontinent of Pangea. Sulphate deposits in Western Pangea, particularly in Northern Brazil, accumulated in an extensive playa lake system. Outcrop-based facies and stratigraphic analysis of up to 20 m thick evaporite-siliciclastic deposits reveal the predominance of laminated reddish mudstone with subordinate limestone, marl and lenses of gypsum. The succession was deposited in shallow lacustrine and inland sabkha environments associated with saline pans and mudflats. Gypsum deposits comprise six lithofacies: 1) bottom-growth gypsum, 2) nodular/micronodular gypsum, 3) mosaic gypsum, 4) fibrous/prismatic gypsum, 5) alabastrine gypsum, and 6) rosettes of gypsum. Gypsum types 1 and 2 are interpreted as primary deposition in saline pans. Bottom-growth gypsum forms grass-like crusts while nodular/micronodular gypsum indicates displacive precipitation of the crust in shallow water and the groundwater capillary zone. Types 3 and 4 are early diagenetic precipitates. Abundant inclusions of tiny lath-like anhydrite crystals suggest a primary origin of anhydrite. Alabastrine gypsum, fibrous gypsum (satinspar) and rosettes of gypsum probably derived from near-surface hydration of anhydrite. The gypsum-bearing deposits in the Parnaíba <span class="hlt">Basin</span> contribute towards understanding paleogeographic changes in Western Pangea. A progressive uplift of East Pangea, culminated in the forced regression and retreat of epicontinental seas to the <span class="hlt">West</span>. Restricted seas or large lakes were formed before the definitive onset of desert conditions in Pangea, leading to the development of extensive ergs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAfES.130..102E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAfES.130..102E"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbon source potential of the Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, south-<span class="hlt">west</span> Libya: An organic geochemical approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Anwari, T. A.; Batten, D. J.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>A detailed organic geochemical study of 20 core and cuttings samples collected from the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation, Murzuq <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, in the south-western part of Libya has demonstrated the advantages of pyrolysis geochemical methods for evaluating the source-rock potential of this geological unit. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results indicate a wide variation in source richness and quality. The basal Hot Shale samples proved to contain abundant immature to early mature kerogen type II/III (oil-gas prone) that had been deposited in a marine environment under terrigenous influence, implying good to excellent source rocks. Strata above the Hot Shale yielded a mixture of terrigenous and marine type III/II kerogen (gas-oil prone) at the same maturity level as the Hot Shale, indicating the presence of only poor to fair source rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6138210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6138210"><span id="translatedtitle">Karst development in the Tobosa <span class="hlt">basin</span> (Ordovician-Devonian) strata in the El Paso border region of <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lemone, D.V. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>Karst development within the Tobosa <span class="hlt">basin</span> strata in the El Paso border region is best displayed during two time intervals: Middle Ordovician (27 Ma) developed on the Lower Ordovician El Paso Group and Middle Silurian to Middle Devonian (40 Ma) karst developed on the Lower-Middle Fusselman Formation. These major exposure intervals are recognized in regional outcrops as well as in the subsurface of the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> where they form major reservoirs. Minor local karsting is noted also within and upon the Upper Ordovician (Montoya Group) and within the shoaling upward members of overlying the Fusselman Formation. Middle Ordovician karsting with major cavern development extends down into McKellingon Canyon Formation approximately 1,000 feet below the top of the Lower Ordovician El Paso Group. The McKellingon is overlain by the cavern roof-forming early diagenetic dolomites, lower Scenic Drive Formation which in turn is overlain by the locally karsted upper Scenic Drive and Florida Mountains formations. Collapse of the overlying Montoya Group into El Paso Group rocks is observed. The Fusselman Formation rests disconformably on the Montoya Group. It is a massive, vuggy, fine- to coarsely-crystalline, whitish dolomite. Extensive karsting has developed on the top of the Fusselman. The middle Devonian Canutillo Formation with a basal flooding deposit overlies this karst surface. Minor karsting following fracture systems extends from the major karst of the El Paso Group up into the major karst in the Fusselman. The karst seems to be following and developing along the same linear fracture systems. If so, it is not unreasonable to interpret these fracture systems as being inherited from the earlier Precambrian structures underlying them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.776a2111Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.776a2111Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Hazard characterization study using an earthquake source with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) method in the Northern of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yahya, A.; Palupi, M. I. R.; Suharsono</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region is one of the earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia because it is lie on an active tectonic zone. In 2004 there is earthquake with a moment magnitude of 9.2 located on the coast with the distance 160 km in the <span class="hlt">west</span> of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and triggering a tsunami. These events take a lot of casualties and material losses, especially in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. To minimize the impact of the earthquake disaster, a fundamental assessment of the earthquake hazard in the region is needed. Stages of research include the study of literature, collection and processing of seismic data, seismic source characterization and analysis of earthquake hazard by probabilistic methods (PSHA) used earthquake catalog from 1907 through 2014. The earthquake hazard represented by the value of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) in the period of 0.2 and 1 second on bedrock that is presented in the form of a map with a return period of 2475 years and the earthquake hazard curves for the city of Medan and Banda Aceh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1713/19/pp1713_ch19.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1713/19/pp1713_ch19.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Eocene Total Petroleum System -- North and East of the Eocene <span class="hlt">West</span> Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province: Chapter 19 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gautier, Donald L.; Hosford Scheirer, Allegra</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The North and East of Eocene <span class="hlt">West</span> Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit (AU) of the Eocene Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province comprises all hydrocarbon accumulations within the geographic and stratigraphic limits of this confirmed AU. Oil and associated gas accumulations occur in Paleocene through early middle Miocene marine to nonmarine sandstones found on the comparatively stable northeast shelf of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The assessment unit is located north and east of the thickest accumulation of Neogene sediments and the <span class="hlt">west</span> side fold belt. The area enclosed by the AU has been affected by only mild deformation since Eocene time. Traps containing known accumulations are mostly low-relief domes, anticlines, and up-dip <span class="hlt">basin</span> margin traps with faulting and stratigraphic components. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 19.1 and 19.2; this assessment unit replaces the Northeast Shelf of Neogene <span class="hlt">Basin</span> play 1006, the East Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Slope North of Bakersfield Arch play 1010, and part of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Side Fold Belt Sourced by Pre-middle Miocene Rocks play 1005 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in their 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). Stratigraphically, the AU includes rocks from the uppermost crystalline basement to the topographic surface. In the region of overlap with the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Monterey Diagenetic Traps Assessment Unit, the North and East of Eocene <span class="hlt">West</span> Side Fold Belt AU extends from basement rocks to the top of the Temblor Formation (figs. 19.3 and 19.4). In map view, the northern boundary of the assessment unit corresponds to the northernmost extent of Eocene-age Kreyenhagen Formation. The northeast boundary is the eastern limit of possible oil reservoir rocks near the eastern edge of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The southeast boundary corresponds to the pinch-out of Stevens sand of Eckis (1940) to the south, which approximately coincides with the northern flank of the Bakersfield Arch (fig. 19.1). The AU is bounded on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b1839k/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b1839k/"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From <span class="hlt">west</span> to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-<span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-<span class="hlt">west</span> normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-<span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/ofr01277/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/ofr01277/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data from multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">basins</span>, Los Angeles County, California, 1995-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Land, Michael; Everett, R.R.; Crawford, S.M.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the HYPERLINK 'http://wrd.org' Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRDSC), began a study to examine ground-water resources in the Central and <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast <span class="hlt">Basins</span> in Los Angeles County, California. The study characterizes the geohydrology and geochemistry of the regional ground-water flow system and provides extensive data for evaluating ground-water management issues. This report is a compilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data collected from 24 recently constructed multiple-well monitoring sites for the period 1995?2000. Descriptions of the collected drill cuttings were compiled into lithologic logs, which are summarized along with geophysical logs?including gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and temperature tool logs?for each monitoring site. At selected sites, cores were analyzed for magnetic orientation, physical and thermal properties, and mineralogy. Field and laboratory estimates of hydraulic conductivity are presented for most multiple-well monitoring sites. Periodic water-level measurements are also reported. Water-quality information for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, deuterium and oxygen-18, and tritium is presented for the multiple-well monitoring locations, and for selected existing production and observation wells. In addition, boron-11, carbon-13, carbon-14, sulfur-34, and strontium-87/86 data are presented for selected wells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1987/4013/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1987/4013/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential for pollution of the Upper Floridan aquifer from five sinkholes and an internally drained <span class="hlt">basin</span> in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Trommer, J.T.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Sinkholes are natural and common geologic features in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Florida, which is underlain by water soluble limestone deposits. Dissolution of these deposits is the fundamental cause of sinkhole development. Sinkholes and other karst features are more pronounced in the northern part of the study area, but sinkhole activity has occurred throughout the area. Fifty-eight sinkholes with known or suspected connection to the Upper Floridan aquifer are located in the study area. An internally drained <span class="hlt">basin</span> near the city of Brandon and five sinkholes in Hillsborough, Pasco, and Hernando Counties were selected for detailed investigation. At all sites, chemical or biological constituents were detected that indicate pollutants had entered the aquifer. A generalized classification, based on the potential to pollute, was applied to the selected sites. Four of the sites have high potential and two have moderate potential to pollute the Upper Floridan aquifer. All of the sites investigated are capable of recharging large volumes of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer in short periods of time. Continued monitoring of the quality of water entering the sinkholes and of wells downgradient to the sinks is needed to assess the future impacts on the aquifer. (Author 's abstract)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.127...47J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.127...47J"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint development and tectonic stress field evolution in the southeastern Mesozoic Ordos <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span> part of North China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lin; Qiu, Zhen; Wang, Qingchen; Guo, Yusen; Wu, Chaofan; Wu, Zhijie; Xue, Zhenhua</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Major joint sets trending E-W (J1), ENE-WSW (J2), NE-SW (J3), N-S (J4), NNW-SSE (J5), NNE-SSW (J6), NW-SE (J7), and WNW-ESE (J8) respectively are recognized in Mesozoic strata within the southeast of Ordos <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Among them, the J1, J2 and J3 joint sets are systematic joints, while the other five joint sets (J4, J5, J6, J7, J8) are nonsystematic joints. There are three groups of orthogonal joint systems (i.e. J1 and J4 sets, J2 and J5 sets, and J6 and J8 sets) and two groups of conjugate shear fractures (ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW) in the study area. Joint spacing analysis indicates that: (1) layer thickness has an effect on the joint spacing, but the correlation of joint spacing and layer thickness is low; (2) joint density of systematic joints is greater than nonsystematic joints, and the joint density of a thin layer is also greater than that of a thick layer; and (3) the joints of Mesozoic strata in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> are the result of tectonic events affected by multiple stress fields. All these joints in the Mesozoic strata are formed in the two main tectonic events since Late Mesozoic times. One is the westward subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasia Plate, which formed the approximately E-W-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J1 joint set (E-W) and the bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (E-W). The other stress field is related to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, which formed the NE-SW-trending compressive stress field in the China continent. The trends of the J3 joint set and bisector of conjugate shear fractures composed of ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW fractures are all parallel to the trend of maximum compressive stress (NE-SW). Finally, we conclude that the J1 and J4 sets are formed in the E-W-trending compressive stress field, and the J2, J3, J5, J6, J7 and J8 sets are formed in the NE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..106....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..106....1K"><span id="translatedtitle">Depositional dynamics in a river diversion receiving <span class="hlt">basin</span>: The case of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Bay Mississippi River Diversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kolker, Alexander S.; Miner, Michael D.; Weathers, H. Dallon</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>River deltas are a globally distributed class of sedimentary environment that are highly productive, ecologically diverse and serve as centers for population and commerce. Many deltas are also in a state of environmental degradation, and the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) stands out as a particularly iconic example. Plans to restore the MRD call for partially diverting the Mississippi River, which should reinitiate natural deltaic land-building processes. While the basic physical underpinnings of river diversions are relatively straightforward, there exists a considerable controversy over whether diversions can and do deliver enough sediment to the coastal zone to build sub-aerial land on restoration-dependent time scales. This controversy was addressed through a study of crevasse-splay dynamics at the <span class="hlt">West</span> Bay Mississippi River Diversion, the largest diversion in the MRD that was specifically constructed for coastal restoration. We found that most sediments were distributed over a 13.5 km area, with the maximum deposition occurring at the seaward end of this field. These results indicate substantial sediment deposition downstream of project boundaries and run counter to simple sedimentary models, which predict that maximum sediment deposition should occur closest to the riverbank. Despite this, most sediments appear to be retained in the nearshore zone, suggesting that the sediment retention efficiency was at the higher end of the 30-70% range suggested by some sediment budgets.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..129S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..129S"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896542','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896542"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robert D. Hatcher</p> <p>2003-05-31</p> <p>This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be <span class="hlt">west</span>-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S11A0536S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S11A0536S"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Quaternary Uplift Rates and Geomorphology of the Santa Fe Springs and <span class="hlt">West</span> Coyote Folds, Los Angeles <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sundermann, S. T.; Mueller, K. J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>We mapped Quaternary aquifers with water wells and 5 m DEM's from IFSAR to define rates of folding along the Puente Hills blind thrust system. A cross section across Santa Fe Springs along Carfax Ave suggests 100 and 165 m of uplift of the 330 ka Gage and 650 ka Lynwood aquifers, yielding uplift rates of 0.2 mm/yr between 330-650 ka and 0.27 mm/yr beween 0-330 ka. For a 27° thrust, this yields a slip rate of 0.44 - 0.59 mm/yr. Surface folding is discernable across the Santa Fe Springs segment in the DEM, to a point 4 km <span class="hlt">west</span> of the San Gabriel River. Aquifers correlated with reflectors in a USGS seismic profile along Carfax suggests lower relief for the Lynwood (85 m) and the Gage (59 m). We suggest the 1 km-long USGS profile images only part of the fold limb and that additional structural relief is accommodated further north, as defined by our subsurface mapping. Correlation of a shallow reflector in the seismic profile with the 15-20 ka Gaspur aquifer suggests Holocene uplift of 1.0 mm/yr. A similar analysis undertaken for the Coyote fold near Trojan Ave. suggests 85 and 229 m of uplift for the Gage and Lynwood, yielding uplift rates of 0.26 mm/yr between 0-330 ka and 0.45 mm/yr between 330-650 ka. Correlation of the Gage with a reflector on another USGS seismic profile along Trojan suggests equivalent uplift (86 m), indicating the profile images the entire width of the Coyote forelimb at this site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1096318.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1096318.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical Understanding and Representation Ability of Public Junior High School in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Minarni, Ani; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Husein, Rahmad</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper is the result of first phase of the research about the development of students' mathematical understanding and representation ability through Joyful Problem-Based Learning (JPBL) at Public Junior High School in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia. The population is all of the students of public junior high school (PJHS) in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. Samples…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SedG..177..271N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SedG..177..271N"><span id="translatedtitle">Cenomanian Turonian organic sedimentation in North-<span class="hlt">West</span> Africa: A comparison between the Tarfaya (Morocco) and Senegal <span class="hlt">Basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nzoussi-Mbassani, P.; Khamli, N.; Disnar, J. R.; Laggoun-Défarge, F.; Boussafir, M.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event was recognised in North Western Africa in various depositional settings from abyssal areas to continental shelves. To derive information on environmental conditions in these different settings and define a depositional model, a petrographical and geochemical study of the organic matter was performed on sediments from the Tarfaya (Morocco) and Senegal <span class="hlt">Basins</span>. The results obtained for these two locations were compared to those of previous studies, namely from DSDP wells. Petrographic and geochemical data allow the differentiation of two main organofacies: a shallow depositional facies (continental shelf) is characterised by low total organic carbon (TOC) contents (< 4%). As attested by low hydrogen index (HI) values (100 to 400 mg HC/g TOC), the organic matter (OM) is moderately preserved. Petrographically, this facies is composed of mixed OM with high proportions of reworked vitrinite indicating detrital material influence. The depositional environment is typical of dysoxic conditions (S/C < 0.36) exposed to high mineral inputs and oxygenated water currents. The second organofacies deposited in the deep marine environment (slope and abyssal) shows a high TOC content (> 7%). The predominance of fluorescing amorphous OM combined with high HI values suggests good preservation conditions. The S/C ratio (> 0.36) and abundance of organic-sulphur compounds support this interpretation and indicate a development of anoxic conditions. To explain the organic contrast between both environments a depositional model has been developed which is based on limited water exchange between both depositional settings. The main factor which has determined black shale sedimentation is the restricted water circulation related to the presence of isolated depositional environment during Atlantic Ocean opening. Compared to present upwelling zones, the palaeoproductivity in the studied area was relatively moderate during Cenomanian-Turonian and seems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7079128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7079128"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcitization and silicification of evaporites in Guadalupian back-reef carbonates of the Delaware <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas and New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>Outcrop of the Seven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill formations contain numerous examples of evaporites that have been replaced by both quartz and calcite. The original evaporites consisted of discrete horizons, scattered nodules, enterolithic layers, and individual crystal laths of gypsum and/or anhydrite within a predominantly dolomitic matrix. Based on field and petrographic observations, evaporite replacement proceeded from the exterior to the interior of the nodules. The earliest replacement was by euhedral, black megaquartz containing abundant hydrocarbon inclusions. Calcite replacement followed silicification and consists of coarse, equant, blocky spar. Isotopic analyses of these calcites form two distinct groups: the first group ranges from -10.9 to -20.1{per thousand} (average -16.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.4 to -13.8{per thousand} (average -10.9{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O; the second group ranges from +1.4 to 5.8{per thousand} (average -2.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.2 to 14.1{per thousand} (average -9.2{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O. Evaporite silicification was coeval with hydrocarbon migration as indicated by the inclusion data. Calcitization, however, was associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting that uplifted the area causing deep groundwater circulation. The isotopically very light calcites resulted from the mixing of meteoric fluids and hydrocarbon-rich pore fluids, probably during early uplift while these strata were still at significant depth. The calcites with heavier isotopic values were produced somewhat later by meteoric fluids that had little or no contact with hydrocarbons. Evaporite diagenesis in the Delaware <span class="hlt">basin</span> is an ongoing process that started during hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to significantly change the porosity of these units.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........74K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........74K"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khatun, Salma</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>This research consists of two parts. One part deals with an integrated analysis of the structural anomaly associated with the Uinta Mountains, Utah. The other part deals with a study on the effect of Tamarix on soil and water quality. The Uinta Mountains are an anomalous east-<span class="hlt">west</span> trending range of the Central Rocky Mountains and are located in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. They have long been recognized as a structural anomaly that is surrounded by other Laramide structures that trend N-S or northwest. The study area extends from -112 to -108 degrees longitude and 41.5 to 39 degrees latitude and consists of three major geologic features: The Green River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Uinta Mountains, and the Uinta <span class="hlt">basin</span>. This study investigates the tectonic evolution and the structural development of the Uinta aulacogen. There is a growing interest in exploration for petroleum and other hydrocarbons in the area of this study. Oil companies have been drilling wells in this area since the 1950's. The results of this study will enhance the existing knowledge of this region, and thus will help in the pursuit of hydrocarbons. A highly integrated approach was followed for this investigation. Gravity, magnetic, drill hole, seismic and receiver function data were used in the analysis. Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed using software tools available in the Department of Geological Sciences such as Oasis Montaj and GIS. Filtered gravity maps show that the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding <span class="hlt">basins</span> and uplifts are deep seated features. These maps also reveal a correlation between the Uinta Mountains and the regional tectonic structures. This correlation helps in understanding how the different tectonic events that this region went through contributed to the different phases of development of the Uinta aulacogen. Four gravity models were generated along four north-south trending profile lines covering the target area from east to <span class="hlt">west</span>. Interpretations of these models give a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5140/SIR12-5140.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5140/SIR12-5140.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration optimization analyses of pumping from selected Arapahoe aquifer municipal wells in the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Colorado, 2010–2109</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Banta, Edward R.; Paschke, Suzanne S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Declining water levels caused by withdrawals of water from wells in the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central part of the Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span> bedrock-aquifer system have raised concerns with respect to the ability of the aquifer system to sustain production. The Arapahoe aquifer in particular is heavily used in this area. Two optimization analyses were conducted to demonstrate approaches that could be used to evaluate possible future pumping scenarios intended to prolong the productivity of the aquifer and to delay excessive loss of saturated thickness. These analyses were designed as demonstrations only, and were not intended as a comprehensive optimization study. Optimization analyses were based on a groundwater-flow model of the Denver <span class="hlt">Basin</span> developed as part of a recently published U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-availability study. For each analysis an optimization problem was set up to maximize total withdrawal rate, subject to withdrawal-rate and hydraulic-head constraints, for 119 selected municipal water-supply wells located in 96 model cells. The optimization analyses were based on 50- and 100-year simulations of groundwater withdrawals. The optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells for a 50-year simulation time was about 58.8 cubic feet per second. For an analysis in which the simulation time and head-constraint time were extended to 100 years, the optimized total withdrawal rate for all selected wells was about 53.0 cubic feet per second, demonstrating that a reduction in withdrawal rate of about 10 percent may extend the time before the hydraulic-head constraints are violated by 50 years, provided that pumping rates are optimally distributed. Analysis of simulation results showed that initially, the pumping produces water primarily by release of water from storage in the Arapahoe aquifer. However, because confining layers between the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers are thin, in less than 5 years, most of the water removed by managed-flows pumping likely would be supplied</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43I..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43I..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">Products of Submarine Fountains and Bubble-burst Eruptive Activity at 1200 m on <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata Volcano, Lau <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clague, D. A.; Rubin, K. H.; Keller, N. S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>An eruption was observed and sampled at <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata Volcano using ROV JASON II for 5 days in May 2009 during the NSF-NOAA eruption response cruise to this region of suspected volcanic activity. Activity was focused near the summit at the Prometheus and Hades vents. Prometheus erupted almost exclusively as low-level fountains. Activity at Hades cycled between vigorous degassing, low fountains, and bubble-bursts, building up and partially collapsing a small spatter/scoria cone and feeding short sheet-like and pillow flows. Fire fountains at Prometheus produced mostly small primary pyroclasts that include Pele's hair and fluidal fragments of highly vesicular volcanic glass. These fragments have mostly shattered and broken surfaces, although smooth spatter-like surfaces also occur. As activity wanes, glow in the vent fades, and denser, sometimes altered volcanic clasts are incorporated into the eruption. The latter are likely from the conduit walls and/or vent-rim ejecta, drawn back into the vent by inrushing seawater that replaces water entrained in the rising volcanic plume. Repeated recycling of previously erupted materials eventually produces rounded clasts resembling beach cobbles and pitted surfaces on broken phenocrysts of pyroxene and olivine. We estimate that roughly 33% of near vent ejecta are recycled. Our best sample of this ejecta type was deposited in the drawer of the JASON II ROV during a particularly large explosion that occurred during plume sampling immediately above the vent. Elemental sulfur spherules up to 5 mm in diameter are common in ejecta from both vents and occur inside some of the lava fragments Hades activity included dramatic bubble-bursts unlike anything previously observed under water. The lava bubbles, sometimes occurring in rapid-fire sequence, collapsed in the water-column, producing fragments that are quenched in less than a second to form Pele's hair, limu o Pele, spatter-like lava blobs, and scoria. All are highly vesicular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21053723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21053723"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of peatland degradation and development in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kalimantan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Peatlands cover around 13 Mha in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Human activities have rapidly increased in the peatland ecosystems during the last two decades, invariably degrading them and making them vulnerable to fires. This causes high carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change. For this article, we used 94 high resolution (10-20 m) satellite images to map the status of peatland degradation and development in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kalimantan using visual image interpretation. The results reveal that less than 4% of the peatland areas remain covered by pristine peatswamp forests (PSFs), while 37% are covered by PSFs with varying degree of degradation. Furthermore, over 20% is considered to be unmanaged degraded landscape, occupied by ferns, shrubs and secondary growth. This alarming extent of degradation makes peatlands vulnerable to accelerated peat decomposition and catastrophic fire episodes that will have global consequences. With on-going degradation and development the existence of the entire tropical peatland ecosystem in this region is in great danger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16376140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16376140"><span id="translatedtitle">Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali and North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wandra, Toni; Depary, A A; Sutisna, Putu; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>It has been reported that three human Taenia species are distributed in Indonesia: Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. T. asiatica is well known in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, especially on Samosir island in Lake Toba. T. solium and T. saginata are known from Bali. T. solium is most serious public health issue in Papua (former Irian Jaya). In this report, we briefly review the present situation of these three human Taenia species mainly in Bali and North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. For community based epidemiological survey, we have adopted and applied questionnaire, microscopic observation of eggs, coproantigen tests, coproDNA tests, mitochondrial DNA analysis and morphology for isolated specimens, serology for cysticercosis and taeniasis. For detection of taeniasis cases of both T. saginata and T. asiatica, questionnaire by expert doctors is perfect to detect worm carriers. Corpoantigen test developed for detection of taeniasis of T. solium is also highly reliable to detect taeniasis carriers in the community. Epidemiological data from these two islands 2002-2005 are reviewed with backgrounds of historical culture, religions and customs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1991/4164/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1991/4164/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic conditions in the Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Jersey, 1986-88</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Eric; Hardy, M.A.; Kurtz, B.A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Data on the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in the drainage <span class="hlt">basins</span> of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook upstream from U.S. Route 206 in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central New Jersey were collected from October 1, 1986, through September 30, 1988. Water levels measured in 74 wells ranged from 49 to 453 ft above sea level. The water-table surface generally mimicked topography; however, the water-level altitude in one well indicates the possibility of local interbasin groundwater flow. Calcium and bicarbonate were the most abundant cation and anion in most of the 25 groundwater samples. With one exception, concentrations of nutrients, trace elements, organic carbon, and volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Stream low-flow measurements made twice at each of 63 sites indicate that both discharge and runoff increased downstream for most reaches of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook. For main-stem sites, the highest base-flow runoff occurred at site 01462733 on Jacobs Creek; the greatest discharge was measured at site 01401100 on Stony Brook. The flow-duration curve for Stony Brook for 1987-88 indicates a wetter- than-normal period for the area. Results of surface-water-quality analyses indicate that calcium and sodium plus potassium were the dominant or codominant cations, and bicarbonate and chloride were the dominant or codominant anions in most samples. Concentrations of nutrients typically exceeded those needed to support surplus algal growth. Concentrations of trace elements generally were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Bottom-sediment samples contained several persistent organic compounds. Significant downstream variations were found in concentrations of copper and lead in Jacobs Creek and Stony Brook. Results of macroinvertebrate community sampling indicate an input of nutrients to several stream</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25734617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25734617"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation of an arsenate-respiring bacterium from a redox front in an arsenic-polluted aquifer in <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal, Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osborne, Thomas H; McArthur, John M; Sikdar, Pradip K; Santini, Joanne M</p> <p>2015-04-07</p> <p>Natural pollution of groundwater by arsenic adversely affects the health of tens of millions of people worldwide, with the deltaic aquifers of SE Asia being particularly polluted. The pollution is caused primarily by, or as a side reaction of, the microbial reduction of sedimentary Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides, but the organism(s) responsible for As release have not been isolated. Here we report the first isolation of a dissimilatory arsenate reducer from sediments of the Bengal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal. The bacterium, here designated WB3, respires soluble arsenate and couples its reduction to the oxidation of acetate; WB3 is therefore implicated in the process of arsenic pollution of groundwater, which is largely by arsenite. The bacterium WB3 is also capable of reducing dissolved Fe(III) citrate, solid Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, and elemental sulfur, using acetate as the electron donor. It is a member of the Desulfuromonas genus and possesses a dissimilatory arsenate reductase that was identified using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers. The sediment from which WB3 was isolated was brown, Pleistocene sand at a depth of 35.2 m below ground level (mbgl). This level was some 3 cm below the boundary between the brown sands and overlying reduced, gray, Holocene aquifer sands. The color boundary is interpreted to be a reduction front that releases As for resorption downflow, yielding a high load of labile As sorbed to the sediment at a depth of 35.8 mbgl and concentrations of As in groundwater that reach >1000 μg/L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/f2/pdf/pp1708_f2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/f2/pdf/pp1708_f2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> and part of the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">basin</span> were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> generally decrease from east to <span class="hlt">west</span>. In the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">basin</span> of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of <span class="hlt">west</span>- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1202/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1202/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore <span class="hlt">basins</span>. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EOSTr..87..105G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EOSTr..87..105G"><span id="translatedtitle">U.S. Warning System Detected the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Tsunami</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gower, Jim; González, Frank</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Although the December 2004 great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake and the resulting tsunami were very distant from the northeast Pacific Ocean, the U.S. Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) array in the northeast Pacific successfully demonstrated high sensitivity and provides useful data for understanding the propagation of the tsunami. At the time of the tsunami, the Pacific DART network already was one of the most sophisticated tsunami detection systems in operation. The network, which then consisted of eight stations (seven U.S. and one Chilean), now consists of 11 stations (10 U.S. and one Chilean) [González et al., 2005] (Figure 1). Each station is equipped with a bottom pressure recorder (BPR) transmitting data acoustically from the ocean bottom to a surface buoy, which then passes the data to tsunami warning centers and other land stations by satellite communication links.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800611"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismology: speed and size of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stein, Seth; Okal, Emile A</p> <p>2005-03-31</p> <p>Our seismological results reveal that Indonesia's devastating <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004 was 2.5 times larger than initial reports suggested--second only to the 1960 Chilean earthquake in recorded magnitude. They indicate that it slowly released its energy by slip along a 1,200-km fault, generating a long rupture that contributed to the subsequent tsunami. Now that the entire rupture zone has slipped, the strain accumulated from the subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Burma microplate has been released, and there is no immediate danger of a similar tsunami being generated on this part of the plate boundary, although large earthquakes on segments to the south still present a threat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895941','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895941"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mulyadi</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040220','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040220"><span id="translatedtitle">Apes in Space: Saving an Imperilled Orangutan Population in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Deforestation rates in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131±46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m±350, SD) and females (866 m±195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat across</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364732"><span id="translatedtitle">Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew</p> <p>2011-02-16</p> <p>Deforestation rates in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131 ± 46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m ± 350, SD) and females (866 m ± 195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.111..384O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.111..384O"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleoenvironmental conditions in the late Paleogene, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'shea, Natalie; Arthur Bettis, E.; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan, Aswan; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Zonneveld, John-Paul; Ciochon, Russell L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A stratified paleosol sequence exposed in an open pit mine in central <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> provides a record of the paleoenvironmental conditions in the lower reaches of a large river system in the late Paleogene (latest Eocene or Oligocene). Morphological, geochemical, and stable isotope data suggest that the sequence represents a mosaic of local environmental conditions changing from estuarine to riverine up section. Weakly expressed soils formed on low-lying estuary surfaces, while more well expressed soils formed on higher, better drained surfaces. Peatlands (coal) with clayey subsoils were along the estuary margins. Well-expressed soils with evidence of clay translocation and chemical weathering become more common higher in the section where alluvial deposits associated with a meandering river are dominant. Stable carbon isotope ratios support a paleolandscape dominated by C3 plants with input by C4 vegetation limited to a few intervals. Finally, whole-rock geochemistry suggests moderate chemical weathering consistent with a tropical locality. This multi-proxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests a highly productive lowland forest environment at this locality in the late Paleogene and provides the first direct examination of the terrestrial environment in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> at this time. The limited fossil record in Island Southeast Asia during this time period is likely a result of poor bone and shell preservation in tropical forest environments combined with a general lack of systematic prospecting. However, our continuing work in this area has produced a relatively diverse assemblage of fossil vertebrates, now including fishes, amphibians, turtles, crocodiles, and mammals, as well as a growing diversity of fossil plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5066/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5066/"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River <span class="hlt">basin</span> extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River <span class="hlt">basin</span> in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V42F..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V42F..05R"><span id="translatedtitle">New 40Ar-39Ar ages for Basalts From the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Links With the Siberian Flood Basalt Province</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reichow, M. K.; Saunders, A. D.; White, R. V.; Pringle, M. S.; Al'Mukhamedov, A. I.; Medvedev, A. Y.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The Siberian Traps represent the world's largest subaerial flood basalt province, and may be responsible for the Permo-Triassic mass extinction at 250 Ma (e.g., Campbell et al. 1992 Science 258, 1760). The total extent of the Traps, and whether or not the volcanism is a contributor to the Permo-Triassic mass extinction, are both still matters of debate. Basaltic and gabbroic rocks occur throughout the <span class="hlt">West</span> Siberian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (WSB), but are covered by a thick succession of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, unlike the more accessible Traps on the Siberian craton to the east. We have obtained material from three deep industrial boreholes (Hohryakovskaya, Permyakovskaya, Van Eganskaya), and show that basalts and gabbros from the WSB have ages indistinguishable from the Traps to the east. 40Ar-39Ar dating of plagioclase (from basalts) and phlogopite (from a gabbro) separates from 6 samples from three boreholes give ages of 249.3 to 250.5 Ma (plagioclase) and 253.4 Ma (phlogopite) (relative to GA1550 biotite at 98.79 Ma). The results are obtained by step heating and the apparent plateau ages include more than 90 percent of the total argon released. Two sigma errors are better than 1.0 Ma for 5 of the samples. Normalised to the same standard, these ages are in good agreement with ages obtained for the Siberian Traps (250 Ma: Renne and Basu 1991 Science 253, 176). On the basis of major and trace element data, the basalts from the WSB show affinities with the Nadezhinsky suite (Noril'sk area), which is known to immediately precede the main pulse of volcanism that extruded over large areas of the craton. Limited recovery from the boreholes indicates that the basalts were erupted subaerially or possibly into shallow water (e.g. presence of abundant, large amygdales). Lava flows are at least 20 m thick, indicating voluminous eruptions. The results from the Ar-Ar dating and chemical analysis emphasise a clear correlation between basalts from the WSB and the Siberian Traps. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5933377','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5933377"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithospheric flexure and composite tectonic loads in the foreland of the Marathon orogenic belt: Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas and southern New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Kenn Ming; Dorobek, S. . Dept. of Geology)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Lithospheric flexure caused by loading of orogenic belts is regarded as the main process that produces subsidence in foreland <span class="hlt">basins</span>. However in some foreland areas, subsidence may be affected by synorogenic foreland uplifts that act as additional loads. The Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is located in the foreland area of the late Paleozoic Marathon orogenic belt (Mob). The Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> consists of several sub-<span class="hlt">basins</span> that are separated by several structurally complex uplifts. Uplift of the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Platform (CBP) and subsidence in adjacent <span class="hlt">basins</span> were coeval with final stages of deformation in the Marathon orogen. The CBP is oriented at high angles to the Marathon orogen and consists of several blocks arranged in an en echelon pattern. Data suggest that uplift of the CBP was affected by clockwise rotation of crustal blocks between NNW-SSE trending boundary faults. Although both the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (DB) and Val Verde <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (VVB) are adjacent to the Mob, the synorogenic geometries of these <span class="hlt">basins</span> are different. The VVB has a typical flexural profile that apparently is due to loading of the Marathon orogen. However, the flexural profile becomes narrower and deeper toward the western end of the VVB where the <span class="hlt">basin</span> is bordered by the southernmost block of the CBP. In contrast, synorogenic DB profiles have composite wavelengths which show maximum deflection next to the Mob and toward the uplifted blocks of the CBP. This suggests that synorogenic subsidence of the DB was affected by loading of the CBP. In addition, the loading geometry across the uplifted CBP is asymmetric, with greater uplift and basement shortening on the western side of the CBP and less uplift and basement shortening on the eastern side. This may explain greater synorogenic subsidence in the DB than the Midland <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U13E2078W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U13E2078W"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the minor tsunami generated by the September 30 2009 earthquake near Padang, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wekerle, C.; Harig, S.; Pranowo, W.; Behrens, J.; Androsov, A.; Schroeter, J.; Hiller, W.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The magnitude 7.6 earthquake (USGS) on September 30, 2009 at 10:16 UTC close to the city of Padang in <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> generated a minor tsunami. Earthquakes in this region however have the potential to generate destructive waves as it was shown in historical and recent events. Taking into account the large number of casualties due to this earthquake it is important to prepare for possible future events which might be accompanied by a tsunami. Due to the geographical setting of Padang a tsunami might have disastrous impact. An effective early warning system is crucial. The tsunami modeling group of Alfred Wegener Institute is part of the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) and is responsible for creating a database of pre-calculated tsunami scenarios of various magnitudes and epicenter locations covering the Sunda Trench. These scenarios are calculated with the newly developed model TsunAWI. It is based on the nonlinear shallow water equations and employs the finite element method in unstructured meshes. In case of a tsunamigenic earthquake, sensor data (comprising seismometers, GPS instruments, tide gauges, buoys and ocean bottom pressure sensors) will be evaluated. The most probable scenario will be selected and used to forecast arrival times and estimated wave height along the coast. The unstructured discretisation employed in TsunAWI allows for a high resolution around the city of Padang. In this presentation we show preliminary examples of the results of the GITEWS simulation system. We evaluate our pre-computed scenarios and analyze their deficiencies. Additional simulations based on diverse source models are performed to analyze the predictability of near-field tsunamis within short time. We compare simulation results to tide gauge data from Padang harbor and find good agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1984/4313/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1984/4313/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic analysis of two headwater lake <span class="hlt">basins</span> of differing lake pH in the <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Adirondack Mountains of New York</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Murdoch, Peter S.; Peters, N.E.; Newton, R.M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Hydrologic analysis of two headwater lake <span class="hlt">basins</span> in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, during 1980-81 indicates that the degree of neutralization of acid precipitation is controlled by the groundwater contribution to the lake. According to flow-duration analyses, daily mean outflow/unit area from the neutral lake (Panther Lake, pH 5-7) was more sustained and contained a higher percentage of groundwater than that of the acidic lake (Woods Lake, pH 4-5). Outflow recession rates and maximum base-flow rates, derived from individual recession curves, were 3.9 times and 1.5 times greater, respectively, in the neutral-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> than in the acidic-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Groundwater contribution to lake outflow was also calculated from a lake-water budget; the groundwater contribution to the neutral lake was about 10 times greater than that to the acidic lake. Thick sandy till forms the groundwater reservoir and the major recharge area in both <span class="hlt">basins</span> but covers 8.5 times more area in the neutral-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span> than in the acidic-lake <span class="hlt">basin</span>. More groundwater storage within the neutral <span class="hlt">basin</span> provides longer contact time with neutralizing minerals and more groundwater discharge. As a result, the neutral lake has relatively high pH and alkalinity, and more net cation transport. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2014775','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2014775"><span id="translatedtitle">Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Province, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background The Nias district of the North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..180a2004T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..180a2004T"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the Economic Growth and Acquisition of Land to the Construction Cost Index in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarmizi, H. B.; Daulay, M.; Muda, I.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This study aims to test the aggregation of the economic growth of North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building to the Construction Cost Index in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample district in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> with the observation time series and cross sectional. The analysis tool used is multiple regression. The results showed that there was economic growth aggregation of North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the influence of the Tax on Acquisition of Land and Building affect the Construction Cost Index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T53A4652C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T53A4652C"><span id="translatedtitle">Examination of Global Seismic Tomography Images and Sea-Surface Magnetic Field Anomaly Profiles in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Philippine <span class="hlt">Basin</span> for the Large Clockwise Rotation of the Philippine Sea Plate during the Last 55 Million Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choe, H.; Lee, S. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Philippine Sea Plate is thought to have undergone a 90° clockwise rotation during the last 55 million years. However, evidences for such an argument are rather circumstantial. For instance, paleomagnetic measurements for the large rotation are derived largely from Halmahera, Indonesia which is quite close to the plate boundary. It is thus possible that this region may have undergone local deformation separate from the main parts of the Philippine Sea Plate. In this study, we examine the global seismic tomography images of the mantle beneath the Philippine Sea Plate and the marine magnetic field anomaly data at the sea surface from the <span class="hlt">West</span> Philippine <span class="hlt">Basin</span> to see whether they agree with the presumed motion of the Philippine Sea Plate. Our comparison between the plate reconstruction and global tomography suggests that the rotation of Philippine Sea Plate may not have been continuous but instead experienced a temporal break at around 32 Ma. The exact nature of this pause is uncertain, but it may be related to a sudden change in the configuration of subduction systems. A detail comparison with recent results from IODP Legs 350 and 351 is therefore necessary, including a search for a change in the depositional style of <span class="hlt">basin</span> sediment. We also examined the detailed the shape of magnetic anomalies (such as skewness) and compare them with the previous model by allowing the magnetization to have direction corresponding to that during the opening of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Philippine <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. At this moment, it is too early to tell if the sudden change at around 32 Ma or other inferred breaks can be seen in the magnetic profiles as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH34B..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH34B..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation of Infrastructure for Tsunami Evacuation in Padang, <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cedillos, V.; Canney, N.; Deierlein, G.; Diposaptono, S.; Geist, E. L.; Henderson, S.; Ismail, F.; Jachowski, N.; McAdoo, B. G.; Muhari, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.; Toth, J.; Tucker, B. E.; Wood, K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Padang has one of the world’s highest tsunami risks due to its high hazard, vulnerable terrain and population density. The current strategy to prepare for tsunamis in Padang is focused on developing early warning systems, planning evacuation routes, conducting evacuation drills, and raising local awareness. Although these are all necessary, they are insufficient. Padang’s proximity to the Sunda Trench and flat terrain make reaching safe ground impossible for much of the population. The natural warning in Padang - a strong earthquake that lasts over a minute - will be the first indicator of a potential tsunami. People will have about 30 minutes after the earthquake to reach safe ground. It is estimated that roughly 50,000 people in Padang will be unable to evacuate in that time. Given these conditions, other means to prepare for the expected tsunami must be developed. With this motivation, GeoHazards International and Stanford University’s Chapter of Engineers for a Sustainable World partnered with Indonesian organizations - Andalas University and Tsunami Alert Community in Padang, Laboratory for Earth Hazards, and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries - in an effort to evaluate the need for and feasibility of tsunami evacuation infrastructure in Padang. Tsunami evacuation infrastructure can include earthquake-resistant bridges and evacuation structures that rise above the maximum tsunami water level, and can withstand the expected earthquake and tsunami forces. The choices for evacuation structures vary widely - new and existing buildings, evacuation towers, soil berms, elevated highways and pedestrian overpasses. This interdisciplinary project conducted a course at Stanford University, undertook several field investigations, and concluded that: (1) tsunami evacuation structures and bridges are essential to protect the people in Padang, (2) there is a need for a more thorough engineering-based evaluation than conducted to-date of the suitability of existing buildings to serve as evacuation structures, and of existing bridges to serve as elements of evacuation routes, and (3) additions to Padang’s tsunami evacuation infrastructure must carefully take into account technical matters (e.g. expected wave height, debris impact forces), social considerations (e.g. cultural acceptability, public’s confidence in the structure’s integrity), and political issues (e.g. land availability, cost, maintenance). Future plans include collaboration between U.S. and Indonesian engineers in developing designs for new tsunami evacuation structures, as well as providing training for Indonesian authorities on: (1) siting, designing, and constructing tsunami evacuation structures, and (2) evaluating the suitability of existing buildings to serve as tsunami evacuation shelters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..07M"><span id="translatedtitle">University-NGO connections for earthquake and tsunami risk reduction: lessons learned in <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Scientists have information that is critical to policy and public education, yet lack field staff of their own to put this into practice. NGOs have field staff as well as connections with policymakers and the community, yet lack a direct connection to the latest scientific research. Scientists face pressure to obtain grants and publish; NGOs face pressure to deliver programs to as many people as possible. Lacking institutional incentives that recognize efforts to bridge the science-practice gap, it is often out of personal convictions that scientists seek to share their results with NGOs, and NGO practitioners seek to deepen their own scientific knowledge. Such individual efforts are impactful; however, more can be achieved with institutional commitments to closer collaboration. Science communication is dialogue, not a one-way transfer of knowledge from science to practice. On the university side, listening to our NGO partners has inspired faculty, staff, and students, identified new areas of fundamental scientific research inspired by practical use, and helped prioritize and clarify the scientific information that is most useful for disaster-risk-reduction practice. On the NGO side, connections to scientists have informed the content of public education and policy advocacy programs and clarified technical information; this new understanding has been incorporated in advocacy and community engagement programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6629969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6629969"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal investigations in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.</p> <p>1982-11-01</p> <p>Deep sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> and warm-spring systems in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the <span class="hlt">west</span>. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5189/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5189/"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of groundwater levels and headwater wetlands on streamflow in the Charlie Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Peace River watershed, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lee, T.M.; Sacks, L.A.; Hughes, J.D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Charlie Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> was studied from April 2004 to December 2005 to better understand how groundwater levels in the underlying aquifers and storage and overflow of water from headwater wetlands preserve the streamflows exiting this least-developed tributary <span class="hlt">basin</span> of the Peace River watershed. The hydrogeologic framework, physical characteristics, and streamflow were described and quantified for five subbasins of the 330-square mile Charlie Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>, allowing the contribution of its headwaters area and tributary subbasins to be separately quantified. A MIKE SHE model simulation of the integrated surface-water and groundwater flow processes in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> was used to simulate daily streamflow observed over 21 months in 2004 and 2005 at five streamflow stations, and to quantify the monthly and annual water budgets for the five subbasins including the changing amount of water stored in wetlands. Groundwater heads were mapped in Zone 2 of the intermediate aquifer system and in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and were used to interpret the location of artesian head conditions in the Charlie Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> and its relation to streamflow. Artesian conditions in the intermediate aquifer system induce upward groundwater flow into the surficial aquifer and help sustain base flow which supplies about two-thirds of the streamflow from the Charlie Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Seepage measurements confirmed seepage inflow to Charlie Creek during the study period. The upper half of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, comprised largely of the Upper Charlie Creek subbasin, has lower runoff potential than the lower <span class="hlt">basin</span>, more storage of runoff in wetlands, and periodically generates no streamflow. Artesian head conditions in the intermediate aquifer system were widespread in the upper half of the Charlie Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>, preventing downward leakage from expansive areas of wetlands and enabling them to act as headwaters to Charlie Creek once their storage requirements were met. Currently, the dynamic balance between wetland</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21392349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21392349"><span id="translatedtitle">Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris <span class="hlt">sumatrae</span>): a review of conservation status.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5865273','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5865273"><span id="translatedtitle">Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>The Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span> is a large intracratonic <span class="hlt">basin</span> in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by <span class="hlt">basin</span> wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana <span class="hlt">basin</span> consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-<span class="hlt">west</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T53D..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T53D..03L"><span id="translatedtitle">First images of the crustal structure across the central Algerian margin, off Tipaza (<span class="hlt">West</span> Algiers) from deep penetrating seismic data: new information to constrain the opening of the Algerian <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leprêtre, A.; Deverchere, J.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Graindorge, D.; Schnurle, P.; Yelles, K.; Bracene, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The origin of the Algerian margin remains one of the key questions still unresolved in the Western Mediterranean sea. This is related to the unknown nature and kinematics of this Neogene <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Whereas the westernmost margin is generally assumed to have been shaped as a STEP-fault (Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator, transcurrent) margin by the westward displacement of the Alboran block, the central Algerian margin is believed to have involved a NW-SE <span class="hlt">basin</span> opening related to a southward slab rollback. This work sheds insight on this issue, using data acquired in the context of the Algerian-French program SPIRAL (Sismique Profonde et Investigation Régionale en Algérie): a cruise conducted on the 'R/V L'Atalante' in October-November 2009. It has provided 5 new combined onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic profiles and an extensive multi-channel seismic dataset spread along the margin, from Oran to Annaba. In this work, the available structural information on the ~N-S wide-angle transect of Tipaza is presented, where the margin broadens due to the presence of a bathymetric high (the Khayr-Al-Din bank) which is assumed to represent a remaining titled block of the passive margin. Along the transect, 39 OBS and 13 landstations recorded 751 low frequency airgun shots. Travel-time tomography and forward modelling were computed using the software developed by Zelt and Barton (1998) and Zelt and Smith (1992), to obtain the velocity structure in the region. A set of multi-channel seismic reflection profiles including two coincident profiles with the wide-angle data allows a combined interpretation and extend the deep structure in the Bou Ismail Bay. MCS data outline the sedimentary sequence filling the Algerian <span class="hlt">basin</span> depicting an intensive salt tectonic associated with the Messinan Salinity Crisis and allowing to image locally below the salt layer. The deep penetrating data SPIRAL allow to image the sedimentary sequence in the Algerian <span class="hlt">basin</span> off Tipaza (<span class="hlt">West</span> Algiers) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168..121M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168..121M"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation microstructure in different Madden-Julian Oscillation phases over <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marzuki; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kozu, Toshiaki; Shimomai, Toyoshi; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Yukihiro</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Intraseasonal variations of precipitation and its microstructure are investigated using measurements of the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR) facilities at Kototabang, <span class="hlt">west</span> <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). Raindrop size distribution (DSD) observations are obtained from a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) with a near continuous record of operation over eight consecutive years (2003-2010). Precipitation types are classified using 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation, and are partitioned according to active and inactive convective phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). It is found that precipitation systems during the inactive phase are more continental in nature than those during the active phase. Cloud propagation from brightness temperature data indicates that <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> receives the rainfall mainly from maritime clouds during the active phase, while it is mainly from the continental clouds (land-based convection) during the inactive phase. Other remarkable differences between active and inactive phase precipitation systems are also observed from the vertical structure of precipitation. The precipitation during the inactive phase has deeper storms, a higher reflectivity aloft, more lightning activity and less stratiform characteristics, as compared to the active phase. Assessment of cloud effective radius of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data also shows a slight difference in the cloud droplet between the active and the inactive MJO phases. Different convective storms in different MJO phases lead to different DSD characteristics and Z-R relationships. The DSD during the inactive phase tends to have a higher concentration of medium and large-size drops than the active counterpart, consistent with the previous study during the first campaign of Coupling Processes in the Equatorial Atmosphere project. Although the DSD parameters and coefficient of Z-R relationships fall within the range of tropical maritime</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Tecto..12.1267B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Tecto..12.1267B"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bird, Dale E.; Hall, Stuart A.; Casey, John F.; Millegan, Patrick S.</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>The Grenada <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is a back arc <span class="hlt">basin</span> located near the eastern border of the Caribbean Plate. The <span class="hlt">basin</span> is bounded on the <span class="hlt">west</span> by the north-south trending Aves Ridge (a remnant island arc) and on the east by the active Lesser Antilles island arc. Although this physiography suggests that east-<span class="hlt">west</span> extension formed the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, magnetic anomalies over the <span class="hlt">basin</span> exhibit predominantly east-<span class="hlt">west</span> trends. If the observed magnetic anomalies over the <span class="hlt">basin</span> are produced by seafloor spreading, then the orientation of extension is complex. Extension in back arc <span class="hlt">basins</span> is roughly normal to the trench, although some <span class="hlt">basins</span> exhibit oblique extension. Present models for the formation of the Grenada <span class="hlt">Basin</span> vary from north-south extension through northeast-southwest extension to east-<span class="hlt">west</span> extension. An interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada <span class="hlt">Basin</span> supports <span class="hlt">basin</span> development by nearly east-<span class="hlt">west</span> extension. Low amplitude magnetic anomaly trends subparallel to the island arc magnetic anomaly trends over the southern part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and the results of forward three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic modeling are consistent with this conclusion. Late Cenozoic tectonic movements may have been responsible for disrupting the magnetic signature over the northern part of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. On the basis of our 3-D analysis, we attribute the prominent east-<span class="hlt">west</span> trending anomalies of the Grenada <span class="hlt">Basin</span> to fracture zones formed during seafloor spreading at low latitude. This east-<span class="hlt">west</span> trend is not interpreted as indicating north-south extension of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/643522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/643522"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.</p> <p>1997-05-29</p> <p>The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> reservoirs by studying similar facies found in Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25044917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25044917"><span id="translatedtitle">Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.9179L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.9179L"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations of ionospheric plasma at different altitudes before the 2005 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Indonesia Ms 7.2 earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xuemin; Novikov, Victor; Shen, Xuhui</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In recent years, many researchers pay more attention to abnormities before earthquake, and in this study, seismo-ionospheric synchronous disturbances at different altitudes by GPS and satellite observations were first studied around one <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Indonesia Ms 7.2 earthquake that occurred on 5 July 2005. By using the same temporal and spatial methods, data of GPS-total electron content (TEC) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, electron density (Ne) from Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions, and ion density (Ni) from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program were deeply analyzed. The ionospheric plasma disturbances in GPS-TEC and increasement of Ne at 710 km were found on 4 July, and plasma density at the three altitudes has all increased on 7 July after the earthquake. All the disturbances were not just above the epicenter. TEC perturbations have happened at the east of the epicenter for the two days, and electron density enhancement at 710 km has moved to <span class="hlt">west</span> of the TEC perturbations at the same time on 4 July, which may be caused by E × B drift. The moving direction of upgoing plasma was simulated using SAMI2 model. The results have shown that the plasma will move to higher altitude along the geomagnetic force line, which could exactly account for the plasma density enhancement in the northern direction of the geomagnetic south latitude earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/513505','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/513505"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico - petrophysical characterization of the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucia, F.J.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Reservoir performance of the South Cowden Grayburg field suggests that only 21 percent of the original oil in place has been recovered. The purpose of this study is to construct a realistic reservoir model to be used to predict the location of the remaining mobile oil. Construction of reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation of carbonate reservoirs is difficult because they typically have complicated and unpredictable permeability patterns. Much of the difficulty results from the degree to which diagenetic overprinting masks depositional textures and patterns. For example, the task of constructing a reservoir model of a limestone reservoir that has undergone only cementation and compaction is easier than constructing a model of a karsted reservoir that has undergone cavern formation and collapse as well as cementation and compaction. The Permian-age carbonate-ramp reservoirs in the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico, are typically anhydritic dolomitized limestone. Because the dolomitization occurred soon after deposition, depositional fabrics and patterns are often retained, and a reservoir model can be constructed using depositional concepts. Recent studies of the San Andres outcrop in the Guadalupe Mountains and the Seminole San Andres reservoir in the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> illustrate how depositional fabrics and patterns can be used to construct a reservoir model when depositional features are retained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27169229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27169229"><span id="translatedtitle">[Genetic Differentiation of Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Kamchatka River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and the Lake-River Systems of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast of the Bering Sea as Inferred from Data on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khrustaleva, A M; Klovach, N V; Vedischeva, E V; Seeb, J E</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The variability of 45 single nucleotide polymorphism loci (SNP) was studied in sockeye salmon from the Kamchatka River <span class="hlt">basin</span> and four lake-river systems of the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of the Bering Sea. Based on the genetic differentiation estimates for the largest sockeye salmon populations of Eastern Kamchatka and Chukotka, the examined samples were combined into two regional groups represented by the population of the Kamchatka River drainage, which included numerous local subpopulations and seasonal races, and the northern population grouping from the rivers of Olutorsko-Navarinsky raion, wherein the sockeye salmon from Maynypilginskaya Lake-River system was relatively isolated. Considerable divergence was observed between the island (Sarannoe Lake, Bering Island) and continental populations. Genetic heterogeneity was revealed and groups of early- and late-maturing individuals were isolated in the sample of late-run sockeye salmon from Kamchatka River. In Apuka River, subdivision of the spawning run into two genetically distinct spatial and temporal groupings was also observed. The results suggest that the differentiation of sockeye salmon samples by single nucleotide substitution frequencies was largely due to differences in the direction and strength of local selection at some loci in the population complexes and intrapopulation groupings from the examined river <span class="hlt">basins</span> of Eastern Kamchatka, Chukotka, and Commander Islands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6746488','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6746488"><span id="translatedtitle">(The role of zooplankton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight): California <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Study: DOE <span class="hlt">west</span> coast <span class="hlt">basin</span> program: Progress report 4, (June 1987--June 1988)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Small, L.F.; Huh, Chih-An</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>The overall objective of our research, within the structure of the DOE CaBS (California <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Study) program, is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of selected metabolically active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro <span class="hlt">Basins</span>. One focus of our study is to examine the role of zooplankton and micronekton in the cycling and remineralization of chemical materials in the Southern California Bight, with particular reference to C, N and certain radionuclides and trace metals. A second focus is to examine these same radionuclides and trace metals in other reservoirs besides the zooplankton (i.e., in seawater, sediment trap material and bottom sediments). Knowledge of the rates, routes and reservoirs of these nuclides and metals should lead to a cogent model for these elements in Santa Monica/San Pedro <span class="hlt">Basins</span>. Our zooplankton C and N data, in conjunction with primary production, microbiological and sediment flux data from colleagues in the program, should also lead ultimately to a model of C and N cycling in the <span class="hlt">basins</span>. 33 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HyPr...12.2003L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HyPr...12.2003L"><span id="translatedtitle">Deterioration of soil fertility by land use changes in South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia: from 1970 to 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lumbanraja, Jamalam; Syam, Tamaluddin; Nishide, Hiroyo; Kabul Mahi, Ali; Utomo, Muhajir; Sarno; Kimura, Makoto</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>We monitored the land use changes in a hilly area of <span class="hlt">West</span> Lampung, South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia, from 1970 to 1990. The main data sources were the land use maps produced in 1970, 1978, 1984 and 1990 covering the area of 27 km×27 km. Transmigration and the resultant effect of increased population were the major driving forces in land use changes. Fifty-seven per cent of the study area was covered with primary forests in 1970, but only 13% in 1990. Areas under plantations, which were absent in 1970, increased to 60% in 1990. In addition, the change from monoculture plantations (mostly coffee plantation) to mixed plantations was noticeable from 1984 to 1990. Total upland areas including upland areas under shifting cultivation and upland fields with crops and vegetables decreased from 21% in 1970 to 0·1% in 1990. Soil chemical properties (total organic C, total N, available P, total P, exchangeable cations, cation exchangeable capacity (CEC), etc.) were analysed for lands under different land use forms after deforestation in the study area. Soil samples (surface layers, 0-20 cm, and subsurface layers, 20-40 cm) were collected from three different locations, each comprised of four different land use systems: i.e. primary forests, secondary forests, coffee plantations and cultivated lands. The contents of total organic C, total N, available P, total P, exchangeable cations and CEC decreased significantly with land use change from primary forests to the other land use forms. Cultivated lands exhibited the lowest values. Although less remarkable than in the surface layers, the amounts of total organic C, total N, total P, exchangeable cations and CEC were also decreased by forest clearing in the subsurface layers.Based on the land use changes from 1978 in the study area and the deterioration of soil chemical properties by forest clearing, total decreases in the amounts of nutrients in the surface and subsurface layers were estimated. The land use changes were estimated to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA154719','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA154719"><span id="translatedtitle">National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. <span class="hlt">West</span> Lake Dam (MA 00288), Connecticut River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Sandisfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-12-01</p> <p>BRIEF ASSESSMENT 1 The <span class="hlt">West</span> Lake Dam, No. MA 288, is located on Morley Brook a tribu - tary to the Buck and Clam Rivers, in the Town of Sandisfield, Massa... DANI NEI A L . muSETTS RADLE,’ !LAR,PONDDRAININLET& STEEL SCHIEDULE MO]A I.(()SA i’i 65 SLi( AD-R154 719 NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERfL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20670355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20670355"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Indonesian populations of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Sulawesi and Moluccas Islands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Velickovic, M; Velickovic, Z; Panigoro, R; Dunckley, H</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activity of natural killer and T cells through interaction with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on target cells. Like HLA class I genes that are characterised by extreme allelic polymorphism, KIR genes are diverse and vary in both gene content and allelic polymorphism. Population studies conducted over the last several years have showed that KIR gene frequencies (GF) and genotype content vary among different ethnic groups, indicating the extent of KIR diversity. Some studies have also shown the effect of the presence or absence of specific KIR genes in human disease. We have recently reported the distribution of KIR genes in populations from Java (Central Javanese and the Sundanese of <span class="hlt">West</span> Java), East Timor (Timorese), Kalimantan provinces of Indonesian Borneo (Dayaks) and Irian Jaya (Western half of the island of New Guinea; Melanese). We here extend analysis of the KIR genes in populations from North Sulawesi (Minahasans), <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (Minangs) and Moluccas Islands. All 16 KIR genes were observed in all three populations. Variation in GF between populations was observed, except for the KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 genes, which were present in every individual tested. When comparing KIR GF between populations, both principal component analysis and phylogenetic tree analyses showed a close relationship between Minahasan and Moluccan populations that are clustered with Timorese in the same clade. The Minang tribe lies between the Javanese/Kalimantan and the Timorese/Minahasan/Moluccan clades, whereas Irianese show the greatest genetic distances from other Indonesian populations. The results correspond well with the history of migration in Indonesia and will contribute to the understanding of the genetic as well as the geographic history of the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNS41B1672D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNS41B1672D"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining Deep <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Structure of the Hueco and southern Mesilla Bolsons, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas, Southern New Mexico and Northern Chihuahua Using Nonseismic Geophysical Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doser, D. I.; Avila, V.; Budhathoki, P.; Marrufo, S.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.; Moncada, M.; Dena Ornelas, O.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Hueco and southern Mesilla bolsons are the primary groundwater source for much of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez metropolitan region of over 1 million residents. The bolsons lie at the point where the strike of the southern Rio Grande rift changes from north-south to northwest-southeast, likely due to its interaction with pre-existing Mesozoic and Paleozoic structures. Tectonic activity continues with recent (< 750,000 years) movement along <span class="hlt">basin</span> bounding and low level (M<4) seismicity. Over the past 4 years we have been using a conjunction of microgravity, magnetic, water well logs and electrical resistivity studies to image the complex structure of these <span class="hlt">basins</span> within a heavily urbanized environment. These studies suggest the presence of several northwest-southeast striking cross faults within the southern Mesilla Bolson as well as an extensive subsurface andesite body related to the Cristo Rey laccolith. Intrabasin faults in the Hueco Bolson appear to cut the <span class="hlt">basin</span> into at least 3 smaller subbasins and to control the boundary between fresh and saline water within the aquifer system beneath El Paso. We are also able to trace the East Franklins Mountain fault (last movement < 15,000 ya) at least 15 km south of the U.S.-Mexico border.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nb+AND+power&pg=5&id=EJ457025','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nb+AND+power&pg=5&id=EJ457025"><span id="translatedtitle">Primal Alternatives to Talk Therapy: The Batak "Tondi" of North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pedersen, Paul B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Notes that the Toba Batak of North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> provide internalized means of mediating mental health through religious-based notion of the tondi, or source of power, inside the person as the source of mental-physical health and illness. Discusses rituals necessary for maintaining health with rationale supporting those rituals. Describes applications…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507663"><span id="translatedtitle">The phylogeography of orangutan foamy viruses supports the theory of ancient repopulation of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verschoor, Ernst J; Langenhuijzen, Susan; Bontjer, Ilja; Fagrouch, Zahra; Niphuis, Henk; Warren, Kristin S; Eulenberger, K; Heeney, Jonathan L</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Phylogenetic analysis of foamy virus sequences obtained from Bornean and Sumatran orangutans showed a distinct clustering pattern. One subcluster was represented by both Bornean and Sumatran orangutan simian foamy viruses (SFV). Combined analysis of host mitochondrial DNA and SFV phylogeny provided evidence for the hypothesis of the repopulation of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> by orangutans from Borneo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T11D..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T11D..05H"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformations Associated With Large Interplate Earthquakes Along the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Subduction Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Katagi, T.; Hashizume, M.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Kato, T.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Since the occurrence of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake (Mw9.2), the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Subduction zone has attracted geophysicists' attention. We have been carrying on CGPS observation in Thailand and Myanmar to detect postseismic deformation following this gigantic event. Since CGPS on land is not enough to clarify the detailed image of postseismic deformation, we also make InSAR analyses in Andaman and Phuket Islands. On September 12, 2007, another Mw8.4 event occurred SW off <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. We report deformations observed with GPS and SAR including co- and postseismic deformation following this event. We have analyzed CGPS data up to the end of 2007 and detected postseismic displacements all over the Indochina peninsula. Phuket, which suffered from about 26cm coseismic displacement, has shifted by 26cm southwestward till July, 2007. Postseismic transient is clearly recognized and already exceeds coseismic movements at remote sites such as Bangkok and Chiang Mai in Thailand. We processed ALOS/PALSAR data in Andaman and Phuket islands. No remarkable deformation is found in Andaman and Phuket Islands, since the operation period of ALOS/PALSAR is not long enough and the wavelength of postseismic deformation may be much longer than the swath. We try to synthesize the postseismic displacement using a 3-D viscoelastic FEM model. Its results imply that viscoelastic relaxation in mantle with a typical mantle viscosity may play an important role for the observed postseismic transients except during the first six month. An extremely low viscosity is not required beneath the Andaman Sea, though this back arc is now actively opening. Coseismic motion following the 2007 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> event is detected north of Benkgulu on the coast of southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> with InSAR. The largest LOS displacement of about 35cm is observed 100km NW of Bengkulu. Coseismic westward displacements of 3.5cm from the 2007 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> event are also observed at Singapore, whose epicentral distance is about 700km, with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014557','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014557"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow subsurface temperature surveys in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and range province-II. Ground temperatures in the upsal hogback geothermal area, <span class="hlt">West</span>-Central Nevada, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Olmsted, F.H.; Ingebritsen, S.E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Numerous temperature surveys at a depth of 1 m were made in 1973-1985 in the Upsal Hogback and Soda Lakes geothermal areas in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Nevada. Whereas the surveys effectively delineated temperature at depth and heat flow within the relatively intense Soda Lakes thermal anomaly, they were not effective at the diffuse Upsal Hogback anomaly, where several perturbing factors that affect shallow subsurface temperatures are exceedingly variable. Albedo is the most important factor in the Upsal Hogback area, even at a depth of 30 m. All possible perturbing factors should be considered when designing a shallow temperature-based prospecting scheme. ?? 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/643513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/643513"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/781588','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/781588"><span id="translatedtitle">Supplementary information on K-<span class="hlt">Basin</span> sludges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MAKENAS, B.J.</p> <p>1999-03-15</p> <p>Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Floor and Pit Sludge, K East <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Canister Sludge, and K <span class="hlt">West</span> <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-29/pdf/2012-4771.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-29/pdf/2012-4771.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 12281 - Williston <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-29</p> <p>... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 15, 2012, Williston <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston <span class="hlt">Basin</span>), 1250 <span class="hlt">West</span> Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, pursuant to its blanket...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1329a/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1329a/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Water-power resources in upper Carson River <span class="hlt">basin</span>, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and <span class="hlt">west</span> forks, Carson River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pumphrey, Harold L.</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">West</span> Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/30494','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/30494"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics and properties of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>-fill aquifer determined from three test wells <span class="hlt">west</span> of Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wilkins, D.W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Three test wells were drilled <span class="hlt">west</span> of Albuquerque; two are on the mesa <span class="hlt">west</span> of the city, the third well is near the Rio Grande flood plain, <span class="hlt">west</span> of the river. Test well 1, was drilled to a depth of 1,204 ft. Transmissivity of perforated intervals in the alluvial zone (980-1121 ft) ranged from 3.1 to 3.9 ft sq/day, and horizontal hydraulic conductivity from .02 to .03 ft/day. Vertical hydraulic conductivity of the semiconfining layer between the alluvial and volcanic zones is estimated to range from .00031 to .0031 ft/day. Transmissivity of the volcanic zone (1139-1179 ft) is about 81 ft sq/day, and horizontal hydraulic conductivity is about 2.0 ft/day. Dissolved-iron and manganese concentrations exceed recommended constituent limits for a public water supply. Vertical flow is upward; the potentiometric surface in the volcanic zone is about 2 ft higher than in the alluvial zone. Water levels are about 883 ft below land surface. Test well 2 was drilled to a depth of 1,828 ft below land surface with seven intervals open to the aquifer. During development, fine sand and silt entered the casing, filling it to a depth of 1,500 ft. The dissolved-cadmium concentration exceeds the maximum contaminant level and the dissolved-manganese concentration exceeds the recommended constituent limit for a public water supply. The vertical flow gradient is downward; the potentiometric surface in the middle and lower zones is about 17 ft lower than in the upper zones. Depth to water in the upper zone is about 767 below land surface and in the lower two zones the depth to water is about 784 ft below land surface. Test well 3 was drilled to a depth of 1,050 ft. Only the interval from 490 to 590 ft below land surface could be used to calculate transmissivity which was about 1,300 ft sq/day; horizontal hydraulic conductivity is about 13 ft/day. Quality of water is acceptable for a public water supply. Vertical flow is downward; the potentiometric surface in the deepest interval is about 7</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..402....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..402....1S"><span id="translatedtitle">Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga <span class="hlt">basin</span> (Benin, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>SummaryDuring the last quarter of the 20th century, <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa underwent a particularly intense and generalized drought. During this period, the biggest drops in streamflow were observed in the Sudanian zone rather than in the Sahelian zone, but the reasons are still poorly understood. In 2000, a meso-scale hydrological observatory was set up in the sub-humid Sudanian zone of the Upper Ouémé Valley (Benin). Three embedded catchments of 12-586 km 2 located on a crystalline bedrock were intensively instrumented to document the different terms of the water budget and to identify the main streamflow generating processes and base-flow mechanisms at different scales. Geophysical, hydrological and geochemical data were collected throughout the catchments from 2002 to 2006. Crossing these data helped define their hydrological functioning. The region has seasonal streamflow, and the permanent groundwater in the weathered mantle does not drain to rivers, instead, seasonal perched groundwaters are the major contributor to annual streamflow. The perched groundwaters are mainly located in seasonally waterlogged sandy layers in the headwater bottom-lands called bas-fonds in French-speaking <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa of 1st order streams. During the period 2003-2006, regolith groundwater recharge ranged between 10% and 15% of the annual rainfall depth. Depletion of permanent groundwater during the dry season is probably explained by local evapotranspiration which was seen not to be limited to gallery forests. During the 4-year study period, a reduction of 20% in annual rainfall led to a 50% reduction in streamflow. This reduction was observed in the two components of the flow: direct runoff and drainage of perched groundwater. Thanks to the comprehensive dataset obtained, the results obtained for the Donga experimental catchment are now being extrapolated to the whole upper Ouémé valley, which can be considered as representative of sub-humid Sudanian rivers flowing on a crystalline</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3415.photos.359943p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3415.photos.359943p/"><span id="translatedtitle">View westsouthwest of marine railway at reserve <span class="hlt">basin</span> of Philadelphia ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>View <span class="hlt">west</span>-southwest of marine railway at reserve <span class="hlt">basin</span> of Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve <span class="hlt">Basin</span> & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/598542','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/598542"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles</p> <p>1997-05-29</p> <p>The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/598567','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/598567"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles</p> <p>1997-05-19</p> <p>The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/494203','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/494203"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneity of fluvial-deltaic reservoirs in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>: A case study from a Lower Mississippian oil field in central <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Matchen, D.L.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Since discovery in 1924, Granny Creek field in central <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia has experienced several periods of renewed drilling for oil in a fluvial-deltaic sandstone in the Lower Mississippian Price Formation. Depositional and diagenetic features leading to reservoir heterogeneity include highly variable grain size, thin shale and siltstone beds, and zones containing large quantities of calcite, siderite, or quartz cement. Electrofacies defined through cluster analysis of wireline log responses corresponded approximately to facies observed in core. Three-dimensional models of porosity computed from density logs showed that zones of relatively high porosity were discontinuous across the field. The regression of core permeability on core porosity is statistically significant, and differs for each electrofacies. Zones of high permeability estimated from porosity and electrofacies tend to be discontinuous and aligned roughly north-south. Cumulative oil production varies considerably between adjacent wells, and corresponds very poorly with trends in porosity and permeability. Original oil in place, estimated for each well from reservoir thickness, porosity, water saturation, and an assumed value for drainage radius, is highly variable in the southern part of the field, which is characterized by relatively complex interfingering of electrofacies and similar variability in porosity and permeability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6785850','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6785850"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and ichnology of the Late Pennsylvanian Glenshaw Formation (Lower Conemaugh Group), southern Dunkard <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Ohio-Kentucky-<span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martino, R.L. . Dept. of Geology)</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Facies analysis of outcrops of the Glenshaw Formation was carried out at 45 localities over a 761 sq. km area. The glenshaw Formation is 61--76 m thick in the study area. Four marine units (Lower Brush Creek, Upper Brush Creek, Cambridge , and Ames) occur which contain invertebrate body fossils and/or trace fossils including Teichichnus, Rhizocorallium, Aulichnites, Paleophycus, Lockeia, and Curvolithus. Alluvial channel-fills contain internal features that reflect deposition in high sinuosity suspended or mixed load rivers. Paleocurrent data (N = 77) are broadly dispersed with a mean azimuth of 335 degrees. Overbank facies have yielded trackways from giant arthropods and Eryopoid amphibians (Limnopus). There are fewer marine units in the glenshaw than toward the north and <span class="hlt">west</span> which has made direct detailed correlation of much of the formation problematic. The coal beds and marine units used previous stratigraphic studies may be extended through the recognition of non-coal-bearing paleosols and marine-influenced intervals distinguished by facies relations, and sedimentary and biogenic structures. Nine laterally persistent, paleosol-bounded packages occur which are comparable to allocyclic T-R units reported by Busch and Rollins (1984) from Pennsylvania and Ohio. Alternating episodes of soil formation and alluvial aggradation may reflect updip coastal plain responses to low stand incision of drainage lines and sediment bypassing followed by aggradation of alluvial systems in response to rising sea level. Climate changes may also have played a role in sediment flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_84767.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_84767.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratigraphic Framework of Cambrian and Ordovician Rocks in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> from Sequatchie County, Tennessee, through Eastern Kentucky, to Mingo County, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryder, Robert T.; Crangle, Robert D.; Repetski, John E.; Harris, Anita G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Cross section H-H' is the seventh in a series of restored cross sections constructed by the lead author to show the stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> from Pennsylvania to Tennessee. The sections show complexly intertongued carbonate and siliciclastic lithofacies, marked thickness variations, key marker horizons, unconformities, stratigraphic nomenclature of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence, and major faults that offset Proterozoic basement and overlying lower Paleozoic rocks. Several of the drill holes along the cross section have yielded a variety of whole and (or) fragmented conodont elements. The identifiable conodonts are used to differentiate strata of Late Cambrian, Early Ordovician, and Middle Ordovician age, and their conodont color alteration index (CAI) values are used to establish the thermal maturity of the sequence. Previous cross sections in this series are G-G', F-F', E-E', D-D', C-C', and B-B'. Many of these cross sections (B-B', C-C', D-D', and G-G') have been improved with the addition of gamma-ray log traces, converted to digital images, and made accessible on the Web.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425834"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, north <span class="hlt">west</span> shelf, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Romine, K.K.; Durrant, J.D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is one of Australia`s most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576191','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576191"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, north <span class="hlt">west</span> shelf, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Romine, K.K. ); Durrant, J.D. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The Carnarvon <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is one of Australia's most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43B1203G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43B1203G"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement and Comparative Assessment of a New Hydrological Modelling Approach for the Ouémé River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (Bénin), <span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>GABA, C. O. U.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Assessing water resources is still an important issue especially in the context of climatic changes. Although numerous hydrological models exist, new approaches are still under investigation. In this context, we propose a new modelling approach based on the Physics Principle of Least Action. A first version of a Least Action based model, in its deterministic version has already given very good results on simulating the Bétérou catchment in the Ouémé <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Benin. The paper presents new hypotheses to go further in the model development with a view of widening its application. The improved version of the model MODYPMA was applied on 22 subcatchments in Africa, in Bénin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia; in Europe, and in the USA. Its performance was compared to two well known lumped conceptual models, the GR4J and HBV models. The model could be successfully calibrated and validated; it shows a good performance for a range of scales but a limited applicability to catchments smaller than 500 km2 . The analysis revealed that the three models have similar performance and timing errors. The parameter uncertainty was analysed using the GLUE methodology. It is concluded that model uncertainty is higher during high flows and that uncertainty analysis should include the uncertainty of the discharge data. Finally, some aspects that further research must address are brought out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015018204951?urlappend=%3Bseq=3','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015018204951?urlappend=%3Bseq=3"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground water withdrawn for municipal, industrial, and irrigation use in the Upper Peace and Alafia River <span class="hlt">basins</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Florida, 1970-74</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Robertson, Alton F.; Mills, L.R.; Parsons, D.C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Data are presented for ground-water withdrawals for municipal, industrial and irrigation use in the upper Peace and Alafia River <span class="hlt">basins</span> during 1970-71. Within the 1,160-square-mile study area, the principal source of ground water is the Floridan aquifer. Methods used to determine ground-water withdrawal include: metering water use; relating measured well discharge to power consumption of pumping time; and relating water use to phosphate production, citrus irrigation or processing. About 90 percent of municipal pumpage is metered, and annual pumpage increased from 11,165 million gallons in 1970 to 13,455 in 1974. Water use per ton of phosphate produced is estimated to be 3,320 gallons per ton prior to 1971 and 2,460 gallons per ton from 1971 through 1974. Estimated ground-eater use by the phosphate industry has declined from 93.3 billion gallons in 1970 to 78.7 in 1974. Citrus irrigation pumpage is obtained by extrapolating pumpage obtained from pilot areas of unmeasured areas and has declined from 33.4 billion gallons in 1970 to 31.3 in 1974. The citrus processing industry used about 4.9 billion gallons in 1970 and about 5.9 in 1974. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GeoRL..26..815L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GeoRL..26..815L"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1997 fires in Kalimantan and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia: Gaseous and particulate emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p></p> <p>Extensive and widespread vegetation and peat fires swept throughout Kalimantan and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia, from August 1997 through March 1998. The fires resulted from routine burning for land clearing and land-use change. However, the severe drought conditions resulting from El Nino caused small land-clearing fires to become large uncontrolled wildfires. Analysis of SPOT images indicate that a total of 45,600 km² burned between August and December 1997. In this paper, the gaseous and particulate emissions resulting from the 1997 fires are estimated. On a daily basis, the calculated emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, and particulates from the Kalimantan and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fires of 1997 significantly exceeded the emissions from the Kuwait oil fires of 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.191.1109W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.191.1109W"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravitational gradient changes following the 2004 December 26 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Earthquake inferred from GRACE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Shum, C. K.; Jekeli, Christopher</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>It has been demonstrated that the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) spaceborne gravimetry data are capable of observing coseismic gravity changes resulting from great earthquakes, such as the 2004 December 26 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman event (Mw 9.1-9.3). Here, we show for the first time that refined deformation signals from the 2004 December 26 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Earthquake (Mw 9.1-9.3) together with the 2005 March 28 Nias earthquake (Mw 8.6) can be revealed by deriving the full gravitational gradient tensor from GRACE monthly gravitational field. The GRACE-inferred coseismic gravitational gradient changes agree well with coseismic slip model predictions. Since the high-frequency contents in gravitational field variation can be amplified by deriving the gravitational gradients, the GRACE-derived coseismic gravitational gradient changes clearly delineate the fault lines, locate significant slips, and better define the extent of the coseismic deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205.1682Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.205.1682Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Rupture and frequency-dependent seismic radiation of the 2012 Mw 8.6 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> strike-slip earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yin, Jiuxun; Yao, Huajian</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>On 2012 April 11, a great strike-slip earthquake (moment magnitude of Mw 8.6) occurred off the <span class="hlt">west</span> coast of northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> area followed by an Mw 8.2 aftershock 2 hr later. Different geophysical data and methods have been used to investigate the mechanism, faulting, seismic radiation and slip propagation of this event, but frequency-dependent features of its rupture process have not been discussed much. In this study, we use a compressive sensing method based on sparsity inversion in the frequency domain to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation and rupture process of this event. Our results indicate a very complex rupture process concerning at least three different rupture stages on multiple subfaults with nearly conjugate geometries. The main shock has triggered seismicity on a series of ridge-perpendicular or ridge-parallel conjugate strike-slip faults around the Nighty East Ridge. Obvious frequency-dependent rupture process has been presented and discussed. Combining results from slip inversion based on the finite-fault model, we observe that in the beginning stage of the rupture lower frequency radiation appears to originate from the areas with large slip, while the high-frequency radiation is located at the boundary of large-slip region or rupture front. Some radiation probably originates from the repeating slip on the main faults or triggered events on some nearby faults in the rupture area. The complex frequency-dependent seismic radiation patterns observed in this study provide important information for future investigation of rupture physics of this complex strike-slip event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1658c0014L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1658c0014L"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region using double difference tomographic method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA's) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region for time periods of April 2009 - April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624348"><span id="translatedtitle">Ischnura foylei sp. nov. (Odonata, Coenagrionidae) from the highlands of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kosterin, Oleg E</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Ischnura foylei sp. nov. is described from Indonesia, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Jambi Province, Danau Gunung Tujuh (or Danau Sakti), a lake situated in an extinct volcanic crater, 1°41'15"S, 101°25'28"S, 1995 m a.s.l. Structurally it is close to I. senegalensis but larger and with differently shaped cerci in males and a more trilobate posterior lobe of the prothorax; males and androchromatic females have a unique colour pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391575"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region using double difference tomographic method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian</p> <p>2015-04-24</p> <p>Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031257','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031257"><span id="translatedtitle">Coseismic and post-seismic signatures of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> 2004 December and 2005 March earthquakes in GRACE satellite gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Panet, I.; Mikhailov, V.; Diament, M.; Pollitz, F.; King, G.; de Viron, O.; Holschneider, M.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The GRACE satellite mission has been measuring the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations since 2002 April. Although these variations are mainly due to mass transfer within the geofluid envelops, they also result from mass displacements associated with phenomena including glacial isostatic adjustment and earthquakes. However, these last contributions are difficult to isolate because of the presence of noise and of geofluid signals, and because of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution (>400 km half-wavelength). In this paper, we show that a wavelet analysis on the sphere helps to retrieve earthquake signatures from GRACE geoid products. Using a wavelet analysis of GRACE geoids products, we show that the geoid variations caused by the 2004 December (Mw = 9.2) and 2005 March (Mw = 8.7) <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquakes can be detected. At GRACE resolution, the 2004 December earthquake produced a strong coseismic decrease of the gravity field in the Andaman Sea, followed by relaxation in the area affected by both the Andaman 2004 and the Nias 2005 earthquakes. We find two characteristic timescales for the relaxation, with a fast variation occurring in the vicinity of the Central Andaman ridge. We discuss our coseismic observations in terms of density changes of crustal and upper-mantle rocks, and of the vertical displacements in the Andaman Sea. We interpret the post-seismic signal in terms of the viscoelastic response of the Earth's mantle. The transient component of the relaxation may indicate the presence of hot, viscous material beneath the active Central Andaman <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5171/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5171/"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamflow and water-quality properties in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and regression models to estimate real-time suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids concentrations and loads in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River in the vicinity of Conroe, Texas, July 2008-August 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bodkin, Lee J.; Oden, Jeannette H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>To better understand the hydrology (streamflow and water quality) of the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> downstream from Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas, including spatial and temporal variation in suspended-sediment (SS) and total suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, measured streamflow and collected continuous and discrete water-quality data during July 2008-August 2009 in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> downstream from Lake Conroe. During July 2008-August 2009, discrete samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made over the range of flow conditions at two streamflow-gaging stations on the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River: <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River below Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas (station 08067650) and <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River near Conroe, Texas (station 08068000). In addition to samples collected at these two main monitoring sites, discrete sediment samples were also collected at five additional monitoring sites to help characterize water quality in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Fork San Jacinto River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Discrete samples were collected semimonthly, regardless of flow conditions, and during periods of high flow resulting from storms or releases from Lake Conroe. Because the period of data collection was relatively short (14 months) and low flow was prevalent during much of the study, relatively few samples collected were representative of the middle and upper ranges of historical daily mean streamflows. The largest streamflows tended to occur in response to large rainfall events and generally were associated with the largest SS and TSS concentrations. The maximum SS and TSS concentrations at station 08067650 (180 and 133 milligrams per liter [mg/L], respectively) were on April 19, 2009, when the instantaneous streamflow was the third largest associated with a discrete sample at the station. SS concentrations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SedG..347...10K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SedG..347...10K"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic signature of river sediments drained into the southern and eastern part of the South China Sea (Malay Peninsula, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Magnetic properties of 22 river samples collected in the Malay Peninsula, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan have been investigated in order to magnetically characterize the sediments drained and deposited into the South China Sea. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one region to another. Laboratory analyses include low-field magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic (ARM) and isothermal (IRM) remanent magnetizations acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis cycles and low-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic properties indicate that the sediments are a mixture of hematite, magnetite and pyrrhotite in different proportions depending on the region. Combined with results previously reported for the three main Asian rivers (Pearl, Red and Mekong rivers), the new data indicate that, in general, hematite-rich sediments are delivered to the southern <span class="hlt">basin</span> of the South China Sea while the northern <span class="hlt">basin</span> is fed with magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich sediments. In addition to this general picture, some variability is observed at smaller geographic scales. Indeed, the magnetic assemblages are closely related to the geology of the various catchments while clay minerals, previously reported for the same samples, are more representative of the climatic conditions under which the parent rocks have evolved within each catchment. The magnetic fraction, now well characterized in the main river sediments drained into the South China Sea, can be used as a tracer for changes in precipitation on land and in oceanic water mass transport and exchange.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3666R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3666R"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary profile from oxbow lake as an archive for past productivity and vegetation changes: a case study from Ganges <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakshit, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Sambit; Sanyal, Prasanta; Ambili, Anoop</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Isotope (δ13CSOM) and biomarker (lipid n-alkane) investigations has been carried out on three sedimentary profiles (ca. 1.8 m depth) collected from Mohanpur, <span class="hlt">West</span> Bengal, India with the aim of reconstructing paleovegetational and paleoproductivity changes. Satellite images reveal that the investigated sediments has been deposited in an oxbow lake setting of the river Ganges. The correlation of the three sedimentary profiles has been achieved using lithological and isotopic (δ13CSOM) marker layers. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the profile ranges from 0.9% to 0.1%. The isotopic analysis (δ13CSOM) shows values mostly fluctuating between -19.2o to -22o with a rapid excursions (~5) showing enriched δ13CSOMvalue (-14.2) observed at ca. 1.5 m depth. The biomarker studies of the profile reveals dominant preferences in short carbon chain (C14, C16, C18, C20) with a little preferences for higher chain (C29, C31, C33). Interestingly, n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth shows very high concentration in short chain n-alkanes. Since the lower chain n-alkane represents aquatic vegetation/productivity and higher chain indicates the terrestrial contribution, the data from the investigated sedimentary profile shows contribution mostly from aquatic vegetation with a little contribution from terrestrial plants. This inference has been further corroborated by δ13CSOMvalues (-19.2o to -22) of the sedimentary profile typical of mixed aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. Additionally, the enriched δ13CSOMvalue (-14.2) coupled with very high concentration of short chain n-alkanes at 1.5 m depth reveals intense lake eutrophication. The development of rigorous chronology and high resolution data set of additional analytical parameters (e.g., C/N, δ15N) will provide crucial paleoclimate data set from this unexplored setting of Indian summer monsoon domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16511486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16511486"><span id="translatedtitle">Plate-boundary deformation associated with the great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Subarya, Cecep; Chlieh, Mohamed; Prawirodirdjo, Linette; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Bock, Yehuda; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron J; Natawidjaja, Danny H; McCaffrey, Robert</p> <p>2006-03-02</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is the first giant earthquake (moment magnitude M(w) > 9.0) to have occurred since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology. It therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these enormous and rare events. Here we report estimates of the ground displacement associated with this event, using near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> combined with in situ and remote observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs. These data show that the earthquake was generated by rupture of the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of >1,500 kilometres and a width of <150 kilometres. Megathrust slip exceeded 20 metres offshore northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, mostly at depths shallower than 30 kilometres. Comparison of the geodetically and seismically inferred slip distribution indicates that approximately 30 per cent additional fault slip accrued in the 1.5 months following the 500-second-long seismic rupture. Both seismic and aseismic slip before our re-occupation of GPS sites occurred on the shallow portion of the megathrust, where the large Aceh tsunami originated. Slip tapers off abruptly along strike beneath Simeulue Island at the southeastern edge of the rupture, where the earthquake nucleated and where an M(w) = 7.2 earthquake occurred in late 2002. This edge also abuts the northern limit of slip in the 28 March 2005 M(w) = 8.7 Nias-Simeulue earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.431..308W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.431..308W"><span id="translatedtitle">Viscoelastic relaxation in a heterogeneous Earth following the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiseman, Kelly; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Banerjee, Paramesh</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Consideration of the three-dimensional heterogeneity of mantle rheology allows models of viscoelastic relaxation following the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake to simultaneously fit both the observed far-field and near-field postseismic deformation. We use horizontal and vertical campaign and continuous GPS observations from the Andaman, Nicobar, and Sumatran forearc islands, mainland <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, the Indian Ocean, and southern India, spanning the first five years of postseismic deformation. The postseismic relaxation models consider contributions from the 2004 Mw 9.2 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman, the 2005 Mw 8.7 Nias, and 2007 Mw 8.4 Bengkulu earthquakes. Far-field motions to the east of the ruptures are equally well fit by homogeneous or laterally variable earth models. However, only models with contrasting rheology across the subducting slab, a ten-times higher mantle viscosity under the Indian Ocean lithosphere than the backarc mantle, can also produce the observed enduring postseismic uplift along the forearc and lack of far-field transient displacements in southern India. While postseismic uplift of forearc stations can also be produced by rapid and enduring down-dip afterslip, the inferred rheology structure is consistent with the distribution of mantle temperature inferred from seismic tomography.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23D0339F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23D0339F"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal Convection Peaks over the Eastern Indian Ocean over <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> during Different MJO Phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujita, M.; Nasuno, T.; Yoneyama, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The diurnal convection peak characteristics over the eastern Indian Ocean over the island of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> during different phases of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) were investigated. During MJO phases 2 to 3 (P2 and P3) defined by Wheeler and Hendon (2004), prominent diurnal variation in convection was observed by satellites when moderate low-level westerly winds were dominant over the eastern Indian Ocean. The diurnal convection peaks were prominent over the island of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> in the evening, while migrations of the convection toward the Indian Ocean were observed in the early morning. By using the Global Positioning System around the western region offshore of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, a significant reduction in water vapor was observed from evening until midnight, compensating for the upward motion over the island. During midnight to early morning, the water vapor increased in the western offshore region as the convections migrated from the island. During P2 to P3, the atmosphere over the eastern Indian Ocean contains abundant water vapor, while the Maritime Continent is fairly well heated by solar radiation under calm conditions. This situation should be favorable for the development of two diurnal convection peaks: the evening convection over the land induced by solar radiative heating and the midnight convection over the ocean triggered by convergence of the low-level westerly wind and the land breeze.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873030"><span id="translatedtitle">Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarthy, John</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9250F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9250F"><span id="translatedtitle">Agricultural crop mapping and classification by Landsat images to evaluate water use in the Lake Urmia <span class="hlt">basin</span>, North-<span class="hlt">west</span> Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fazel, Nasim; Norouzi, Hamid; Madani, Kaveh; Kløve, Bjørn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Lake Urmia, once one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world has lost more than 90% of its surface body mainly due to the intensive expansion of agriculture, using more than 90% of all water in the region. Access to accurate and up-to-date information on the extent and distribution of individual crop types, associated with land use changes and practices, has significant value in intensively agricultural regions. Explicit information of croplands can be useful for sustainable water resources, land and agriculture planning and management. Remote sensing, has been proven to be a more cost-effective alternative to the traditional statistically-based ground surveys for crop coverage areas that are costly and provide insufficient information. Satellite images along with ground surveys can provide the necessary information of spatial coverage and spectral responses of croplands for sustainable agricultural management. This study strives to differentiate different crop types and agricultural practices to achieve a higher detailed crop map of the Lake Urmia <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The mapping approach consists of a two-stage supervised classification of multi-temporal multi-spectral high resolution images obtained from Landsat imagery archive. Irrigated and non-irrigated croplands and orchards were separated from other major land covers (urban, ranges, bare-lands, and water) in the region by means of maximum Likelihood supervised classification method. The field data collected during 2015 and land use maps generated in 2007 and Google Earth comparisons were used to form a training data set to perform the supervised classification. In the second stage, non-agricultural lands were masked and the supervised classification was applied on the Landsat images stack to identify seven major croplands in the region (wheat and barley, beetroot, corn, sunflower, alfalfa, vineyards, and apple orchards). The obtained results can be of significant value to the Urmia Lake restoration efforts which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016113','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016113"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleontological analysis of a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit at the Anderson mine, Date Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span>, <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Arizona (U.S.A.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Otton, J.K.; Bradbury, J.P.; Forester, R.M.; Hanley, J.H.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Date Creek <span class="hlt">basin</span> area of Arizona is composed principally of intertonguing alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits. The lacustrine rocks contain large intermediate- to, locally, high-grade uranium deposits that form one of the largest uranium resources in the United States (an estimated 670,000 tons of U3O8 at an average grade of 0.023% is indicated by drilling to date). At the Anderson mine, about 50,000 tons of U3O8 occurs in lacustrine carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones (using a cutoff grade of 0.01%). The Anderson mine constitutes a new class of ore deposit, a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit. Floral and faunal remains at the Anderson mine played a critical role in creating and documenting conditions necessary for uranium mineralization. Organic-rich, uraniferous rocks at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and ostracodes having remarkably detailed preservation of internal features because of infilling by opaline silica. This preservation suggests that the alkaline lake waters in the mine area contained high concentrations of dissolved silica and that silicification occurred rapidly, before compaction or cementation of the enclosing sediment. Uranium coprecipitated with the silica. Thinly laminated, dark-colored, siliceous beds contain centric diatoms preserved with carbonaceous material suggesting that lake waters at the mine were locally deep and anoxic. These alkaline, silica-charged waters and a stagnant, anoxic environment in parts of the lake were necessary conditions for the precipitation of large amounts of uranium in the lake-bottom sediments. Sediments at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and pollen that were derived from diverse vegetative zones suggesting about 1500 m of relief in the area at the time of deposition. The pollen suggests that the valley floor was semiarid and subtropical, whereas nearby mountains supported temperate deciduous forests. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5749053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5749053"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yilmaz, P.O. )</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) <span class="hlt">basins</span> and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional <span class="hlt">basins</span> formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> are the onshore <span class="hlt">basins</span>: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride <span class="hlt">basins</span> have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic <span class="hlt">basin</span>, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the <span class="hlt">west</span> has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the <span class="hlt">west</span> Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian <span class="hlt">basins</span> are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The <span class="hlt">basins</span> formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> are the onshore Thrace and Adana <span class="hlt">basins</span>, and all offshore regional <span class="hlt">basins</span> formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore <span class="hlt">basins</span> evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> and Mesozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The Thrace <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the northwest and Adana <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace <span class="hlt">basin</span> structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.U53B..01O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.U53B..01O"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric processes in reaction of Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake sequence Dec 2004-Apr 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Cervone, G.; Singh, R.; Taylor, P.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>This work describes our first results in analyzing data from different and independent sources ûemitted long-wavelength radiation (OLR), surface latent heat flux (SHLF) and GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) collected from ground based (GPS) and satellite TIR (thermal infra-red) data sources (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS). We found atmosphere and ionosphere anomalies one week prior to both the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands earthquake (Dec 26, 2004) and M 8.7 - Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, March 28, 2005. We analyzed 118 days of data from December 1, 2004 through April 1, 2005 for the area (0°-10°,north latitude and 90°-100° east longitude) which included 125 earthquakes with M>5.5. Recent analysis of the continuous OLR from the Earth surface indicates anomalous variations (on top of the atmosphere) prior to a number of medium to large earthquakes. In the case of M 9.0 - <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands event, compared to the reference fields for the months of December between 2001 and 2004, we found strongly OLR anomalous +80 W/m2 signals (two sigma) along the epicentral area on Dec 21, 2004 five days before the event. In the case of M8.7 March 28, 2005 anomalues signatures over the epicenter appears on March 26 is much weaker (only +20W/m2) and have a different topology. Anomalous values of SHLF associated with M9.0 - <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands were found on Dec 22, 2005 (SLHF +280Wm2) and less intensity on Mar 23, 2005 (SLHF +180Wm2). Ionospheric variations (GPS/TEC) associated with the Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> events were determine by five Regional GPS network stations (COCO, BAKO, NTUS, HYDE and BAST2). For every station time series of the vertical TEC (VTEC) were computed together with correlation with the Dst index. On December 22, four days prior to the M9.0 quake GPS/TEC data reach the monthly maximum for COCO with minor DST activity. For the M 8.7-March 28 event, the increased values of GPS/TEC were observed during four days (March 22-25) in quiet geomagnetic background. Our results need additional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11D2123G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11D2123G"><span id="translatedtitle">Subducting fracture zones control earthquake distribution and upper plate properties: examples from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kamchatka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaedicke, C.; Freitag, R.; Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Ladage, S.; Schnabel, M.; Tsukanov, N.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>With newly acquired marine geophysical data from the oceanic crust off <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kamchatka (SO186 and SO201) we investigate the influence of the relief of the downgoing plate on seismicity and fore arc structure, architecture and properties along two different active margins, namely the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the Kamchatka subduction zones. Off northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> two mega-thrust events occurred on 26.12.2004 (Mw=9.1-9.3) and on 28.03.2005 (Mw=8.6). Seismological investigations, GPS measurements and in-situ and remote observation of vertical motion on fore arc islands show both, an abrupt southern termination of the large 12/2004 rupture and a sharp northern termination of the rupture zone of the 03/2005 mega-thrust. Wide-angle/refraction seismic and MCS data show an abrupt arc parallel depth change of 3 km within 40 km in the oceanic crust beneath the fore arc SW of Simeulue Island. We interpret the abrupt depth change originates from a ramp or tear in the subducted oceanic crust. The discontinuity in the oceanic crust likely trends NNE and is located east of a continuation of an extinct FZ on the subducting Indo-Australian plate. This indicates a pervasive lower plate control on margin structure, particularly its segmentation. The tear might be the reason for rupture propagation termination of the great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquakes. During RV Sonne cruise SO201 we collected geophysical profiles in the NW Pacific off Kamchatka and the Aleutian arc crossing the Emperor Seamount Chain and the Krusenstern FZ. The Krusenstern FZ is being subducted at the Kamchatka margin. It comprises a maximum vertical offset of about 1080 m. From our data we suggest that the Krusenstern FZ is reactivated in the vicinity of the Kamchatka margin due to the load of the subducting/colliding Meiji Guyot. It enters the subduction zone right off Kronotsky Peninsula, where a major segment boundary separates domains of different properties of the fore arc: It differs in terms of exhumation, uplift and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5342399','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5342399"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaternary faults of <span class="hlt">west</span> Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>North- and northwest-striking intermontane <span class="hlt">basins</span> and associated normal faults in <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the <span class="hlt">basin</span> margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt <span class="hlt">Basins</span>/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH52A..01W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH52A..01W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">West</span> Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The tragedies of 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/513494','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/513494"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jennings, J.W. Jr.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Platform in <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B21D..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B21D..06L"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved Organic Carbon Distribution in Two Hydrothermal Systems - <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata, NE Lau <span class="hlt">Basin</span> during an eruption event and basement fluids from sediment-buried Juan de Fuca Ridge flanks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, H.; Cowen, J. P.; Butterfield, D. A.; Embley, R. W.; Resing, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal systems have profound influence in regulating seawater chemistry. However, the extent hydrothermal systems have impact on deep ocean DOC remains unclear. This study will provide data on dissolved organic carbon distribution in two very different hydrothermal systems. The first is hydrothermal fluids produced from a near-arc volcano in Northeast Lau <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Samples were collected with the Butterfield fluid sampler during an eruption event at <span class="hlt">West</span> Mata during May 2009. The eruption event allowed collection of fluids from both new and established vents, high temperature focused and low temperature diffused vents. This unique opportunity should shed light on DOC changes in nascent hydrothermal systems in accordance with early microbiological community succession. The second hydrothermal environment is a 3.5 Myr-sediment-covered basement aquifer located on the east flank of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Basement Fluids were collected from basement ~280 mbsf (~20 m below sediment-basement interface) using 0.25” stainless steal fluid delivery lines of the Circulation Obviating Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories at Ocean Drilling program borehole 1301A; samples were drawn up the FDL by a new clean pumping system (Mobile Pump Valve Unit or MPVU) and collected in an acid-cleaned 60-L Large Volume Bag Sampler (LVBS). Due to the effective hydraulic barrier of the 260 m thick of sediment over-lying the basement at this site, the basement fluid here does not readily exchange with bottom seawater. In contrast to vent fluid in Lau vent field, the basement fluid has been circulating in the basement, on average, several thousand years. DOC data will be presented from these hydrothermal fluids and discussed with respect to the DOC cycle in the deep ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6327476','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6327476"><span id="translatedtitle">South American sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Urien, C.M.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>More than 64 sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic <span class="hlt">basins</span> occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen <span class="hlt">basins</span> are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart <span class="hlt">basins</span>) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 <span class="hlt">basins</span> of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc <span class="hlt">basins</span>, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the <span class="hlt">west</span> (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc <span class="hlt">basins</span>, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20790829','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20790829"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of undiscovered carboniferous coal-bed gas resources of the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Black Warrior <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Provinces, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Milici, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.</p> <p>2004-09-15</p> <p>Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>, which extends almost continuously from New York to Alabama. In general, the <span class="hlt">basin</span> includes three structural subbasins: the Dunkard <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia; the Pocahontas <span class="hlt">basin</span> in southern <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Alabama and Mississippi. For assessment purposes, the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> was divided into two assessment provinces: the Appalachian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province from New York to Alabama, and the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province in Alabama and Mississippi. By far, most of the coalbed methane produced in the entire Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> has come from the Black Warrior <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032768','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032768"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity associated with the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dewey, J.W.; Choy, G.; Presgrave, B.; Sipkin, S.; Tarr, A.C.; Benz, H.; Earle, P.; Wald, D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/ NEIC) had computed origins for 5000 earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands region in the first 36 weeks after the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands mainshock of 26 December 2004. The cataloging of earthquakes of mb (USGS) 5.1 and larger is essentially complete for the time period except for the first half-day following the 26 December mainshock, a period of about two hours following the Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, and occasionally during the Andaman Sea swarm of 26-30 January 2005. Moderate and larger (mb ???5.5) aftershocks are absent from most of the deep interplate thrust faults of the segments of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands subduction zone on which the 26 December mainshock occurred, which probably reflects nearly complete release of elastic strain on the seismogenic interplate-thrust during the mainshock. An exceptional thrust-fault source offshore of Banda Aceh may represent a segment of the interplate thrust that was bypassed during the mainshock. The 26 December mainshock triggered a high level of aftershock activity near the axis of the Sunda trench and the leading edge of the overthrust Burma plate. Much near-trench activity is intraplate activity within the subducting plate, but some shallow-focus, near-trench, reverse-fault earthquakes may represent an unusual seismogenic release of interplate compressional stress near the tip of the overriding plate. The interplate-thrust Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, in contrast to the 26 December aftershock sequence, was followed by many interplate-thrust aftershocks along the length of its inferred rupture zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S41D..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S41D..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Widespread Triggered Tremor In Japan Following the 2012 Mw8.6 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chao, K.; Obara, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Deep "non-volcanic" tremor has been observed at many major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. Recent studies have shown that the tremor triggered by the surface waves of teleseismic earthquake occurs on the same fault patches as the ambient tremor (i.e., those occurring spontaneously). The observations suggest that the triggered tremor can be used as a proxy to estimate the background tremor activity. Triggered and ambient tremors have been well studied along the Nankai subduction zone in southwest Japan. Recently, new identified triggered tremor sources were found in Hokkaido in northernmost Japan (Obara, 2012, submitted manuscript), suggesting, contrary to previous beliefs, that tremor can be observed in various tectonic environments. Here, we systematically search for triggered tremor on the main islands of Japan (i.e., Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Hokkaido) following the 2012/04/11 Mw 8.6 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake. We examined a total of about 1300 seismic stations from the Hi-net operated by NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention) and other arrays operated by universities and other organizations. We first identified triggered tremor as a high-frequency, non-impulsive signal in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves and then located the triggered tremor sources using a standard envelope cross-correlation technique. We also compared the tremor triggering potential with Love and Rayleigh waves by shifting the seismograms of tremor and surface waves back to the best tremor source. We observed clear triggered tremor following the 2012 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> mainshock in Shikoku, Kii, and Tokai, where ambient tremors are very active and triggered tremors have been identified previously. Moreover, we successfully detected new triggered tremor sources in Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Kanto. In central Hokkaido, tremor triggered by the 2012 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake was located at the same place where tremor was triggered by the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17208825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17208825"><span id="translatedtitle">Dangers, delights, and destiny on the sea: fishers along the East coast of north <span class="hlt">sumatra</span>, indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Markkanen, Pia</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a collaborative project between the International Labour Organization's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) and the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, in identifying work hazards of fishers along the east coast of North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia, in July 2004. The study employed qualitative investigation techniques: participant observations at fishing villages and harbors; and interviews with local fishers and skippers. Fishers work long hours in life-threatening conditions, often with low pay. It would be synergistic to incorporate fishing safety and health policies and advocacy efforts into reconstruction undertakings of fisheries devastated by the 2004 tsunami.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12321332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12321332"><span id="translatedtitle">Remittances and circulation behavior in the livelihood process: transmigrant families in South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leinbach, T R; Watkins, J F</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The impact of migrant remittances in Indonesia is examined using data gathered in interviews undertaken in 21 households and with village leaders participating in the transmigration program in Cinta Karya, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia. "Our findings illustrate that remittance behavior is spatially controlled and temporally variable, as families balance their labor and capital resources among farm production, local industry and investments, and the often unpredictable nature of circulation employment and remittances. We emphasize the linked and recursive nature of elements in the livelihood process and the related importance of temporal family dynamics in decision-making strategies."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6630T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6630T"><span id="translatedtitle">A 15 year slow-slip event on the Sunda megathrust offshore <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsang, Louisa L. H.; Meltzner, Aron J.; Philibosian, Belle; Hill, Emma M.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Sieh, Kerry</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In the Banyak Islands of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, coral microatoll records reveal a 15 year-long reversal of interseismic vertical displacement from subsidence to uplift between 1966 and 1981. To explain these coral observations, we test four hypotheses, including regional sea level changes and various tectonic mechanisms. Our results show that the coral observations likely reflect a 15 year-long slow-slip event (SSE) on the Sunda megathrust. This long-duration SSE exceeds the duration of previously reported SSEs and demonstrates the importance of multidecade geodetic records in illuminating the full spectrum of megathrust slip behavior at subduction zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2995/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2995/"><span id="translatedtitle">Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Upper White Clay Creek and Lower <span class="hlt">West</span> Branch Brandywine Creek <span class="hlt">Basins</span> including Portions of Penn, London Grove, New Garden, Londonderry, <span class="hlt">West</span> Marlborough, Highland, and East Fallowfield Townships and <span class="hlt">West</span> Grove, Avondale, Modena, and South Coatesville boroughs, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May through July 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hale, Lindsay B.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION Since 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been mapping the altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Chester County as part of an ongoing cooperative program to measure and describe the water resources of the county. These maps can be used to determine the general direction of ground-water flow and are frequently referenced by municipalities and developers to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource-protection requirements. For this study, the potentiometric surface was mapped for an area in south-central Chester County. The northern part of the map includes portions of Highland, East Fallowfield, Londonderry, and <span class="hlt">West</span> Marlborough Townships and South Coatesville and Modena Boroughs. The southern part of the map includes portions of Londonderry, <span class="hlt">West</span> Marlborough, Penn, London Grove, and New Garden Townships and <span class="hlt">West</span> Grove and Avondale Boroughs. The study area is mostly underlain by metamorphic rocks of the Glenarm Supergroup including Peters Creek Schist, Octoraro Phyllite, Wissahickon Schist, Cockeysville Mrable, and Setters Quartzite; and by pegmatite, mafic gneiss, felsic gneiss, and diabase. Ground water is obtained from these bedrock formations by wells that intercept fractures. The altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface was contoured from water levels measured on different dates in available wells during May through July 2006 and from the altitude of springs and perennial streams. Topography was used as a guide for contouring so that the altitude of the potentiometric surface was inferred nowhere to be higher than the land surface. The potentiometric surface shown on this map is an approximation of the water table. The altitude of the actual potentiometric surface may differ from the water table, especially in areas where wells are completed in a semi-confined zone or have long open intervals that reflect the composite hydraulic head of multiple water-yielding fractures. A composite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27394277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27394277"><span id="translatedtitle">Parathelphusa pardus, a new species of lowland freshwater crab from swamps in central <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ng, Peter K L; Riady, Rikhi; Windarti, Windarti</p> <p>2016-02-29</p> <p>A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is described from freshwater swamp habitats in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, in central-eastern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia. Parathelphusa pardus sp. nov., has a very distinctive colour pattern, and in this respect, resembles P. maindroni (Rathbun, 1902) from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Peninsular Malaysia; P. batamensis Ng, 1992, from Batam Island, Indonesia; P. reticulata Ng, 1990, from Singapore; and P. oxygona Nobili, 1901, from western Sarawak. It can be distinguished from these species and congeners by a suite of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal and most importantly, male first gonopod characters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nd0028.photos.103246p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nd0028.photos.103246p/"><span id="translatedtitle">2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE <span class="hlt">WEST</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. VIEW OF POND B, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE <span class="hlt">WEST</span> SIDE OF THE SOURIS RIVER VALLEY, DUE SOUTH OF THE LOOKOUT TOWER - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1724.photos.010861p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1724.photos.010861p/"><span id="translatedtitle">6. GENERAL WIDE VIEW SHOWING EAST (SOUTHEAST) SIDE, LOOKING <span class="hlt">WEST</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. GENERAL WIDE VIEW SHOWING EAST (SOUTHEAST) SIDE, LOOKING <span class="hlt">WEST</span> ACROSS TURNING <span class="hlt">BASIN</span>; FREIGHTER LOADING IN FOREGROUND - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=romance+AND+genre&pg=4&id=ED058712','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=romance+AND+genre&pg=4&id=ED058712"><span id="translatedtitle">Horizons <span class="hlt">West</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kitses, Jim</p> <p></p> <p>The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the <span class="hlt">West</span> as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/798140','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/798140"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K <span class="hlt">Basins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NELSON, J.V.</p> <p>1999-10-27</p> <p>This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K <span class="hlt">Basins</span> are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The K <span class="hlt">Basins</span> (K East and K <span class="hlt">West</span>) are located in the Hanford 100K Area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050243606','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050243606"><span id="translatedtitle">ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the <span class="hlt">west</span> side of Sentinel Island. Cloud</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2024S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2024S"><span id="translatedtitle">Challenges in developing e-government for good governance in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siahaan, AY</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>E-government as one form of public administration reform in Indonesia is increasingly related to the pursuance of good governance. This paper examines the relationship between of e-government and good governance by utilizing the case study design on the implementation of e-procurement in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. It reveals centrality of local politics and business culture in understanding resistances of both local government officials and local business which creates loopholes’ for the practice of ‘bad governance’ in all phases of e-procurement in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> province. Data transparency does not equate and guarantee the realization of good governance. Public knowledge and understanding on government decision making processes and accountability (process and policy transparency) are central to achieve good governance through e-procurement. E-procurement system does not automatically change organizational and working culture of the implementers and suppliers. This paper provides insight to the attitude and the perception of private sector engage in e-procurement towards government in implementing e-government. Resistance, digital divide and local politics interrelatedly obstruct the realization of pursuing good governance through e-procurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...54a2058A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...54a2058A"><span id="translatedtitle">Typology of land and forest fire in South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia Based on Assessment of MODIS Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ardiansyah, M.; Boer, R.; Situmorang, A. P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In 2015, Sumatera and Kalimantan, in particular, has undergone dramatic fires. The fires were particularly bad in 2015 because of a prolonged dry season caused by the El Nino weather pattern and creating a lot of greenhouse gas emissions. Between about July and December, more than a million hectares of forest were burned. South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> is one of the provinces with the highest of hotspots number and of fire area on this period. The aim of the study was to find burned area that caused by fire activity in 2015 and to identify a typology of land and forest fire the South Sumatera. In our study showed that between July and December 2015 the estimated burned area during El Nino in South <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> was 422,718 ha, of which 163,143 ha in mineral soil and 260,575 ha in peat soil. The majority of burned area occurred outside concession and inside concession with following typology: the fire activity in the HTI on non-forested land (26%), in the HTI on forested land (24%), in oil palm on non-forested land (17%), and in oil palm on forested land (2%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11080370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11080370"><span id="translatedtitle">mtDNA sequence diversity of orangutans from the islands of Borneo and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muir, C C; Galdikas, B M; Beckenbach, A T</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>A comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences was undertaken for two genes among orangutans from Borneo and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. The distribution of haplotypes among 42 individuals for NADH dehydrogenease subunit 3 and 39 individuals for cytochrome B was used to infer population structure. The haplotypes among all Bornean orangutans form a cluster of closely related individuals for both genes, with two distinct haplotypes occupying different regions of the island. Sumatran haplotypes fall into three distinct, and highly diverged, groups. Strikingly, one of the Sumatran haplotypes shares sequence identity with the most widespread Bornean haplotype. This haplotype distribution is considered in the context of the highly complex geological history for the area around the Malay Archipelago. Alternating periods of geographic isolation and reunion, resulting from glacially induced land bridge formation, presented substantial opportunity for population dispersal between periodically isolated demes. We present a paleodispersal model that is consistent with genetic, geological, paleoecological, and fossil data. The disparity of sequences present in orangutan populations argues against a simple <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Borneo dichotomy. Our evidence, and that of others, suggests that the Sumatran population alone contains the remnants of at least three separate lineages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPA23A1444S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPA23A1444S"><span id="translatedtitle">Mittigating the effects of large subduction-zone earthquakes in Western <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sieh, K.; Stebbins, C.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Suwargadi, B. W.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>No giant earthquakes have struck the outer-arc islands of western <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> since the sequence of 1797, 1833 and 1861. Paleoseismic studies of coral microatolls reveal that failure of the subduction interface occurs in clusters of such earthquakes about every 230 years. Thus, the next such sequence may well be no more than a few decades away. In the meantime, GPS measurements and paleogeodetic observations show that the islands continue to submerge, dragged down by the downgoing oceanic slab, in preparation for the next failures of the subduction interface. Uplift of the islands and seafloor one to two meters during large events leads to large tsunamis and substantial changes in the coastal environments of the islands, including the seaward retreat of fringing reef, beach and mangrove environments. Having spent a decade characterizing the seismic history of western coastal <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, we are now beginning to work with the inhabitants of the islands and the mainland coast to mitigate the associated hazards. Thus far, we have begun to creat and distribute posters and brochures aimed at educating the islanders about their natural tectonic environment and guiding them in preparing for future large earthquakes and tsunamis. We are also installing a continuous GPS network, in order to monitor ongoing strain accumulation and possible transients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25947718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25947718"><span id="translatedtitle">A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OGeo....9....4P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OGeo....9....4P"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilities of Earthquake Occurrences along the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Subduction Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pailoplee, Santi</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Earthquake activities along the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Subduction Zone (SASZ) were clarified using the derived frequency-magnitude distribution in terms of the (i) most probable maximum magnitudes, (ii) return periods and (iii) probabilities of earthquake occurrences. The northern segment of SASZ, along the western coast of Myanmar to southern Nicobar, was found to be capable of generating an earthquake of magnitude 6.1-6.4 Mw in the next 30-50 years, whilst the southern segment of offshore of the northwestern and western parts of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (defined as a high hazard region) had a short recurrence interval of 6-12 and 10-30 years for a 6.0 and 7.0 Mw magnitude earthquake, respectively, compared to the other regions. Throughout the area along the SASZ, there are 70- almost 100% probabilities of the earthquake with Mw up to 6.0 might be generated in the next 50 years whilst the northern segment had less than 50% chance of occurrence of a 7.0 Mw earthquake in the next 50 year. Although Rangoon was defined as the lowest hazard among the major city in the vicinity of SASZ, there is 90% chance of a 6.0 Mw earthquake in the next 50 years. Therefore, the effective mitigation plan of seismic hazard should be contributed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatGe...4..453G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatGe...4..453G"><span id="translatedtitle">Updip rupture of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake extended by thick indurated sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gulick, Sean P. S.; Austin, James A.; McNeill, Lisa C.; Bangs, Nathan L. B.; Martin, Kylara M.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Dean, Simon; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.; Permana, Haryadi</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>During subduction, weak, unlithified sediments are scraped off the down-going plate and accumulate near the subduction trench axis. The weak nature of the sediments usually impedes the propagation of fault rupture during an earthquake. However, measurements of slip during the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman Mw 9.2 earthquake show that fault rupture propagatedupdip, extending unusually close to the subduction trench, in the southern part of the rupture area. Here we present seismic reflection images of the southern part of the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake rupture area. We show that sedimentary strata, greater than 4km in thickness, form coherent blocks that have been thrust onto the continental margin during subduction. The blocks form a 130-km-wide plateau overlying the seismogenic zone and the plate boundary megathrust lies near to the base of the sediments. The sediments consist of the Nicobar and Bengal Fan turbidites and exhibit strong internal cohesion. We suggest that dewatering and lithification of the sediments during burial made them unusually competent and strong, thus enabling rupture during the 2004 earthquake to propagate beneath the plateau, close to the Sunda Trench. Extending fault rupture so close to the trench, and thus further seaward, may have enhanced the tsunami hazard by displacing a greater thickness of water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5739897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5739897"><span id="translatedtitle">Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Oklahoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko <span class="hlt">basin</span> record a gradual deepening of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large <span class="hlt">basin</span> into the series of paired <span class="hlt">basins</span> and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that <span class="hlt">basinal</span> strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko <span class="hlt">basin</span>) was predominantly east-<span class="hlt">west</span>. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the <span class="hlt">basin</span> was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-<span class="hlt">basin</span> gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that <span class="hlt">basinal</span> strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-<span class="hlt">west</span> to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the <span class="hlt">basin</span> and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As <span class="hlt">basin</span> subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny2021.photos.385119p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny2021.photos.385119p/"><span id="translatedtitle">79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat <span class="hlt">Basin</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>79th Street Rotunda, former fountain in foreground, now Boat <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Cafe, looking <span class="hlt">west</span>. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from <span class="hlt">West</span> 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5968295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5968295"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic exploration in Raton <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Applegate, J.K.; Rose, P.R.</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>Exploration in the Raton <span class="hlt">basin</span> has delineated complex mountain-front structure in the asymmetric <span class="hlt">basin</span>, and defined possible <span class="hlt">basin</span>-centered gas. Exploration has included subsurface and surface geology, remote sensing, and seismic reflection. The Raton <span class="hlt">basin</span> is a north-south-trending structural <span class="hlt">basin</span> straddling the Colorado-New Mexico boundary. It is bounded on the <span class="hlt">west</span> by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, on the north and northeast by the Wet Mountains and Apishapa arch, and the Sierra Grande uplift on the south and southeast. The <span class="hlt">basin</span> is asymmetric with transcurrent faulting and thrusting associated with the steeper western flank of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Rocks range from Devonian-Mississippian overlying Precambrian basement to Miocene volcanics associated with the Spanish Peaks. Principal targets include the Entrada, Dakota, Codell, and Trinidad Sandstones and the Purgatoire and Raton Formations. Seismic data include explosive and Vibroseis data. Data quality is good in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> center and is fair in the thrusted areas. Correlations are difficult from line to line. However, a strike line in the disturbed area would probably be more disrupted by out-of-the-plane reflections than the dip lines would be. Significant stratigraphic changes are seen in both the Trinidad and Dakota intervals. Integrated seismic and geological studies are keys to exploration in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Subsequent work will rely heavily on improved seismic information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307880','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307880"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24871194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24871194"><span id="translatedtitle">A new species of Malayopotamon Bott, 1968 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae), a freshwater crab from northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ng, Peter K L</p> <p>2014-02-28</p> <p>A new species of potamid freshwater crab, Malayopotamon weh sp. nov., is described from the island of Pulau Weh off northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia. The species superficially resembles three Sumatran species: M. batak Ng & Wowor, 1991, M. tobaense (Bott, 1968), and M. turgeo Ng & Tan, 1999, but can easily be distinguished by various carapace as well as gonopod characters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013890"><span id="translatedtitle">Coral Radiocarbon Records of Indian Ocean Water Mass Mixing and Wind-Induced Upwelling Along the Coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guilderson, T P; Grumet, N S; Abram, N J; Beck, J W; Dunbar, R B; Gagan, M K; Hantoro, W S; Suwargadi, B W</p> <p>2004-02-06</p> <p>Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess {sup 14}C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean {sup 14}C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon isotope ({Delta}{sup 14}C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (0 S, 98 E) and Watamu, Kenya (3 S, 39 E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the {sup 14}C gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in {Delta}{sup 14}C in the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral {Delta}{sup 14}C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral {Delta}{sup 14}C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> entrains {sup 14}C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-laden {sup 14}C by the surface-ocean. Bimonthly AMS {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. The interannual signal may be a response to changes in the Walker circulation, the development of easterly wind anomalies, shoaling of the eastern thermocline, and upwelling of {sup 14}C-depleted water along the coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. Singular spectrum analysis of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. The results lend support to the concept that ocean atmosphere interactions between the Pacific and Indian Oceans operate in concert with the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6729658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6729658"><span id="translatedtitle">Nam Con Son <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The Nam Con Son <span class="hlt">basin</span> is the largest oil and gas bearing <span class="hlt">basin</span> in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the <span class="hlt">basin</span> can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-<span class="hlt">west</span> fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061369"><span id="translatedtitle">The species of Thalerosphyrus Eaton, 1881 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae, Ecdyonurinae) in Java and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, with some comments on the diversity of the genus in the Oriental Realm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sartori, Michel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Three species belonging to the genus Thalerosphyrus Eaton, 1881 are reported from Java and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. The nymphs of Th. determinatus (Walker, 1853) from Java, Th. sinuosus (Navás, 1933) from Java and <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Th. lamuriensis Sartori, 2014 from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> are redescribed. The egg morphology of the three species is also presented for the first time. A key to the nymphs is proposed. General considerations on the composition of the genus Thalerosphyrus in the Oriental Realm are given. The distribution of the genus is greatly expended, and currently ranges over the Himalaya and Sumbawa in the Sunda Islands.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026559','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026559"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia and across the Southern Malaysian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Petersen, M.D.; Dewey, J.; Hartzell, S.; Mueller, C.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The ground motion hazard for <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the Malaysian peninsula is calculated in a probabilistic framework, using procedures developed for the US National Seismic Hazard Maps. We constructed regional earthquake source models and used standard published and modified attenuation equations to calculate peak ground acceleration at 2% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock site conditions. We developed or modified earthquake catalogs and declustered these catalogs to include only independent earthquakes. The resulting catalogs were used to define four source zones that characterize earthquakes in four tectonic environments: subduction zone interface earthquakes, subduction zone deep intraslab earthquakes, strike-slip transform earthquakes, and intraplate earthquakes. The recurrence rates and sizes of historical earthquakes on known faults and across zones were also determined from this modified catalog. In addition to the source zones, our seismic source model considers two major faults that are known historically to generate large earthquakes: the Sumatran subduction zone and the Sumatran transform fault. Several published studies were used to describe earthquakes along these faults during historical and pre-historical time, as well as to identify segmentation models of faults. Peak horizontal ground accelerations were calculated using ground motion prediction relations that were developed from seismic data obtained from the crustal interplate environment, crustal intraplate environment, along the subduction zone interface, and from deep intraslab earthquakes. Most of these relations, however, have not been developed for large distances that are needed for calculating the hazard across the Malaysian peninsula, and none were developed for earthquake ground motions generated in an interplate tectonic environment that are propagated into an intraplate tectonic environment. For the interplate and intraplate crustal earthquakes, we have applied ground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Tectp.390..141P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Tectp.390..141P"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia and across the Southern Malaysian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petersen, Mark D.; Dewey, James; Hartzell, Stephan; Mueller, Charles; Harmsen, Stephan; Frankel, ArthurD.; Rukstales, Ken</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>The ground motion hazard for <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and the Malaysian peninsula is calculated in a probabilistic framework, using procedures developed for the US National Seismic Hazard Maps. We constructed regional earthquake source models and used standard published and modified attenuation equations to calculate peak ground acceleration at 2% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock site conditions. We developed or modified earthquake catalogs and declustered these catalogs to include only independent earthquakes. The resulting catalogs were used to define four source zones that characterize earthquakes in four tectonic environments: subduction zone interface earthquakes, subduction zone deep intraslab earthquakes, strike-slip transform earthquakes, and intraplate earthquakes. The recurrence rates and sizes of historical earthquakes on known faults and across zones were also determined from this modified catalog. In addition to the source zones, our seismic source model considers two major faults that are known historically to generate large earthquakes: the Sumatran subduction zone and the Sumatran transform fault. Several published studies were used to describe earthquakes along these faults during historical and pre-historical time, as well as to identify segmentation models of faults. Peak horizontal ground accelerations were calculated using ground motion prediction relations that were developed from seismic data obtained from the crustal interplate environment, crustal intraplate environment, along the subduction zone interface, and from deep intraslab earthquakes. Most of these relations, however, have not been developed for large distances that are needed for calculating the hazard across the Malaysian peninsula, and none were developed for earthquake ground motions generated in an interplate tectonic environment that are propagated into an intraplate tectonic environment. For the interplate and intraplate crustal earthquakes, we have applied ground</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.432..311K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.432..311K"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunamigenic potential due to frontal rupturing in the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> locked zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuncoro, Alvina K.; Cubas, Nadaya; Singh, Satish C.; Etchebes, Marie; Tapponnier, Paul</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> subduction zone is one of the most seismically active subduction zones. Although there have been three Mw ≥ 8.4 earthquakes in the region, including the disastrous 2004 Mw = 9.2 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman earthquake, a 500 km long patch around Mentawai Islands is still locked and could produce a large megathrust earthquake. If the rupture propagates to the subduction front, as it most likely occurred during the 2004 earthquake, it may lead to a devastating tsunami. Here, we present high-resolution reflection seismic data from the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> locked zone that shows the subduction interface down to 20 km depth. The seismic data also show that the wedge is composed of two layers: a shallow layer formed by mixed to landward vergent thrusts, termed as pop-ups, and a deeper layer showing sub-horizontal reflectors. The lower layer is most probably formed by duplexes, whose roof serves as a pseudo-décollement for the mixed to landward thrust systems. Based on the seismic results, we perform mechanical modeling in order to understand the formation of these structures and to retrieve the associated frictional properties. We first show that the activation of the pseudo-décollement requires (1) either a sudden increase of effective friction along the plate interface or an irregular geometry of the plate interface, (2) a lower effective friction along the pseudo-décollement than along the plate interface. We then show that low effective frictional values (≤0.1) are required to reproduce the observed frontal structures. The low effective friction along the pseudo-décollement could either be due to the presence of a long-term high pore pressure layer or to dynamic weakening associated with earthquakes. Since similar structures are present in the 2010 tsunami earthquake area, we favor the dynamic weakening hypothesis. According to the mechanical modeling, if the next rupture propagates up to the toe rupturing the three most frontal pop-up structures, we could expect at least</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/sumatra_smoke','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/sumatra_smoke"><span id="translatedtitle">Indonesia: <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>... abundance of atmospheric particulates. This product used a test version of the MISR retrieval that incorporates an experimental set of ... number and severity of this year's fires was exacerbated by dry weather conditions associated with the onset of a weak to moderate El ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24905714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24905714"><span id="translatedtitle">Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9508C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9508C"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconducting Gravimeter Data for the IRIS Seismology Database: Application to Normal Modes from the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crossley, D.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.; Rosat, S.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>For several years, it has been the goal of the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) to convert high rate acceleration data recorded on superconducting gravimeters (SG) to a format compatible with the seismic data archived at IRIS. The problem for the GGP community has been to properly establish the metadata for characterizing the response of the instrument, particularly its phase characteristics. Although SG data exists at IRIS from the Membach GGP station in Belgium, up to now most of the data from the GGP network has been on hold until the response problem was solved. This we have now been able to do, and we hope to show that data from the Strasbourg SG station will be at IRIS and available. We will also upload all the data from the SGs from after the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake and show some results on normal mode analysis that demonstrates the benefit of the good amplitude calibration feature and high precision of the SG instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0003S"><span id="translatedtitle">Termite assemblages from oil palm agroecosystems across Riau Province, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saputra, Andi; Jalaludin, Nur-Atiqah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza; Rahim, Faszly</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Termite survey was conducted at six oil palm agroecosystem sites in Riau Province, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia to document species richness across the sites. Six sites were surveyed by using continuous transect representing gradients of oil palm landuse across Indragiri Hulu to Bengkalis District since February 5th, 2015 until May 21st, 2015. Termites were sampled by modified transect protocols (100 m × 4 m × 10 cm). A total of 23 species belonging to two families and five subfamilies were collected. The termite assemblage was dominated by wood-feeding termites. The major family collected was Rhinotermitidae which included some pest species, such as Coptotermes curvignathus, C. sepangensis, C. kalshoveni, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, S. medioobscurus, S. brevialatus, and S. javanicus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900040549&hterms=Ignimbrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DIgnimbrite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900040549&hterms=Ignimbrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DIgnimbrite"><span id="translatedtitle">On reported occurrences of shock-deformed clasts in the volcanic ejecta from Toba caldera, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Reports of shock-deformed phenocrysts from the Toba ignimbrite deposits, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, have prompted considerable debate over whether shock-deformation products are clear evidence of a meteorite impact origin for the K/T boundary deposits as well as terresrial 'cryptoexplosion' structures. Evidence presented in favor of volcanically induced shock at Toba includes kinked biotites and rare occurrences of single set of lamellae in quartz grains but rests most heavily upon occurrences of mosaic extinction patterns in plagioclase phenocrysts. The present analysis of several of the same Toba samples reveals that these mosaic patterns ae related to distinct compositional zoning and cannot be attributed to deformation of the crystal lattice that shock would produce. Additionally, in more than 200 quartz grains examined, no occurrences of microdeformation features or mosaic textures similar to those associated with known impact structures and the K/T boundary are detected. It is concluded that evidence of shock deformation in the Toba deposits has not been demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000070858&hterms=Subduction+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSubduction%2Bzones','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000070858&hterms=Subduction+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSubduction%2Bzones"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic Observations of Interseismic Strain Segmentation at the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Subduction Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; McCaffrey, R.; Genrich, J.; Calais, E.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Subarya, C.; Rais, J.; Zwick, P.; Fauzi</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Deformation above the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> subduction zone, revealed by Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic surveys, shows nearly complete coupling of the forearc to the subducting plate south of 0.5 deg S and half as much to north. The abrupt change in plate coupling coincides with the boundary between the rupture zones of the 1833 and 1861 (Mw greater than 8) thrust earthquakes. The rupture boundary appears as an abrupt change in strain accumulation well into the interseismic cycle, suggesting that seismic segmentation is controlled by properties of the plate interface that persist occupied through more than one earthquake cycle. Structural evidence indicates that differences in basal shear stress may be related to elevated pore pressure in the north.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001605&hterms=Morocco+western+Sahara&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMorocco%2Bwestern%2BSahara','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001605&hterms=Morocco+western+Sahara&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMorocco%2Bwestern%2BSahara"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">West</span> Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the <span class="hlt">west</span> and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across <span class="hlt">west</span> Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far <span class="hlt">west</span> as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1104L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1104L"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunami remote sensing from and with satellites: observations and perspectives after <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> 2004 and Tohoku 2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lognonne, Philippe; Makela, Jonathan J.; Astafyeva, Elvira; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Lucie; McCoy, Bob; Hebert, Helene; Coisson, Pierdavide; De Raucourt, Sebastien; Lamouroux, Julien</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>With various observations following the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> 2004 and Tohoku 2011 tsunamis, space observations have demonstrated their capability for the monitoring of the tsunami propagation in open ocean. Observations are very diverse and based on spaceborn optical high resolution imaging of the tsunami arrival on the coast, on the monitoring by space altimeters of the sea level displacement, but also on the ionospheric perturbation generated by the tsunami, detected by altimeters and GNSS receivers. New ground airglow observations performed in Hawaii for the Tohoku tsunami have furthermore opened new perspectives for real time observations from space, based on visible or UV airglow monitoring. We review the different observations and show that the most interesting perspectives are associated to the ionospheric observations, able to detect very small tsunamis in amplitudes and even to open perspective in the detection of possible slow slip precursors of the giant quakes. We illustrate these observations with transoceanic tsunamis of the last decade (<span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, 2004, Kuril, 2006, Samoa, 2009, Chili, 2010, Tohoku, 2011) and present the coupling mechanisms responsible for these observations. A special focus is given on the observations and modeling performed during the Tohoku 2011 tsunami, with observations from GPS ionospheric sounding over Japan and further in the Pacific ocean, with joint observation from GPS, Jason and airglow. We show that the first ionospheric signals generated by the rupture have been not only observed about 17 minutes before the arrival of the tsunami on the japanese east-coast, but also that a precursor signal has been generated before the earthquake, likely associated with a slow slip event which has triggered the giant earthquake. We also show that the ionospheric monitoring has been able to follow and image the propagation of the tsunami. We finally present the perspectives and focus on two different approaches and associated projects aiming to monitor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4430S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4430S"><span id="translatedtitle">Issues in Indonesia's tsunami disaster management system revealed after the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugimoto, M.; Koyama, A.; Sun, H.; Kang, I.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Nagata, M.; Nakanishi, R.; Nakano, M.; Noguchi, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Indonesia had the largest number of casualties around 170,000. International society has supported tsunami early warning system, disaster management and disaster education for Indonesia. The past ten years saw several tsunamis in Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Construction of tsunami early warning system was not in time the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami in Jawa Island. On the other hand, tsunami science has been developed for this decade. Tsunami early warning system has been developed by deep ocean pressure gauges (DART system), coastal tide gauges, GPS buoys and so on. Tsunami folklore has been collected and used education and connected with tsunami deposit. However, the tsunami early warning system and other science application were not widely used at once in Indonesia. GPS buoys were stolen by fishery people. One tsunami evacuation building are not used for evacuation by local people in Aceh <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Island in 2012 though locations of the buildings were selected by scientific numerical simulation. Big panic and trafic accidents occurred by M8.6 earthquake in Aceh in April 2012 and reveal lack of disaster management planning in urban planning during reconstruction (Fig.1: Trafic jam in Banda Aceh, source MSN news photo). In addition to this, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami reveal fragilities tsunami preparedness. How should we decide to use the tsunami science? We research field situation in Aceh the after 10 years past from the 2004 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> event. This presentation discusses issues of the gap between tsunami science and operations through field research in Aceh now.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSeis.tmp...52S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSeis.tmp...52S"><span id="translatedtitle">Precursory seismic quiescence along the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman subduction zone: past and present</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sukrungsri, Santawat; Pailoplee, Santi</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this study, the seismic quiescence prior to hazardous earthquakes was analyzed along the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ). The seismicity data were screened statistically with mainshock earthquakes of M w ≥ 4.4 reported during 1980-2015 being defined as the completeness database. In order to examine the possibility of using the seismic quiescence stage as a marker of subsequent earthquakes, the seismicity data reported prior to the eight major earthquakes along the SASZ were analyzed for changes in their seismicity rate using the statistical Z test. Iterative tests revealed that Z factors of N = 50 events and T = 2 years were optimal for detecting sudden rate changes such as quiescence and to map these spatially. The observed quiescence periods conformed to the subsequent major earthquake occurrences both spatially and temporally. Using suitable conditions obtained from successive retrospective tests, the seismicity rate changes were then mapped from the most up-to-date seismicity data available. This revealed three areas along the SASZ that might generate a major earthquake in the future: (i) Nicobar Islands (Z = 6.7), (ii) the western offshore side of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Island (Z = 7.1), and (iii) western Myanmar (Z = 6.7). The performance of a stochastic test using a number of synthetic randomized catalogues indicated these levels of anomalous Z value showed the above anomaly is unlikely due to chance or random fluctuations of the earthquake. Thus, these three areas have a high possibility of generating a strong-to-major earthquake in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP43B1241L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP43B1241L"><span id="translatedtitle">The preservation of past tsunami deposits along the Sumatran coastline, Padang, western <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Logsdon, M. G.; Yulianto, E.; Rubin, C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Tsunamis triggered by the 2004 and 2005 Sumatran megathrust earthquakes left clear geologic signatures in the wake of their devastating impacts. Although the record of past great, megathrust earthquakes along the Sumatran subduction zone has been documented by extracting paleo-sea-level history from coral microatoll stratigraphy, evidence for past tsunamis along the western coast of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> has not been examined. South of the 2004 and 2005 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> ruptures, between 00 and 20S, the 1797 and 1833 earthquakes dominate the historical seismic record of the Sumatran subduction zone. Anecdotal reports from Dutch shipping records suggest widespread strong shaking with accompanying large tsunamis in the town of Padang. In this region, beach-parallel ridge and swale topography preserve thin sand layers within the topographically low swales. The sand sheets occur within thick peat deposits that accumulate in the swales between beach ridges. These sand layers could represent tsunami, storm, or fluvial flood deposits. Ongoing paleoecologic analyses will help constrain the source of the sand sheets, whether marine or terrestrial. By dating the peat deposits just below these sand layers, we expect to find the maximum age of sand deposition for each event. These data, combined with an examination of local geomorphic processes, allow us to better understand the timing and nature of the evolution of the Sumatran coastline. If indeed these sands are derived from tsunamis, they will provide better constraints on the repeat times and inundation extents of past tsunamis, and extend the geologic record of prehistoric tsunamis generated by great, megathrust earthquakes along this portion of the Sumatran subduction zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10e4010M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10e4010M"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kalimantan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..453F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..453F"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and kinematics of the Sumatran Fault System in North <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (Indonesia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández-Blanco, David; Philippon, Melody; von Hagke, Christoph</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Lithospheric-scale faults related to oblique subduction are responsible for some of the most hazardous earthquakes reported worldwide. The mega-thrust in the Sunda sector of the Sumatran oblique subduction has been intensively studied, especially after the infamous 2004 Mw 9.1 earthquake, but its onshore kinematic complement within the Sumatran subduction, the transform Sumatran Fault System, has received considerably less attention. In this paper, we apply a combination of analysis of Digital Elevation Models (ASTER GDEM) and field evidence to resolve the kinematics of the leading edge of deformation of the northern sector of the Sumatran Fault System. To this end, we mapped the northernmost tip of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, including the islands to the northwest, between 4.5°N and 6°N. Here, major topographic highs are related to different faults. Using field evidence and our GDEM structural mapping, we can show that in the area where the fault bifurcates into two fault strands, two independent kinematic regimes evolve, both consistent with the large-scale framework of the Sumatran Fault System. Whereas the eastern branch is a classic Riedel system, the western branch features a fold-and-thrust belt. The latter contractional feature accommodated significant amounts (c. 20%) of shortening of the system in the study area. Our field observations of the tip of the NSFS match a strain pattern with a western contractional domain (Pulau Weh thrust splay) and an eastern extensional domain (Pulau Aceh Riedel system), which are together characteristic of the tip of a propagating strike-slip fault, from a mechanical viewpoint. For the first time, we describe the strain partitioning resulting from the propagation of the NSFS in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> mainland. Our study helps understanding complex kinematics of an evolving strike-slip system, and stresses the importance of field studies in addition to remote sensing and geophysical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED21B..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED21B..02M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Science Teacher Experience in the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake and Tsunami Offshore Survey Expedition of May 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moran, K.; Holt, S.; Grilli, S.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Through the NSF-funded ARMADA Project, K-12 teachers can participate in scientific expeditions to gain a first-hand, and usually exciting, research experience. ARMADA Master Teachers decode this research opportunity that includes data collection and experimentation, into methodology development, and technology for use in their classrooms. Their experiences have broader impact because each teacher mentors other teachers in their school district and directly participates in the National Science Teachers Association Annual Convention to share the knowledge to an even broader educational audience. A science teacher, Susan Holt (from Arcadia High School in Phoenix, Arizona) participated as part of an international scientific party on a recent cruise to study the seafloor in the area of the December 26th Great <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake and tsunami-the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> Earthquake And Tsunami Offshore Survey (SEATOS). She participated in all aspects of the expedition: geophysical surveys, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) "watch", sample preparation and recovery, science planning and review meetings, and by interacting with the expert ship's crew. Susan posted reports regularly on a website and prepared a daily log that that was useful not only for her students, but also for other teachers in the Scottsdale Unified School District in Arizona and the Montgomery County School District in Tennessee, science team members' families, friends, and local press. Overall, the experience benefited all parties: the teacher by learning and experiencing a shipboard geophysical operation; the scientists by Susan's fresh perspective that encouraged everyone to re-examine their first assumptions and interpretations; the SEATOS expedition by Susan's assistance in science operations; and the shipboard environment where she was able to break down the typical artificial barriers between the science `crew' and the ship's crew through frank and open dialogue. We present a summary of the SEATOS expedition, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/513495','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/513495"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland <span class="hlt">Basins</span>. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware <span class="hlt">Basin</span> present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/0050q/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/0050q/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Petroleum system of the Gippsland <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bishop, Michele G.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Gippsland <span class="hlt">Basin</span> Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this <span class="hlt">basin</span> is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The <span class="hlt">basin</span> was Australia?s major producing <span class="hlt">basin</span> until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North <span class="hlt">West</span> Shelf surpassed it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015996','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015996"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology and K-Ar geochronology of the Paradise Peak Mine and the relationship of pre-<span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range extension to Early Miocene precious metal mineralization in <span class="hlt">west</span>-central Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>John, D.A.; Thomason, R.E.; McKee, E.H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The Paradise Peak mine is a major gold-silver-mercury deposit located in the southwestern part of the Paradise Range near the eastern edge of the Walker Lane in the western Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, Nevada. Regional stratigraphic relations and K-Ar ages indicate that volcanism changed from silicic ash-flow tuffs to intermediate lavas at about 20 to 19 Ma. Regionally extensive angular unconformities indicate that a period of "pre-<span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range' crustal extension occurred between about 22 to 19 Ma. This extension was penecontemporaneous with the shift in the style of volcanism and with gold-silver mineralization in the Paradise Peak mine and in the Goldfield and Tonopah districts of western Nevada. The close temporal and spatial relationships of precious metal mineralization with pre-<span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range extension suggest that extension was a major factor in the genesis of early Miocene precious metal deposits in the western Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. -from Authors</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/465139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/465139"><span id="translatedtitle">Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte <span class="hlt">basin</span> has plenty of potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miyazaki, S.</p> <p>1997-04-21</p> <p>Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte <span class="hlt">basin</span> is one of the Phanerozoic <span class="hlt">basins</span> of what is now called the North <span class="hlt">West</span> Shelf of Australia. This <span class="hlt">basin</span> consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this <span class="hlt">basin</span> is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte <span class="hlt">basin</span>, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-<span class="hlt">basin</span> and Darwin shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5771285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5771285"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Basin</span> development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway <span class="hlt">basin</span>, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span>, which are, from east to <span class="hlt">west</span>, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway <span class="hlt">basins</span>. The offshore Gippsland <span class="hlt">basin</span> is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway <span class="hlt">basin</span>; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway <span class="hlt">basin</span>, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of <span class="hlt">basin</span> development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway <span class="hlt">basin</span> extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the <span class="hlt">west</span>. The <span class="hlt">basin</span> was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6639355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6639355"><span id="translatedtitle">Cenozoic evolution of San Joaquin <span class="hlt">basin</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartow, J.A.</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>The Neogene San Joaquin <span class="hlt">basin</span> in the southern part of the 700-km long Great Valley of California is a successor to a late Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary forearc <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The transition from forearc <span class="hlt">basin</span> to the more restricted Neogene marine <span class="hlt">basin</span> occurred principally during the Paleogene as the plate tectonic setting changed from oblique convergence to normal convergence, and finally to the initiation of tangential (transform) movement near the end of the Oligocene. Regional-scale tectonic events that affected the <span class="hlt">basin</span> include: (1) clockwise rotation of the southernmost Sierra Nevada, and large-scale en echelon folding in the southern Diablo Range, both perhaps related to Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary right slip on the proto-San-Andreas fault; (2) regional uplift of southern California in the Oligocene that resulted from the subduction of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge: (3) extensional tectonism in the <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range province, particularly in the Miocene; (4) wrench tectonism adjacent to the San Andreas fault in the Neogene; (5) northeastward emplacement of a wedge of the Franciscan complex at the <span class="hlt">west</span> side of the Sierran block, with associated deep-seated thrusting in the late Cenozoic; and (6) the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada beginning in the late Miocene. Neogene <span class="hlt">basin</span> history was controlled principally by the tectonic effects of the northwestward migration of the Mendocino triple junction along the California continental margin and by the subsequent wrench tectonism associated with the San Andreas fault system. East-<span class="hlt">west</span> compression in the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, resulting from extension in the <span class="hlt">Basin</span> and Range province was an important contributing factor to crustal shortening at the <span class="hlt">west</span> side of the valley. Analysis of the sedimentary history of the <span class="hlt">basin</span>, which was controlled to some extent by eustatic sea level change, enables reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">basin</span> paleogeography through the Cenozoic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6829195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6829195"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ewing, T.E.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>The southern Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span> is underlain by the NNW-trending Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware <span class="hlt">basin</span> to its <span class="hlt">west</span>, and the shallower Midland <span class="hlt">basin</span> to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde <span class="hlt">basin</span>-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the <span class="hlt">West</span> Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span> proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central <span class="hlt">Basin</span> platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian <span class="hlt">basin</span> lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6065881','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6065881"><span id="translatedtitle">Gladden Pull-Apart <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, offshore Belize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morrice, S. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The junction of the American and Caribbean plates in Belize has created a complex structural setting for oil and gas exploration. Recent seismic offshore Belize has been used to identify three structural provinces, from <span class="hlt">west</span> to east: a shallow thrust zone, a narrow upthrown wrench faulted zone and a deeper extensional <span class="hlt">basin</span>, named the Gladden Pull-Apart <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Hydrocarbon leakage from recent fault movement appears to have depleted the shallow structures to the <span class="hlt">west</span>, but the pull-apart <span class="hlt">basin</span> has a thick sequence of low-frequency clay-dominated sealing rocks with the potential to preserve hydrocarbon accumulations in Cretaceous carbonate banks. These buried carbonate are of the same age and depositional environment of Mexico's Golden Lane/Tabasco Reforma carbonate banks which are world class giant fields. The Belize and Mexican carbonate banks are within the same Cretaceous depositional <span class="hlt">basin</span>, the Peten <span class="hlt">Basin</span>. Seismic interpretations in offshore Belize have been integrated with gravity and magnetic surveys. This provides additional support for the deep extensional <span class="hlt">basin</span>. The location of the thick Cretaceous carbonate banks is better interpreted with the integration of these three geophysical tools. Airborne geochemical surveys were used to detect the presence of oil seeps on the east and <span class="hlt">west</span> <span class="hlt">basin</span> margins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP53B1228J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP53B1228J"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (<span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the <span class="hlt">West</span> indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1661.photos.011841p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1661.photos.011841p/"><span id="translatedtitle">29. CIRCULAR WASH <span class="hlt">BASIN</span>, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>29. CIRCULAR WASH <span class="hlt">BASIN</span>, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO <span class="hlt">WEST</span>-NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0374.photos.370103p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0374.photos.370103p/"><span id="translatedtitle">36. View of Wolslegal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> from State Route 410 bridge, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>36. View of Wolslegal <span class="hlt">Basin</span> from State Route 410 bridge, looking <span class="hlt">west</span>. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0374.photos.370128p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0374.photos.370128p/"><span id="translatedtitle">61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, looking ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, looking <span class="hlt">west</span>. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15908983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15908983"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking the rupture of the Mw = 9.3 <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake over 1,150 km at teleseismic distance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krüger, Frank; Ohrnberger, Matthias</p> <p>2005-06-16</p> <p>On 26 December 2004, a moment magnitude Mw = 9.3 earthquake occurred along Northern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, the Nicobar and Andaman islands, resulting in a devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean region. The rapid and accurate estimation of the rupture length and direction of such tsunami-generating earthquakes is crucial for constraining both tsunami wave-height models as well as the seismic moment of the events. Compressional seismic waves generated at the hypocentre of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake arrived after about 12 min at the broadband seismic stations of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN), located approximately 9,000 km from the event. Here we present a modification of a standard array-seismological approach and show that it is possible to track the propagating rupture front of the <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> earthquake over a total rupture length of 1,150 km. We estimate the average rupture speed to be 2.3-2.7 km s(-1) and the total duration of rupture to be at least 430 s, and probably between 480 and 500 s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Tectp.312..347B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Tectp.312..347B"><span id="translatedtitle">K Ar age of the Ranau Tuffs: implications for the Ranau caldera emplacement and slip-partitioning in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (Indonesia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bellier, Olivier; Bellon, Hervé; Sébrier, Michel; Sutanto; Maury, René C.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>The Sumatran subduction is an example of oblique convergence which is partitioned into a component normal to the plate boundary and a wrench component taken up by strike-slip deformation within the overriding plate. Indeed, off <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, the approximately NNE-trending convergence is mechanically accommodated both by subduction processes and strike-slip deformation partly localised on the Great Sumatran dextral Fault (GSF). The GSF parallels the trench and follows approximately the magmatic arc, where major calderas are installed. The Ranau caldera is one of those located along the GSF in south <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. A Ranau Tuff sample yielded 40K- 40Ar ages of 0.55±0.15 Ma for its separated feldspars, which places the major Ranau caldera collapse between 0.7 and 0.4 Ma, a period of paroxysmal calderic activity along the Sumatran Arc. Geomorphic features affecting the Ranau Tuff and offset by the GSF yield a long-term dextral slip rate of 5.5±1.9 mm/yr at 5°S. Consequently, south <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> represents an intermediate case between complete slip-partitioning and purely oblique thrusting, where the leading edge is characterised by a low convergence obliquity (<20°) accommodated by strike-slip deformation in the overriding plate. This demonstrates that even for low obliquity, slip-partitioning can exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP52A..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP52A..05N"><span id="translatedtitle">Glacial to Holocene dynamics of Indonesian precipitation - New insights from plant-wax dD off Northwest <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niedermeyer, E. M.; Mohtadi, M.; Sessions, A. L.; Feakins, S. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We used the stable hydrogen and stable carbon isotopic composition (dD and d13C, respectively) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes as a proxy for past rainfall variations over northwestern Indonesia. Our study site lies within the western boundary of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key evaporative site for the global hydrologic cycle. At present, rainfall intensity in tropical Indonesia is influenced by the Pacific Ocean El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (see Kirono et al., 1999), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode (Saji et al., 1999), and to some extend by the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (e.g. Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz, 2005). Paleoclimate studies show that these systems have varied in the past, however, the impact of these changes on regional paelo-hydrology of Indonesia is yet unknown. We worked on marine sediment core SO189-144KL (1°09,300 N; 98°03,960 E) retrieved at 480 m water depth off Northwest <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> from the eastern Indian Ocean. Sediments consist of material from marine and terrestrial sources, and radiocarbon dating indicates an age of ~300 years at the core top and of ~24,000 years at the base. We used d13C and dD values of the n-C30 alkanoic acid as proxies for changes in vegetation composition (C3 vs. C4 plants) and rainfall variability on land, respectively. Values of d13C show only little variation and suggest persistent dominance of tropical trees throughout the past 24,000 years. Values of dD display distinct variability throughout the record, however, mean rainfall intensities during the late Last Glacial compare to those during the Holocene. This is in agreement with rather consistent vegetation at the study site but in sharp contrast with reconstructions of contemporaneous rainfall patterns at the nearby islands Borneo (Partin et al., 2007) and Flores (Griffiths et al., 2009), indicating multiple controls on regional hydrology of Indonesia. In combination with previous studies of late Pleistocene to Holocene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2005/3004/fs20053004.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2005/3004/fs20053004.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological science in the Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is that area in the <span class="hlt">West</span> where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span> is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span> upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span> in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great <span class="hlt">Basin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/d2/pdf/pp1708_d2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1708/d2/pdf/pp1708_d2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span>: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Because of the many names used to identify individual coal beds and coal zones in the historic Appalachian <span class="hlt">basin</span> coal-mining districts, coal bed designations may differ even more than stratigraphic nomenclature. In eastern Kentucky, northwest of the Pine Mountain thrust fault on the Cumberland overthrust sheet, for example, coal beds or coal zones equivalent to the Lower Elkhorn coal zone (within the Pikeville Formation) are identified also as the Eagle coal zone, Pond Creek coal zone, and Blue Gem coal bed (fig. 1). Southeast of the Pine Mountain thrust fault, yet still in Kentucky, equivalent coals in this same interval are known as the Imboden and Rich Mountain. Moreover, this same interval of coal is identified as the Blue Gem coal in Tennessee, the Imboden coal bed or Campbell Creek or Pond Creek coal zones in Virginia, and the Eagle coal zone in <span class="hlt">West</span> Virginia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296588','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296588"><span id="translatedtitle">K <span class="hlt">Basins</span> isolation barriers summary report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford</p> <p>1996-07-31</p> <p>The 105-K East and 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> fuel storage <span class="hlt">basins</span> (105-K <span class="hlt">Basins</span>) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage <span class="hlt">basins</span> were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the <span class="hlt">basin</span> structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage <span class="hlt">basins</span> provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the <span class="hlt">basins</span> at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The <span class="hlt">basins</span> were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage <span class="hlt">basin</span> began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage <span class="hlt">basins</span> at 105-K East and 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> to provide additional storage capacity. Both <span class="hlt">basins</span> were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K <span class="hlt">West</span> in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K <span class="hlt">Basins</span> pending a decision on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7597M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7597M"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2 and energy fluxes from an oil palm plantation in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meijide, Ana; Herbst, Mathias; Knohl, Alexander</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Oil palm plantations are expanding in Indonesia due to global increased demand of palm oil. Such plantations are usually set in previously forested land and in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, massive transformation of lowland forest into oil palm plantations is taking place. These land transformations have been identified as a potential driver of climate change, as they might result in changes of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, very limited information is available on GHG fluxes from oil palm plantations and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale is yet unknown. An eddy covariance tower was therefore installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation in the province of Jambi, <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (1° 50' 7'S, 103° 17' 44'E), with the aim of studying carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes during the non-productive phase of oil palm cultivation. The canopy was not yet closed and trees were around 2m high. The eddy covariance system consists of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek Anemometer, operating at 10 Hz and installed on a 7m tower. In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, the site is equipped with a weather station, measuring short and long wave radiation, PAR, rainfall, profiles of air temperature, air humidity and wind speed, soil temperature and moisture and soil heat fluxes. Measurements started in July 2013 until January 2014, in order to capture possible differences which may happen during the dry (July-October) and wet (November-February) seasons. A large CO2 uptake would have been expected at this young oil palm plantation, as palm trees during this period of their cultivation are growing fast. However, our preliminary results show that during the first 5 months of measurements, the ecosystem was a small carbon source (below 10 g CO2 m-2). Latent heat flux was higher than sensible heat flux during the period of study, indicative of the high evaporation taking place. Our results show that both for CO2 and energy fluxes, large differences were observed between the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5435W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5435W"><span id="translatedtitle">Degraded peatlands as a source of riverine organic carbon and enhanced river outgassing in <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wit, Francisca; Rixen, Tim</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia, is well known for its widespread tropical peat lands. However, silvi- and agricultural purposes are currently inducing large-scale degradation of peat lands, transforming the landscape into mainly palm-oil plantations. The degradation induces loss of carbon via direct CO2 emissions, but also via riverine outflow of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) due to leaching. This organic carbon is then decomposed along the way towards the coast and is hypothesized to enhance coastal and river outgassing of CO2. In the framework of SPICE III, Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems, we are quantifying these carbon budgets and fluxes in the rivers and coastal areas of northeast <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>. Using underway instruments, we have gathered continuous measurements of various parameters, including pCO2, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen. In addition, water samples were obtained for DOC, POC, δ13CDIC, alkalinity and nutrient analyses. The results of the first analyses show that pCO2 values in the coastal areas range between 400-600 μatm. However, in the vicinity of the rivers pCO2 concentrations increase tremendously, ranging from 600 near the estuaries to a staggering 9000 μatm further upstream. These values are much higher than the marine pCO2 value of 390 μatm in the South China Sea. When adding carbon isotope results into the story, while knowing that upstream river life is greatly reduced due to oxygen depletion as a result of high DOC decomposition, it appears to be clear from the values, which range between -20 to -24‰ δ13CDIC, that the main source of the organic carbon is indeed originating from the degrading peat lands. In conclusion, our hypothesis can be deemed correct: degrading peat lands enhance organic carbon outflow and therefore elevated decomposition in the rivers, which results in increased river outgassing of CO2. Further analyses will be conducted to precisely quantify the budgets and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616508F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616508F"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunami Research driven by Survivor Observations: <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> 2004, Tohoku 2011 and the Lituya Bay Landslide (Plinius Medal Lecture)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, Hermann M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami recalls the advent of tsunami video recordings by eyewitnesses. The tsunami of December 26, 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT). Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured overland tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s in downtown Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life. Fortunately many survivors at evacuation sites recorded countless tsunami videos with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan. This report focuses on the surveys at selected tsunami eyewitness video recording locations along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent tsunami video image analysis. Locations with high quality survivor videos were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and detailed site topography scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The analysis of the tsunami videos followed the four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh. Tsunami currents up to 11 m/s were measured in Kesennuma Bay making navigation impossible. Further tsunami height and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos to discuss the complex effects of coastal structures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAGeo..10..103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAGeo..10..103A"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of Postseismic Deformation Signal of the 2007 M8.5 Bengkulu Earthquake and the 2012 M8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake in Southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia, Based on GPS Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alif, Satrio Muhammad; Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Efendi, Joni</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>GPS data in southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, Indonesia, indicate crustal deformation associated to subduction zone and inland fault of Great Sumatran Fault (GSF). We analyze these deformation characteristics using campaign and continuous GPS data available in southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> from 2006-2014. After removing the effect of GSF in southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> and coseismic displacements of 2007 Bengkulu and 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake, we find that GPS sites experienced northwest-ward direction. These GPS velocities correspond to postseismic deformation of the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake. We analyze strain using these velocities, and we find that postseismic strains in southern <span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> are in the range of 0.8-20 nanostrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JAESc..10...95F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JAESc..10...95F"><span id="translatedtitle">Accreted terranes and mineral deposits of Myanmar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fan, Pow-foong; Ko, Ko</p> <p></p> <p>There are three terranes in Myanmar: (1) Shan-<span class="hlt">West</span> Malaysia-<span class="hlt">Sumatra</span>, (2) Central Burma <span class="hlt">Basin</span>, and (3) Arakan Yoma. The Shan-<span class="hlt">West</span> Malaysia-<span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> terrane can be divided into three subterranes: (a) <span class="hlt">West</span> Kachin, (b) East Kachin-Shan, and (c) Karen-Tenasserim. The Shan-<span class="hlt">West</span> Malaysia-<span class="hlt">Sumatra</span> terrane consists of jadeite of gem quality in the <span class="hlt">West</span> Kachin subterrane ruby and other gems, Paleozoic strata-bound lead-zinc and iron deposits in the East Kachin-Shan subterrane; and a tin and tungsten mineralized belt in the Karen-Tenasserim subterrane. The volcanic arc divides the Central Myanmar <span class="hlt">Basin</span> terrane into forearc and back-arc <span class="hlt">basins</span>; the oil-bearing fields are located in the forearc <span class="hlt">basin</span>. In the Arakan Yoma terrane, chromium and nickel of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary age occur within ultramafic belts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5787342','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5787342"><span id="translatedtitle">Frontier sedimentary <span class="hlt">basins</span> of New Zealand region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beggs, J.M. )</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>Petroleum-prospective <span class="hlt">basins</span> of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored <span class="hlt">basins</span> can be compared to the productive Taranki <span class="hlt">basin</span>. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast, and Northland <span class="hlt">basins</span>. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and <span class="hlt">West</span> Coast and possibly other <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other <span class="hlt">basins</span>. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in <span class="hlt">basins</span> near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland <span class="hlt">basins</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/837778','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/837778"><span id="translatedtitle">RESERVES IN WESTERN <span class="hlt">BASINS</span> PART IV: WIND RIVER <span class="hlt">BASIN</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robert Caldwell</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> located in <span class="hlt">west</span> central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (Scotia, 1993), Piceance <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta <span class="hlt">Basin</span> (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe <span class="hlt">basin</span>-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central <span class="hlt">basin</span> location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of es