Science.gov

Sample records for basis entwicklung schneller

  1. Cyber-Physical Systems - Wissenschaftliche Herausforderungen Bei Der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broy, Manfred

    Cyber-Physical Systems adressieren die enge Verbindung eingebetteter Systeme zur Überwachung und Steuerung physikalischer Vorgänge mittels Sensoren und Aktuatoren über Kommunikationseinrichtungen mit den globalen digitalen Netzen (dem Cyberspace"). Dieser Typus von Systemen ermöglicht über Wirkketten eine Verbindung zwischen Vorgängen der physischen Realität und den heute verfügbaren digitalen Netzinfrastrukturen. Dies erlaubt vielfältige Applikationen mit hohem wirtschaftlichen Potential, und mit starker Innovationskraft. Die vollständige Ausschöpfung des Potentials erfordert aber gezielte wissenschaftliche Anstrengungen bei der Entwicklung solcher Systeme im Hinblick auf Methodik, Technologie, Kostenbeherrschung und funktionale Angemessenheit.

  2. E-Learning an der TUM: Entwicklung - Status Quo - Perspektiven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stross, Manfred; Baume, Matthias; Schulze, Elvira

    E-Learning an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) hat sich ähnlich wie an den meisten anderen Hochschulen als ein wesentliches Element der Hochschullehre etabliert. Seit mehr als einem Jahrzehnt werden in diesem Themenfeld Erfahrungen gesammelt und Entwicklungen vorangetrieben. Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit E-Learning aus einer allgemeinen Perspektive und greift unterschiedliche Entwicklungsphasen der vergangenen Jahre auf. Im Anschluss daran wird der Fokus auf die TUM gesetzt. Der Beitrag zeigt die spezifische Entwicklung von E-Learning im Verlauf der vergangenen Jahre auf, nennt Funktionen und Verfahren von E-Learning und beschreibt Zielsetzungen für E-Learning an der TUM. Im Anschluss daran wird die aktuelle Situation anhand verschiedener Perspektiven analysiert. Den Abschluss des Beitrags bilden die Darstellung der zukünftigen Herausforderungen von E-Learning an der TUM und ein Ausblick auf weitere Entwicklungen.

  3. Ländliche Entwicklung durch erneuerbare Energien - Das Beispiel Photovoltaik in Niederbayern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Roland

    2013-09-01

    Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien ist in Deutschland eine zentrale und politisch konsensfähige Forderung, um die Energieversorgung klimafreundlich und nachhaltig zu gestalten. Speziell ländliche Regionen rücken dabei in den Fokus, bieten sie doch aufgrund ihrer hohen Flächenverfügbarkeit große Potenziale für die flächenintensiven dezentralen Energieformen. Folglich erkennen Kommunen zunehmend das Entwicklungspotenzial dieser Technologien und sehen sie auch als Chance, neue wirtschaftliche Impulse vor Ort zu setzen. Der Beitrag skizziert die rasante Entwicklung der Photovoltaik im Regierungsbezirk Niederbayern und diskutiert anhand des Beispiels die Folgen für eine nachhaltige Regionalentwicklung.

  4. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  5. BASIS9. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Allsman, R.; Barrett, K.; Busby, L.; Chiu, Y.; Crotinger, J.; Dubois, B.; Dubois, P.F.; Langdon, B.; Motteler, Z.C.; Takemoto, J.; Taylor, S.; Willmann, P.; Wilson, S. )

    1993-08-01

    BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientific programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.

  6. Neuromechanical Basis of Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoka, Roger M.

    This textbook provides a scientific basis for the study of human motion. The eight chapters are organized under three major sections. Part One--The Force-Motion Relationship--contains chapters on (1) motion; (2) force; (3) types of movement analysis. In Part Two--The Simple Joint System--chapters concern (4) simple joint system components; (5)…

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  8. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  9. Basis Selection for Wavelet Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A wavelet basis selection procedure is presented for wavelet regression. Both the basis and the threshold are selected using cross-validation. The method includes the capability of incorporating prior knowledge on the smoothness (or shape of the basis functions) into the basis selection procedure. The results of the method are demonstrated on sampled functions widely used in the wavelet regression literature. The results of the method are contrasted with other published methods.

  10. [Basis of radiation protection].

    PubMed

    Roth, J; Schweizer, P; Gückel, C

    1996-06-29

    After an introduction, three selected contributions to the 10th Course on Radiation Protection held at the University Hospital of Basel are presented. The principles of radiation protection and new Swiss legislation are discussed as the basis for radiological protection. Ways are proposed of reducing radiation exposure while optimizing the X-ray picture with a minimum dose to patient and personnel. Radiation effects from low doses. From the beginning, life on this planet has been exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources. For about one century additional irradiation has reached us from man-made sources as well. In Switzerland the overall annual radiation exposure from ambient and man-made sources amounts to about 4 mSv. The terrestrial and cosmic radiation and natural radionuclids in the body cause about 1.17 mSv (29%). As much as 1.6 mSv (40%) results from exposure to radon and its progenies, primarily inside homes. Medical applications contribute approximately 1 mSv (26%) to the annual radiation exposure and releases from atomic weapons, nuclear facilities and miscellaneous industrial operations yield less than 0.12 mSv (< 5%) to the annual dose. Observations of detrimental radiation effects from intermediate to high doses are challenged by observations of biopositive adaptive responses and hormesis following low dose exposure. The important question, whether cellular adaptive response or hormesis could cause beneficial effects to the human organism that would outweigh the detrimental effects attributed to low radiation doses, remains to be resolved. Whether radiation exerts a detrimental, inhibitory, modifying or even beneficial effect is likely to result from identical molecular lesions but to depend upon their quantity, localization and time scale of initiation, as well as the specific responsiveness of the cellular systems involved. For matters of radiation protection the bionegative radiation effects are classified as deterministic effects or

  11. Frauen, Bildung und Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestvogel, Renate

    1987-12-01

    The author presents first steps towards a development-based concept of women's education in the industrialized countries. Some elements of this concept are: (1) planning and action in a global context, (2) the local or regional bias given to education, (3) promotion of an intercultural perspective, (4) reducing the power of structures that encourage oppression. The author's observations are based on the following propositions: the `development process' in the industrialized countries has had terrible effects all over the world and it is necessary that women also consider their roles in what the author considers to be a process of destruction. This is because women are part of the overall system and contribute to its perpetuation in the measure of their own socialization. Connections are established between the destruction of the environment and the individual, as also between the victims and assailants of racism and sexism with a view to clarifying unidentified parts of the female consciousness. Beyond this, the role of European women in the context of colonialism and the present contact between European women and their counterparts from other cultures are examined with particular attention being paid to the exercise of power and force in the family and society.

  12. BASIS9.4. The Basis Code Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Allsman, R.; Barrett, K.; Busby, L.; Chiu, Y.; Crotinger, J.; Dubois, B.; Dubois, P.F.; Langdon, B.; Motteler, Z.C.; Takemoto, J.; Taylor, S.; Willmann, P.; Wilson, S.

    1993-08-01

    BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientific programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.

  13. Neurocybernetic basis of semantic processes.

    PubMed

    Restian, A

    1984-11-01

    Although semantics cannot be reduced to neurophysiology, it must have however a certain neurophysiologic basis and this paper deals with, that neurophysiologic basis which, in fact, has a neurocybernetic basis. The paper first approaches the relations between information and signification and their part within the nervous system's work. Then, it analyses semantic function discoverying neurocybernetic mechanisms which can be proper not only to the conventional signs but also to the objects and phenomena which in turn can play the sign's part. Finally, semantic levels of the nervous system, beginning with the most elementary level of unity, as letters are, and up to the level of the highest ideas and concepts the brain is working with, are described.

  14. The Basis Code Development System

    1994-03-15

    BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientificmore » programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.« less

  15. GASB's Basis of Accounting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovlak, Daniel L.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board began its "Measurement Focus/Basis of Accounting" project, which addresses measurement issues and revenue and expenditure recognition problems involving governmental funds. This article explains the project's background, alternatives discussed by the board, and tentative conclusions and…

  16. Reflection Relations and Fermionic Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negro, S.; Smirnov, F.

    2013-12-01

    There are two approaches to computing the one-point functions for sine-Gordon model in infinite volume. One is based on the use of the reflection relations, this is a bootstrap type procedure. Another is based on using the fermionic basis which originated in the study of lattice model. We show that the two procedures are deeply interrelated.

  17. A Molecular Basis of Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the molecular basis of cancer, focusing on genetics of the disease. Indicates that human cancers are initiated by oncogenes (altered versions of normal genes) and that in one case the critical alteration is a single point mutation that changes one amino acid in the protein encoded by the gene. (JN)

  18. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  19. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  20. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Boyle, J. M.; Yule, T. J.

    2001-08-28

    To enhance task performance in partially structured environment, enhancement of teleoperation was proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couples sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, presented in this paper is a perceptual basis for the motor agents. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extracts environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms--sensor fission, fusion, and fashion--becomes basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  1. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  2. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  3. The Basis version of LASNEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, P. F.

    1990-10-01

    We have made major changes to the computer science aspects of our laser fusion simulation program LASNEX. LASNEX is now using the Basis system, a FORTRAN development system developed over the last six years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This has given users greatly increased power and flexibility. We have eliminated all non-standard usage and macros, enabling us to begin the port of LASNEX to workstations. At the same time, we have completely redone the system used to maintain the source and create new versions of LASNEX, resulting in major gains in capability and productivity.

  4. The Basis version of LASNEX

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, P.F.

    1990-10-26

    We have made major changes to the computer science aspects of our laser fusion simulation program LASNEX. LASNEX is now using the Basis system, a Fortran development system developed over the last six years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This has given users greatly increased power and flexibility. We have eliminated all non-standard usage and macros, enabling us to begin the port of LASNEX to workstations. At the same time, we have completely redone the system used to maintain the source and create new versions of LASNEX, resulting in major gains in capability and productivity. 5 refs.

  5. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  6. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-27

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself.

  7. The neurological basis of occupation.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline.

  8. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  9. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis. PMID:24447924

  10. The Chemical Basis of Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Molecular biology now dominates pharmacology so thoroughly that it is difficult to recall that only a generation ago the field was very different. To understand drug action today, we characterize the targets through which they act and new drug leads are discovered on the basis of target structure and function. Until the mid-1980s the information often flowed in reverse: investigators began with organic molecules and sought targets, relating receptors not by sequence or structure but by their ligands. Recently, investigators have returned to this chemical view of biology, bringing to it systematic and quantitative methods of relating targets by their ligands. This has allowed the discovery of new targets for established drugs, suggested the bases for their side effects, and predicted the molecular targets underlying phenotypic screens. The bases for these new methods, some of their successes and liabilities, and new opportunities for their use are described. PMID:21058655

  11. The neurological basis of occupation.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline. PMID:17623380

  12. Structural basis of metal hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity is a common immune disorder. Human immune systems mount the allergic attacks on metal ions through skin contacts, lung inhalation and metal-containing artificial body implants. The consequences can be simple annoyances to life-threatening systemic illness. Allergic hyper-reactivities to nickel (Ni) and beryllium (Be) are the best-studied human metal hypersensitivities. Ni-contact dermatitis affects 10 % of the human population, whereas Be compounds are the culprits of chronic Be disease (CBD). αβ T cells (T cells) play a crucial role in these hypersensitivity reactions. Metal ions work as haptens and bind to the surface of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and peptide complex. This modifies the binding surface of MHC and triggers the immune response of T cells. Metal-specific αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) are usually MHC restricted, especially MHC class II (MHCII) restricted. Numerous models have been proposed, yet the mechanisms and molecular basis of metal hypersensitivity remain elusive. Recently, we determined the crystal structures of the Ni and Be presenting human MHCII molecules, HLA-DR52c (DRA*0101, DRB3*0301) and HLA-DP2 (DPA1*0103, DPB1*0201). These structures revealed unusual features of MHCII molecules and shed light on how metal ions are recognized by T cells. PMID:22983897

  13. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  15. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  16. Structural basis of spectrin elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.W.; Stevens, F.J.; Luthi, U.; Goldin, S.B.

    1991-10-17

    A new model of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin is proposed. The secondary structure of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin and its folding into a condensed structure that can convert reversibly in situ, into an elongated configuration is predicted from its deduced protein sequence. Results from conformational and amphipathicity analyses suggest that {alpha}-spectrin consists mainly of short amphipathicity helices interconnected by flexible turns and/or coils. The distribution of charges and amphipathicity of the helices can facilitate their folding into stable domains of 4 and 3 helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. The association between adjacent four- and three-helix domains further organize them into recurring seven-helix motifs that might constitute the basic structural units of the extended {alpha}-spectrin. The elongated spectrin molecule packs, in a sinusoidal fashion, through interactions between neighboring motifs into a compact structure. We suggest that the reversible extension and contraction of this sigmoidally packed structure is the molecular basis of the mechanism by which spectrin contributes to the elasticity of the red cell membrane.

  17. Structural basis for selectin mechanochemistry.

    PubMed

    Springer, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Selectins are adhesion molecules that resist large tensile forces applied by hydrodynamic forces to leukocytes binding to vessel walls. In crystals, the liganded (high-affinity) and unliganded (low-affinity) conformations differ in orientation between their tandem lectin and EGF domains. I examine how tensile force exerted on a selectin-ligand complex in vivo could favor the more extended, high-affinity conformation. Allostery is transmitted from the EGF-lectin domain interface to the ligand-binding interface on the lectin domain, 30 A away. Trp-1 of the lectin domain and the long axis of the EGF domain form an L-shaped prybar that is welded together by hydrogen bonds to the Trp-1 alpha-amino group. Pivoting of the prybar induced by force demolishes an interface between the Trp-1 side chain and the lectin domain at a switch1 region. These changes are transmitted by rigid body movement of the switch2 region to rearrangements in the switch3 region at the ligand binding site. Another switch region corresponds to a single residue in the EGF domain with large effects on ligand binding and rolling adhesion. Allostery in selectins, and the alignment of tensile force on a selectin-ligand complex with the transition pathway for conformational change, explain much of the structural basis for selectin mechanochemistry.

  18. The autoimmune basis of narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Mahlios, Josh; De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1*06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy and immune system gene polymorphisms, including the identification of polymorphisms in the T cell receptor alpha locus, TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H (CTSH) the purinergic receptor P2RY11, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Recently, attention has been raised regarding a spike in cases of childhood narcolepsy in 2010 following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) in China and vaccination with Pandemrix, an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine that was used in Europe. How the immune system may be involved in disease initiation and/or progression remains a challenge to researchers. Potential immunological pathways that could lead to the specific elimination of hypocretin producing neurons include molecular mimicry or bystander activation, and are likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as upper airway infections. PMID:23725858

  19. BASIS: A GRB mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Teegarden, B.; Barbier, L.; Cline, T.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Palmer, D.; Krizmanic, J.; Fenimore, E.; Fishman, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hurley, K.; Paciesas, W.; van Paradijs, J.; Woosley, S.; Leventhal, M.; McCammon, D.; Sanders, W.; Schaefer, B.

    1996-08-01

    We are studying a gamma-ray burst mission concept called the Burst ArcSecond Imaging and Spectroscopy (BASIS) as part of NASA's New Mission Concepts for Astrophysics program. The scientific objectives are to accurately locate bursts, determine their distance scale, and measure the physical characteristics of the emission region. Arcsecond burst positions (angular resolution ~30 arcsec, source positions ~3 arcsec for >10-6 erg/cm2 bursts) would be obtained for ~100 bursts per year using the 10-200 keV emission. This would allow the first deep, unconfused counterpart searches at other wavelengths. The key technological breakthrough that makes such measurements possible is the development of CdZnTe room-temperature semiconductor detectors with fine (~100 micron) spatial resolution. Fine spectroscopy would be obtained between 0.2 and 200 keV. The 0.2 keV threshold would allow the first measurements of absorption in our Galaxy and possible host galaxies, constraining the distance scale and host environment.

  20. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  1. The genetic basis of cognition.

    PubMed

    Flint, J

    1999-11-01

    The molecular characterization of single-gene disorders or chromosomal abnormalities that result in a cognitive abnormality (predominantly mental retardation) and of the genetic variants responsible for variation in intellectual abilities (such as IQ, language impairment and dyslexia) is expected to provide new insights into the biology of human cognitive processes. To date this hope has not been realized. Success in finding mutations that give rise to mental retardation has not been matched by advances in our understanding of how genes influence cognition. In contrast, the use of engineered mutations in mice to study models of learning and memory has cast new light on the molecular basis of memory. A comparison of studies of human and mouse mutations indicates the limitations of current genetic approaches to the understanding of human cognition. It is essential to interpret a mutation's effect within a well-characterized neural system; mutations can be used to define gene function only when the mutation has an effect on a system whose constituents form a serial causal chain, such as the molecular components of a signal transduction pathway. Typically, however, genetic mutations with a cognitive and behavioural phenotype are characterized by specific effects on different systems whose inter-relationships are unknown. Genetic approaches are currently limited to exploring neuronal function; it is not yet clear whether they will throw light on how neuronal connections give rise to cognitive processes. We need a much greater integration of different levels of understanding of cognition in order to exploit the genetic discoveries. In short, a rapprochement between molecular and systems neuroscience is required.

  2. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  3. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  4. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  5. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  6. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  7. Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Entwicklungs-, Umsetzungs- und Fortschreibungsprozess der Bund-Länder-Strategie für Städte und Regionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, Mariam; Sinz, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Die Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung stellte im Mai 2010 fest, dass sich die „Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland“ (2006) bewährt haben und bei der Gestaltung der räumlichen Entwicklung umgesetzt werden. Um die Leitbilder den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und naturräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen anzupassen und die Erkenntnisse aus dem bisherigen Diskussions- und Umsetzungsprozess in Politik und Praxis einzubeziehen, sind sie zu ergänzen und weiterzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der Fortschreibung werden die Themen „Partnerschaften und Strategien für Stadtregionen und ländliche Räume“, „Mobilität und Logistik“ sowie „Klimaschutz und Energieversorgung“ stehen.

  8. Authorization basis for the 209-E Building

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFANY, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    This Authorization Basis document is one of three documents that constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. Per the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 98-WSD-074, this document, the 209-E Building Preliminary Hazards Analysis (WHC-SD-WM-TI-789), and the 209-E Building Safety Evaluation Report (97-WSD-074) constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. This Authorization Basis and the associated controls and safety programs will remain in place until safety documentation addressing deactivation of the 209-E Building is developed by the contractor and approved by RL.

  9. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/Lα two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1.

  10. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  11. Entwicklung und Struktur der Proplastiden

    PubMed Central

    Mühlethaler, Kurt; Frey-Wyssling, Albert

    1959-01-01

    In this study the proplastid development in embryonic cells is described for the apical meristem of Elodea canadensis, embryo sacs from Lilies, and Begonia leaf buds. The formation of these cell organelles originates with submicroscopical particles which consist of a homogeneous stroma with a surrounding double membrane. When these proplastids reach an average size of 1 µ, the inner layer of the membrane begins to invaginate into the stroma. This process is comparable to tubuli formation in mitochondria. Under growth conditions with sufficient exposure to light, the development of the grana and stroma lamellae proceeds without interruption. If the plants are kept in the dark, small vesicles are formed which accumulate in the prolamellar body of the proplastids. After illumination these elementary vesicles merge to form membranes which evolve into grana and stroma lamellae. The structural similarity of the early proplastid stages with the mitochondria seems to indicate that there exists some phylogenetic relationship between the two cell organelles. PMID:14424894

  12. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im Apogalaktikum statt. (4) Die Geschwindigkeitsdispersionen der Komponenten im Kern sind im PG entlang der Sichtlinie kurzzeitig stark erhöht, sie fallen ebenso wie die Dichten und deren Verhältnis mit jedem PG stufenförmig ab; einiges davon sind nur Projektionseffekte. (5) Der radiale Verlauf der Geschwindigkeitsdispersion ist vom Bahnort abhängig er wurde genau untersucht. (6) Der Satellit zerfällt über einen Kreislauf aus Massenverlust, flacher werdendem Potential und kleiner werdendem Gezeitenradius. Equilibrium models of one- and two-component satellite galaxies are created. The tidal influence of the Milky Way, which is modeled as a rigid external potential, is examined. A first set of simulations adopting originally spherically-symmetric, one-component satellites show that after elliptical deformation, a bar and tails of unequal length arise which change their morphology cyclically. By considering comparative simulations, the following phenomena are discovered: (1) High-density regions in the tails, (2) low-density zones around the core or bar, (3) an often concealed bar. The overall morphology as function of time is analysed. The particles are lost from the core via the bar and move along certain morphologically characteristic structures into the tails. After deducing general quantities of the multi-component King model, three stable standard models of two-component satellite galaxies with different distributions of dark and visible matter are found. These models have a mass ratio of 1:10 for baryonic to dark matter. Without restriction to the universality of the results, the Large Magellanic Cloud was taken as basic prototype for these models. To choose the proper orbits, the tidal radius of the three-component model of the potential of the Galaxy is calculated both analytically and numerically. Then the simulations are analysed with the different behaviour of the components being the main focus of interest. Main results: (1) It is possible to detach a large fraction of dark matter but only a small amount of visible matter. Dark and visible matter may form different morphological structures. (2) Depending on the concentrations of the components, self-gravity may be the decisive factor for determining the morphology. (3) The dissolution of the core of the satellite occurs at perigalacticon (PG), but it does not decay before apogalacticon. (4) At PG the core densities of the components, their ratio and the velocity dispersions fall off in steps, the velocity dispersions along the line of sight show a high narrow peak. Some of these effects are just projection effects. (5) The radial dependence of the velocity dispersion is dependent on the orbital position; it is analysed in detail. (6) The satellite decays through a cycle of mass loss, an increasingly shallow potential and decreasing tidal radius.

  13. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis. 10.1 Section 10.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and...

  14. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis. 10.1 Section 10.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and...

  15. 29 CFR 552.5 - Casual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casual basis. 552.5 Section 552.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.5 Casual basis. As used...

  16. 29 CFR 552.5 - Casual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Casual basis. 552.5 Section 552.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.5 Casual basis. As used...

  17. 29 CFR 552.5 - Casual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Casual basis. 552.5 Section 552.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.5 Casual basis. As used...

  18. 29 CFR 552.5 - Casual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Casual basis. 552.5 Section 552.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.5 Casual basis. As used...

  19. 29 CFR 552.5 - Casual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Casual basis. 552.5 Section 552.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.5 Casual basis. As used...

  20. 42 CFR 406.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 406.1 Section 406.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT General Provisions § 406.1 Statutory basis. Sections...

  1. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and...

  2. 42 CFR 408.200 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 408.200 Section 408.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 408.200 Statutory basis. This subpart implements provisions of section 1839(e) of the Social...

  3. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  4. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  5. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  6. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  7. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  8. 20 CFR 900.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis. 900.1 Section 900.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.1 Basis. This statement is issued by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (the Joint Board) pursuant to...

  9. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 418.1 Section 418.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part...

  10. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statutory basis. 418.1 Section 418.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This...

  11. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statutory basis. 418.1 Section 418.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This...

  12. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis. 418.1 Section 418.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This...

  13. 42 CFR 418.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory basis. 418.1 Section 418.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.1 Statutory basis. This part...

  14. 42 CFR 405.2400 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL... Services § 405.2400 Basis. Subpart X is based on the provisions of the following sections of the Act... covered by the Medicare program....

  15. Generalized multiscale radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Billings, Stephen A; Wei, Hua-Liang; Balikhin, Michael A

    2007-12-01

    A novel modelling framework is proposed for constructing parsimonious and flexible multiscale radial basis function networks (RBF). Unlike a conventional standard single scale RBF network, where all the basis functions have a common kernel width, the new network structure adopts multiscale Gaussian functions as the bases, where each selected centre has multiple kernel widths, to provide more flexible representations with better generalization properties for general nonlinear dynamical systems. As a direct extension of the traditional single scale Gaussian networks, the new multiscale network is easy to implement and is quick to learn using standard learning algorithms. A k-means clustering algorithm and an improved orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm are used to determine the unknown parameters in the network model including the centres and widths of the basis functions, and the weights between the basis functions. It is demonstrated that the new network can lead to a parsimonious model with much better generalization property compared with the traditional single width RBF networks.

  16. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  17. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tuomas P; Lehtola, Susi; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J; Nieminen, Risto M

    2015-03-01

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond. PMID:25747068

  18. TMD PDFs in the Laguerre polynomial basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    We suggest the modified matching procedure for TMD PDF to the integrated PDF aimed to increase the amount of perturbative information in the TMD PDF expression. The procedure consists in the selection and usage of the non-minimal operator basis, which restricts the expansion to desired general behavior. The implication of OPE allows to systematic account of the higher order corrections. In the case of TMD PDF we assume the Gaussian behavior, which suggests Laguerre polynomial basis as the best for the convergence of OPE. We present the leading and next-to-leading expression of TMD PDF in this basis. The obtained perturbative expression for the TMD PDF is valid in the wide region of b T (we estimate this region as b T ≲ 2 - 3 GeV-1 depending on x).

  19. Full Waveform Inversion with Optimal Basis Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Chang, Qianshun; Sheng, Ping

    2003-03-01

    Based on the approach suggested by Tarantola, and Gauthier etal., we show that the alternate use of the step (linear) function basis and the block function (quasi-δ function) basis can give accurate full waveform inversion results for the layered acoustic systems, starting from a uniform background. Our method is robust against additive white noise (up to 20% of the signal) and can resolve layers that are comparable to or smaller than a wavelength in thickness. The physical reason for the success of our approach is illustrated through a simple example.

  20. Full waveform inversion with optimal basis functions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Chang, Qianshun; Sheng, Ping

    2003-03-14

    Based on the approach suggested by Tarantola, and Gauthier et al., we show that the alternate use of the step (linear) function basis and the block function (quasi-delta function) basis can give accurate full waveform inversion results for the layered acoustic systems, starting from a uniform background. Our method is robust against additive white noise (up to 20% of the signal) and can resolve layers that are comparable to or smaller than a wavelength in thickness. The physical reason for the success of our approach is illustrated through a simple example.

  1. The Q field, a variable quaternion basis

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.P.

    1986-06-01

    The author introduces the concept of the Q field as a 2 x 2 matrix representation of the variable basis of vectors satisfying the rule of multiplication of quaternion imaginary numbers and as an element of the group of transformations of the basis preserving the invariance of this multiplication rule. The rule for projecting such matrices on a given direction is determined with the help of the characteristic functions of the matrices-vectors of the Q field. The differential structure of Q fields is studied and the theory developed is illustrated by an example of a model-topological classification of particles according to the magnitude of their spin.

  2. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  3. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  4. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  5. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  6. 23 CFR 140.904 - Reimbursement basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement basis. 140.904 Section 140.904 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... program. (2) Incurred subsequent to the date of authorization by the Federal Highway Administration...

  7. Salary basis of payment for overtime exemption.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, J C

    1994-07-01

    Often employers' problems in complying with the Fair Labor Standards Act salary basis of payment rules arise from their paid time off policies. Although it is possible to write policies that apply to both exempt and nonexempt employees, such policies are complex, and agencies may need to review their compliance with these rules.

  8. 42 CFR 405.500 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 405.500 Section 405.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Criteria for Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.500...

  9. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  10. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Space Launch Act of 1984, and applicable treaties and international agreements to which the United... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Space Launch Act of 1984, and applicable treaties and international agreements to which the United... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Space Launch Act of 1984, and applicable treaties and international agreements to which the United... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Space Launch Act of 1984, and applicable treaties and international agreements to which the United... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 14 CFR 400.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Space Launch Act of 1984, and applicable treaties and international agreements to which the United... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis. 400.1 Section 400.1 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  16. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  17. 42 CFR 433.300 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Providers § 433.300 Basis. This subpart implements— (a) Section 1903(d)(2)(A) of the Act, which directs that quarterly Federal payments to the States under title XIX (Medicaid) of the Act are to be reduced or... made. (b) Section 1903(d)(2) (C) and (D) of the Act, which provides that a State has 60 days...

  18. 29 CFR 541.602 - Salary basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quantity of the work performed. Subject to the exceptions provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an exempt employee must receive the full salary for any week in which the employee performs any work without... they perform no work. An employee is not paid on a salary basis if deductions from the...

  19. 42 CFR 405.2400 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL... Services § 405.2400 Basis. Subpart X is based on the provisions of the following sections of the Act: (a... health clinic services and Federally qualified health center services covered by the Medicare program....

  20. 42 CFR 436.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 65 years; State residence requirements excluding individuals who reside in the State; and... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS General Provisions and Definitions § 436.2 Basis. This part implements the following sections of the Act and public laws that...

  1. 42 CFR 438.600 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 438.600 Section 438.600 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED.... This subpart is based on sections 1902(a)(4), 1902(a)(19), 1903(m), and 1932(d)(1) of the Act....

  2. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system that complies with §§ 120.6, 120.7, and 120.8, or otherwise to operate in accordance with...

  3. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system that complies with §§ 120.6, 120.7, and 120.8, or otherwise to operate in accordance with...

  4. The Biological Basis of Learning and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)

  5. THE METABOLIC BASIS OF ARSENIC TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metabolic Basis of Arsenic Toxicity

    David J. Thomas, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Methylati...

  6. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  7. The Contextualist Basis of Scientific Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guichun

    2014-03-01

    From perspectives of contextual structure, elements and features, this paper analyses the contextualist basis of scientific explanation. It is articulated that contextual analysis specifies the boundary conditions of syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics, clarifies the essence and value-orientation, constructs a conversational platform, and unveils the progress condition and historical continuity of scientific explanation.

  8. [Neurocybernetic basis of hallucinations and related illusions].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, A

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of circuits of neurons involved in the development of regular perception are used as a basis for discussing possible processes proceeding in these circuits and producing hallucinations and other illusions and false perceptions in mental patients or normal subjects.

  9. 42 CFR 408.200 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... § 408.200 Statutory basis. This subpart implements provisions of section 1839(e) of the Social Security Act that allow State or local government agencies to enter into an agreement with the Secretary to...

  10. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  11. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  12. 75 FR 75896 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR 1 RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In rule document 2010-25504 beginning on page 64072 in the issue of...

  13. 75 FR 6166 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts, 1, 31, and 301 RIN 1545-Bl66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In proposed rule document E9-29855 beginning on...

  14. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  16. Genetic basis of human brain evolution

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human brain evolution span a wide range from single nucleotide substitutions to large-scale structural alterations of the genome. Similarly, the functional consequences of these genetic changes vary greatly, including protein-sequence alterations, cis-regulatory changes and even the emergence of new genes and the extinction of existing ones. Here, we provide a general review of recent findings into the genetic basis of human brain evolution, highlight the most notable trends that have emerged and caution against overinterpretation of current data. PMID:18848363

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2006-07-31

    This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls.

  18. High Scores at BASIS Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    While U.S. schools struggled to reach even an average score on a key international exam for 15-year-olds in 2012, BASIS Tucson North, an economically modest, ethnically diverse charter school in Arizona, outperformed every country in the world, and left even Shanghai, China's academic gem in the dust. With the U.S. frantic about its place in…

  19. Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.

  20. A Genetic Basis for Motivated Exercise.

    PubMed

    Good, Deborah J; Li, Mengjiao; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a genetic basis for motivated exercise, with evidence of a role for nescient helix-loop-helix-2 (NHLH2/Nhlh2). Nhlh2 transcriptionally regulates the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene. This article examines the evidence for the hypothesis that polymorphisms in NHLH2 or MAO-A contribute to differences in the human motivation for exercise and physical activity. The genetic pathways that link exercise and motivation are discussed. PMID:26196864

  1. The basis spline method and associated techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We outline the Basis Spline and Collocation methods for the solution of Partial Differential Equations. Particular attention is paid to the theory of errors, and the handling of non-self-adjoint problems which are generated by the collocation method. We discuss applications to Poisson's equation, the Dirac equation, and the calculation of bound and continuum states of atomic and nuclear systems. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  2. The molecular basis for novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jethro; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The era of targeted therapy for glioblastoma has arrived, but results have been modest thus far. This review highlights the challenges inherent to treating glioblastoma with targeted therapy and delves into the complex signaling networks that form the molecular basis of novel therapies. Past failures, current challenges, and future possibilities are discussed in the context of the classic "oncogenic" signaling network, as well as the "nononcogenic" stress response network.

  3. A Genetic Basis for Motivated Exercise.

    PubMed

    Good, Deborah J; Li, Mengjiao; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a genetic basis for motivated exercise, with evidence of a role for nescient helix-loop-helix-2 (NHLH2/Nhlh2). Nhlh2 transcriptionally regulates the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene. This article examines the evidence for the hypothesis that polymorphisms in NHLH2 or MAO-A contribute to differences in the human motivation for exercise and physical activity. The genetic pathways that link exercise and motivation are discussed.

  4. Neurons with radial basis like rate functions.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Zsolt László

    2005-01-01

    Artificial neural networks constructed with "locally tuned processing units" and more generally referred to as "radial basis function networks" have been proposed by a number of workers. In this communication, I submit a conjecture, based on indirect experimental and direct computational evidence of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, that there may be biological neurons in nervous systems for which the rate function is locally tuned. If proved to be valid, this conjecture may simplify neurodynamic models of some functions of nervous systems.

  5. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  6. Biological basis for protection of the environment.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C-M

    2012-01-01

    The approach to protection of the environment may vary considerably depending on ethical basis, methodological approach, and identification of endpoints and protective targets. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reviewed these issues in Publication 91, 'A framework for assessing the impact of ionising radiation on non-human species', published in 2003. At the same time, ICRP proposed that a possible future ICRP system addressing environmental assessment and protection would focus on biota, that the system should be effect-based so that any reasoning about adequate protection would be derived from firm understanding of harm at different exposure levels, and that the system should be based on data sets for Reference Animals and Plants. ICRP has thus chosen to approach environmental protection on the basis of biology, and further developed the approach in Publications 103, 108 and 114. This paper explores the biological basis for the ICRP system of environmental protection from the viewpoints of: the effects endpoints of concern; the hierarchy of biological organisation; adequate and appropriate protective targets; and the derivation of benchmark dose (rates) to guide protective efforts.

  7. 40 CFR 791.40 - Basis for the proposed order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.40 Basis for the proposed order... other basis for allocation if necessary. Additional factors that may be taken into account include,...

  8. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention. PMID:27422443

  9. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tröbs, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1) exact staging as well as (2) safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed. PMID:20671845

  10. Chopped random-basis quantum optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Caneva, Tommaso; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone

    2011-08-15

    In this work, we describe in detail the chopped random basis (CRAB) optimal control technique recently introduced to optimize time-dependent density matrix renormalization group simulations [P. Doria, T. Calarco, and S. Montangero, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 190501 (2011)]. Here, we study the efficiency of this control technique in optimizing different quantum processes and we show that in the considered cases we obtain results equivalent to those obtained via different optimal control methods while using less resources. We propose the CRAB optimization as a general and versatile optimal control technique.

  11. Tests for Wavelets as a Basis Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven

    A wavelet transformation is a special type of filter usually reserved for image processing and other applications. We develop metrics to evaluate wavelets for general problems on test one-dimensional systems. The goal is to eventually use a wavelet basis in electronic structure calculations. We compare a variety of orthogonal wavelets such as coiflets, symlets, and daubechies wavelets. We also evaluate a new type of orthogonal wavelet with dilation factor three which is both symmetric and compact in real space. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award #DE-SC008696.

  12. The Cellular Basis of a Corollary Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2006-01-01

    How do animals discriminate self-generated from external stimuli during behavior and prevent desensitization of their sensory pathways? A fundamental concept in neuroscience states that neural signals, termed corollary discharges or efference copies, are forwarded from motor to sensory areas. Neurons mediating these signals have proved difficult to identify. We show that a single, multisegmental interneuron is responsible for the pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of auditory neurons in singing crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). Therefore, this neuron represents a corollary discharge interneuron that provides a neuronal basis for the central control of sensory responses.

  13. The cellular basis of a corollary discharge.

    PubMed

    Poulet, James F A; Hedwig, Berthold

    2006-01-27

    How do animals discriminate self-generated from external stimuli during behavior and prevent desensitization of their sensory pathways? A fundamental concept in neuroscience states that neural signals, termed corollary discharges or efference copies, are forwarded from motor to sensory areas. Neurons mediating these signals have proved difficult to identify. We show that a single, multisegmental interneuron is responsible for the pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of auditory neurons in singing crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). Therefore, this neuron represents a corollary discharge interneuron that provides a neuronal basis for the central control of sensory responses.

  14. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  15. Reduced Basis Method for Nanodevices Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pau, George Shu Heng

    2008-05-23

    Ballistic transport simulation in nanodevices, which involves self-consistently solving a coupled Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations, is usually computationally intensive. Here, we propose coupling the reduced basis method with the subband decomposition method to improve the overall efficiency of the simulation. By exploiting a posteriori error estimation procedure and greedy sampling algorithm, we are able to design an algorithm where the computational cost is reduced significantly. In addition, the computational cost only grows marginally with the number of grid points in the confined direction.

  16. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  17. Detection of Gaseous Plumes using Basis Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Lawrence; Walsh, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. There are several methods currently being used to detect plumes. They can be grouped into two categories: those that use a chemical spectral library and those that don’t. The approaches that use chemical libraries include least squares methods and physics-based approaches. They are "optimal" only if the plume chemical is actually in the search set but risk missing chemicals not in the library. The methods that don’t use a chemical spectral library are based on a statistical or data analytical transformation applied to the data. These include principle components, independent components, entropy, Fourier transform, and others. These methods do not explicitly take advantage of the physics of the signal formulation process and therefore don’t exploit all available information in the data. This paper presents initial results of employing basis vectors as a tool for plume detection. It describes the standard generalized least squares approach using gas spectra, presents the detection approach using basis vectors, and compares detection images resulting from applying both methods to synthetic hyperspectral images.

  18. The scientific basis of generalist medicine.

    PubMed

    Pruessner, H T; Hensel, W A; Rasco, T L

    1992-04-01

    The authors state that one of the reasons medical students favor specialist medicine over generalist medicine (i.e., primary care) is that they see generalist medicine as existing in a nebulous world of non-science. Students often feel that the scope of knowledge in generalist disciplines is so broad and unbounded that these fields cannot be approached with sufficient scientific rigor. Students hold this view in part because they are unable to see the shortcomings of the reductionist thinking that dominates medical education and specialty medical care. But now a new field, chaos science, reveals the intellectual basis for generalist medicine, because it finds patterns and order in the behavior of whole, complex systems (such as human beings) and explains the necessity for the experiential, holistic, and intuitive processes that are essential in generalist care. This intellectual basis is neither greater nor lesser than that of specialist medicine--just different. To explain these contentions, the history, strengths, and limits of reductionist thinking are discussed, and aspects of chaos science, such as the butterfly effect and strange attractors, are described. The authors close by emphasizing the importance of striking a balance between reductionist and whole-systems thinking, and challenge students who "have an eye for pattern and a taste for complexity, jagged edges, and sudden leaps" to consider a career in primary care medicine, where they will be, in effect, the chaos scientists of human beings. PMID:1558590

  19. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  20. Genetic basis of human reproductive endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Fauser, B C; Hsueh, A J

    1995-04-01

    Disturbed human reproductive function may be caused by environmental and/or genetic factors. Much information related to single gene defects underlying reproductive failure has become available in recent years due to advances in molecular biology. In this review, techniques currently applied for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis are addressed. We also highlight underlying molecular mechanisms and the corresponding clinical presentation of single gene defects affecting (i) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in disturbed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron migration, or leading to defective gonadotrophins, gonadotrophin receptors and the Gs alpha protein; (ii) gonadal and adrenal steroid biosynthesis and (iii) steroid and insulin receptors. The potential genetic basis of polycystic ovary syndrome is also discussed. Although disease states caused by well-defined genetic abnormalities appear to represent only a small proportion of those found in the patient population, it should be considered that these affected individuals represent only the most severe cases in a wide spectrum of genetic abnormalities underlying disturbed fertility. Comprehension of these extreme cases will provide the basis for the elucidation of more common reproductive disorders as the result of subtle genetic changes or increased susceptibility to environmental factors.

  1. The genetic basis of white tigers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Dong, Gui-Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Li; Zhang, De-Lu; Yang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Tian-You; Zou, Zheng-Ting; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Yan; Bhak, Jong; Cho, Yun Sung; Dai, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Tai-Jiao; Xie, Can; Li, Ruiqiang; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2013-06-01

    The white tiger, an elusive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) variant with white fur and dark stripes, has fascinated humans for centuries ever since its discovery in the jungles of India. Many white tigers in captivity are inbred in order to maintain this autosomal recessive trait and consequently suffer some health problems, leading to the controversial speculation that the white tiger mutation is perhaps a genetic defect. However, the genetic basis of this phenotype remains unknown. Here, we conducted genome-wide association mapping with restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in a pedigree of 16 captive tigers segregating at the putative white locus, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the three parents. Validation in 130 unrelated tigers identified the causative mutation to be an amino acid change (A477V) in the transporter protein SLC45A2. Three-dimensional homology modeling suggests that the substitution may partially block the transporter channel cavity and thus affect melanogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of combining RAD-seq and WGS to rapidly map exotic variants in nonmodel organisms. Our results identify the basis of the longstanding white tiger mystery as the same gene underlying color variation in human, horse, and chicken and highlight its significance as part of the species' natural polymorphism that is viable in the wild.

  2. The genetic basis of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Tafti, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of genes, environment and gene-environment interactions to sleep disorders is increasingly recognized. Well-documented familial and twin sleep disorder studies suggest an important influence of genetic factors. However, only few sleep disorders have an established genetic basis including four rare diseases that may result from a single gene mutation: fatal familial insomnia, familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome, chronic primary insomnia, and narcolepsy with cataplexy. However, most sleep disorders are complex in terms of their genetic susceptibility together with the variable expressivity of the phenotype even within a same family. Recent linkage, genome-wide and candidate gene association studies resulted in the identification of gene mutations, gene localizations, or evidence for susceptibility genes and/or loci in several sleep disorders. Molecular techniques including mainly genome-wide linkage and association studies are further required to identify the contribution of new genes. These identified susceptibility genetic determinants will provide clues to better understand pathogenesis of sleep disorders, to assess the risk for diseases and also to find new drug targets to treat and to prevent the underlying conditions. We reviewed here the role of genetic basis in most of key sleep disorders. PMID:19075715

  3. The genetic basis of white tigers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Dong, Gui-Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Li; Zhang, De-Lu; Yang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Tian-You; Zou, Zheng-Ting; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Yan; Bhak, Jong; Cho, Yun Sung; Dai, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Tai-Jiao; Xie, Can; Li, Ruiqiang; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2013-06-01

    The white tiger, an elusive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) variant with white fur and dark stripes, has fascinated humans for centuries ever since its discovery in the jungles of India. Many white tigers in captivity are inbred in order to maintain this autosomal recessive trait and consequently suffer some health problems, leading to the controversial speculation that the white tiger mutation is perhaps a genetic defect. However, the genetic basis of this phenotype remains unknown. Here, we conducted genome-wide association mapping with restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in a pedigree of 16 captive tigers segregating at the putative white locus, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the three parents. Validation in 130 unrelated tigers identified the causative mutation to be an amino acid change (A477V) in the transporter protein SLC45A2. Three-dimensional homology modeling suggests that the substitution may partially block the transporter channel cavity and thus affect melanogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of combining RAD-seq and WGS to rapidly map exotic variants in nonmodel organisms. Our results identify the basis of the longstanding white tiger mystery as the same gene underlying color variation in human, horse, and chicken and highlight its significance as part of the species' natural polymorphism that is viable in the wild. PMID:23707431

  4. Technical basis for establishing residual radioactive concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr. ); Meck, R.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the release of slightly radioactive property for unrestricted use. On July 3, 1990, the NRC published a Policy Statement concerning slightly radioactive materials that are below regulatory concern (BRC). The BRC Policy Statement establishes the framework within which the Commission will formulate rules or make licensing decisions to exempt from some or all regulatory controls certain practices involving small quantities of radioactive material.'' The heart of the NRC Policy Statement on BRC material is its individual and collective radiation dose limits. To ensure a uniform approach and consistent regulatory decisions, the NRC authorized the development of a comprehensive technical basis that considers the translation of residual contamination levels to annual dose. Radiation doses from residual contamination in buildings and soil are derived from a generic radiation exposure scenario analysis. This paper describes the development of the comprehensive technical basis for translating residual contamination levels to annual dose, provides the modeling details of an example scenario, and presents a comparison of results with existing guidance in Regulatory Guide 1.86. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. The entropic basis of collective behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Richard P.; Garnett, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We identify a unique viewpoint on the collective behaviour of intelligent agents. We first develop a highly general abstract model for the possible future lives these agents may encounter as a result of their decisions. In the context of these possibilities, we show that the causal entropic principle, whereby agents follow behavioural rules that maximize their entropy over all paths through the future, predicts many of the observed features of social interactions among both human and animal groups. Our results indicate that agents are often able to maximize their future path entropy by remaining cohesive as a group and that this cohesion leads to collectively intelligent outcomes that depend strongly on the distribution of the number of possible future paths. We derive social interaction rules that are consistent with maximum entropy group behaviour for both discrete and continuous decision spaces. Our analysis further predicts that social interactions are likely to be fundamentally based on Weber's law of response to proportional stimuli, supporting many studies that find a neurological basis for this stimulus–response mechanism and providing a novel basis for the common assumption of linearly additive ‘social forces’ in simulation studies of collective behaviour. PMID:25833243

  6. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  7. The entropic basis of collective behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mann, Richard P; Garnett, Roman

    2015-05-01

    We identify a unique viewpoint on the collective behaviour of intelligent agents. We first develop a highly general abstract model for the possible future lives these agents may encounter as a result of their decisions. In the context of these possibilities, we show that the causal entropic principle, whereby agents follow behavioural rules that maximize their entropy over all paths through the future, predicts many of the observed features of social interactions among both human and animal groups. Our results indicate that agents are often able to maximize their future path entropy by remaining cohesive as a group and that this cohesion leads to collectively intelligent outcomes that depend strongly on the distribution of the number of possible future paths. We derive social interaction rules that are consistent with maximum entropy group behaviour for both discrete and continuous decision spaces. Our analysis further predicts that social interactions are likely to be fundamentally based on Weber's law of response to proportional stimuli, supporting many studies that find a neurological basis for this stimulus-response mechanism and providing a novel basis for the common assumption of linearly additive 'social forces' in simulation studies of collective behaviour. PMID:25833243

  8. 14 CFR 152.315 - Reporting on accrual basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.315 Reporting on accrual basis. (a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting on accrual basis. 152.315 Section... financial reports on an accrual basis. (b) If records are not maintained on an accrual basis by a sponsor...

  9. 47 CFR 13.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 13.1 Section 13.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. The basis for the rules contained in this part is the Communications Act of 1934,...

  10. A neural basis for social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rilling, James; Gutman, David; Zeh, Thorsten; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Berns, Gregory; Kilts, Clinton

    2002-07-18

    Cooperation based on reciprocal altruism has evolved in only a small number of species, yet it constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life. The iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game has been used to model this form of cooperation. We used fMRI to scan 36 women as they played an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with another woman to investigate the neurobiological basis of cooperative social behavior. Mutual cooperation was associated with consistent activation in brain areas that have been linked with reward processing: nucleus accumbens, the caudate nucleus, ventromedial frontal/orbitofrontal cortex, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. We propose that activation of this neural network positively reinforces reciprocal altruism, thereby motivating subjects to resist the temptation to selfishly accept but not reciprocate favors.

  11. Technical basis for chemical stockpile emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Paddock, R.A.; Absil, M.J.G.

    1995-06-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, an Accident Planning Base Review Group (APBRG) was convened in December 1992. The APBRG`s mission was to update the accident basis for protective action strategy planning in the vicinity of eight US chemical agent stockpile sites. The results of the APBRG`s work are being issued as site-specific Emergency Planning Guides (EPGs). The EPGs give emergency planners--Army, State, and local--updated assessment of the chemical hazard and guidance on how to plan for a broad range of accidents by planning for a manageable number of accident categories. This paper addresses: (1) the rationale for updating the accident planning base; (2) the modeling methodology used to assess the chemical hazard; and (3) strategies that are advocated in the EPGs for the use of models by planners.

  12. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  13. A brain basis for musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Sedley, William; Barnes, Gareth R; Teki, Sundeep; Friston, Karl J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to examine variation in the underlying oscillatory brain activity in different states. Source-space analysis capable of single-subject inference defined left-lateralised power increases, associated with stronger hallucinations, in the gamma band in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, and in the beta band in motor cortex and posteromedial cortex. The data indicate that these areas form a crucial network in the generation of MH, and are consistent with a model in which MH are generated by persistent reciprocal communication in a predictive coding hierarchy.

  14. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  15. The genetic basis of complex human behaviors.

    PubMed

    Plomin, R; Owen, M J; McGuffin, P

    1994-06-17

    Quantitative genetic research has built a strong case for the importance of genetic factors in many complex behavioral disorders and dimensions in the domains of psychopathology, personality, and cognitive abilities. Quantitative genetics can also provide an empirical guide and a conceptual framework for the application of molecular genetics. The success of molecular genetics in elucidating the genetic basis of behavioral disorders has largely relied on a reductionistic one gene, one disorder (OGOD) approach in which a single gene is necessary and sufficient to develop a disorder. In contrast, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach involves the search for multiple genes, each of which is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of a trait. The OGOD and QTL approaches have both advantages and disadvantages for identifying genes that affect complex human behaviors.

  16. Molecular basis of thalassemia in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidli, Aisha; Hamodat, Mowafak; Fawzi, Zainab; Abu-Laban, Mohamed; Gerard, Nathalie; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on the molecular basis of beta-thalassemia (thal) in Qatar, a country in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. To decipher the molecular spectrum of beta- thalassemic alleles present in Qatar, we studied 31 clinically recognized patients, including three with sickle cell disease and beta-thal, and an additional six cases referred for unexplained microcytic anemia. We found 12 different beta-thalassemic alleles and two yet to be defined alleles, mutations likely occurring elsewhere than in the beta-globin gene per se. This is quite striking, given the small size of the study population, and highlights not only the ethnic diversity, but also the necessity of further investigating the thalassemic spectrum. PMID:17486492

  17. [Centralized biobanks: a basis for medical research].

    PubMed

    Bernemann, Inga; Kersting, Markus; Prokein, Jana; Hummel, Michael; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Biobanks are the basis for a substantial part of biomedical research. The development, establishment and operation of biobanks are connected to a broad range of aspects, mainly concerning the preparation, storage, usage and dissemination of samples and associated data, in addition to the social and public involvement of these processes. These complex requirements can often only be managed in large centralized biobanks. In recent years, centralized clinical biobanks have been established in several university clinics in Germany. Similar activities take place in other European countries and worldwide. This article highlights the requirements and main tasks of centralized clinical biobanks: high-quality pre-analytics and sample storage, the creation of professional IT structures, data protection, ethical issues, in addition to quality and project management.

  18. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool.

  19. The molecular basis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Maleki, Soheila J; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-05-01

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures and discusses how modifications both enzymatic and non-enzymatic affect digestion, innate immune recognition, and IgE interactions. The allergen structures help explain cross-reactivity among allergens from different sources, which is useful in improving patient diagnostics. Surprisingly, it was recently noted that similar short peptide sequences among unrelated peanut allergens could also be a source of cross-reactivity. The molecular features of peanut allergens continue to inform predictions and provide new research directions in the study of allergic disease. PMID:24633613

  20. Basis Function Sampling for Material Property Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Chiu, Chi-Cheng; Joshi, Abhijeet A.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-03-01

    Wang-Landau sampling, and the associated class of flat histogram simulation methods, have been particularly successful for free energy calculations in a wide array of physical systems. Practically, the convergence of these calculations to a target free energy surface is hampered by reliance on parameters which are unknown a priori. We derive and implement a method based on orthogonal (basis) functions which is fast, parameter-free, and geometrically robust. An important feature of this method is its ability to achieve arbitrary levels of description for the free energy. It is thus ideally suited to in silico measurement of elastic moduli and other quantities related to free energy perturbations. We demonstrate the utility of such applications by applying our method to calculation of the Frank elastic constants of the Lebwohl-Lasher model.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S S

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  2. Generalization performance of radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yunwen; Ding, Lixin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies the generalization performance of radial basis function (RBF) networks using local Rademacher complexities. We propose a general result on controlling local Rademacher complexities with the L1 -metric capacity. We then apply this result to estimate the RBF networks' complexities, based on which a novel estimation error bound is obtained. An effective approximation error bound is also derived by carefully investigating the Hölder continuity of the lp loss function's derivative. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the RBF network minimizing an appropriately constructed structural risk admits a significantly better learning rate when compared with the existing results. An empirical study is also performed to justify the application of our structural risk in model selection.

  3. The molecular basis of hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhensen; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are caused by dermal injuries such as trauma and burns to the deep dermis, which are red, raised, itchy and painful. They can cause cosmetic disfigurement or contractures if craniofacial areas or mobile region of the skin are affected. Abnormal wound healing with more extracellular matrix deposition than degradation will result in HTS formation. This review will introduce the physiology of wound healing, dermal HTS formation, treatment and difference with keloids in the skin, and it also review the current advance of molecular basis of HTS including the involvement of cytokines, growth factors, and macrophages via chemokine pathway, to bring insights for future prevention and treatment of HTS. PMID:27574672

  4. The molecular basis of genetic dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A O

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mutagenesis in many organisms indicate that the majority (over 90%) of mutations are recessive to wild type. If recessiveness represents the 'default' state, what are the distinguishing features that make a minority of mutations give rise to dominant or semidominant characters? This review draws on the rapid expansion in knowledge of molecular and cellular biology to classify the molecular mechanisms of dominant mutation. The categories discussed include (1) reduced gene dosage, expression, or protein activity (haploinsufficiency); (2) increased gene dosage; (3) ectopic or temporally altered mRNA expression; (4) increased or constitutive protein activity; (5) dominant negative effects; (6) altered structural proteins; (7) toxic protein alterations; and (8) new protein functions. This provides a framework for understanding the basis of dominant genetic phenomena in humans and other organisms. Images PMID:8182727

  5. Many-Body Basis Set Superposition Effect.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, John F; Bettens, Ryan P A

    2015-11-10

    The basis set superposition effect (BSSE) arises in electronic structure calculations of molecular clusters when questions relating to interactions between monomers within the larger cluster are asked. The binding energy, or total energy, of the cluster may be broken down into many smaller subcluster calculations and the energies of these subsystems linearly combined to, hopefully, produce the desired quantity of interest. Unfortunately, BSSE can plague these smaller fragment calculations. In this work, we carefully examine the major sources of error associated with reproducing the binding energy and total energy of a molecular cluster. In order to do so, we decompose these energies in terms of a many-body expansion (MBE), where a "body" here refers to the monomers that make up the cluster. In our analysis, we found it necessary to introduce something we designate here as a many-ghost many-body expansion (MGMBE). The work presented here produces some surprising results, but perhaps the most significant of all is that BSSE effects up to the order of truncation in a MBE of the total energy cancel exactly. In the case of the binding energy, the only BSSE correction terms remaining arise from the removal of the one-body monomer total energies. Nevertheless, our earlier work indicated that BSSE effects continued to remain in the total energy of the cluster up to very high truncation order in the MBE. We show in this work that the vast majority of these high-order many-body effects arise from BSSE associated with the one-body monomer total energies. Also, we found that, remarkably, the complete basis set limit values for the three-body and four-body interactions differed very little from that at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level for the respective subclusters embedded within a larger cluster. PMID:26574311

  6. The neural basis of human tool use.

    PubMed

    Orban, Guy A; Caruana, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we propose that the neural basis for the spontaneous, diversified human tool use is an area devoted to the execution and observation of tool actions, located in the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG). The aSMG activation elicited by observing tool use is typical of human subjects, as macaques show no similar activation, even after an extensive training to use tools. The execution of tool actions, as well as their observation, requires the convergence upon aSMG of inputs from different parts of the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Non-semantic features of the target object may be provided by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for tool-object interaction, paralleling the well-known PPC input to anterior intraparietal (AIP) for hand-object interaction. Semantic information regarding tool identity, and knowledge of the typical manner of handling the tool, could be provided by inferior and middle regions of the temporal lobe. Somatosensory feedback and technical reasoning, as well as motor and intentional constraints also play roles during the planning of tool actions and consequently their signals likewise converge upon aSMG. We further propose that aSMG may have arisen though duplication of monkey AIP and invasion of the duplicate area by afferents from PPC providing distinct signals depending on the kinematics of the manipulative action. This duplication may have occurred when Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus emerged, generating the Oldowan or Acheulean Industrial complexes respectively. Hence tool use may have emerged during hominid evolution between bipedalism and language. We conclude that humans have two parietal systems involved in tool behavior: a biological circuit for grasping objects, including tools, and an artifactual system devoted specifically to tool use. Only the latter allows humans to understand the causal relationship between tool use and obtaining the goal, and is likely to be the basis of all technological developments. PMID

  7. Molecular Basis of KELnull Phenotype in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Boturão-Neto, Edmir; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Chiba, Akemi Kuroda; Kimura, Elisa Yuriko Sugano; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Valgueiro Costa; do Monte Barretto, Cláudia Lumack; Nunes, Mércia Maria Alves; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; de Deus Santos, Marcos Daniel; Bordin, José Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background KELnull (K0) persons can produce clinically significant anti-KEL5 antibody after transfusion and/or pregnancy, requiring K0 blood transfusion when indicated. 37 K0 alleles have been reported in studies over different populations, but none in Amerindian-Caucasian descendants from South America. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular basis of K0 phenotype in Brazilians. Methods We investigated three K0 samples from different Brazilian blood banks (Recife, Manaus, and Vila Velha) in women with anti-KEL5. KEL antigen typing was performed by serologic techniques, and the K0 status was confirmed by flow cytometry. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the KEL coding and exon-intron regions were also performed. Results RBCs of the 3 patients were phenotyped as KEL:-1,−2,−3,−4,−7. The 3 patients had the same KEL*02/02 genotype and were negative for KEL*02.03 and KEL*02.06 alleles. The Recife K0 patient was homozygous for IVS16 + 1g>a mutation (KEL*02N.31 allele). The flow cytometry with anti-KEL1, anti-KEL2, anti-KEL3, anti-KEL4, and anti-CD238 confirmed the K0 phenotype. In addition, we found the c.10423C>T mutation (KEL*02N.04 allele) in both the Manaus K0 and the Vila Velha K0 patients. Conclusion This report represents the first study of K0 molecular basis performed in Amerindian-Caucasian descendants from South America. PMID:25960716

  8. The neural basis of human tool use

    PubMed Central

    Orban, Guy A.; Caruana, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we propose that the neural basis for the spontaneous, diversified human tool use is an area devoted to the execution and observation of tool actions, located in the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG). The aSMG activation elicited by observing tool use is typical of human subjects, as macaques show no similar activation, even after an extensive training to use tools. The execution of tool actions, as well as their observation, requires the convergence upon aSMG of inputs from different parts of the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Non-semantic features of the target object may be provided by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for tool-object interaction, paralleling the well-known PPC input to anterior intraparietal (AIP) for hand-object interaction. Semantic information regarding tool identity, and knowledge of the typical manner of handling the tool, could be provided by inferior and middle regions of the temporal lobe. Somatosensory feedback and technical reasoning, as well as motor and intentional constraints also play roles during the planning of tool actions and consequently their signals likewise converge upon aSMG. We further propose that aSMG may have arisen though duplication of monkey AIP and invasion of the duplicate area by afferents from PPC providing distinct signals depending on the kinematics of the manipulative action. This duplication may have occurred when Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus emerged, generating the Oldowan or Acheulean Industrial complexes respectively. Hence tool use may have emerged during hominid evolution between bipedalism and language. We conclude that humans have two parietal systems involved in tool behavior: a biological circuit for grasping objects, including tools, and an artifactual system devoted specifically to tool use. Only the latter allows humans to understand the causal relationship between tool use and obtaining the goal, and is likely to be the basis of all technological developments. PMID

  9. The neural basis of human tool use.

    PubMed

    Orban, Guy A; Caruana, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we propose that the neural basis for the spontaneous, diversified human tool use is an area devoted to the execution and observation of tool actions, located in the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG). The aSMG activation elicited by observing tool use is typical of human subjects, as macaques show no similar activation, even after an extensive training to use tools. The execution of tool actions, as well as their observation, requires the convergence upon aSMG of inputs from different parts of the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Non-semantic features of the target object may be provided by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for tool-object interaction, paralleling the well-known PPC input to anterior intraparietal (AIP) for hand-object interaction. Semantic information regarding tool identity, and knowledge of the typical manner of handling the tool, could be provided by inferior and middle regions of the temporal lobe. Somatosensory feedback and technical reasoning, as well as motor and intentional constraints also play roles during the planning of tool actions and consequently their signals likewise converge upon aSMG. We further propose that aSMG may have arisen though duplication of monkey AIP and invasion of the duplicate area by afferents from PPC providing distinct signals depending on the kinematics of the manipulative action. This duplication may have occurred when Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus emerged, generating the Oldowan or Acheulean Industrial complexes respectively. Hence tool use may have emerged during hominid evolution between bipedalism and language. We conclude that humans have two parietal systems involved in tool behavior: a biological circuit for grasping objects, including tools, and an artifactual system devoted specifically to tool use. Only the latter allows humans to understand the causal relationship between tool use and obtaining the goal, and is likely to be the basis of all technological developments.

  10. PREFACE: Progress in the ITER Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.

    2007-06-01

    I would firstly like to congratulate all who have contributed to the preparation of the `Progress in the ITER Physics Basis' (PIPB) on its publication and express my deep appreciation of the hard work and commitment of the many scientists involved. With the signing of the ITER Joint Implementing Agreement in November 2006, the ITER Members have now established the framework for construction of the project, and the ITER Organization has begun work at Cadarache. The review of recent progress in the physics basis for burning plasma experiments encompassed by the PIPB will be a valuable resource for the project and, in particular, for the current Design Review. The ITER design has been derived from a physics basis developed through experimental, modelling and theoretical work on the properties of tokamak plasmas and, in particular, on studies of burning plasma physics. The `ITER Physics Basis' (IPB), published in 1999, has been the reference for the projection methodologies for the design of ITER, but the IPB also highlighted several key issues which needed to be resolved to provide a robust basis for ITER operation. In the intervening period scientists of the ITER Participant Teams have addressed these issues intensively. The International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) has provided an excellent forum for scientists involved in these studies, focusing their work on the high priority physics issues for ITER. Significant progress has been made in many of the issues identified in the IPB and this progress is discussed in depth in the PIPB. In this respect, the publication of the PIPB symbolizes the strong interest and enthusiasm of the plasma physics community for the success of the ITER project, which we all recognize as one of the great scientific challenges of the 21st century. I wish to emphasize my appreciation of the work of the ITPA Coordinating Committee members, who are listed below. Their support and encouragement for the preparation of the PIPB were

  11. 75 FR 64071 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... FR 67010) proposed regulations (REG-101896- 09) relating to information reporting by brokers... mark-to-market method of accounting) when reporting adjusted basis and whether any gain or loss on the... commentator asked whether brokers must apply section 1296 (regarding mark-to-market accounting for...

  12. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  13. The neural basis of tactile motion perception.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-15

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex. PMID:25253479

  14. A brain basis for musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Sedley, William; Barnes, Gareth R; Teki, Sundeep; Friston, Karl J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to examine variation in the underlying oscillatory brain activity in different states. Source-space analysis capable of single-subject inference defined left-lateralised power increases, associated with stronger hallucinations, in the gamma band in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, and in the beta band in motor cortex and posteromedial cortex. The data indicate that these areas form a crucial network in the generation of MH, and are consistent with a model in which MH are generated by persistent reciprocal communication in a predictive coding hierarchy. PMID:24445167

  15. Quantitative microbiology: a basis for food safety.

    PubMed Central

    McMeekin, T. A.; Brown, J.; Krist, K.; Miles, D.; Neumeyer, K.; Nichols, D. S.; Olley, J.; Presser, K.; Ratkowsky, D. A.; Ross, T.; Salter, M.; Soontranon, S.

    1997-01-01

    Because microorganisms are easily dispersed, display physiologic diversity, and tolerate extreme conditions, they are ubiquitous and may contaminate and grow in many food products. The behavior of microbial populations in foods (growth, survival, or death) is determined by the properties of the food (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and atmosphere). The effect of these properties can be predicted by mathematical models derived from quantitative studies on microbial populations. Temperature abuse is a major factor contributing to foodborne disease; monitoring temperature history during food processing, distribution, and storage is a simple, effective means to reduce the incidence of food poisoning. Interpretation of temperature profiles by computer programs based on predictive models allows informed decisions on the shelf life and safety of foods. In- or on-package temperature indicators require further development to accurately predict microbial behavior. We suggest a basis for a "universal" temperature indicator. This article emphasizes the need to combine kinetic and probability approaches to modeling and suggests a method to define the bacterial growth/no growth interface. Advances in controlling foodborne pathogens depend on understanding the pathogens' physiologic responses to growth constraints, including constraints conferring increased survival capacity. PMID:9366608

  16. Electromagnetic Basis of Metabolism and Heredity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Stolc, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms control their cellular biological clocks to maintain functional oscillation of the redox cycle, also called the "metabolic cycle" or "respiratory cycle". Organization of cellular processes requires parallel processing on a synchronized time-base. These clocks coordinate the timing of all biochemical processes in the cell, including energy production, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. When this universal time keeping function is perturbed by exogenous induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the rate of metabolism changes. This causes oxidative stress, aging and mutations. Therefore, good temporal coordination of the redox cycle not only actively prevents chemical conflict between the reductive and oxidative partial reactions; it also maintains genome integrity and lifespan. Moreover, this universal biochemical rhythm can be disrupted by ROS induction in vivo. This in turn can be achieved by blocking the electron transport chain either endogenously or exogenously by various metabolites, e.g. hydrogen sulfide (H2S), highly diffusible drugs, and carbon monoxide (CO). Alternatively, the electron transport in vivo can be attenuated via a coherent or interfering transfer of energy from exogenous ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields, suggesting that-on Earth-such ambient fields are an omnipresent (and probably crucially important) factor for the time-setting basis of universal biochemical reactions in living cells. Our work demonstrated previously un-described evidence for quantum effects in biology by electromagnetic coupling below thermal noise at the universal electron transport chain (ETC) in vivo.

  17. The neural basis of the imitation drive.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Sugiko; Sugiura, Motoaki; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Yomogida, Yukihito; Ihara, Mizuki; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Thyreau, Benjamin; Izumi, Shinichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous imitation is assumed to underlie the acquisition of important skills by infants, including language and social interaction. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural basis of 'spontaneously' driven imitation, which has not yet been fully investigated. Healthy participants were presented with movie clips of meaningless bimanual actions and instructed to observe and imitate them during an fMRI scan. The participants were subsequently shown the movie clips again and asked to evaluate the strength of their 'urge to imitate' (Urge) for each action. We searched for cortical areas where the degree of activation positively correlated with Urge scores; significant positive correlations were observed in the right supplementary motor area (SMA) and bilateral midcingulate cortex (MCC) under the imitation condition. These areas were not explained by explicit reasons for imitation or the kinematic characteristics of the actions. Previous studies performed in monkeys and humans have implicated the SMA and MCC/caudal cingulate zone in voluntary actions. This study also confirmed the functional connectivity between Urge and imitation performance using a psychophysiological interaction analysis. Thus, our findings reveal the critical neural components that underlie spontaneous imitation and provide possible reasons why infants imitate spontaneously. PMID:26168793

  18. The genetic basis of myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Skoda, Radek

    2007-01-01

    For many decades, myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) were largely neglected orphan diseases. The conceptual work of William Dameshek in 1951 provided the basis for understanding MPD as a continuum of related syndromes, possibly with a common pathogenetic cause. Recognition of the clonal origin of peripheral blood cells in MPD in 1976 and the ability to grow erythroid colonies in vitro in the absence of added growth factors in 1974 initiated the search for genetic alterations that might be responsible for myeloproliferation. Mutations in the genes for the erythropoietin receptor, thrombopoietin and the von Hippel-Lindau protein were found to cause familial syndromes resembling MPD, but despite their phenotypic similarities, none of these mutations were later found in patients with the sporadic form of MPD. The discovery of activating mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in most patients with MPD has fully transformed and energized the MPD field. Sensitive assays for detecting the JAK2-V617F mutation have become an essential part of the diagnostic work-up, and JAK2 now constitutes a prime target for developing specific inhibitors for the treatment of patients with MPD. Despite this progress, many questions remain unsolved, including how a single JAK2 mutation causes three different MPD phenotypes, what other genes might be involved in the pathogenesis, and what are the factors determining the progression to acute leukemia.

  19. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:27212400

  20. Emotional manifestations of PD: Neurobiological basis.

    PubMed

    Castrioto, Anna; Thobois, Stéphane; Carnicella, Sebastien; Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. Their neurobiological bases are complex, partly because of the disease itself and partly because of the dopaminergic treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the emotional manifestations stemming from the neurodegenerative process itself. We focus on depression, anxiety, apathy, and fatigue, which can all be part of the clinical spectrum of premotor disease and may be improved or masked by medications targeting parkinsonian motor signs or psychiatric symptoms as the disease progresses. Findings from clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies are reviewed, showing a major contribution of the dopaminergic system to the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. Degeneration of noradrenergic and serotonergic projection systems also has an impact on psychiatric symptoms of PD. The available literature is reviewed, but at present there is a lack of studies that would allow disentangling the separate contribution of each of the monoaminergic systems. The use of a pragmatic classification of all these symptoms under the umbrella of hypodopaminergic behavioral syndrome seems clinically useful, as it emphasizes the crucial, although not exclusive, nature of their dopaminergic neurobiological basis, which has important implications in the clinical management of PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Toward a Neural Basis for Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Damian A.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, the shared interests of psychologists and biologists in understanding the neural basis of social behavior led to the inception of social neuroscience. In the past decade, this field has exploded, in large part due to the infusion of studies that use fMRI. At the same time, tensions have arisen about how to prioritize a diverse range of questions and about the authority of neurobiological data in answering them. The field is now poised to tackle some of the most interesting and important questions about human and animal behavior but at the same time faces uncertainty about how to achieve focus in its research and cohesion among the scientists who tackle it. The next 25 years offer the opportunity to alleviate some of these growing pains, as well as the challenge of answering large questions that encompass the nature and bounds of diverse social interactions (in humans, including interactions through the internet); how to characterize, and treat, social dysfunction in psychiatric illness; and how to compare social cognition in humans with that in other animals. PMID:24183030

  2. The structural basis for cancer treatment decisions

    PubMed Central

    Nussinov, Ruth; Jang, Hyunbum; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Cancer treatment decisions rely on genetics, large data screens and clinical pharmacology. Here we point out that genetic analysis and treatment decisions may overlook critical elements in cancer development, progression and drug resistance. Two critical structural elements are missing in genetics-based decision-making: the mechanisms of oncogenic mutations and the cellular network which is rewired in cancer. These lay the foundation for the structural basis for cancer treatment decisions, which is rooted in the physical principles of the molecular conformational behavior of single molecules and their interactions. Improved tumor mutational analysis platforms and knowledge of the redundant pathways which can take over in cancer, may not only supplement known actionable findings, but forecast possible cancer progression and resistance. Such forward-looking can be powerful, endowing the oncologist with mechanistic insight and cancer prognosis, and consequently more informed treatment options. Examples include redundant pathways taking over after inhibition of EGFR constitutive activation, mutations in PIK3CA p110α and p85, and the non-hotspot AKT1 mutants conferring constitutive membrane localization. PMID:25277176

  3. Emotional manifestations of PD: Neurobiological basis.

    PubMed

    Castrioto, Anna; Thobois, Stéphane; Carnicella, Sebastien; Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. Their neurobiological bases are complex, partly because of the disease itself and partly because of the dopaminergic treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the emotional manifestations stemming from the neurodegenerative process itself. We focus on depression, anxiety, apathy, and fatigue, which can all be part of the clinical spectrum of premotor disease and may be improved or masked by medications targeting parkinsonian motor signs or psychiatric symptoms as the disease progresses. Findings from clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies are reviewed, showing a major contribution of the dopaminergic system to the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. Degeneration of noradrenergic and serotonergic projection systems also has an impact on psychiatric symptoms of PD. The available literature is reviewed, but at present there is a lack of studies that would allow disentangling the separate contribution of each of the monoaminergic systems. The use of a pragmatic classification of all these symptoms under the umbrella of hypodopaminergic behavioral syndrome seems clinically useful, as it emphasizes the crucial, although not exclusive, nature of their dopaminergic neurobiological basis, which has important implications in the clinical management of PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27041545

  4. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  5. Structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Daniel P; Renault, Ludovic; Serrao, Erik; Lesbats, Paul; Matadeen, Rishi; Hare, Stephen; Lindemann, Dirk; Engelman, Alan N; Costa, Alessandro; Cherepanov, Peter

    2015-07-16

    Retroviral integration is catalysed by a tetramer of integrase (IN) assembled on viral DNA ends in a stable complex, known as the intasome. How the intasome interfaces with chromosomal DNA, which exists in the form of nucleosomal arrays, is currently unknown. Here we show that the prototype foamy virus (PFV) intasome is proficient at stable capture of nucleosomes as targets for integration. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reveals a multivalent intasome-nucleosome interface involving both gyres of nucleosomal DNA and one H2A-H2B heterodimer. While the histone octamer remains intact, the DNA is lifted from the surface of the H2A-H2B heterodimer to allow integration at strongly preferred superhelix location ±3.5 positions. Amino acid substitutions disrupting these contacts impinge on the ability of the intasome to engage nucleosomes in vitro and redistribute viral integration sites on the genomic scale. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis for nucleosome capture by the viral DNA recombination machinery and the underlying nucleosome plasticity that allows integration.

  6. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  7. Molecular basis of environmentally induced birth defects.

    PubMed

    Finnell, Richard H; Waes, Janee Gelineau-van; Eudy, James D; Rosenquist, Thomas H

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of the developing conceptus to selected environmental agents can lead to deleterious and often times lethal birth defects. These malformations result in serious emotional and financial consequences to families and societies worldwide. As we continue to progress technologically, we face challenges from the introduction of new pharmacological agents and chemical compounds into the environment. This results in a concomitant need to more fully understand the relationship between in utero exposure to environmental teratogens and the risk of congenital malformations. The goal of this review is to provide a current perspective of the major concepts related to the molecular basis of environmentally induced birth defects. Starting with a discussion of commonly occurring birth defects, we consider important fundamental facets of embryonic development, teratology, and gene-environment interactions. The review then summarizes our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in selected birth defects following exposure to pharmacological compounds, including thalidomide, retinoids, and valproic acid. Understanding these signaling pathways may lead to the development of safer pharmaceutical compounds and a reduction in the number of infants born with preventable birth defects.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Liver Development

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Donghun; Singh Monga, Satdarshan Pal

    2015-01-01

    Liver is a prime organ responsible for synthesis, metabolism, and detoxification. The organ is endodermal in origin and its development is regulated by temporal, complex, and finely balanced cellular and molecular interactions that dictate its origin, growth, and maturation. We discuss the relevance of endoderm patterning, which truly is the first step toward mapping of domains that will give rise to specific organs. Once foregut patterning is completed, certain cells within the foregut endoderm gain competence in the form of expression of certain transcription factors that allow them to respond to certain inductive signals. Hepatic specification is then a result of such inductive signals, which often emanate from the surrounding mesenchyme. During hepatic specification bipotential hepatic stem cells or hepatoblasts become apparent and undergo expansion, which results in a visible liver primordium during the stage of hepatic morphogenesis. Hepatoblasts next differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. The expansion and differentiation is regulated by cellular and molecular interactions between hepatoblasts and mesenchymal cells including sinusoidal endothelial cells, stellate cells, and also innate hematopoietic elements. Further maturation of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes continues during late hepatic development as a function of various growth factors. At this time, liver gains architectural novelty in the form of zonality and at cellular level acquires polarity. A comprehensive elucidation of such finely tuned developmental cues have been the basis of transdifferentiation of various types of stem cells to hepatocyte-like cells for purposes of understanding health and disease and for therapeutic applications. PMID:23720330

  9. Structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Maskell, Daniel P.; Renault, Ludovic; Serrao, Erik; Lesbats, Paul; Matadeen, Rishi; Hare, Stephen; Lindemann, Dirk; Engelman, Alan N.; Costa, Alessandro; Cherepanov, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Retroviral integration is catalyzed by a tetramer of integrase (IN) assembled on viral DNA ends in a stable complex, known as the intasome1,2. How the intasome interfaces with chromosomal DNA, which exists in the form of nucleosomal arrays, is currently unknown. Here we show that the prototype foamy virus (PFV) intasome is proficient at stable capture of nucleosomes as targets for integration. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) reveals a multivalent intasome-nucleosome interface involving both gyres of nucleosomal DNA and one H2A-H2B heterodimer. While the histone octamer remains intact, the DNA is lifted from the surface of the H2A-H2B heterodimer to allow integration at strongly preferred superhelix location (SHL) ±3.5 positions. Amino acid substitutions disrupting these contacts impinge on the ability of the intasome to engage nucleosomes in vitro and redistribute viral integration sites on the genomic scale. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis for nucleosome capture by the viral DNA recombination machinery and the underlying nucleosome plasticity that allows integration. PMID:26061770

  10. Scientific basis for the Precautionary Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Vineis, Paolo . E-mail: p.vineis@imperial.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    The Precautionary Principle is based on two general criteria: (a) appropriate public action should be taken in response to limited, but plausible and credible, evidence of likely and substantial harm; (b) the burden of proof is shifted from demonstrating the presence of risk to demonstrating the absence of risk. Not much has been written about the scientific basis of the precautionary principle, apart from the uncertainty that characterizes epidemiologic research on chronic disease, and the use of surrogate evidence when human evidence cannot be provided. It is proposed in this paper that a new scientific paradigm, based on the theory of evolution, is emerging; this might offer stronger support to the need for precaution in the regulation of environmental risks. Environmental hazards do not consist only in direct attacks to the integrity of DNA or other macromolecules. They can consist in changes that take place already in utero, and that condition disease risks many years later. Also, environmental exposures can act as 'stressors', inducing hypermutability (the mutator phenotype) as an adaptive response. Finally, environmental changes should be evaluated against a background of a not-so-easily modifiable genetic make-up, inherited from a period in which humans were mainly hunters-gatherers and had dietary habits very different from the current ones.

  11. The genetic basis of Haldane's rule.

    PubMed

    Coyne, J A

    'Haldane's rule', formulated by J. B. S. Haldane in 1922, states that: "When in the F1 offspring of two different animal races one sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is the heterozygous [heterogametic] sex". His rule is now known to apply in mammals, lepidopterans, birds, orthopterans and dipterans. In Drosophila, for example, Bock cites 142 cases of interspecific hybridizations that produce one sterile and one fertile sex in the offspring, all but one of these crosses yielding sterile XY males and fertile XX females. Despite much speculation, however, the genetic basis of Haldane's rule remains unknown. Haldane himself rejected the simple explanation that males are innately more sensitive than females to the effects of hybridization because groups with heterogametic females (such as birds and butterflies) usually show female sterility in hybrids, so that heterogamety itself is the critical feature. He and others suggested that heterogametic infertility or inviability in hybrids arises by a genetic imbalance between X chromosomes and autosomes. An alternative explanation is that this syndrome is caused by a mismatch of X and Y chromosomes. Here I show that in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, Haldane's rule for fertility apparently arises from a genetic interaction between X and Y chromosomes and not from an imbalance between sex chromosomes and autosomes. This finding has important implications for understanding the evolution of interspecific reproductive isolation. PMID:3921852

  12. Gravitational Lens Modeling with Basis Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2015-11-01

    We present a strong lensing modeling technique based on versatile basis sets for the lens and source planes. Our method uses high performance Monte Carlo algorithms, allows for an adaptive build up of complexity, and bridges the gap between parametric and pixel based reconstruction methods. We apply our method to a Hubble Space Telescope image of the strong lens system RX J1131-1231 and show that our method finds a reliable solution and is able to detect substructure in the lens and source planes simultaneously. Using mock data, we show that our method is sensitive to sub-clumps with masses four orders of magnitude smaller than the main lens, which corresponds to about {10}8{M}⊙ , without prior knowledge of the position and mass of the sub-clump. The modeling approach is flexible and maximizes automation to facilitate the analysis of the large number of strong lensing systems expected in upcoming wide field surveys. The resulting search for dark sub-clumps in these systems, without mass-to-light priors, offers promise for probing physics beyond the standard model in the dark matter sector.

  13. Basis for Synthesis of Spiral Lattice Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursill, L. A.; Ryan, George; Fan, Xudong; Rouse, J. L.; Peng, Julin; Perkins, Anne

    Observations of the sunflower Helianthus tuberosus reveal the occurrence of both Fibonacci and Lucas numbers of visible spirals (parastichies). This species is multi-headed, allowing a quantitative study of the relative abundance of these two types of phyllotaxis. The florets follow a spiral arrangement. It is remarkable that the Lucas series occurred, almost invariably, in the first-flowering heads of individual plants. The occurrence of left-and right-handed chirality was found to be random, within experimental error, using an appropriate chirality convention. Quantitative crystallographic studies allow the average growth law to be derived (r = alτ-1 θ = 2πl/(τ + 1), where a is a constant, l is the seed cell number and τ is the golden mean (1 +√ {5})/2). They also reveal departures from classical theoretical models of phyllotaxis, taking the form of persistent oscillations in both divergence angle and radius. The experimental results are discussed in terms of a new theoretical model for the close-packing of growing discs. Finally, a basis for synthesis of (inorganic) spiral lattice structures is proposed.

  14. Nutraceuticals and headache: the biological basis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2011-03-01

    Nutrition must affect the structure and functioning of the brain. Since the brain has very high metabolic activity, what we consume throughout the day is likely to dramatically influence both its structure and moment to moment function. It follows that nutritional approaches to all neurological disorders are being researched and entering medical practice, while nutraceutical use is a mainstay of public habits. This review discusses the biological basis for non-conventional or non-mainstream approaches to the treatment of migraine. This requires at least limited discussion of current migraine pathophysiologic theory. How nutrients and other chemicals and approaches are mechanistically involved within migraine pathways is the focus of this article. The nutraceuticals reviewed in detail are: magnesium, riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, petasites, and feverfew with additional comments on marijuana and oxygen/hyperbaric oxygen. This article reviews the science when known related to the potential genetic susceptibility and sensitivity to these treatments. As we know, the basic science in this field is very preliminary, so whether to combine approaches and presumably mechanisms or use them alone or with or without conventional therapies is far from clear. Nonetheless, as more patients and providers participate in patient-centered approaches to care, knowledge of the science underpinning nutritional, nutraceutical, and complementary approaches to treatment for migraine will certainly benefit this interaction.

  15. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  16. Geometrical basis for the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, F. )

    1994-02-01

    The robust character of the Standard Model is confirmed. Examination of its geometrical basis in three equivalent internal symmetry spaces - the unitary plane C[sup 2], the quaternion space Q, and the real space R[sup 4] - as well as the real space R[sup 3] uncovers mathematical properties that predict the physical properties of leptons and quarks. The finite rotational subgroups of the gauge group SU(2)[sub L] [times] U(1)[sub Y] generate exactly three lepton families and four quark families and reveal how quarks and leptons are related. Among the physical properties explained are the mass ratios of the six leptons and eight quarks, the origin of the left-handed preference by the weak interaction, the geometrical source of color symmetry, and the zero neutrino masses. The (u,d) and (c,s) quark families team together to satisfy the triangle anomaly cancellation with the electron family, while the other families pair one-to-one for cancellation. The spontaneously broken symmetry is discrete and needs no Higgs mechanism. Predictions include all massless neutrinos, the top quark at 160 GeV/c[sup 2], the b[prime] quark at 80 GeV/c[sup 2], and the t[prime] quark at 2600 GeV/c[sup 2].

  17. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

  18. Biological Basis For Computer Vision: Some Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1990-03-01

    Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  19. Accelerator production of tritium authorization basis strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Edwards, J.; Rose, S.

    1996-05-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project has proposed a strategy to develop the APT authorization basis and safety case based on DOE orders and fundamental requirements for safe operation. The strategy is viable regardless of whether the APT is regulated by DOE or by an external regulatory body. Currently the operation of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is authorized by DOE and regulated by DOE orders and regulations while meeting the environmental protection requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states. In the spring of 1994, Congress proposed legislation and held hearings related to requiring all DOE operations to be subject to external regulation. On January 25, 1995, DOE, with the support of the White House Council on Environmental Quality, created the Advisory Committee on External Regulation of Department of Energy Nuclear Safety. This committee divided its recommendations into three areas: (1) facility safety, (2) worker safety, and (3) environmental protection. In the area of facility safety the committee recommended external regulation of DOE nuclear facilities by either the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or a restructured Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). In the area of worker safety, the committee recommended that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulate DOE nuclear facilities. In the environmental protection area, the committee did not recommend a change in the regulation by the EPA and the states of DOE nuclear facilities. If these recommendations are accepted, all DOE nuclear facilities will be impacted to some extent.

  20. The genetic basis of chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific "maladaptation" to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field.

  1. The neural basis of the imitation drive.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Sugiko; Sugiura, Motoaki; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Yomogida, Yukihito; Ihara, Mizuki; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Thyreau, Benjamin; Izumi, Shinichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous imitation is assumed to underlie the acquisition of important skills by infants, including language and social interaction. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural basis of 'spontaneously' driven imitation, which has not yet been fully investigated. Healthy participants were presented with movie clips of meaningless bimanual actions and instructed to observe and imitate them during an fMRI scan. The participants were subsequently shown the movie clips again and asked to evaluate the strength of their 'urge to imitate' (Urge) for each action. We searched for cortical areas where the degree of activation positively correlated with Urge scores; significant positive correlations were observed in the right supplementary motor area (SMA) and bilateral midcingulate cortex (MCC) under the imitation condition. These areas were not explained by explicit reasons for imitation or the kinematic characteristics of the actions. Previous studies performed in monkeys and humans have implicated the SMA and MCC/caudal cingulate zone in voluntary actions. This study also confirmed the functional connectivity between Urge and imitation performance using a psychophysiological interaction analysis. Thus, our findings reveal the critical neural components that underlie spontaneous imitation and provide possible reasons why infants imitate spontaneously.

  2. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  3. The neural basis of temporal processing.

    PubMed

    Mauk, Michael D; Buonomano, Dean V

    2004-01-01

    A complete understanding of sensory and motor processing requires characterization of how the nervous system processes time in the range of tens to hundreds of milliseconds (ms). Temporal processing on this scale is required for simple sensory problems, such as interval, duration, and motion discrimination, as well as complex forms of sensory processing, such as speech recognition. Timing is also required for a wide range of motor tasks from eyelid conditioning to playing the piano. Here we review the behavioral, electrophysiological, and theoretical literature on the neural basis of temporal processing. These data suggest that temporal processing is likely to be distributed among different structures, rather than relying on a centralized timing area, as has been suggested in internal clock models. We also discuss whether temporal processing relies on specialized neural mechanisms, which perform temporal computations independent of spatial ones. We suggest that, given the intricate link between temporal and spatial information in most sensory and motor tasks, timing and spatial processing are intrinsic properties of neural function, and specialized timing mechanisms such as delay lines, oscillators, or a spectrum of different time constants are not required. Rather temporal processing may rely on state-dependent changes in network dynamics.

  4. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L.; Chang, Betty P. I.; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  5. Developmental basis of limb homology in lizards.

    PubMed

    Fabrezi, Marissa; Abdala, Virginia; Oliver, María Inés Martínez

    2007-07-01

    Shubin and Alberch (Evol Biol 1986;20:319-387) proposed a scheme of tetrapod limb development based on cartilage morphogenesis that provides the arguments to interpret the homologies of skeletal elements and sets the basis to explain limb specialization through later developmental modification. Morphogenetic evidence emerged from the study of some reptiles, but the availability of data for lizards is limited. Here, the study of adult skeletal variation in 41 lizard taxa and ontogeny in species of Liolaemus and Tupinambis attempts to fill in this gap and provides supporting evidence for the Shubin-Alberch scheme. Six questions are explored. Is there an intermedium in the carpus? Are there two centralia in the carpus? Is there homology among proximal tarsalia of reptiles? Does digit V belong to the digital arch? Is the pisiform an element of the autopodium plan? And should the ossification processes be similar to cartilage morphogenesis? We found the following answers. Some taxa exhibit an ossified element that could represent an intermedium. There is one centrale in the carpus. Development of proximal tarsalia seems to be equivalent with that observed among reptiles. Digit V could arise from the digital arch. Pisiform does not arise as part of the limb plan. And different patterns of ossification occur following a single and conservative cartilaginous configuration. Lizard limb development shows an early pattern common to other reptiles with clear primary axis and digital arch. The pattern then becomes lizard-specific with specialization involving some reduction in prechondrogenic elements. PMID:17415759

  6. A radial basis function Galerkin method for inhomogeneous nonlocal diffusion

    DOE PAGES

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Rowe, Stephen T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a discretization for a nonlocal diffusion problem using a localized basis of radial basis functions. The stiffness matrix entries are assembled by a special quadrature routine unique to the localized basis. Combining the quadrature method with the localized basis produces a well-conditioned, sparse, symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix. We demonstrate that both the continuum and discrete problems are well-posed and present numerical results for the convergence behavior of the radial basis function method. As a result, we explore approximating the solution to anisotropic differential equations by solving anisotropic nonlocal integral equations using the radial basis function method.

  7. Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A

    2014-04-18

    Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust.

  8. PARFUME Theory and Model basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Darrell L. Knudson; Gregory K Miller; G.K. Miller; D.A. Petti; J.T. Maki; D.L. Knudson

    2009-09-01

    The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The fuel performance modeling code PARFUME simulates the mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation. This report documents the theory and material properties behind vari¬ous capabilities of the code, which include: 1) various options for calculating CO production and fission product gas release, 2) an analytical solution for stresses in the coating layers that accounts for irradiation-induced creep and swelling of the pyrocarbon layers, 3) a thermal model that calculates a time-dependent temperature profile through a pebble bed sphere or a prismatic block core, as well as through the layers of each analyzed particle, 4) simulation of multi-dimensional particle behavior associated with cracking in the IPyC layer, partial debonding of the IPyC from the SiC, particle asphericity, and kernel migration (or amoeba effect), 5) two independent methods for determining particle failure probabilities, 6) a model for calculating release-to-birth (R/B) ratios of gaseous fission products that accounts for particle failures and uranium contamination in the fuel matrix, and 7) the evaluation of an accident condition, where a particle experiences a sudden change in temperature following a period of normal irradiation. The accident condi¬tion entails diffusion of fission products through the particle coating layers and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report. More detailed descriptions will be provided in future revisions.

  9. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  10. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  11. Cellular basis of memory for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of “cellular or molecular memory.” Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of “behavioral memory,” perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  12. Entwicklung von umwelt- und naturschutzgerechten Verfahren der landwirtschaftlichen Landnutzung für das Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Die Umsetzung von Zielen des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes in Verfahren der Landnutzung ist mit verschiedenen Schwierigkeiten verbunden. Diese liegen zum einen in der Konkretisierung der Ziele, um diese umsetzen zu können, zum anderen in vielfach unzulänglichem Wissen über den Zusammenhang zwischen unterschiedlichen Formen der Landnutzung und insbesondere den biotischen Naturschutzzielen. Zunächst wird die Problematik der Zielfestlegung und Konkretisierung erörtert. Das Umweltqualitätszielkonzept von Fürst et al. (1992) stellt einen Versuch dar, Ziele des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes zu konkretisieren. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al. (1997) auf einen Landschaftsausschnitt von ca. 6000 ha im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin im Nordosten Brandenburgs angewendet. Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. (1997) formulierten Umweltqualitätsziele bildet die Basis dieser Arbeit. Für die ausgewählten Umweltqualitätsziele wurden wesentliche Einflussfaktoren der Landnutzung identifiziert und ein Bewertungssystem entwickelt, mit dem die Auswirkungen von landwirtschaftlichen Anbauverfahren auf diese Umweltqualitätsziele abgebildet werden können. Die praktizierte Landnutzung von 20 Betrieben im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde von 1994 bis 1997 hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Umweltqualitätsziele analysiert. Die Analyse ergab ein sehr differenziertes Bild, das zum Teil Unterschiede in der Auswirkung auf die Umweltqualitätsziele für den Anbau einzelner Kulturen oder für bestimmte Betriebstypen zeigte. Es zeigte sich aber auch, dass es bei der Gestaltung des Anbaus einzelner Kulturarten große Unterschiede gab, die für Umweltqualitätsziele Bedeutung haben. Neben der Analyse der Landnutzung im Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin wurde ein System entwickelt, mit dem die modellhafte

  13. 7 CFR 810.303 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for under the general provisions are made on the basis of the sample as a whole, except the determination of odor is made on either the basis of the sample as a whole or the sample when free from...

  14. 42 CFR 457.700 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.700 Basis, scope, and applicability. (a) Statutory basis... strategic planning, monitoring, reporting and evaluation under title XXI. (c) Applicability....

  15. 42 CFR 457.700 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.700 Basis, scope, and applicability. (a) Statutory basis... strategic planning, monitoring, reporting and evaluation under title XXI. (c) Applicability....

  16. 42 CFR 457.700 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.700 Basis, scope, and applicability. (a) Statutory basis... strategic planning, monitoring, reporting and evaluation under title XXI. (c) Applicability....

  17. 42 CFR 457.700 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.700 Basis, scope, and applicability. (a) Statutory basis... strategic planning, monitoring, reporting and evaluation under title XXI. (c) Applicability....

  18. 42 CFR 411.110 - Basis for determination of nonconformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... covered or seeks to be covered under the plan is entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD, age, or disability, or eligible on the basis of ESRD. (2) The nondifferentiation clause for individuals with ESRD....

  19. 42 CFR 411.110 - Basis for determination of nonconformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... covered or seeks to be covered under the plan is entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD, age, or disability, or eligible on the basis of ESRD. (2) The nondifferentiation clause for individuals with ESRD....

  20. 42 CFR 411.110 - Basis for determination of nonconformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... covered or seeks to be covered under the plan is entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD, age, or disability, or eligible on the basis of ESRD. (2) The nondifferentiation clause for individuals with ESRD....

  1. 42 CFR 411.110 - Basis for determination of nonconformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... covered or seeks to be covered under the plan is entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD, age, or disability, or eligible on the basis of ESRD. (2) The nondifferentiation clause for individuals with ESRD....

  2. 42 CFR 411.110 - Basis for determination of nonconformance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... covered or seeks to be covered under the plan is entitled to Medicare on the basis of ESRD, age, or disability, or eligible on the basis of ESRD. (2) The nondifferentiation clause for individuals with ESRD....

  3. The neural circuit basis of learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Kaifosh William John

    The astounding capacity for learning ranks among the nervous system's most impressive features. This thesis comprises studies employing varied approaches to improve understanding, at the level of neural circuits, of the brain's capacity for learning. The first part of the thesis contains investigations of hippocampal circuitry -- both theoretical work and experimental work in the mouse Mus musculus -- as a model system for declarative memory. To begin, Chapter 2 presents a theory of hippocampal memory storage and retrieval that reflects nonlinear dendritic processing within hippocampal pyramidal neurons. As a prelude to the experimental work that comprises the remainder of this part, Chapter 3 describes an open source software platform that we have developed for analysis of data acquired with in vivo Ca2+ imaging, the main experimental technique used throughout the remainder of this part of the thesis. As a first application of this technique, Chapter 4 characterizes the content of signaling at synapses between GABAergic neurons of the medial septum and interneurons in stratum oriens of hippocampal area CA1. Chapter 5 then combines these techniques with optogenetic, pharmacogenetic, and pharmacological manipulations to uncover inhibitory circuit mechanisms underlying fear learning. The second part of this thesis focuses on the cerebellum-like electrosensory lobe in the weakly electric mormyrid fish Gnathonemus petersii, as a model system for non-declarative memory. In Chapter 6, we study how short-duration EOD motor commands are recoded into a complex temporal basis in the granule cell layer, which can be used to cancel Purkinje-like cell firing to the longer duration and temporally varying EOD-driven sensory responses. In Chapter 7, we consider not only the temporal aspects of the granule cell code, but also the encoding of body position provided from proprioceptive and efference copy sources. Together these studies clarify how the cerebellum-like circuitry of the

  4. Structural Basis for Catalysis by Onconase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. Eugene; Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, George N.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2007-01-01

    Onconase (ONC) is a homolog of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) from the frog Rana pipiens. ONC displays antitumoral activity and is in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Here, we report the first atomic structures of ONC·nucleic acid complexes: a T89N/E91A ONC·5′-AMP complex at 1.65 Å resolution and a wild-type ONC·d(AUGA) complex at 1.90 Å resolution. The latter structure and site-directed mutagenesis was used to reveal the atomic basis for substrate recognition and turnover by ONC. The residues in ONC that are proximal to the scissile phosphodiester bond (His10, Lys31, and His97) and uracil nucleobase (Thr35, Asp67, and Phe98) are conserved from RNase A and serve to generate a similar bell-shaped pH–kcat/KM profile for RNA cleavage. Glu91 of ONC forms two hydrogen bonds with the guanine nucleobase in d(AUGA), and Thr89 is in close proximity to that nucleobase. Installing a neutral or cationic residue at position 91 or an asparagine residue at position 89 virtually eliminated the 102-fold guanine:adenine preference of ONC. A variant that combined such substitutions, T89N/E91A ONC, actually preferred adenine over guanine. In contrast, installing an arginine residue at position 91 increased the guanine preference and afforded an ONC variant with the highest known kcat/KM value. These data indicate that ONC discriminates between guanine and adenine by using Coulombic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds. The structure of the ONC·d(AUGA) complex was also used to probe other aspects of catalysis. For example, the T5R substitution, designed to create a favorable Coulombic interaction between ONC and a phosphoryl group in RNA, increased ribonucleolytic activity by twofold. No variant, however, was more toxic to human cancer cells than wild-type ONC. Together, these findings provide a cynosure for understanding catalysis of RNA cleavage in a system of high medicinal relevance. PMID:18001769

  5. 45 CFR 157.10 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and scope. 157.10 Section 157.10 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EMPLOYER INTERACTIONS WITH EXCHANGES AND SHOP PARTICIPATION General Provisions § 157.10 Basis and scope. (a) Basis....

  6. 45 CFR 157.10 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and scope. 157.10 Section 157.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EMPLOYER INTERACTIONS WITH EXCHANGES AND SHOP PARTICIPATION General Provisions § 157.10 Basis and scope. (a) Basis....

  7. 45 CFR 157.10 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and scope. 157.10 Section 157.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EMPLOYER INTERACTIONS WITH EXCHANGES AND SHOP PARTICIPATION General Provisions § 157.10 Basis and scope. (a) Basis....

  8. 10 CFR 830.207 - DOE approval of safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of safety basis. (a) By April 10, 2003, a contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3...

  9. 10 CFR 13.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis and purpose. 13.1 Section 13.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. This part implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986, Public Law No. 99-509, §§ 6101-6104, 100 Stat....

  10. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by...

  11. 42 CFR 413.330 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 413.330 Section 413.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... Facilities § 413.330 Basis and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart implements section 1888(e) of the Act,...

  12. 16 CFR 1203.2 - Purpose and basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose and basis. 1203.2 Section 1203.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.2 Purpose and basis. The purpose and basis of...

  13. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by...

  14. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  15. 47 CFR 51.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 51.1 Section 51.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION General Information § 51.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. These rules are issued pursuant to...

  16. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  17. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  18. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92... Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design basis external natural events. (a) Natural phenomena that may exist or that... must be adopted for evaluating the design basis external natural events based on the characteristics...

  19. 16 CFR 1203.2 - Purpose and basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and basis. 1203.2 Section 1203.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.2 Purpose and basis. The purpose and basis of...

  20. 20 CFR 498.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis and purpose. 498.100 Section 498.100 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.100 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. This part implements sections 1129 and 1140 of the...

  1. 20 CFR 498.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basis and purpose. 498.100 Section 498.100 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.100 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. This part implements sections 1129 and 1140 of the...

  2. 20 CFR 498.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basis and purpose. 498.100 Section 498.100 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.100 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. This part implements sections 1129 and 1140 of the...

  3. 20 CFR 498.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis and purpose. 498.100 Section 498.100 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.100 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. This part implements sections 1129 and 1140 of the...

  4. 20 CFR 498.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis and purpose. 498.100 Section 498.100 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.100 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. This part implements sections 1129 and 1140 of the...

  5. 42 CFR 485.900 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) § 485.900 Basis and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart is based on the... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and scope. 485.900 Section 485.900 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  6. The scientific basis for visible particle inspection.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J Z

    1999-01-01

    The following paper was presented at the 1999 PDA International Conference in Tokyo, Japan February 24, 1999. The paper was written in response to the recent well-publicized incidents in Japan in which the presence of visible particulates in injectable products was observed. These incidents should be considered a wake-up call to all concerned with injectable pharmaceutical products. The overview of visible particle inspection presented at the Tokyo PDA Meeting is reprinted here as a reminder that a global marketplace requires well-defined parameters and evaluation methods. In the absence of these basic requirements continuation of the present conflicting particle contamination evaluations will continue by default. At this time, visible particle inspection around the world lacks both direction and an accepted common language. The adoption of the probabalistic concepts introduced by Knapp and co-workers in 1980 can supply these basic requirements. The use of the probabalistic model and the statistically defined particle quality regions defined by Knapp and co-workers in 1980 was, at that time, a concept foreign to pharmaceutical quality. In the period since 1980, the methodology then introduced has been expanded and simplified. The analysis used by these workers was similar to that used in life insurance calculations and is just as reliable. The results obtained following the adoption of the framework and probabalistic concepts introduced by Pflug in sterile products since 1973 supports the use of tested and verified probabalistic concepts in the production of injectable products. Pflug's work has provided a basis for the secure communication of sterile production methods and results. This improvement in communication has potentiated a surge in sterile product improvement and a consequent reduction in product cost. The use of the probabalistic model and statistically defined particle contamination quality regions introduced by Knapp and co-workers in 1980 is believed

  7. Correlation consistent basis sets for the atoms In–Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K.

    2015-02-28

    In this work, the correlation consistent family of Gaussian basis sets has been expanded to include all-electron basis sets for In–Xe. The methodology for developing these basis sets is described, and several examples of the performance and utility of the new sets have been provided. Dissociation energies and bond lengths for both homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomics demonstrate the systematic convergence behavior with respect to increasing basis set quality expected by the family of correlation consistent basis sets in describing molecular properties. Comparison with recently developed correlation consistent sets designed for use with the Douglas-Kroll Hamiltonian is provided.

  8. An improved choice of oscillator basis for banana shaped nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The question of the appropriate choice of oscillator basis functions for studying exotic nuclear shapes is raised. Difficulties with the conventional choice of oscillator basis states are noted for shapes having a large banana component. A prescription for an improved oscillator basis to study these shapes is given. It can be applied in a more general context. New calculations with this improved basis are presented for the banana deformation mode. The change of basis gives results that improve the prospects of finding states in the banana minimum for many isotopes of Tl, Pb and Bi.

  9. Property-optimized Gaussian basis sets for molecular response calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappoport, Dmitrij; Furche, Filipp

    2010-10-01

    With recent advances in electronic structure methods, first-principles calculations of electronic response properties, such as linear and nonlinear polarizabilities, have become possible for molecules with more than 100 atoms. Basis set incompleteness is typically the main source of error in such calculations since traditional diffuse augmented basis sets are too costly to use or suffer from near linear dependence. To address this problem, we construct the first comprehensive set of property-optimized augmented basis sets for elements H-Rn except lanthanides. The new basis sets build on the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets of split-valence to quadruple-zeta valence quality and add a small number of moderately diffuse basis functions. The exponents are determined variationally by maximization of atomic Hartree-Fock polarizabilities using analytical derivative methods. The performance of the resulting basis sets is assessed using a set of 313 molecular static Hartree-Fock polarizabilities. The mean absolute basis set errors are 3.6%, 1.1%, and 0.3% for property-optimized basis sets of split-valence, triple-zeta, and quadruple-zeta valence quality, respectively. Density functional and second-order Møller-Plesset polarizabilities show similar basis set convergence. We demonstrate the efficiency of our basis sets by computing static polarizabilities of icosahedral fullerenes up to C720 using hybrid density functional theory.

  10. Radial basis function interpolation in the limit of increasingly flat basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindelan, Manuel; Moscoso, Miguel; González-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new approach to study Radial Basis Function (RBF) interpolation in the limit of increasingly flat functions. The new approach is based on the semi-analytical computation of the Laurent series of the inverse of the RBF interpolation matrix described in a previous paper [3]. Once the Laurent series is obtained, it can be used to compute the limiting polynomial interpolant, the optimal shape parameter of the RBFs used for interpolation, and the weights of RBF finite difference formulas, among other things.

  11. Basis Set Exchange: A Community Database for Computational Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared M.; Li, Jun; Windus, Theresa L.

    2007-05-01

    Basis sets are one of the most important input data for computational models in the chemistry, materials, biology and other science domains that utilize computational quantum mechanics methods. Providing a shared, web accessible environment where researchers can not only download basis sets in their required format, but browse the data, contribute new basis sets, and ultimately curate and manage the data as a community will facilitate growth of this resource and encourage sharing both data and knowledge. We describe the Basis Set Exchange (BSE), a web portal that provides advanced browsing and download capabilities, facilities for contributing basis set data, and an environment that incorporates tools to foster development and interaction of communities. The BSE leverages and enables continued development of the basis set library originally assembled at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  12. 10 CFR 830.207 - DOE approval of safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOE approval of safety basis. 830.207 Section 830.207 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.207 DOE approval of safety basis. (a) By April 10, 2003, a contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 existing DOE nuclear facility must submit for...

  13. Birman—Wenzl—Murakami Algebra and Topological Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Xue, Kang; Wang, Gang-Cheng; Sun, Chun-Fang; Du, Gui-Jiao

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we use entangled states to construct 9 × 9-matrix representations of Temperley—Lieb algebra (TLA), then a family of 9 × 9-matrix representations of Birman—Wenzl—Murakami algebra (BWMA) have been presented. Based on which, three topological basis states have been found. And we apply topological basis states to recast nine-dimensional BWMA into its three-dimensional counterpart. Finally, we find the topological basis states are spin singlet states in special case.

  14. Differential Forms Basis Functions for Better Conditioned Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; White, D; Stowell, M; Rieben, R; Sharpe, R; Madsen, N; Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Jandhyala, V; Pingenot, J

    2005-01-13

    Differential forms offer a convenient way to classify physical quantities and set up computational problems. By observing the dimensionality and type of derivatives (divergence,curl,gradient) applied to a quantity, an appropriate differential form can be chosen for that quantity. To use these differential forms in a simulation, the forms must be discretized using basis functions. The 0-form through 2-form basis functions are formed for surfaces. Twisted 1-form and 2-form bases will be presented in this paper. Twisted 1-form (1-forms) basis functions ({Lambda}) are divergence-conforming edge basis functions with units m{sup -1}. They are appropriate for representing vector quantities with continuous normal components, and they belong to the same function space as the commonly used RWG bases [1]. They are used here to formulate the frequency-domain EFIE with Galerkin testing. The 2-form basis functions (f) are scalar basis functions with units m{sup -2} and with no enforced continuity between elements. At lowest order, the 2-form basis functions are similar to pulse basis functions. They are used here to formulate an electrostatic integral equation. It should be noted that the derivative of an n-form differential form basis function is an (n+1)-form, i.e. the derivative of a 1-form basis function is a 2-form. Because the basis functions are constructed such that they have spatial units, the spatial units are removed from the degrees of freedom, leading to a better-conditioned system matrix. In this conference paper, we look at the performance of these differential forms and bases by examining the conditioning of matrix systems for electrostatics and the EFIE. The meshes used were refined across the object to consider the behavior of these basis transforms for elements of different sizes.

  15. QUALITY: A program to assess basis set quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo, J. A.

    1998-09-01

    A program to analyze in detail the quality of basis sets is presented. The information provided by the application of a wide variety of (atomic and/or molecular) quality criteria is processed by using a methodology that allows one to determine the most appropriate quality test to select a basis set to compute a given (atomic or molecular) property. Fuzzy set theory is used to choose the most adequate basis set to compute simultaneously a set of properties.

  16. 48 CFR 1426.7103-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-1 Statutory basis... qualified minority business enterprises in awarding contracts under the Act and report annually to...

  17. 48 CFR 1426.7102-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102-1 Statutory basis...., MBDA) to collect information on acquisition and financial assistance awards to minority businesses,...

  18. 48 CFR 1426.7102-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102-1 Statutory basis...., MBDA) to collect information on acquisition and financial assistance awards to minority businesses,...

  19. 48 CFR 1426.7103-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-1 Statutory basis... qualified minority business enterprises in awarding contracts under the Act and report annually to...

  20. 48 CFR 1426.7103-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-1 Statutory basis... qualified minority business enterprises in awarding contracts under the Act and report annually to...

  1. 48 CFR 1426.7102-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102-1 Statutory basis...., MBDA) to collect information on acquisition and financial assistance awards to minority businesses,...

  2. 48 CFR 1426.7102-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102-1 Statutory basis...., MBDA) to collect information on acquisition and financial assistance awards to minority businesses,...

  3. 48 CFR 1426.7103-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-1 Statutory basis... qualified minority business enterprises in awarding contracts under the Act and report annually to...

  4. 48 CFR 1426.7102-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7102-1 Statutory basis...., MBDA) to collect information on acquisition and financial assistance awards to minority businesses,...

  5. 48 CFR 1426.7103-1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS OTHER SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Minority Business Reports 1426.7103-1 Statutory basis... qualified minority business enterprises in awarding contracts under the Act and report annually to...

  6. 45 CFR 170.100 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General Provisions § 170.100 Statutory basis and purpose....

  7. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  8. Extension of the basis set of linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method by using supplemented tight binding basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. V.; Lamoen, D.; Partoens, B.

    2016-07-01

    In order to increase the accuracy of the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method, we present a new approach where the plane wave basis function is augmented by two different atomic radial components constructed at two different linearization energies corresponding to two different electron bands (or energy windows). We demonstrate that this case can be reduced to the standard treatment within the LAPW paradigm where the usual basis set is enriched by the basis functions of the tight binding type, which go to zero with zero derivative at the sphere boundary. We show that the task is closely related with the problem of extended core states which is currently solved by applying the LAPW method with local orbitals (LAPW+LO). In comparison with LAPW+LO, the number of supplemented basis functions in our approach is doubled, which opens up a new channel for the extension of the LAPW and LAPW+LO basis sets. The appearance of new supplemented basis functions absent in the LAPW+LO treatment is closely related with the existence of the u ˙ l -component in the canonical LAPW method. We discuss properties of additional tight binding basis functions and apply the extended basis set for computation of electron energy bands of lanthanum (face and body centered structures) and hexagonal close packed lattice of cadmium. We demonstrate that the new treatment gives lower total energies in comparison with both canonical LAPW and LAPW+LO, with the energy difference more pronounced for intermediate and poor LAPW basis sets.

  9. Zur Entwicklung der medizinischen Wissenschaften in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Hans Kurt

    1980-02-01

    Three periods or stages can be recognized in the development of medicine in China. The first one, being the indigenous medical practice, has its own philosophical approach and can therefore not simply be combined with Western medicine. The second period, in which medical missionaries introduced modern medicine was still a time of laissez-faire and pestilence. The third stage was ushered in by the liberation in 1949 and is characterized by the fact that the government no longer regards health as the private affair of the individual but as a task for the whole community. A number of endemic and epidemic diseases were conquered mainly through close cooperation between the population and medical workers. Success must be regarded as in an important part due to land reform and the eradication of famine. Further improvement in health care will depend to a great deal on improvement in living standards and a lessening of population pressure. As family planning meets resistance for economic and other reasons, only specific measures by the state can bring about a change in attitude. The progress in preventive measures is matched by advances in the technical aspects of medicine and especially too in medical education.

  10. 14 CFR 198.3 - Basis of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis of insurance. 198.3 Section 198.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.3 Basis of insurance. (a) Premium insurance may be issued by the FAA...

  11. Improved Algorithm For Finite-Field Normal-Basis Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Improved algorithm reduces complexity of calculations that must precede design of Massey-Omura finite-field normal-basis multipliers, used in error-correcting-code equipment and cryptographic devices. Algorithm represents an extension of development reported in "Algorithm To Design Finite-Field Normal-Basis Multipliers" (NPO-17109), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 12, No. 5, page 82.

  12. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  13. 42 CFR 406.5 - Basis of eligibility and entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis of eligibility and entitlement. 406.5 Section 406.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT General Provisions § 406.5 Basis...

  14. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  15. 12 CFR 261b.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis and scope. 261b.1 Section 261b.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.1 Basis and scope. This part is issued by the Board...

  16. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by each... to duty on a day outside the established normal operating schedule or on a holiday, the...

  17. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by each... to duty on a day outside the established normal operating schedule or on a holiday, the...

  18. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by each... to duty on a day outside the established normal operating schedule or on a holiday, the...

  19. 7 CFR 56.4 - Basis of grading service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.4 Basis of grading service. (a) Any grading service in... the basis of the “United States Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Egg Shells.”...

  20. 29 CFR 779.353 - Basis for classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basis for classification. 779.353 Section 779.353 Labor... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Classification of Sales and Establishments in Certain Industries § 779.353 Basis for classification. The...

  1. 29 CFR 779.353 - Basis for classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basis for classification. 779.353 Section 779.353 Labor... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Classification of Sales and Establishments in Certain Industries § 779.353 Basis for classification. The...

  2. 31 CFR 150.4 - Calculation of assessment basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of assessment basis. 150.4 Section 150.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL RESEARCH FUND § 150.4 Calculation of assessment basis....

  3. 42 CFR 457.700 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.700 Basis, scope, and applicability. (a) Statutory basis... strategic planning, reports, and program budgets; and (2) Section 2108 of the Act, which sets forth... strategic planning, monitoring, reporting and evaluation under title XXI. (c) Applicability....

  4. 29 CFR 779.265 - Basis for making computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basis for making computations. 779.265 Section 779.265 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Coverage Computing the Annual Volume § 779.265 Basis for making computations. The annual gross...

  5. 29 CFR 779.265 - Basis for making computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basis for making computations. 779.265 Section 779.265 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Coverage Computing the Annual Volume § 779.265 Basis for making computations. The annual gross...

  6. 29 CFR 779.265 - Basis for making computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis for making computations. 779.265 Section 779.265 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Coverage Computing the Annual Volume § 779.265 Basis for making computations. The annual gross...

  7. 29 CFR 779.265 - Basis for making computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basis for making computations. 779.265 Section 779.265 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Coverage Computing the Annual Volume § 779.265 Basis for making computations. The annual gross...

  8. 29 CFR 779.265 - Basis for making computations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basis for making computations. 779.265 Section 779.265 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Coverage Computing the Annual Volume § 779.265 Basis for making computations. The annual gross...

  9. 47 CFR 64.5101 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.5101 Section 64.5101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS TRS Customer Proprietary Network Information. § 64.5101 Basis...

  10. 47 CFR 64.5101 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.5101 Section 64.5101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS TRS Customer Proprietary Network Information. § 64.5101 Basis...

  11. 40 CFR 104.4 - Statement of basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Statement of basis and purpose. 104.4 Section 104.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEARINGS ON EFFLUENT STANDARDS FOR TOXIC POLLUTANTS § 104.4 Statement of basis and purpose. Whenever...

  12. 40 CFR 72.64 - Statement of basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statement of basis. 72.64 Section 72.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.64 Statement of basis. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 72.64 - Statement of basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statement of basis. 72.64 Section 72.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.64 Statement of basis. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 72.64 - Statement of basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Statement of basis. 72.64 Section 72.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.64 Statement of basis. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 72.64 - Statement of basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Statement of basis. 72.64 Section 72.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.64 Statement of basis. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 72.64 - Statement of basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Statement of basis. 72.64 Section 72.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.64 Statement of basis. (a)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1016-5 - Miscellaneous adjustments to basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... thereunder. (e) Loans from Commodity Credit Corporation. In the case of property pledged to the Commodity Credit Corporation, the basis of such property shall be increased by the amount received as a loan from..., or under section 123 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939. The basis of such property shall...

  18. 47 CFR 4.1 - Scope, basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope, basis and purpose. 4.1 Section 4.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS General § 4.1 Scope, basis and purpose. In this part, the Federal Communications Commission is setting forth...

  19. 47 CFR 95.1400 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 95.1400 Section 95.1400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) § 95.1400 Basis and purpose. The rules in this subpart are...

  20. 47 CFR 95.1400 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 95.1400 Section 95.1400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Personal Locator Beacons (PLB). § 95.1400 Basis and purpose. The rules in this subpart...

  1. 47 CFR 95.1400 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 95.1400 Section 95.1400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) § 95.1400 Basis and purpose. The rules in this subpart are...

  2. 47 CFR 95.1400 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 95.1400 Section 95.1400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) § 95.1400 Basis and purpose. The rules in this subpart are...

  3. 47 CFR 95.1400 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 95.1400 Section 95.1400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Personal Locator Beacons (PLB). § 95.1400 Basis and purpose. The rules in this subpart...

  4. 7 CFR 91.15 - Basis of a laboratory service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis of a laboratory service. 91.15 Section 91.15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.15 Basis of a laboratory service....

  5. 42 CFR 441.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 441.100 Section 441.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases § 441.100 Basis and purpose. This...

  6. 42 CFR 1008.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 1008.1 Section 1008.1 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.1 Basis and purpose. (a) This part contains...

  7. 42 CFR 412.500 - Basis and scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Term Care Hospitals § 412.500 Basis and scope of subpart. (a) Basis. This subpart implements the... payment system for long-term care hospitals described in section 1886(d)(1)(B)(iv) of the Act. (2) Section... regarding long-term care hospitals, including the— (i) Amendment of section 1886 of the Act to add a...

  8. 42 CFR 402.200 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 402.200 Section 402.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...) Basis. This subpart is based on the sections of the Act that are specified in § 402.1(e). (b)...

  9. 42 CFR 416.120 - Basis for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis for payment. 416.120 Section 416.120 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Facility Services Furnished Before January 1, 2008 § 416.120 Basis...

  10. 47 CFR 18.101 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 18.101 Section 18.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.101 Basis and purpose. The rules in this part, in accordance with the applicable treaties and agreements to which the...

  11. 47 CFR 18.101 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 18.101 Section 18.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.101 Basis and purpose. The rules in this part, in accordance with the applicable treaties and agreements to which the...

  12. 42 CFR 1008.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 1008.1 Section 1008.1 Public... ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.1 Basis and purpose. (a) This part contains the specific procedures for the submission of requests by an individual or entity for advisory opinions to,...

  13. 48 CFR 245.7302-4 - Basis for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis for sale. 245.7302-4..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302-4 Basis for sale. (a) Unit price basis—requires the offeror to state the bid price in terms of...

  14. 40 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. This part implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986, Public Law... for imposing civil penalties and assessments against persons who make, submit, or present, or cause...

  15. 42 CFR 431.954 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.954 Basis and scope. (a) Basis. The statutory bases for this... or child health assistance under CHIP; and State-specific sample sizes for application of the PERM... improper payments in the fee-for-service (FFS) and managed care components of the Medicaid and...

  16. 42 CFR 414.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 414.1 Section 414.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 414.1 Basis and...

  17. 42 CFR 422.200 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 422.200 Section 422.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With Providers § 422.200 Basis and scope....

  18. 30 CFR 1206.301 - Value basis for royalty computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Value basis for royalty computation. 1206.301 Section 1206.301 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Other Solid Minerals § 1206.301 Value basis...

  19. 42 CFR 438.700 - Basis for imposition of sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis for imposition of sanctions. 438.700 Section 438.700 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... among enrollees on the basis of their health status or need for health care services. This...

  20. 48 CFR 53.301-1435 - Settlement Proposal (Inventory Basis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Inventory Basis). 53.301-1435 Section 53.301-1435 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... (Inventory Basis). ER09DE97.004 ER09DE97.005 ER09DE97.006 ER09DE97.007...

  1. 42 CFR 483.350 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Condition of Participation... Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.350 Basis and scope. (a) Statutory basis... age 21 include only inpatient services that are provided in an institution (or distinct part...

  2. 14 CFR 198.3 - Basis of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basis of insurance. 198.3 Section 198.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.3 Basis of insurance. (a) Premium insurance may be issued by the FAA...

  3. 14 CFR 198.3 - Basis of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis of insurance. 198.3 Section 198.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.3 Basis of insurance. (a) Premium insurance may be issued by the FAA...

  4. 12 CFR 308.500 - Basis, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....500 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.500 Basis, purpose, and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act, Pub. L. 99-509, sections...

  5. 12 CFR 308.500 - Basis, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....500 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.500 Basis, purpose, and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act, Pub. L. 99-509, sections...

  6. 12 CFR 308.500 - Basis, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....500 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.500 Basis, purpose, and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act, Pub. L. 99-509, sections...

  7. 12 CFR 308.500 - Basis, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....500 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.500 Basis, purpose, and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart implements the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act, Pub. L. 99-509, sections...

  8. 30 CFR 206.301 - Value basis for royalty computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value basis for royalty computation. 206.301 Section 206.301 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Other Solid Minerals § 206.301 Value basis for royalty computation. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 35.212 - Basis for allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basis for allotment. 35.212 Section 35.212 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Hazardous Waste Management (section 3011(a)) § 35.212 Basis for allotment. The...

  10. 40 CFR 35.212 - Basis for allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basis for allotment. 35.212 Section 35.212 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Hazardous Waste Management (section 3011(a)) § 35.212 Basis for allotment. The...

  11. 42 CFR 416.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and scope. 416.1 Section 416.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES General Provisions and Definitions § 416.1 Basis...

  12. 42 CFR 416.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and scope. 416.1 Section 416.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES General Provisions and Definitions § 416.1 Basis...

  13. 42 CFR 416.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and scope. 416.1 Section 416.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES General Provisions and Definitions § 416.1 Basis...

  14. 42 CFR 416.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and scope. 416.1 Section 416.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES General Provisions and Definitions § 416.1 Basis and scope....

  15. 44 CFR 67.6 - Basis of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.6 Basis of appeal. (a) The sole basis of appeal under this part shall be the possession of knowledge or information indicating that the elevations proposed by FEMA are scientifically or... estimates of base flood elevations, thus demonstrating that FEMA's estimates are incorrect. (b)...

  16. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  17. 10 CFR 110.80 - Basis for hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for hearings. 110.80 Section 110.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.80 Basis for hearings. The procedures in this part...

  18. Exploring continuum structures with a pseudo-state basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M.; Arias, J. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.

    2010-08-15

    The ability of a recently developed square-integrable discrete basis to represent the properties of the continuum of a two-body system is investigated. The basis is obtained performing a simple analytic local scale transformation to the harmonic oscillator basis. Scattering phase-shifts and the electric transition probabilities B(E1) and B(E2) have been evaluated for several potentials using the proposed basis. Both quantities are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact values calculated from the true scattering states. The basis has been applied to describe the projectile continuum in the {sup 6}He scattering by {sup 12}C and {sup 208}Pb targets at 240 MeV/nucleon and the {sup 11}Be scattering by {sup 12}C at 67 MeV/nucleon. The calculated breakup differential cross sections are found to be in very good agreement with the available experimental data for these reactions.

  19. Basis Functions in Image Reconstruction From Projections: A Tutorial Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Gabor T.

    2015-11-01

    The series expansion approaches to image reconstruction from projections assume that the object to be reconstructed can be represented as a linear combination of fixed basis functions and the task of the reconstruction algorithm is to estimate the coefficients in such a linear combination based on the measured projection data. It is demonstrated that using spherically symmetric basis functions (blobs), instead of ones based on the more traditional pixels, yields superior reconstructions of medically relevant objects. The demonstration uses simulated computerized tomography projection data of head cross-sections and the series expansion method ART for the reconstruction. In addition to showing the results of one anecdotal example, the relative efficacy of using pixel and blob basis functions in image reconstruction from projections is also evaluated using a statistical hypothesis testing based task oriented comparison methodology. The superiority of the efficacy of blob basis functions over that of pixel basis function is found to be statistically significant.

  20. BASIS FOR DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL STABILITY & COMPATIBILITY OF SOLID WASTE CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY TECHNICAL BASIS

    SciTech Connect

    STEELE, S.M.

    2004-11-01

    Solid wastes must be managed to prevent inadvertent reactions, explosion and degradation of waste containers per the ''Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations'' (WAC 173-303). An understanding of chemical compatibility principles and a consistent approach for implementing compatibility requirements is essential for complying with the regulations. This document explains the technical basis for ensuring chemical compatibility for solid wastes that are stored on site at on-site TSD facilities and for solid waste that will go to off-site TSD facilities. The document applies directly to the following aspects of chemical compatibility: (1) Ensuring that hazardous waste is not chemically reactive or unstable such that it cannot be safely transported or stored; (2) Ensuring that lab packs (i.e., drums containing multiple inner containers of differing types of hazardous waste) are packaged such that incompatible chemicals are not placed into the same drum; (3) Selecting containers and liners that are compatible with the waste they contain. This document does not cover individual TSD requirements, or specific offsite TSD requirements. This document does not cover chemical compatibility and segregation requirements for shipping wastes on-site or off-site. This document does not cover radiological hazards associated with radioactive waste or mixed wastes. Evaluation of compatibility for comingling and treating solid waste is beyond the scope of this document. In addition, heat generation and gas generation as they apply to the Hanford waste acceptance criteria are not covered in this document.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-02-08

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

  2. Integration of macromolecular diffraction data using radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Pokrić, B; Allinson, N M; Helliwell, J R

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for intensity calculation of X-ray diffraction spots based on a two-stage radial basis function (RBF) network. The first stage uses pre-determined reference profiles from a database as basis functions in order to locate the diffraction spots and identify any overlapping regions. The second-stage RBF network employs narrow basis functions capable of local modifications of the reference profiles leading to a more accurate observed diffraction spot approximation and therefore accurate determination of spot positions and integrated intensities.

  3. Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    2002-07-12

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism was held at Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  4. 7 CFR 810.2203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2203..., wheat of other classes, contrasting classes, and subclasses is made on the basis of the grain when...

  5. 7 CFR 810.2203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2203..., wheat of other classes, contrasting classes, and subclasses is made on the basis of the grain when...

  6. 7 CFR 810.2203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2203..., wheat of other classes, contrasting classes, and subclasses is made on the basis of the grain when...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2203..., wheat of other classes, contrasting classes, and subclasses is made on the basis of the grain when...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2203..., wheat of other classes, contrasting classes, and subclasses is made on the basis of the grain when...

  9. Basis And Application Of The CARES/LIFE Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Powers, Lynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Report discusses physical and mathematical basis of Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures LIFE prediction (CARES/LIFE) computer program, described in "Program for Evaluation of Reliability of Ceramic Parts" (LEW-16018).

  10. 47 CFR 27.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... the purpose for which this part is issued. (a) Basis. The rules for miscellaneous wireless... spectrum is made available and licensed for the provision of wireless communications services in...

  11. A generalized algorithm to design finite field normal basis multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of some error-correcting coders and some cryptographic devices. There is a need for good multiplication algorithms which can be easily realized. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for finite fields based on a normal basis representation. Using the normal basis representation, the design of the finite field multiplier is simple and regular. The fundamental design of the Massey-Omura multiplier is based on a design of a product function. In this article, a generalized algorithm to locate a normal basis in a field is first presented. Using this normal basis, an algorithm to construct the product function is then developed. This design does not depend on particular characteristics of the generator polynomial of the field.

  12. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.103 Basis...

  13. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.103 Basis...

  14. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.103 Basis...

  15. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.103 Basis...

  16. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.103 Basis...

  17. 42 CFR 410.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (5) Section 1881—Medicare coverage for end-stage renal disease beneficiaries. (6) Section 1842(o)—Payment for drugs and biologicals not paid on a cost or prospective payment basis. (b) Scope of part....

  18. 42 CFR 493.1800 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... perform clinical diagnostic tests on human specimens; (ii) Requires a Federal certification scheme to be...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1800 Basis and scope....

  19. 42 CFR 493.1800 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... perform clinical diagnostic tests on human specimens; (ii) Requires a Federal certification scheme to be...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1800 Basis and scope....

  20. 42 CFR 493.1800 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... perform clinical diagnostic tests on human specimens; (ii) Requires a Federal certification scheme to be...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1800 Basis and scope....

  1. 42 CFR 493.1800 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tests on human specimens; (ii) Requires a Federal certification scheme to be applied to all such...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1800 Basis and scope....

  2. 42 CFR 493.1800 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... perform clinical diagnostic tests on human specimens; (ii) Requires a Federal certification scheme to be...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1800 Basis and scope....

  3. 42 CFR 431.700 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Nursing Home Administrators § 431.700 Basis and purpose. This subpart implements sections 1903(a)(29) and 1908 of the Act which require that the State plan include a State program for licensing nursing...

  4. 42 CFR 431.700 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Nursing Home Administrators § 431.700 Basis and purpose. This subpart implements sections 1903(a)(29) and 1908 of the Act which require that the State plan include a State program for licensing nursing...

  5. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2013-01-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

  6. 47 CFR 4.1 - Scope, basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope, basis and purpose. 4.1 Section 4.1... and purpose. In this part, the Federal Communications Commission is setting forth requirements... communications infrastructures....

  7. 47 CFR 4.1 - Scope, basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope, basis and purpose. 4.1 Section 4.1... and purpose. In this part, the Federal Communications Commission is setting forth requirements... communications infrastructures....

  8. 47 CFR 4.1 - Scope, basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope, basis and purpose. 4.1 Section 4.1... and purpose. In this part, the Federal Communications Commission is setting forth requirements... communications infrastructures....

  9. 47 CFR 4.1 - Scope, basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope, basis and purpose. 4.1 Section 4.1... and purpose. In this part, the Federal Communications Commission is setting forth requirements... communications infrastructures....

  10. 45 CFR 170.100 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....100 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General Provisions § 170.100 Statutory basis and purpose....

  11. 45 CFR 170.100 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....100 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General Provisions § 170.100 Statutory basis and purpose....

  12. 45 CFR 170.100 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....100 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General Provisions § 170.100 Statutory basis and purpose....

  13. 45 CFR 170.100 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....100 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General Provisions § 170.100 Statutory basis and purpose....

  14. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  15. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  16. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  17. 29 CFR 1975.2 - Basis of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.2 Basis of authority. The power of Congress to regulate employment conditions under the Williams-Steiger... the Williams-Steiger Act?...

  18. A Bayesian Adaptive Basis Algorithm for Single Particle Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kucukelbir, Alp; Sigworth, Fred J.; Tagare, Hemant D.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional single particle reconstruction methods use either the Fourier or the delta function basis to represent the particle density map. This paper proposes a more flexible algorithm that adaptively chooses the basis based on the data. Because the basis adapts to the data, the reconstruction resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved compared to a reconstruction with a fixed basis. Moreover, the algorithm automatically masks the particle, thereby separating it from the background. This eliminates the need for ad-hoc filtering or masking in the refinement loop. The algorithm is formulated in a Bayesian maximum-a-posteriori framework and uses an efficient optimization algorithm for the maximization. Evaluations using simulated and actual cryogenic electron microscopy data show resolution and SNR improvements as well as the effective masking of particle from background. PMID:22564910

  19. 42 CFR 485.701 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.701 Basis and scope. This subpart implements section 1861(p)(4) of the Act, which— (a) Defines outpatient physical therapy and speech pathology services;...

  20. 42 CFR 485.701 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.701 Basis and scope. This subpart implements section 1861(p)(4) of the Act, which— (a) Defines outpatient physical therapy and speech pathology services;...

  1. 42 CFR 485.701 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.701 Basis and scope. This subpart implements section 1861(p)(4) of the Act, which— (a) Defines outpatient physical therapy and speech pathology services;...

  2. 42 CFR 485.701 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.701 Basis and scope. This subpart implements section 1861(p)(4) of the Act, which— (a) Defines outpatient physical therapy and speech pathology services;...

  3. 42 CFR 485.701 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.701 Basis and scope. This subpart implements section 1861(p)(4) of the Act, which— (a) Defines outpatient physical therapy and speech pathology services;...

  4. 45 CFR 159.100 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REFORM INSURANCE WEB PORTAL § 159.100 Basis and scope. This part establishes provisions governing a Web portal that will provide information on health insurance coverage options in each of the 50 States...

  5. 42 CFR 431.700 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Nursing Home Administrators § 431.700 Basis and purpose. This subpart implements sections 1903(a)(29) and 1908 of the Act which require that the State plan include a State program for licensing nursing...

  6. 42 CFR 431.700 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Nursing Home Administrators § 431.700 Basis and purpose. This subpart implements sections 1903(a)(29) and 1908 of the Act which require that the State plan include a State program for licensing nursing...

  7. 45 CFR 170.400 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.400 Basis and scope... and procedures related to the temporary certification program for health information...

  8. 45 CFR 170.400 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.400 Basis and scope... and procedures related to the temporary certification program for health information...

  9. 45 CFR 170.500 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.500 Basis and scope. This... procedures related to the ONC HIT Certification Program for health information technology (HIT)...

  10. 45 CFR 170.500 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT § 170.500 Basis and scope... and procedures related to the permanent certification program for health information technology...

  11. 45 CFR 170.400 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.400 Basis and scope... and procedures related to the temporary certification program for health information...

  12. 45 CFR 170.400 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.400 Basis and scope... and procedures related to the temporary certification program for health information...

  13. 45 CFR 170.500 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.500 Basis and scope. This... procedures related to the ONC HIT Certification Program for health information technology (HIT)...

  14. 45 CFR 170.500 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT § 170.500 Basis and scope... and procedures related to the permanent certification program for health information technology...

  15. 45 CFR 170.400 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.400 Basis and scope... and procedures related to the temporary certification program for health information...

  16. 42 CFR 457.800 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... apply to separate child health programs. ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.800...

  17. 42 CFR 457.800 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... apply to separate child health programs. ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.800...

  18. 42 CFR 457.800 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... apply to separate child health programs. ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.800...

  19. 42 CFR 457.800 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... apply to separate child health programs. ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.800...

  20. 42 CFR 457.800 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... apply to separate child health programs. ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.800...

  1. 42 CFR 431.700 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Nursing Home Administrators § 431.700 Basis and purpose. This subpart implements sections 1903(a)(29) and 1908 of the Act which require that the State plan include a State program for licensing nursing...

  2. 47 CFR 64.4000 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., termination, and billing of customer telephone service accounts. ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Account Record Exchange Requirements § 64.4000 Basis...

  3. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  4. PFP total operating efficiency calculation and basis of estimate

    SciTech Connect

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-05-03

    The purpose of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Total Operating Efficiency Calculation and Basis of Estimate document is to provide the calculated value and basis of estimate for the Total Operating Efficiency (TOE) for the material stabilization operations to be conducted in 234-52 Building. This information will be used to support both the planning and execution of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Deactivation Project's (hereafter called the Project) resource-loaded, integrated schedule.

  5. Development of a reduced basis technique for transient thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    A technique to reduce the degrees of freedom in static and dynamic problems, the reduced basis method, is described. The method combines the classical Rayleigh-Ritz approximation with contemporary finite element methods to retain modeling versatility as the degrees of freedom are reduced. Applications to a nonlinear dynamic response problem are discussed efforts to apply the method to nonlinear transient thermal response problems are summarized. The selection of basis vectors for reducing the system of equations is addressed.

  6. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  7. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  8. Radial basis function neural networks applied to NASA SSME data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Atam P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the application of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN) to the prediction of sensor values for fault detection and diagnosis of the Space Shuttle's Main Engines (SSME). The location of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) node centers was determined with a K-means clustering algorithm. A neighborhood operation about these center points was used to determine the variances of the individual processing notes.

  9. Decision trees can initialize radial-basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Kubat, M

    1998-01-01

    Successful implementations of radial-basis function (RBF) networks for classification tasks must deal with architectural issues, the burden of irrelevant attributes, scaling, and some other problems. This paper addresses these issues by initializing RBF networks with decision trees that define relatively pure regions in the instance space; each of these regions then determines one basis function. The resulting network is compact, easy to induce, and has favorable classification accuracy.

  10. The ORP basis set designed for optical rotation calculations.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z

    2013-09-01

    Details of generation of the optical rotation prediction (ORP) basis set developed for accurate optical rotation (OR) calculations are presented. Specific rotation calculations carried out at the density functional theory (DFT) level for model chiral methane molecule, fluorooxirane, methyloxirane, and dimethylmethylenecyclopropane reveal that the ORP set outperforms larger basis sets, among them the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set of Dunning (J. Chem. Phys. 1989, 90, 1007) and the aug-pc-2 basis set of Jensen (J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 9234; J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2008, 4, 719). It is shown to be an attractive choice also in the case of larger systems, namely norbornanone, β-pinene, trans-pinane, and nopinone. The ORP basis set is further used in OR calculations for 24 other systems, and the results are compared to the aug-cc-pVDZ values. Whenever large discrepancies of results are observed, the ORP values are in an excellent agreement with the aug-cc-pVTZ results. The ORP basis set enables accurate specific rotation calculations at a reduced cost and thus can be recommended for routine DFT OR calculations, also for large and conformationally flexible molecules.

  11. All-frequency lighting with multiscale spherical radial basis functions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping-Man; Ho, Tze-Yiu; Leung, Chi-Sing; Wong, Tien-Tsin

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel multiscale spherical radial basis function (MSRBF) representation for all-frequency lighting. It supports the illumination of distant environment as well as the local illumination commonly used in practical applications, such as games. The key is to define a multiscale and hierarchical structure of spherical radial basis functions (SRBFs) with basis functions uniformly distributed over the sphere. The basis functions are divided into multiple levels according to their coverage (widths). Within the same level, SRBFs have the same width. Larger width SRBFs are responsible for lower frequency lighting while the smaller width ones are responsible for the higher frequency lighting. Hence, our approach can achieve the true all-frequency lighting that is not achievable by the single-scale SRBF approach. Besides, the MSRBF approach is scalable as coarser rendering quality can be achieved without reestimating the coefficients from the raw data. With the homogeneous form of basis functions, the rendering is highly efficient. The practicability of the proposed method is demonstrated with real-time rendering and effective compression for tractable storage.

  12. Nonsymmetrized hyperspherical harmonic basis for an A-body system

    SciTech Connect

    Gattobigio, M.; Kievsky, A.; Viviani, M.

    2011-02-15

    The use of the hyperspherical harmonic (HH) basis in the description of bound states in an A-body system composed of identical particles is normally preceded by a symmetrization procedure in which the statistic of the system is taken into account. This preliminary step is not strictly necessary; the direct use of the HH basis is possible, even if the basis does not have a well-defined behavior under particle permutations. In fact, after the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix, the eigenvectors reflect the symmetries present in it. They have well-defined symmetry under particle permutation and identification of the physical states is possible, as shown here in specific cases. The problem related to the large degeneration of the basis is circumvented by constructing the Hamiltonian matrix as a sum of products of sparse matrices. This particular representation of the Hamiltonian is well suited for a numerical iterative diagonalization, where only the action of the matrix on a vector is needed. As an example we compute bound states for systems with A=3-6 particles interacting through a short-range central interaction. We also consider the case in which the potential is restricted to act in relative s waves with and without the inclusion of the Coulomb potential. This very simple model predicts results in qualitative good agreement with the experimental data and it represents the first step in a project dedicated to the use of the HH basis to describe bound and low-energy scattering states in light nuclei.

  13. A basis in an invariant subspace of analytic functions

    SciTech Connect

    Krivosheev, A S; Krivosheeva, O A

    2013-12-31

    The existence problem for a basis in a differentiation-invariant subspace of analytic functions defined in a bounded convex domain in the complex plane is investigated. Conditions are found for the solvability of a certain special interpolation problem in the space of entire functions of exponential type with conjugate diagrams lying in a fixed convex domain. These underlie sufficient conditions for the existence of a basis in the invariant subspace. This basis consists of linear combinations of eigenfunctions and associated functions of the differentiation operator, whose exponents are combined into relatively small clusters. Necessary conditions for the existence of a basis are also found. Under a natural constraint on the number of points in the groups, these coincide with the sufficient conditions. That is, a criterion is found under this constraint that a basis constructed from relatively small clusters exists in an invariant subspace of analytic functions in a bounded convex domain in the complex plane. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  14. Orthogonal basis functions in discrete least-squares rational approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultheel, A.; van Barel, M.; van Gucht, P.

    2004-03-01

    We consider a problem that arises in the field of frequency domain system identification. If a discrete-time system has an input-output relation Y(z)=G(z)U(z), with transfer function G, then the problem is to find a rational approximation for G. The data given are measurements of input and output spectra in the frequency points zk: {U(zk),Y(zk)}k=1N together with some weight. The approximation criterion is to minimize the weighted discrete least squares norm of the vector obtained by evaluating in the measurement points. If the poles of the system are fixed, then the problem reduces to a linear least-squares problem in two possible ways: by multiplying out the denominators and hide these in the weight, which leads to the construction of orthogonal vector polynomials, or the problem can be solved directly using an orthogonal basis of rational functions. The orthogonality of the basis is important because if the transfer function is represented with respect to a nonorthogonal basis, then this least-squares problem can be very ill conditioned. Even if an orthogonal basis is used, but with respect to the wrong inner product (e.g., the Lebesgue measure on the unit circle) numerical instability can be fatal in practice. We show that both approaches lead to an inverse eigenvalue problem, which forms the common framework in which fast and numerically stable algorithms can be designed for the computation of the orthonormal basis.

  15. Optical trajectories and the informational basis of fly ball catching.

    PubMed

    Marken, Richard S

    2005-06-01

    D. M. Shaffer and M. K. McBeath (see record 2002-02027-006) plotted the optical trajectories of uncatchable fly balls and concluded that linear optical trajectory is the informational basis of the actions taken to catch these balls. P. McLeod, N. Reed, and Z. Dienes (see record 2002-11140-016) replotted these trajectories in terms of changes in the tangent of optical angle over time and concluded that optical acceleration is the informational basis of fielder actions. Neither of these conclusions is warranted, however, because the optical trajectories of even uncatchable balls confound the information that is the basis of fielder action with the effects of those same actions on these trajectories. To determine the informational basis of fielder action, it is necessary to do the control-theory-based Test for the Controlled Variable, in which the informational basis of catching is found by looking for features of optical trajectories that are protected from experimentally or naturally applied disturbances. PMID:15982135

  16. Optical trajectories and the informational basis of fly ball catching.

    PubMed

    Marken, Richard S

    2005-06-01

    D. M. Shaffer and M. K. McBeath (see record 2002-02027-006) plotted the optical trajectories of uncatchable fly balls and concluded that linear optical trajectory is the informational basis of the actions taken to catch these balls. P. McLeod, N. Reed, and Z. Dienes (see record 2002-11140-016) replotted these trajectories in terms of changes in the tangent of optical angle over time and concluded that optical acceleration is the informational basis of fielder actions. Neither of these conclusions is warranted, however, because the optical trajectories of even uncatchable balls confound the information that is the basis of fielder action with the effects of those same actions on these trajectories. To determine the informational basis of fielder action, it is necessary to do the control-theory-based Test for the Controlled Variable, in which the informational basis of catching is found by looking for features of optical trajectories that are protected from experimentally or naturally applied disturbances.

  17. Orthogonal least squares learning algorithm for radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Cowan, C N; Grant, P M

    1991-01-01

    The radial basis function network offers a viable alternative to the two-layer neural network in many applications of signal processing. A common learning algorithm for radial basis function networks is based on first choosing randomly some data points as radial basis function centers and then using singular-value decomposition to solve for the weights of the network. Such a procedure has several drawbacks, and, in particular, an arbitrary selection of centers is clearly unsatisfactory. The authors propose an alternative learning procedure based on the orthogonal least-squares method. The procedure chooses radial basis function centers one by one in a rational way until an adequate network has been constructed. In the algorithm, each selected center maximizes the increment to the explained variance or energy of the desired output and does not suffer numerical ill-conditioning problems. The orthogonal least-squares learning strategy provides a simple and efficient means for fitting radial basis function networks. This is illustrated using examples taken from two different signal processing applications.

  18. BASIS: A New Backscattering Spectrometer at the SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; Zamponi, Michaela M; Hammons, Stephanie E; Keener, Wylie S; Hagen, Mark E; Herwig, Kenneth W

    2008-01-01

    A new spectrometer named BASIS has recently entered the general user program at the Spallation Neutron Source. BASIS is an acronym for Backscattering Silicon Spectrometer. While there are several operational reactor-based spectrometers that utilize backscattering reflection from silicon single crystals, such as IN10 and IN16 [1] at the ILL, France; HFBS [2] at the NCNR, USA; and SPHERES [3] at the FRM-II, JCNS, Germany, BASIS is the first silicon backscattering spectrometer built on a spallation neutron source. Conceptually, it is similar to previously built time-of-flight backscattering spectrometers that utilize reflections from pyrolytic graphite or mica, such as IRIS [4] and OSIRIS [5] at the ISIS, UK; LAM-80 [6] at the KENS, Japan; or MARS [7] at the SINQ, Switzerland.

  19. Closed fringe demodulation using phase decomposition by Fourier basis functions.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    We report a new technique for the demodulation of a closed fringe pattern by representing the phase as a weighted linear combination of a certain number of linearly independent Fourier basis functions in a given row/column at a time. A state space model is developed with the weights of the basis functions as the elements of the state vector. The iterative extended Kalman filter is effectively utilized for the robust estimation of the weights. A coarse estimate of the fringe density based on the fringe frequency map is used to determine the initial row/column to start with and subsequently the optimal number of basis functions. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with several noisy fringe patterns. Experimental results are also reported to support the practical applicability of the proposed method. PMID:27409439

  20. High quality Gaussian basis sets for fourth-row atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Faegri, Knut, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy optimized Gaussian basis sets of triple-zeta quality for the atoms Rb-Xe have been derived. Two series of basis sets are developed: (24s 16p 10d) and (26s 16p 10d) sets which were expanded to 13d and 19p functions as the 4d and 5p shells become occupied. For the atoms lighter than Cd, the (24s 16p 10d) sets with triple-zeta valence distributions are higher in energy than the corresponding double-zeta distribution. To ensure a triple-zeta distribution and a global energy minimum, the (26s 16p 10d) sets were derived. Total atomic energies from the largest basis sets are between 198 and 284 (mu)E(sub H) above the numerical Hartree-Fock energies.

  1. Interim safety basis compliance matrix for Trenches 31 and 34

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.R.

    1994-12-30

    The tables provided in this document identify the specific requirements and basis for the administrative controls established in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Burial Ground (SWBG) Interim Safety Basis (ISB) for operation of the Project W-025, Mixed Waste Lined Landfill (Trenches 31 and 34). The tables document the necessary controls and implementing procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements of the ISB. These requirements provide a basis for future Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQ) screening of applicable procedure changes, proposed physical modifications, tests, experiments, and occurrences. Table 1 provides the SWBG interim Operational Safety Requirements administrative controls matrix. The specific assumptions and commitments used in the safety analysis documents applicable to disposal of mixed wastes in Trenches 31 and 34 are provided in Table 2. Table 3 is provided to document the potential engineered and administrative mitigating features identified in the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) for disposal of mixed waste.

  2. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    PubMed

    Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  3. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Ahmad; Abd. Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study. PMID:27315105

  4. A Quantum Watermarking Protocol Based on Bell Dual Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jia; Ma, Zhaofeng; Yang, Yixian; Niu, Xinxin

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a Bell-dual-basis-based quantum watermarking protocol composed of three major algorithms: watermark embedding and extracting and the intercepting test. The first two are completed by using the entanglement swapping property of Bell dual basis and the test is accomplished through IBF protocol to guarantee its bottom security. The watermarking protocol is mainly designed for the protection of digital copyright in the existence of classical information. This design finds that the quality of digital contents is not damaged with its zero-watermark attributes when embedding watermarks.

  5. Discussion of a Known Spherical Basis for Dirac Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Werner

    2013-03-01

    The paper considers the free spherical Dirac equation with a boundary condition at r = R which is a slight extension of the original boundary condition of the MIT bag model. We discuss the basis states and apply them for a diagonalization of Coulomb potentials. The obtained results agree quite well with the lowest bound states with κ = -1, +1 and -2 and their expectation values √ {< r2>}. There appear basis states with energies -mc2 < E < mc2 under certain circumstances of the boundary condition. These states are concentrated at the boundary.

  6. Turing's next steps: the mechanochemical basis of morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jonathon; Grill, Stephan W; Bois, Justin S

    2011-06-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Alan Turing showed theoretically how two chemical species, termed morphogens, diffusing and reacting with each other can generate spatial patterns. Diffusion plays a crucial part in transporting chemical signals through space to establish the length scale of the pattern. When coupled to chemical reactions, mechanical processes - forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis. forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis.

  7. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, James L.

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  8. Turing's next steps: the mechanochemical basis of morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jonathon; Grill, Stephan W; Bois, Justin S

    2011-06-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Alan Turing showed theoretically how two chemical species, termed morphogens, diffusing and reacting with each other can generate spatial patterns. Diffusion plays a crucial part in transporting chemical signals through space to establish the length scale of the pattern. When coupled to chemical reactions, mechanical processes - forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis. forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis. PMID:21602907

  9. A Design Basis for Spacecraft Cabin Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    Successful trace chemical contamination control is one of the components necessary for achieving good cabin atmospheric quality. While employing seemingly simple process technologies, sizing the active contamination control equipment must employ a reliable design basis for the trace chemical load in the cabin atmosphere. A simplified design basis that draws on experience gained from the International Space Station program is presented. The trace chemical contamination control design load refines generation source magnitudes and includes key chemical functional groups representing both engineering and toxicology challenges.

  10. A radial basis function neurocomputer implemented with analog VLSI circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Steven S.; Chau, Paul M.; Tawel, Raoul

    1992-01-01

    An electronic neurocomputer which implements a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is described. The RBFNN is a network that utilizes a radial basis function as the transfer function. The key advantages of RBFNNs over existing neural network architectures include reduced learning time and the ease of VLSI implementation. This neurocomputer is based on an analog/digital hybrid design and has been constructed with both custom analog VLSI circuits and a commercially available digital signal processor. The hybrid architecture is selected because it offers high computational performance while compensating for analog inaccuracies, and it features the ability to model large problems.

  11. 42 CFR 426.100 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 426.100 Section 426.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM REVIEW OF NATIONAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS...

  12. 46 CFR 12.13-3 - Basis of documentary evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis of documentary evidence. 12.13-3 Section 12.13-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR... documentary evidence. The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection will issue such documentary evidence to...

  13. Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

  14. 42 CFR 414.900 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...— (i) Influenza. (ii) Pneumococcal and Hepatitis B vaccines. (iii) Antigens. (iv) Hemophilia blood...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Drugs and Biologicals Under Part B § 414.900 Basis and scope. (a) This subpart implements sections 1842(o), 1847A,...

  15. 42 CFR 414.900 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...— (i) Influenza. (ii) Pneumococcal and Hepatitis B vaccines. (iii) Antigens. (iv) Hemophilia blood...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Drugs and Biologicals Under Part B § 414.900 Basis and scope. (a) This subpart implements sections 1842(o), 1847A,...

  16. 42 CFR 414.900 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...— (i) Influenza. (ii) Pneumococcal and Hepatitis B vaccines. (iii) Antigens. (iv) Hemophilia blood...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Drugs and Biologicals Under Part B § 414.900 Basis and scope. (a) This subpart implements sections 1842(o), 1847A,...

  17. 49 CFR 555.13 - Basis for petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TEMPORARY EXEMPTION FROM MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY AND BUMPER STANDARDS Vehicles Built in Two or More Stages and Altered Vehicles § 555.13 Basis for petition. The petition shall: (a) Discuss any factors (e.g., demand for the vehicle configuration, loss of market, difficulty...

  18. 9 CFR 354.101 - On a fee basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On a fee basis. 354.101 Section 354.101 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  19. 42 CFR 414.900 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Influenza. (ii) Pneumococcal and Hepatitis B vaccines. (iii) Antigens. (iv) Hemophilia blood clotting factor...) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Drugs and Biologicals Under Part B § 414.900 Basis and scope. (a) This subpart implements sections 1842(o), 1847A, and...

  20. Entrepreneurial Creativity as a Convergent Basis for Teaching Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenci, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Of the "21st Century" business skills of communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking, creativity arguably receives among the least explicit attention in traditional business core curricula. With that in mind, the context of entrepreneurial creativity is put forth as a basis for teaching business communication. By…

  1. 42 CFR 403.200 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies § 403.200 Basis and scope. (a) Provisions of the legislation. This subpart implements, in part, section 1882 of the Social Security Act. The intent of that section is to enable Medicare beneficiaries to identify Medicare supplemental...

  2. 7 CFR 400.401 - Basis and purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; Collection and Storage of Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.401 Basis... the Act to prescribe procedures for the collection, use, and confidentiality of Social Security... applicable to: (1) All holders of crop insurance policies issued by FCIC under the Act and sold and...

  3. 42 CFR 1004.90 - Basis for recommended sanction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis for recommended sanction. 1004.90 Section 1004.90 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS ON HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS AND PROVIDERS OF HEALTH...

  4. 42 CFR 1004.90 - Basis for recommended sanction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis for recommended sanction. 1004.90 Section 1004.90 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS ON HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS AND PROVIDERS OF HEALTH...

  5. 42 CFR 1004.90 - Basis for recommended sanction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis for recommended sanction. 1004.90 Section 1004.90 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS ON HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS AND PROVIDERS OF HEALTH...

  6. 42 CFR 1004.90 - Basis for recommended sanction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis for recommended sanction. 1004.90 Section 1004.90 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS ON HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS AND PROVIDERS OF HEALTH...

  7. 42 CFR 1004.90 - Basis for recommended sanction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis for recommended sanction. 1004.90 Section 1004.90 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS ON HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS AND PROVIDERS OF HEALTH...

  8. 10 CFR 706.2 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS General § 706.2 Basis and scope. The specific policies contained in this part are worked out within the framework of DOE's general... privileges of American labor. Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings...

  9. 10 CFR 706.2 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS General § 706.2 Basis and scope. The specific policies contained in this part are worked out within the framework of DOE's general... privileges of American labor. Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings...

  10. 47 CFR 1.901 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 1.901 Section 1.901 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services... establish the requirements and conditions under which entities may be licensed in the Wireless...

  11. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing.... All milk received from producers shall not exceed the Food and Drug Administration's...

  12. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing.... All milk received from producers shall not exceed the Food and Drug Administration's...

  13. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing.... All milk received from producers shall not exceed the Food and Drug Administration's...

  14. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing.... All milk received from producers shall not exceed the Food and Drug Administration's...

  15. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing.... All milk received from producers shall not exceed the Food and Drug Administration's...

  16. 42 CFR 414.900 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Influenza. (ii) Pneumococcal and Hepatitis B vaccines. (iii) Antigens. (iv) Hemophilia blood clotting factor...) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Drugs and Biologicals Under Part B § 414.900 Basis and scope. (a) This subpart implements sections 1842(o), 1847A, and...

  17. The Neural Basis for Learning of Simple Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisberger, Stephen G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) which is used to investigate the neural basis for motor learning in monkeys. Suggests organizing principles that may apply in forms of motor learning as a result of similarities among VOR and other motor systems. (Author/RT)

  18. 42 CFR 441.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Medicaid for Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases § 441.100 Basis and purpose. This subpart... in an institution for mental diseases, and sections 1902(a)(20)(B) and (C) and 1902(a)(21),...

  19. 42 CFR 441.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Medicaid for Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases § 441.100 Basis and purpose. This subpart... in an institution for mental diseases, and sections 1902(a)(20)(B) and (C) and 1902(a)(21),...

  20. 40 CFR 35.212 - Basis for allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basis for allotment. 35.212 Section 35.212 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Hazardous Waste Management (section...

  1. 50 CFR 228.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations with respect to the taking and importing of animals from each species of marine mammals under the... Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS NOTICE AND HEARING ON SECTION 103(d) REGULATIONS § 228.1 Basis...

  2. 50 CFR 18.70 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... importing of animals from each species of marine mammals under his jurisdiction; and (3) prescribe... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.70 Basis and purpose. (a) Sections 101(a)(2), 101(a)(3)(A), and 101(b) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (16...

  3. 14 CFR § 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, as amended (32 CFR part 2001, “Classified National Security... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Legal basis. § 1203.100 Section § 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY...

  4. 10 CFR 706.2 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS General § 706.2 Basis and scope. The specific policies contained in this part are worked out within the framework of DOE's general... privileges of American labor. Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings...

  5. 10 CFR 706.2 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS General § 706.2 Basis and scope. The specific policies contained in this part are worked out within the framework of DOE's general... privileges of American labor. Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings...

  6. 10 CFR 706.2 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS General § 706.2 Basis and scope. The specific policies contained in this part are worked out within the framework of DOE's general... privileges of American labor. Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings...

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1016-10 - Substituted basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: A, who makes his returns upon the calendar year basis, in 1935 purchased the X Building and subsequently gave it to his son B. B exchanged the X Building for the Y Building in a tax-free exchange, and then gave the Y Building to his wife C. C, in determining the gain from the sale or disposition of...

  9. Optimal Piecewise Linear Basis Functions in Two Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks III, E D; Szoke, A

    2009-01-26

    We use a variational approach to optimize the center point coefficients associated with the piecewise linear basis functions introduced by Stone and Adams [1], for polygonal zones in two Cartesian dimensions. Our strategy provides optimal center point coefficients, as a function of the location of the center point, by minimizing the error induced when the basis function interpolation is used for the solution of the time independent diffusion equation within the polygonal zone. By using optimal center point coefficients, one expects to minimize the errors that occur when these basis functions are used to discretize diffusion equations, or transport equations in optically thick zones (where they approach the solution of the diffusion equation). Our optimal center point coefficients satisfy the requirements placed upon the basis functions for any location of the center point. We also find that the location of the center point can be optimized, but this requires numerical calculations. Curiously, the optimum center point location is independent of the values of the dependent variable on the corners only for quadrilaterals.

  10. PROPERTY APPRAISAL PROVIDES CONTROL, INSURANCE BASIS, AND VALUE ESTIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMSON, JACK

    A COMPLETE PROPERTY APPRAISAL SERVES AS A BASIS FOR CONTROL, INSURANCE AND VALUE ESTIMATE. A PROFESSIONAL APPRAISAL FIRM SHOULD PERFORM THIS FUNCTION BECAUSE (1) IT IS FAMILIAR WITH PROPER METHODS, (2) IT CAN PREPARE THE REPORT WITH MINIMUM CONFUSION AND INTERRRUPTION OF THE COLLEGE OPERATION, (3) USE OF ITS PRICING LIBRARY REDUCES TIME NEEDED AND…

  11. Surface interpolation with radial basis functions for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.C.; Beatson, R.K.; Fright, W.R.

    1997-02-01

    Radial basis functions are presented as a practical solution to the problem of interpolating incomplete surfaces derived from three-dimensional (3-D) medical graphics. The specific application considered is the design of cranial implants for the repair of defects, usually holes, in the skull. Radial basis functions impose few restrictions on the geometry of the interpolation centers and are suited to problems where interpolation centers do not form a regular grid. However, their high computational requirements have previously limited their use to problems where the number of interpolation centers is small (<300). Recently developed fast evaluation techniques have overcome these limitations and made radial basis interpolation a practical approach for larger data sets. In this paper radial basis functions are fitted to depth-maps of the skull`s surface, obtained from X-ray computed tomography (CT) data using ray-tracing techniques. They are used to smoothly interpolate the surface of the skull across defect regions. The resulting mathematical description of the skull`s surface can be evaluated at any desired resolution to be rendered on a graphics workstation or to generate instructions for operating a computer numerically controlled (CNC) mill.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1016-5 - Miscellaneous adjustments to basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rule for tax-exempt obligations. A holder's basis in a tax-exempt obligation is reduced by the amount... for the taxable year and prior years. This amount is considered as the tax-benefit amount allowed and... years. This amount is considered as the tax-benefit amount allowed and shall be determined in...

  13. Individual Differences in the Neural Basis of Causal Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat, Chantel S.; Mason, Robert A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of…

  14. 40 CFR 35.232 - Basis for allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section 23(a)(1)) § 35.232 Basis for allotment. (a) Factors for FIFRA enforcement program funding. The...

  15. 40 CFR 35.232 - Basis for allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section 23(a)(1)) § 35.232 Basis for allotment. (a) Factors for FIFRA enforcement program funding. The...

  16. 10 CFR 72.92 - Design basis external natural events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design basis external natural events. 72.92 Section 72.92 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.92 Design...

  17. 42 CFR 441.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases § 441.100 Basis and purpose. This subpart... in an institution for mental diseases, and sections 1902(a)(20)(B) and (C) and 1902(a)(21),...

  18. 42 CFR 441.100 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases § 441.100 Basis and purpose. This subpart... in an institution for mental diseases, and sections 1902(a)(20)(B) and (C) and 1902(a)(21),...

  19. 50 CFR 228.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 228.1 Section 228.1 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Administrator of the National Marine Fisheries Service, to: (1) Impose regulations governing the taking...

  20. 50 CFR 228.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 228.1 Section 228.1 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Administrator of the National Marine Fisheries Service, to: (1) Impose regulations governing the taking...

  1. 45 CFR 400.310 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 400.310 Section 400.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Targeted...

  2. 42 CFR 402.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section; and (2) Sets forth the appeal rights of persons subject to penalties, assessments, or exclusion...) and 1842(j)(2)—Any person that knowingly and willfully, and on a repeated basis, bills for a clinical... willfully presents, or causes to be presented, a bill or request for payment for an intraocular...

  3. 40 CFR 227.20 - Basis for determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis for determination. 227.20 Section 227.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.20...

  4. 40 CFR 227.20 - Basis for determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 227.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.20 Basis for determination. (a) Based on current state of the...

  5. 40 CFR 227.20 - Basis for determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 227.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.20 Basis for determination. (a) Based on current state of the...

  6. 40 CFR 227.20 - Basis for determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 227.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.20 Basis for determination. (a) Based on current state of the...

  7. 40 CFR 227.20 - Basis for determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 227.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.20 Basis for determination. (a) Based on current state of the...

  8. 42 CFR 457.500 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... separate child health program of cost-sharing charges including enrollment fees, premiums, deductibles... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.500...

  9. 42 CFR 457.500 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES... separate child health program of cost-sharing charges including enrollment fees, premiums, deductibles... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.500...

  10. 42 CFR 457.1000 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.1000 Section 457.1000 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  11. 42 CFR 457.1000 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis, scope, and applicability. 457.1000 Section 457.1000 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO...

  12. 7 CFR 868.203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing..., heat-damaged kernels, red rice and damaged kernels, chalky kernels, other types, color, and the special grade Parboiled rough rice shall be on the basis of the whole and large broken kernels of milled...

  13. 7 CFR 868.203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing..., heat-damaged kernels, red rice and damaged kernels, chalky kernels, other types, color, and the special grade Parboiled rough rice shall be on the basis of the whole and large broken kernels of milled...

  14. 7 CFR 868.253 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles... heat, heat-damaged kernels, parboiled kernels in nonparboiled rice, and the special grade Parboiled brown rice for processing shall be on the basis of the brown rice for processing after it has...

  15. 7 CFR 868.203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing..., heat-damaged kernels, red rice and damaged kernels, chalky kernels, other types, color, and the special grade Parboiled rough rice shall be on the basis of the whole and large broken kernels of milled...

  16. 7 CFR 868.203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing..., heat-damaged kernels, red rice and damaged kernels, chalky kernels, other types, color, and the special grade Parboiled rough rice shall be on the basis of the whole and large broken kernels of milled...

  17. 7 CFR 868.253 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles... heat, heat-damaged kernels, parboiled kernels in nonparboiled rice, and the special grade Parboiled brown rice for processing shall be on the basis of the brown rice for processing after it has...

  18. 7 CFR 868.253 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles... heat, heat-damaged kernels, parboiled kernels in nonparboiled rice, and the special grade Parboiled brown rice for processing shall be on the basis of the brown rice for processing after it has...

  19. 7 CFR 868.203 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Principles Governing..., heat-damaged kernels, red rice and damaged kernels, chalky kernels, other types, color, and the special grade Parboiled rough rice shall be on the basis of the whole and large broken kernels of milled...

  20. 7 CFR 868.253 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles... heat, heat-damaged kernels, parboiled kernels in nonparboiled rice, and the special grade Parboiled brown rice for processing shall be on the basis of the brown rice for processing after it has...