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Sample records for bata blanca durante

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Anxiety (BATA) in Three Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jarrod S.; Leach, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three single-case experimental evaluations of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Anxiety (BATA) applied with a 51-year-old male, a 62-year-old female, and a 53-year-old female, each of whom met DSM-IV criteria for anxiety. Each case was a clinical replication of an initial trial of BATA reported in Turner and Leach (2009).…

  2. Structural and Luminescence Properties of Sm(3+) Doped TTB -Type BaTa2O6 Ceramic Phosphors.

    PubMed

    Ekmekçi, Mete Kaan; İlhan, Mustafa; Başak, Ali Sadi; Deniz, Sabahattin

    2015-11-01

    Pure and 0.5 to 10 mole% Sm(3+) doped TTB (tetragonal tungsten bronze)-type BaTa2O6 ceramic phosphor was produced by the solid state reaction method which performed at 1425 °C for 20 h. XRD and SEM analysis indicated single TTB phase for undoped and 0.5 to 10 mole% Sm(3+) doped BaTa2O6 structures. SEM also showed that the BaTa2O6 grain size decreased with the increasing content of Sm(3+). Optical analysis indicated significant emissions in the visible spectral region as green (λ = 562.7 nm) and orange-reddish (λ = 597.1 nm). The emission intensity increased with the increasing doping concentration up to 2.5 mole%, and then decreased due to the concentration quenching effect.

  3. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  4. Caregivers’ Malaria Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes, and Related Factors in the Bata District, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Santana-Morales, Maria A.; Herrador, Zaida; Berzosa, Pedro; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adequate community knowledge about malaria is crucial in order to improve prevention by reducing exposure to the disease. Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children of less than five years of age in Equatorial Guinea. However, information concerning the accuracy of community knowledge is insufficient. This study aimed at assessing the depth of caregivers’ knowledge of malaria, their beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and their socioeconomic determinants in the Bata district of Equatorial Guinea. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata, involving 440 houses selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. A combined "Malaria Knowledge Score" was generated based on caregivers’ knowledge about transmission, symptoms, prevention, the treatment of children, and best place to seek treatment. Multivariate logistic regressions analyses were performed to assess those factors that are associated with knowledge about malaria. Results A total of 428 caregivers were interviewed; 255 (59.6%) and 173 (40.4%) lived in urban and rural areas respectively. Significant differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregivers’ malaria knowledges and beliefs. Almost 42% of urban and 65% of rural caregivers were unaware as to how malaria is transmitted (OR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.78–4.05). Together with rurality, the factors most significantly associated with the Malaria Knowledge were the level of education of the caregiver and the socioeconomic status of the household. Conclusions Improvements in educational programs are needed to empower the most vulnerable households such that they can pro-actively implement malaria control measures. This could be achieved by a comprehensive communication strategy aimed at changing individual and community behaviours, and delivered by suitably trained community health workers and indoor residual spraying personnel. PMID:28036341

  5. HIV-1 Variants and Drug Resistance in Pregnant Women from Bata (Equatorial Guinea): 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Patricia; Fernández McPhee, Carolina; Prieto, Luis; Martín, Leticia; Obiang, Jacinta; Avedillo, Pedro; Vargas, Antonio; Rojo, Pablo; Benito, Agustín; Ramos, José Tomás; Holguín, África

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This is the first study describing drug resistance mutations (DRM) and HIV-1 variants among infected pregnant women in Equatorial Guinea (GQ), a country with high (6.2%) and increasing HIV prevalence. Methods Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from November 2012 to December 2013 from 69 HIV-1 infected women participating in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in the Hospital Regional of Bata and Primary Health Care Centre María Rafols, Bata, GQ. The transmitted (TDR) or acquired (ADR) antiretroviral drug resistance mutations at partial pol sequence among naive or antiretroviral therapy (ART)-exposed women were defined following WHO or IAS USA 2015 lists, respectively. HIV-1 variants were identified by phylogenetic analyses. Results A total of 38 of 69 HIV-1 specimens were successfully amplified and sequenced. Thirty (79%) belonged to ART-experienced women: 15 exposed to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) monotherapy, and 15 to combined ART (cART) as first regimen including two NRTI and one non-NRTI (NNRTI) or one protease inhibitor (PI). The TDR rate was only found for PI (3.4%). The ADR rate was 37.5% for NNRTI, 8.7% for NRTI and absent for PI or NRTI+NNRTI. HIV-1 group M non-B variants caused most (97.4%) infections, mainly (78.9%) recombinants: CRF02_AG (55.2%), CRF22_A101 (10.5%), subtype C (10.5%), unique recombinants (5.3%), and A3, D, F2, G, CRF06_cpx and CRF11_cpx (2.6% each). Conclusions The high rate of ADR to retrotranscriptase inhibitors (mainly to NNRTIs) observed among pretreated pregnant women reinforces the importance of systematic DRM monitoring in GQ to reduce HIV-1 resistance transmission and to optimize first and second-line ART regimens when DRM are present. PMID:27798676

  6. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Romay-Barja, Maria; Jarrin, Inma; Ncogo, Policarpo; Nseng, Gloria; Sagrado, Maria Jose; Santana-Morales, Maria A.; Aparcio, Pilar; Valladares, Basilio; Riloha, Matilde; Benito, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively. Results Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata. Conclusions The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors. PMID:26284683

  7. Slope stability of moraines, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimes, J.; Novotny, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides originating from inner slopes of moraine dams are often capable of producing glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFs). Therefore assessing stability conditions of the moraines is important for predicting this potentially damaging phenomenon. Characteristics of the basic mechanical properties of the material and geophysical investigations were applied to collect necessary information for slope stability assessment of the Palcacocha Lake moraine dam, Peru. The lake is situated in the Cordillera Blanca Mts. at the altitude of about 4,500m asl and produced catastrophic GLOF in 1941. Another minor flood originated in 2003 due to landslide impact into the lake. Detailed investigations of this landslide site included geomorphological mapping, geophysical investigations and characterization of basic mechanical properties of the forming material. Geomorphological mapping identified dormant landslide with scarp up to 2m high which developed on the edge of the inner moraine slope. It is conditioned by set of parallel extension trenches which also affected the origin of 2003 landslide. Within its scarp area, significant water bearing layer was noticed around 10 m bellow the moraine surface. Three profiles were investigated using electric resistivity tomography performed on 4poing light instrument with 24 electrodes and with spacing ranging from 1 to 4m. Results helped to verify geometry of the main shear plane of the mapped landslide as well as the spacing and depth of extension trenches. Significant heterogeneity in the moraine resistivity characteristics was found. The high resistivity regions are explained by rock block accumulation whereas the low resistivity may represent wet layers within the moraine body. Grain size distribution of 33 disturbed soil samples originating from moraine material within the Cordillera Blanca Mts., Peru were determined and classified according to the UCSC classification system. The samples were taken from moraine dams and slopes

  8. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ population from Bata, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Salmanton-García, Jon; Herrador, Zaida; Ruiz-Seco, Pilar; Nzang-Esono, Jesús; Bendomo, Veronica; Bashmakovic, Emma; Nseng-Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represent a serious public health problem in Equatorial Guinea, with a prevalence of 6.2% among adults. the high-activity antiretroviral treatment (HAART) coverage data is 10 points below the overall estimate for Sub-Saharan Africa, and only 61% patients continue with HAART 12 months after it started. This study aims to assess HAART adherence and related factors in Litoral Province of Equatorial Guinea. In this cross-sectional study, socio-demographic and clinical data were collected at Regional Hospital of Bata, during June-July 2014. Adherence to treatment was assessed by using the Spanish version of CEAT-VIH. Bivariate and linear regression analyses were employed to assess HAART adherence-related factors. We interviewed 50 men (35.5%) and 91 women (64.5%), with a mean age of 47.7 ± 8.9 and 36.2 ± 11.2, respectively (p < .001). Overall, 55% patients had low or insufficient adherence. CEAT-VIH score varied by ethnic group (p = .005). There was a positive correlation between CEAT-VIH score and current CD4 T-cells count (p = .013). The Cronbach's α value was 0.52. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess HAART adherence in Equatorial Guinea. Internal reliability for CEAT-VIH was low, nonetheless the positive correlation between the CEAT-VIH score and the immunological status of patients add value to our findings. Our results serve as baseline for future research and will also assist stakeholders in planning and undertaking contextual and evidence-based policy initiatives.

  9. [Blanca Rossi: the first female who worked in Salta].

    PubMed

    de Carnevale Bonino, R C

    1999-01-01

    We publish this article left to us by the remembered Director of the Museum of Pharmacy, Dr. Rosa D. de Carnevale Bonino. She describes Blanca Rossi's professional activity and her performance in the community of the province where she worked in her profession.

  10. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  11. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  12. Cretaceous stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, Sierra Blanca basin, southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. ); Anderson, O.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The Sierra Blanca basin of Otero and Lincoln counties, New Mexico contains a Lower (upper Albian)-Upper (Santonian) Cretaceous section of marine and nonmarine strata as much as 700 m thick which represent the upper part of a regressive cycle followed by two transgressive-regressive deposition cycles. The lower 55 m of the Cretaceous section are the same tripartite Dakota Group units recognized in Guadalupe and San Miguel counties: basal Mesa Rica Sandstone (late Albian), medial Pajarito formation (late Albian) and upper Romeroville sandstone (earliest Cenomanian). The Mesa Rica and Pajarito represent a regression and are overlain disconformably by the transgressive Romeroville sandstone. Overlying transgressive marine clastics and minor carbonates of the Mancos Shale are as much as 73 m thick and include the early Turonian Greenhorn Limestone. The overlying Tres Hermanos formation (up to 91 m thick) consists of the (ascending order) Atarque sandstone and the Carthage and Fite Ranch sandstone members. These strata represent a mid-Turonian regression in response to regional tectonism (Atarque and Carthage), followed by a transgression (Fite Ranch sandstone) that ended in the deposition of the D-Cross Tongue of the Mancos Shale and Fort Hays Member of the Niobrara Formation during the late Turonian. The subsequent regression began with the Coniacian Gallup Sandstone (55 m) followed by coal-bearing Crevasse Canyon Formation (up to 244 m thick). The Coniacian-Santonian Crevasse Canyon Formation, the youngest Cretaceous unit in the basin, is disconformably overlain by middle Eocene conglomerates and red-bed siliciclastics of the Cub Mountain formation. Dakota Group age determinations in the Sierra Blanca basin are those of well-dated sections to the north, but ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from the Sierra Blanca basin provide precise age control for Cenomanian-Santonian marine and marginal marine strata and palynology and megafossil plants for nonmarine strata.

  13. Composition Results at the Knee from CASA-BLANCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortson, Lucy

    1999-08-01

    We present preliminary results on the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays between 0.3 and 30 PeV from the CASA-BLANCA experiment. The technique relies on measurements of the lateral distribution of air shower Cherenkov light. It is shown that conversion of the experimental data to a mean depth of shower maximum is highly independent of the choice of nuclear interaction model. The mean primary mass is also inferred directly from the measurements, and ÐÒ plotted for a number of hadronic interaction models.

  14. Molecular characterization of Myxobolus cuttacki (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Sandya Chinna; Banerjee, Sayani; Patra, Avijit; Dash, Gadadhar; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar

    2014-01-01

    As new pathogenic strains are emerging and threatening aquaculture development, myxosporeans (Myxozoa) are receiving much attention in recent years. Myxosporean taxonomy is traditionally based on morphology of the myxospore stage. Molecular data on Indian myxosporeans are rare. In this report, the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus cuttacki infecting gill lamellae of minor carp Labeo bata (Ham.) and its phylogenetic relationship with other myxobolids are described for the first time. The plasmodia of M. cuttacki were 0.5-0.9 mm in size and whitish with a round to oval shape. The mean mature spore size was 16.10×7.05 μm. The 18S rRNA nucleotide sequence with 1703 bp of M. cuttacki (accession number KF465682) clustered phylogenetically with other Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid gills with 78-90% homogeneity. The gill lamellae infecting M. catmrigalae (KC933944) and M. orissae (KF448527) of Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala from India, exhibited 86% and 81% homogeneity with M. cuttacki, respectively. The infection rate was low to moderate on the gills which can have a negative impact on respiratory and physiological functions and subsequently on fish production. PMID:27843987

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Annotation of the Leaves and Callus of Cyclocarya Paliurus (Bata1) Iljinskaja

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoxiang; Yin, Zhongping; Chen, Jiguang; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Peng, Dayong; Shangguan, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Cyclocarya Paliurus (Bata1) Iljinskaja contains various bioactive secondary metabolites especially in leaves, such as triterpenes, flavonoids, polysaccharides and alkaloids, and its leaves are widely used as an hyperglycemic tea in China. In the present paper, we sequenced the transcriptome of the leaves and callus of Cyclocarya Paliurus using Illumina Hiseq 4000 platform. After sequencing and de novo assembly, a total of 65,654 unigenes were generated with an N50 length of 1,244bp. Among them, 35,041 (53.37%) unigenes were annotated in NCBI Non-Redundant database, 19,453 (29.63%) unigenes were classified into Gene Ontology (GO) database, and 7,259 (11.06%) unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) categories. Furthermore, 11,697 (17.81%) unigenes were mapped onto 335 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), among which 1,312 unigenes were identified to be involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In addition, a total of 11,247 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. This transcriptome dataset provides a comprehensive sequence resource for gene expression profiling, genetic diversity, evolution and further molecular genetics research on Cyclocarya Paliurus. PMID:27483006

  16. Time and mode of exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca batholith (Peruvian Andes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margirier, Audrey; Audin, Laurence; Robert, Xavier; Herman, Frédéric; Ganne, Jérôme; Schwartz, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    The Cordillera Blanca batholith (12-5 Myr) forms the highest Peruvian summits and builds the footwall of the Cordillera Blanca normal fault (CBNF). Even if several models have been proposed, the processes driving both the exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca and extensional deformation along the CBNF are still debated. Here we quantify the emplacement depth and exhumation of the batholith of the northern Peru arc from the late Miocene to present. Based on a compilation of crystallization ages and new thermobarometry data in the Cordillera Blanca batholith, we propose that the batholith was emplaced at a depth of ~3 km in successive sills from 14 to 5 Ma. By contrast, the younger rocks exposed at the surface were emplaced the deepest (i.e., ~6 km) and are located close to the CBNF, suggesting post 5 Ma tilting. Furthermore, a formal inversion of the thermochronologic data indicates an increase of the exhumation rates in the Cordillera Blanca during the Quaternary. The higher predicted exhumation rates correlate with areas of high relief, both in the northern and central part of the Cordillera Blanca, suggesting that Quaternary valley carving by glaciations have a significant impact on the latest stage of the Cordillera Blanca exhumation (2-0 Ma).

  17. Proglacial Groundwater Flux and Storage in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, D.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baraer, M.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    As tropical glaciers continue to rapidly retreat in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, dry-season water resources are becoming more dependent on groundwater baseflow. Therefore, understanding the flux and storage of proglacial groundwater is necessary to forecast how groundwater storage can offset decreasing water resources. Recent studies of the Rio Santa Watershed, which drains the western slopes of the Cordillera Blanca, have identified that groundwater is the largest contributor to outflow from many watersheds during the dry season and that the flux of groundwater is temporarily available (< 4years). These groundwater estimates are based on chemical mass balance models that use hydrochemical and isotopic results primarily from surface water samples and stream discharge measurements. Although effective, this approach is limited by the absence of data from proglacial aquifers. In July, 2012, we installed six groundwater monitoring wells to a maximum depth of 6 m in two proglacial valleys in the Cordillera Blanca. For each well, water samples were collected for hydrochemical and isotopic analysis, slug-tests were conducted to measure hydraulic conductivity, and water levels were continuously monitored using pressure transducers. In both valleys we observed an upper layer of clay to silt sized glaciolacustrine material at each drill site. This layer was typically less than 5 m in thickness and had a low hydraulic conductivity (< 10-7 m/s). Underlying the clay layer were water bearing units of course material (either well-sorted sand/gravel or talus deposits) with an average hydraulic conductivity of 10-5 m/s. Additionally numerous discontinuous sand lenses and localized glaciofluvial gravel deposits were observed within the clay layer. The glaciolacustrine deposits behave as confining units that were capable of generating localized artesian conditions in the coarse grain units. The occurrence of the clay units adjacent to the main stream channels suggests that the

  18. Miocene Blanca Fan, Northern Channel Islands, California: Small fans reflecting tectonism and volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Hugh; Howell, D. G.

    1984-06-01

    Blanca fan is a submarine fan composed of Miocene volcaniclastic strata. Parts of the fan system are exposed on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands, and possibly correlative strata crop out on San Miguel and Santa Catalina Islands. The Blanca fan and underlying breccia reflect regional transcurrent faulting in the California Continental Borderland and development of a system of rapidly subsiding basins and uplifted linear ridges during early and middle Miocene time. Erosion of uplifted crystalline basement rocks followed by the onset of silicic volcanism created linear sediment sources for the alluvial and submarine fans, respectively.

  19. Miocene Blanca Fan, Northern Channel Islands, California: Small fans reflecting tectonism and volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, H.; Howell, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Blanca fan is a submarine fan composed of Miocene volcaniclastic strata. Parts of the fan system are exposed on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands, and possibly correlative strata crop out on San Miguel and Santa Catalina Islands. The Blanca fan and underlying breccia reflect regional transcurrent faulting in the California Continental Borderland and development of a system of rapidly subsiding basins and uplifted linear ridges during early and middle Miocene time. Erosion of uplifted crystalline basement rocks followed by the onset of silicic volcanism created linear sediment sources for the alluvial and submarine fans, respectively. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  20. Flying High With Civil Air Patrol: The Sierra Blanca Civil Air Patrol Squadron.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnicom, Gene E.

    The Sierra Blanca Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Cadet Squadron from Mescalero, New Mexico, is a program funded by the tribe and the state of New Mexico for Mescalero Apache youth. The national CAP Cadet Program promotes moral leadership, aerospace education, leadership, and physical fitness; Mescalero cadets have learned self-confidence and leadership…

  1. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL 1 URANIUM DEPOSIT, PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dobson

    2005-09-14

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Stratigraphic study part of integrated research project examining migration of radionuclides at Pena Blanca; (2) Immediate objectives of study include: locate stratigraphic contacts in third dimension; measure rock properties (matrix permeability, porosity, mineralogy, cation exchange capacity) of cored section; determine fracture frequency and orientation; (3) Results of study serve as primary inputs to flow and transport models.

  2. Composition and spectrum of cosmic rays at the knee measured by the CASA-BLANCA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Joseph Westbrook

    2000-07-01

    The energy spectrum and primary composition of cosmic rays with energy between 0.25PeV and 30PeV have been studied using the CASA-BLANCA detector. In this energy range, a ``knee'' in the spectrum has been recognized for over 40 years, but the astrophysical origins of the knee remain unknown. Measuring the spectrum and elemental composition of cosmic rays near the knee can help to address the problem. The favored model of acceleration in supernova shock waves predicts that cosmic rays with energy above 10PeV are heavy nuclei. The measurements were made by BLANCA, a new array of 144 angle-integrating Cherenkov light detectors located at the CASA-MIA site in Utah. CASA data on particle density are used to find the core and direction of air showers, while BLANCA measures the lateral distribution of Cherenkov light about the core. The advantages of Cherenkov light allow BLANCA to measure shower energy with minimal composition bias and to estimate accurately the depth of shower maximum. The cosmic ray flux measured by BLANCA exhibits a knee in the range of 2-3PeV with a width of approximately 0.5 decades in primary energy. The power law indices of the differential flux above and below the knee are -2.72 +/- 0.02 and -2.95 +/- 0.02. The data on mean shower depth indicate that the composition is lighter at 3 PeV than below the knee and that it becomes heavier with increasing energy above 3PeV. Cherenkov measurements are interpreted using the predictions of the CORSIKA Monte Carlo air shower simulation coupled with each of four hadronic interaction codes (QGSJET, VENUS, SIBYLL, and HDPM). The distribution of air shower depths can be reproduced well at all energies by the QGSJET and VENUS models, and these distributions suggest the same composition trends exhibited by the mean depth of maximum results.

  3. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    The Cordillera Blanca mountain range is the highest in Peru and contains many of the world's tropical glaciers. This region is severely impacted by climate change causing accelerated glacier retreat. Secondary impacts of climate change on glacier retreat include stress on water resources and the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from the many lakes that are forming and growing at the base of glaciers. A number of GLOFs originating from lakes in the Cordillera Blanca have occurred over the last century, several of which have had catastrophic impacts on cities and communities downstream. Glaciologists and engineers in Peru have been studying the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca for many years and have identified several lakes that are considered dangerous. However, a systematic analysis of all the lakes in the Cordillera Blanca has never before been attempted. Some methodologies for this type of systematic analysis have been proposed (eg. Emmer and Vilimek 2014; Wang, et al. 2011), but as yet they have only been applied to a few select lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. This study uses remotely sensed data to study all of the lakes of the Glacial Lake Inventory published by the Glaciology and Water Resources Unit of Peru's National Water Authority (UGRH 2011). The objective of this study is to assign a level of potential hazard to each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca and to ascertain if any of the lakes beyond those that have already been studied might pose a danger to nearby populations. A number of parameters of analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, have been selected to assess the hazard level of each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca using digital elevation models, satellite imagery, and glacier outlines. These parameters are then combined to come up with a preliminary assessment of the hazard level of each lake; the equation weighting each parameter draws on previously published methodologies but is tailored to the regional characteristics

  4. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  5. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    PubMed

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  6. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  7. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  8. Predictive optimal control of sewer networks using CORAL tool: application to Riera Blanca catchment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Cembrano, G; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Aznar, B; Ramón, G; Cabot, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the global control of the Riera Blanca catchment in the Barcelona sewer network using a predictive optimal control approach. This catchment has been modelled using a conceptual modelling approach based on decomposing the catchments in subcatchments and representing them as virtual tanks. This conceptual modelling approach allows real-time model calibration and control of the sewer network. The global control problem of the Riera Blanca catchment is solved using a optimal/predictive control algorithm. To implement the predictive optimal control of the Riera Blanca catchment, a software tool named CORAL is used. The on-line control is simulated by interfacing CORAL with a high fidelity simulator of sewer networks (MOUSE). CORAL interchanges readings from the limnimeters and gate commands with MOUSE as if it was connected with the real SCADA system. Finally, the global control results obtained using the predictive optimal control are presented and compared against the results obtained using current local control system. The results obtained using the global control are very satisfactory compared to those obtained using the local control.

  9. Final report of the Peña Blanca natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Schön S.; Goldstein, Steven Joel; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Amato, Ronald S.; Anthony, Elizabeth; Cook, Paul; Dobson, Patrick F.; Fayek, Mostafa; French, Diana; Garza, Rodrigo de; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Goodell, Philip C.; Harder, Steven H.; Ku, Teh-Lung; Luo, Shangde; Murrell, Michael Tildon; Norman, Deborah E.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Oliver, Ronald; Pekar-Carpenter, Katrina; Rearick, Michael Sean; Ren, Minghua; Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio; Pineda, Jose Alfredo; Saulnier, George; Tarimala, Sowmitri; Walton, John

    2016-10-04

    The Peña Blanca region, 50 km north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, México, was a target of uranium exploration and mining by the Mexican government. After mining ceased in 1981, researchers became interested in this region as a study area for subsurface uranium migration with relevance to geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Many studies related to this concept were conducted at the Nopal I mine site located on a cuesta (hill) of the Sierra Peña Blanca. This site has geologic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geochemical similarities to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a formerly proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), sponsored studies at Nopal I in the 1990s and supported the drilling of three research wells – PB1, PB2, and PB3 – at the site in 2003. Beginning in 2004, the Peña Blanca Natural Analogue Project was undertaken by U.S. DOE, OCRWM to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the transport of uranium and its radiogenic daughter products at the Nopal I site.

  10. Effective utilization of distiller's grain soluble-an agro-industrial waste in the feed of cage-reared minor carp Labeo bata in a tropical reservoir, India.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das

    2016-08-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste.

  11. Casa-Blanca: A Large non-imaging Cerenkov Detector at Casa-Mia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, M.; Fortson, L. F.; Fowler, J. W.; Jui, C. H.; Kieda, D. B.; Loh, E. C.; Ong, R. A.; Sommers, P.

    The lateral distribution of Cherenkov light at ground level records important information on the development of the cosmic ray air shower which produces it. We have constructed an array of 144 non-imaging Cherenkov detectors at the CASA-MIA experiment site in Dugway, Utah. The various arrays can sample simultaneously the lateral distributions of electrons, muons, and Cherenkov light at many locations. We describe the design and operation of the CASA-BLANCA experiment and its potential to address the composition of primary cosmic rays between 300 and 30,000 TeV.

  12. Slab flattening driving regional uplift in the Cordilleras Blanca and Negra, Western Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margirier, Audrey; Audin, Laurence; Robert, Xavier; Bernet, Matthias; Gautheron, Cécile

    2015-04-01

    The Andean range topographic evolution is known to have had a strong impact on regional climate by building an orographic barrier that preserved its western flank from the south Atlantic moisture. Even if largely invoked, the impact of subduction processes on the uplift and relief building is not yet well understood in the Andes. The northern Peru is characterized by a present day flat subduction zone (3-15°S), where both the geometry and temporal evolution of the flat-slab are well constrained. The subduction of two buoyant anomalies, the Nazca ridge and the lost Inca plateau controlled the slab flattening. The highest Peruvian peaks in the Cordillera Blanca (6768 m), and the Cordillera Negra (5187 m) are located just above the flat-slab segment. Both ranges trend parallel to the subduction zone and are separated by the NW-SE Rio Santa valley. The Cordillera Blanca batholith emplaced at 8-5 Ma and renders of an abnormal magmatic activity over a planar subduction. This area is a perfect target to explore the impact of slab flattening on the topography and uplift in the Occidental Cordillera of the Andes. We present new AHe and AFT data from three vertical profiles located in both the Cordilleras Blanca and Negra. We compare time-temperature paths obtained from inverse modeling of the thermochronological data with the timing of the slab flattening, the arrival of the Nazca ridge and magmatism. Our thermochronological data evidences a regional exhumation in the Occidental Cordillera from ~10 Ma. We propose that the Nazca ridge subduction below the Occidental Cordillera (11 Ma) and slab flattening (8 Ma) drive the Occidental Cordillera uplift and thus exhumation. We evidence the important contribution of the magmatism in the Cordillera Blanca exhumation and high relief building in the Occidental Cordillera. Our new thermochronological data highlight the control of both the subduction processes and magmatism on the paleogeography and uplift in the Andes. Finally, the

  13. Slab flattening, dynamic topography and normal faulting in the Cordillera Blanca region (northern Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margirier, A.; Robert, X.; Laurence, A.; Gautheron, C.; Bernet, M.; Simon-Labric, T.; Hall, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Processes driving surface uplift in the Andes are still debated and the role of subduction processes as slab flattening on surface uplift and relief building in the Andes is not well understood. Some of the highest Andean summits, the Cordillera Blanca (6768 m) and the Cordillera Negra (5187 m), are located above a present flat subduction zone (3-15°S), in northern Peru. In this area, both the geometry and timing of the flattening of the slab are well constrained (Gutscher et al., 1999; Rosenbaum et al., 2005). This region is thus a perfect target to explore the effect of slab flattening on the Andean topography and uplift. We obtained new apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from three vertical profiles located in the Cordillera Blanca and the Cordillera Negra. Time-temperature paths obtained from inverse modeling of the thermochronological data indicates a Middle Miocene cooling for both Cordillera Negra profiles. We interpret it as regional exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental starting in Middle Miocene, synchronous with the onset of the subduction of the Nazca ridge (Rosenbaum et al., 2005). We propose that the Nazca ridge subduction at 15 Ma and onset of slab flattening in northern Peru drove regional positive dynamic topography and thus enhanced exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental. This study provides new evidence of the impact subduction processes and associated dynamic topography on paleogeography and surface uplift in the Andes.

  14. Margaritasite: a new mineral of hydrothermal origin from the Pena Blanca uranium district, Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.; Modreski, P.J.; Zielinski, R.A.; Seeley, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Margaritasite, (Cs,K,H3O)2(UO2)2V2O8.nH2O (where Cs > K, H3O and n approx 1), a 10.514, b 8.425, c 7.25 A, beta 106.01o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a newly recognized uranium ore mineral named for the Margaritas deposit, Pena Blanca uranium district, Chihuahua, Mexico, at which it was discovered. A Cs-rich analogue of carnotite, margaritasite is the natural equivalent of synthetic Cs-uranyl vanadate (A.M. 43- 799, 50-825). A fine-grained yellow mineral, it is most easily distinguished from carnotite by XRD; X-ray powder patterns (CuKalpha radiation) show that the (001) reflection of margaritasite lies at 12.7o (2theta ), while that of carnotite is found at 13.8o (2theta ). The shift of the (001) reflection in margaritasite reflects the structural changes caused when Cs occupies the sites filled by K in carnotite. Synthesis experiments indicate that margaritasite also differs from carnotite in a higher-T hydrothermal origin. Chemical analyses and XRD data for margaritasite and synthetic Cs- carnotite, and chemical analyses for rocks from Sierra Pena Blanca and vicinity, are tabulated.-J.A.Z.

  15. Major QTLs Control Resistance to Rice Hoja Blanca Virus and Its Vector Tagosodes orizicolus

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Luz E.; Lozano, Ivan; Garavito, Andrea; Carabali, Silvio J.; Triana, Monica; Villareal, Natalia; Reyes, Luis; Duque, Myriam C.; Martinez, César P.; Calvert, Lee; Lorieux, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Rice hoja blanca (white leaf) disease can cause severe yield losses in rice in the Americas. The disease is caused by the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), which is transmitted by the planthopper vector Tagosodes orizicolus. Because classical breeding schemes for this disease rely on expensive, time-consuming screenings, there is a need for alternatives such as marker-aided selection. The varieties Fedearroz 2000 and Fedearroz 50, which are resistant to RHBV and to the feeding damage caused by T. orizicolus, were crossed with the susceptible line WC366 to produce segregating F2:3 populations. The F3 families were scored for their resistance level to RHBV and T. orizicolus. The F2:3 lines of both crosses were genotyped using microsatellite markers. One major QTL on the short arm of chromosome 4 was identified for resistance to RHBV in the two populations. Two major QTL on chromosomes 5 and 7 were identified for resistance to T. orizicolus in the Fd2000 × WC366 and Fd50 × WC366 crosses, respectively. This comparative study using two distinct rice populations allowed for a better understanding of how the resistance to RHBV and its vector are controlled genetically. Simple marker-aided breeding schemes based on QTL information can be designed to improve rice germplasm to reduce losses caused by this important disease. PMID:24240781

  16. Major QTLs control resistance to rice hoja blanca virus and its vector Tagosodes orizicolus.

    PubMed

    Romero, Luz E; Lozano, Ivan; Garavito, Andrea; Carabali, Silvio J; Triana, Monica; Villareal, Natalia; Reyes, Luis; Duque, Myriam C; Martinez, César P; Calvert, Lee; Lorieux, Mathias

    2014-01-10

    Rice hoja blanca (white leaf) disease can cause severe yield losses in rice in the Americas. The disease is caused by the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), which is transmitted by the planthopper vector Tagosodes orizicolus. Because classical breeding schemes for this disease rely on expensive, time-consuming screenings, there is a need for alternatives such as marker-aided selection. The varieties Fedearroz 2000 and Fedearroz 50, which are resistant to RHBV and to the feeding damage caused by T. orizicolus, were crossed with the susceptible line WC366 to produce segregating F2:3 populations. The F3 families were scored for their resistance level to RHBV and T. orizicolus. The F2:3 lines of both crosses were genotyped using microsatellite markers. One major QTL on the short arm of chromosome 4 was identified for resistance to RHBV in the two populations. Two major QTL on chromosomes 5 and 7 were identified for resistance to T. orizicolus in the Fd2000 × WC366 and Fd50 × WC366 crosses, respectively. This comparative study using two distinct rice populations allowed for a better understanding of how the resistance to RHBV and its vector are controlled genetically. Simple marker-aided breeding schemes based on QTL information can be designed to improve rice germplasm to reduce losses caused by this important disease.

  17. U-Series Transport Studies at the Pena Blanca, Mexico Natural Analog Site

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Simmons; M. T. Murrell

    2001-05-31

    Natural analogs provide a line of evidence that supports the understanding of how natural and engineered processes would occur over long time frames and large spatial scales at a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Studies of U-series disequilibria within and around uranium deposits can provide valuable information on the timing of actinide mobility and hence the stability of a potential repository over geologic time scales. The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, is situated in unsaturated tuff that is similar in composition to the Topopah Spring Tuff of Yucca Mountain and closely matches other evaluation criteria for suitable natural analogs. By modeling the observed radioactive isotope disequilibria at Nopal I, we can estimate the rates of sorption-desorption and dissolution-precipitation of the radionuclides over time. Such information is vital to the testing or validation of performance assessment models for geologic nuclear waste disposal.

  18. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levels

  19. Sources and pathways of stream generation in tropical proglacial valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Ryan P.; Lautz, Laura K.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Mark, Bryan G.; Chavez, Daniel; Baraer, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Tropical glaciers supply approximately half of dry-season stream discharge in glacierized valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The remainder of streamflow originates as groundwater stored in alpine meadows and other proglacial geomorphic features. A better understanding of the hydrogeology of alpine groundwater, including sources, storage zones, and the locations and magnitudes of contributions to streamflow, is important for making accurate estimates of glacial inputs to the hydrologic budget, and for our ability to make predictions about future water resources as glaciers retreat. This field study focuses on two high-elevation meadows in valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, in headwaters and mid-valley locations. Tracer measurements of stream and spring discharge and groundwater-surface water exchange were combined with synoptic sampling of water isotopic and geochemical composition in order to characterize and quantify contributions to streamflow from different groundwater reservoirs. At the headwaters site, groundwater supplied approximately half of stream discharge from a small meadow, with most originating in an alluvial fan adjacent to the meadow and little (6%) from the meadow itself; however, at the mid-valley site, where meadows are extensive, local groundwater has a large impact on streamflow and chemistry through large net contributions to discharge and turnover of surface water due to gross exchanges with groundwater. At the mid-valley site, stream discharge increased by 200 L s-1 (18% of average discharge) over 1.2 km as it descended a moraine between two meadows. Such valley-crossing moraines, which create significant steps in the down-valley slope, are likely locations of substantial groundwater contribution to streams.

  20. Spatial distribution of canine zoonotic enteroparasites in Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

    PubMed

    La Sala, Luciano F; Leiboff, Anastasia; Burgos, Julián M; Costamagna, Sixto R

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine the occurrence of zoonotic enteroparasites in dog feces from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; (2) to characterize the spatial distribution of the parasites found in association with the quality of life index (QLI) in neighborhoods of Bahía Blanca; and (3) to determine if the presence of a particular parasite genus in a stool sample was facilitated or impeded by the presence of other parasite genera. Samples of dog stools (n=475) were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 in areas with varying QLI. The association between QLI values and the presence of parasites was analyzed using logistic regression. Overall enteroparasite occurrence was 36.6%. Parasitic forms found included nematode larvae, cysts of Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., and eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes and Trichuris spp. For certain enteroparasites, we detected significant associations between their occurrence and QLI. Feces collected in areas with medium and low QLI were 2.46 and 5.43 times more likely, respectively, to contain A. caninum than stools from the high-QLI area. Samples from areas with low QLI were 2.36 times more likely to contain Trichuris spp. than those from the high QLI area. Regarding protozoa, feces from areas with low QLI were 2.4 times more likely to be positive than those from areas with high QLI. We demonstrated that canine zoonotic parasites have a wide distribution in the study area, and that occurrence is higher in neighborhoods with lower QLI.

  1. Single layer centrifugation (SLC) improves sperm quality of cryopreserved Blanca-Celtibérica buck semen.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Morrell, J M; Johannisson, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Alvaro-García, P J; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Soler, A J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sperm selection by means of single layer centrifugation (SLC) on sperm quality after cryopreservation, either when SLC is used before freezing or after thawing, using Blanca-Celtibérica buck semen collected by electroejaculation (EE). Ejaculates from six bucks were collected by EE and divided into two aliquots. One of them (unselected) was diluted with Biladyl(®) by the two-step method and frozen over nitrogen vapor. The other aliquot was selected by the SLC technique and subsequently frozen in the same way as the unselected samples (SLC before freezing). In a further treatment, two unselected straws were thawed and SLC was carried out (SLC after thawing). At thawing, sperm motility of all samples ((i) unselected; (ii) selected before freezing and (iii) selected after thawing) was evaluated by CASA. In addition, integrity of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and DNA fragmentation index were assessed by flow cytometry. Most of the sperm parameters were improved (P≤0.001) in samples selected by SLC after thawing in relation to unselected or selected by SLC before freezing. The percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa was greater (86%) for sperm samples selected after thawing compared with unselected (58%) or selected before freezing (54%). Moreover, percentages of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential (hMMP) were also greater for sperm samples selected after thawing compared to sperm samples unselected or selected before freezing (spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane: 80% vs. 32% vs. 12%; spermatozoa with hMMP: 54% vs. 1% vs. 15%; respectively). Therefore, sperm quality after cryopreservation is improved in Blanca-Celtibérica buck ejaculates collected by EE when a sperm selection technique such as SLC is carried out after thawing.

  2. Measurements of light absorbing particulates on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2014-10-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in air temperature, increases in light absorbing particulates deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light absorbing particulates sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, two hundred and forty snow samples were collected from fifteen mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the three expeditions and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same expedition. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particulates on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective Black Carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the filter analysis and the SP2 refractory Black Carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light absorbing particulates in the more polluted areas were likely BC. The three years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  3. Measurements of light-absorbing particles on the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, C. G.; All, J. D.; Schwarz, J. P.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R. J.; Lapham, E.; Celestian, A.

    2015-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light-absorbing particles deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of light-absorbing particles sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains in Peru. During three research expeditions in the dry seasons (May-August) of 2011, 2012 and 2013, 240 snow samples were collected from 15 mountain peaks over altitudes ranging from 4800 to nearly 6800 m. Several mountains were sampled each of the 3 years and some mountains were sampled multiple times during the same year. Collected snow samples were melted and filtered in the field then later analyzed using the Light Absorption Heating Method (LAHM), a new technique that measures the ability of particles on filters to absorb visible light. LAHM results have been calibrated using filters with known amounts of fullerene soot, a common industrial surrogate for black carbon (BC). As sample filters often contain dust in addition to BC, results are presented in terms of effective black carbon (eBC). During the 2013 survey, snow samples were collected and kept frozen for analysis with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Calculated eBC mass from the LAHM analysis and the SP2 refractory black carbon (rBC) results were well correlated (r2 = 0.92). These results indicate that a substantial portion of the light-absorbing particles in the more polluted regions were likely BC. The 3 years of data show that glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains close to human population centers have substantially higher levels of eBC (as high as 70 ng g-1) than remote glaciers (as low as 2.0 ng g-1 eBC), indicating that population centers can influence local glaciers by sourcing BC.

  4. Asymmetrical Growth of Footwall Topography in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: Implications for Normal Fault Control on Landscape Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanni, M. K.; Horton, B. K.

    2007-12-01

    Morphometric parameters and hypsometry of the >5-km-high Cordillera Blanca in Peru provide insights into the topographic evolution of the uplifted footwall of an active, high-magnitude-slip, low-angle normal fault within a contractional orogenic belt. The modern tectonic activity, mappable fault trace, high relief, and uniform footwall lithology make the Cordillera Blanca an ideal locality to test models for the evolution of topography related to normal faulting. Most models for normal fault growth suggest a tectonic and geomorphic symmetry in which maximum slip and maximum surface uplift occur along the central segments of the fault, with net slip, footwall uplift, and hangingwall subsidence diminishing along strike toward the fault tips. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the Cordillera Blanca permits extraction of important geomorphic metrics for footwall transverse drainages and the hanging-wall axial river, including hypsometry, drainage area, drainage length, relief, channel gradient, surface slope, aspect ratio, and longitudinal profile. These data reveal a pronounced asymmetry in which footwall relief, exposed fault relief, channel gradient, and surface slope are greatest along the northern fault segment and become systematically lower southward along strike. In contrast to most models for normal fault growth, largely based on late Cenozoic systems in the Basin and Range province of the western United States, the Cordillera Blanca demonstrates that abrupt and significant along-strike variations in displacement and footwall uplift are possible in major normal fault systems. The causes of an asymmetric distribution of fault slip and footwall topography in the Cordillera Blanca may be related to: (a) mechanical coupling between the subducting flat Nazca slab and the overriding South American plate; (b) gravitational collapse of overthickened crust along reactivated thrust faults; (c) climatic processes linked to the effect of glacial erosion in the footwall

  5. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2012-09-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca.

  6. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  7. Calibration and Assessment of a Distributed Hydrologic Model Applied to a Glacierized Basin in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, P. J.; Nolin, A. W.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Clarke, G. K.; Naz, B. S.; Gleason, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    Glacier retreat has been well documented in the Cordillera Blanca of the Peruvian Andes. It is becoming clearer that changes in glacier area and volume will negatively affect water resources in this region, particularly during the dry season (May to September). Previous studies focusing on this issue in the Cordillera Blanca have had success modeling runoff but did so using somewhat over-simplified hydrologic models. The question driving this study is: How well does the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) coupled with a new dynamic glacier sub-model replicate runoff in a test basin of the Cordillera Blanca, namely Llanganuco. During the 2011 dry season we collected data on stream discharge, meteorological conditions, soil, and vegetation in the basin. We installed two stage height recorders in the middle reaches of the watershed to complement a third which delineates the basin outlet. Flow data collected at these points will be used for model calibration and/or validation. For geochemical validation we collected spring and meltwater samples for use in a two component isotopic mixing model. We also mapped dominant soil and vegetation types for model input. We use satellite imagery (ASTER and Landsat) to map the change in glacier extent over approximately the last 30 years as this will be another model input. Coupled together, all of these data will be used to run, validate, and refine a model which will also be implemented in other regions of the world where glacier melt is crucial at certain times of the year.

  8. Downscaling reanalysis data to high-resolution variables above a glacier surface (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Marlis; Mölg, Thomas; Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg

    2010-05-01

    Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term atmospheric data. The aim of this study is to extend the existing time series into the past. We present an empirical-statistical downscaling (ESD) model that links 6-hourly NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to the local target variables, measured at the tropical glacier Artesonraju (Northern Cordillera Blanca). The approach is particular in the context of ESD for two reasons. First, the observational time series for model calibration are short (only about two years). Second, unlike most ESD studies in climate research, we focus on variables at a high temporal resolution (i.e., six-hourly values). Our target variables are two important drivers in the surface energy balance of tropical glaciers; air temperature and specific humidity. The selection of predictor fields from the reanalysis data is based on regression analyses and climatologic considerations. The ESD modelling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses. Principal component screening is based on cross-validation using the Akaike Information Criterion as model selection criterion. Double cross-validation is applied for model evaluation. Potential autocorrelation in the time series is considered by defining the block length in the resampling procedure. Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modelling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice by using both single- and mixed-field predictors of the variables air temperature (1000 hPa), specific humidity (1000 hPa), and zonal wind speed (500 hPa). The chosen downscaling domain ranges from 80 to 50 degrees west and from 0 to 20 degrees south. Statistical transfer functions are derived individually for different months and times of day (month/hour-models). The forecast skill of the month/hour-models largely depends on

  9. [Human myiasis in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Period 2000 / 2005].

    PubMed

    Visciarelli, Elena; Costamagna, Sixto; Lucchi, Leandro; Basabe, Norma

    2007-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae which, at least for a short period, feed on the host's dead or living tissue, liquid body-substance, or ingested food. The objective of this study was to identify the flies producing myiasis in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina, from 01/03/2000 to 31/05/2005. Seventeen clinical cases were studied. The larvae obtained from lesions were forwarded from laboratories and from public and private hospitals. Part of the larvae were fixed in alcohol 70 masculine and processed according to the Mazza & Jörg technique (1939). The other part continued growing in flasks with meat in laboratory conditions to obtain the adults. The etiological agents of myiasis were identified by observing the diagnostic characteristics of the larvae III and of the adults, and by using taxonomic keys. Myiasis was produced by Cochlyiomia hominivorax (Coquerel) in thirteen of the cases and by Phaenicia sericata (= Lucila sericata) (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the other four. The cases were traumatic and aural myiasis and happened from December to March. The ages of patients were four to eighty-six years and 76.5% of the cases occurred in male patients. Given the aggressiveness of these larvae, mainly C. hominivorax, in causing human myiasis, the importance of specific and quick diagnosis and of adequate treatment must be acknowledged.

  10. Uranium-series dating of actinide decay series mobility at Pena Blanca

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, P.R.; Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.

    1997-12-31

    Studies of U-series disequilibria near uranium ore deposits can provide valuable information on the mobility of actinides and their daughters over the range of timescales needed to assess the stability of proposed waste repositories. We have applied highly sensitive TIMS methods to obtain 238U-234U-230Th dates for three whole rock samples within a {approximately}30 in long fracture emanating into surrounding tuff from the deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico. The 238U-234U-230Th data lie on a whole-rock isochron that requires closed-system behavior for the last 380 ka. Preliminary 231Pa-235U data for the U-rich vein also indicates closed system behavior for at least the last 100 ka. In contrast, 226Ra/230Th activity ratios range from 0.76-0.99 which indicates more recent Ra mobility within the fracture most likely due to surface water infiltration. Our results require uranium, thorium and protactinium stability despite recent radium mobility and provide important constraints on repository stability over {approximately}100 ka timescales.

  11. Morphology and dynamics of large subtidal dunes in Bahia Blanca estuary, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor Salvatierra, Marta; Aliotta, Salvador; Ginsberg, Silvia Susana

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carry out a detailed analysis of subtidal dune morphology and temporal variability and to estimate dune migration rate to improve knowledge of this topic, and so enhance the existing data on different marine environments in the world and especially in South America where this information is limited. Two swath bathymetry surveys were conducted across a dune field in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina). Morphometric parameters and migration rate according to the dune type, were analyzed. The field is composed of large dunes exhibiting two morphological configurations, which are differentiated into sinuous and barchan dunes. The dunes studied are the largest of the estuary, with heights and wavelengths greater than 5 m and 130 m, respectively. The crests of the large dunes are arranged with an orientation perpendicular to the axis of the channel. From geometrical analysis of the parameters, the dunes show a weakly positive correlation between dune height and wavelength as too between dune height and water depth. No clear relationship was observed between maximum height and wavelength parameters with water depth. Across the estuary, the bedforms migrate in the ebb direction, with mean rate of 43 m year- 1. Comparison of our results with previous data shows that during three decades the western boundary of dune field has been displaced 900 m towards the outer estuary, however the dune field configuration and distribution of diverse types of bedform appear to be relatively stable.

  12. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas en el contexto de una constante de gravitación G variable en el tiempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.; Torres, D. F.

    En este trabajo se estudia por primera vez de manera autoconsistente la evolución de las estrellas enanas blancas en el caso de una constante de gravitación G variable en el tiempo. Teniendo en cuenta que: 1) las enanas blancas son en general estrellas muy viejas y 2) su fuente de energía es básicamente de origen térmico y gravitacional, estos objetos son en principio muy adecuados para analizar distintas teorías de gravitación. Los cálculos que aquí presentamos fueron realizados utilizando nuestro código de evolución estelar, el cual calcula la evolución de estrellas enanas blancas por medio del esquema iterativo de Henyey. Dicho código, basado en una descripción física muy detallada, ha sido modificado para tener en cuenta la variación del valor de G. Encontramos que un G variable (decreciente en el tiempo) modifica fuertemente la evolución de las enanas blancas, conduciendo a un rápido enfriamiento de la estrella. Nuestros resultados son comparados con recientes datos observacionales sobre la función de luminosidad de las enanas blancas.

  13. Slope deformations in high-mountain regions as observed by InSAR: Examples from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Holger; Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Huggel, Christian; Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, Vít; Wiesmann, Andreas; Kääb, Andreas; Cochachin, Alejo; Plummer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Steep topography, the world's highest concentration of tropical glaciers, numerous glacial lakes and strong seismic activity combined with a densely populated valley bottom in the Rio Santa basin characterize the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. Besides glacier-related processes, a variety of landslide types and processes is present outside the glaciated areas, favoured by the steep terrain, geological conditions, sparse vegetation, intense precipitation, and strong seismicity. This combination of high hazard potentials and vulnerabilities results in a long list of natural disasters. Information on surface displacements is very valuable for early detection of emerging hazard potentials and their assessment. Interferometric processing of SAR data (InSAR) provides the possibility to remotely detect different types of surface displacement processes, also in remote locations where no other monitoring data are available. This contribution, developed under the ESA-funded S:GLA:MO project (sglamo.gamma-rs.ch), shows the potential of InSAR products for hazard assessments and glaciological investigations in high-mountain regions. We present a selection of different surface displacements as observed in the Cordillera Blanca based on InSAR data: a landslide zone near the Rampac Grande village, where in 2009 a landslide caused casualties and property loss; a landslide at the entry of the Santa Cruz Valley, northern Cordillera Blanca, where the displacement history could be reconstructed over five years; surface displacements at the interior moraine slopes surrounding Laguna Palcacocha, a major glacier lake above the city of Huaraz, which are compared to and complemented by geophysical investigations in the field; surface displacements at the moraine damming Laguna Safuna Alta, a glacier lake in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca; glacier velocities across the entire Cordillera Blanca, revealing ice flow velocities of more than 200 m yr-1 at certain locations at the end of

  14. Constraining Subsurface Structure and Composition Using Seismic Refraction Surveys of Proglacial Valleys in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glas, R. L.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Baker, E. A.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Somers, L. D.; Wigmore, O.

    2015-12-01

    As tropical glaciers rapidly recede in response to climate change, the storage and discharge of groundwater will play an increasing role in regulating river baseflow, particularly during the dry season, when stream flow is currently sustained predominantly by glacial melt. Little is understood regarding the hydrogeologic processes controlling base flow characteristics of low-gradient proglacial valleys of the Cordillera Blanca in Northwestern Peru, which has the world's highest density of tropical glaciers. To better understand the processes of groundwater storage and discharge in proglacial meadows, we completed seismic refraction surveys in three representative valleys of the Cordillera Blanca range: the Quilcayhuanca, Yanamarey, and Pachacoto valleys. The locations of survey transects were chosen based on locations of previous sediment core sampling, GPR lines, and quantification of groundwater-surface water interaction derived from dye and temperature tracing experiments. The seismic surveys consisted of 48 vertical component geophones with 2.5 m spacing. Across the three representative valleys a total of 15 surveys were conducted, covering a distance of 1800 m in cross, down, and oblique-valley directions. Preliminary interpretation of the seismic refraction data indicates a maximum imaging depth of 16 m below land surface, and a transition from glacio-lacustrine sediments to buried saturated talus at a depth of 6 m in the Quilcayhuanca valley. The organic-rich glacio-lacustrine sediments in the Yanamarey valley have seismic velocities ranging from 300 to 800 m/s and are >16 m in thickness at mid- valley. Weathered metasedimentary bedrock in the Pachacoto valley was imaged at ~5 m below the valley surface, exhibiting a p-wave velocity of 3400 m/s. The knowledge of hydrogeologic structure derived from seismic refraction surveys will provide crucial boundary conditions for future groundwater models of the valleys of the Cordillera Blanca.

  15. Epithermal uranium deposits in a volcanogenic context: the example of Nopal 1 deposit, Sierra de Pena Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calas, G.; Angiboust, S.; Fayek, M.; Camacho, A.; Allard, T.; Agrinier, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Peña Blanca molybdenum-uranium field (Chihuahua, Mexico) exhibits over 100 airborne anomalies hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs (44 Ma) overlying the Pozos conglomerate and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Uranium occurrences are associated with breccia zones at the intersection of two or more fault systems. Periodic reactivation of these structures associated with Basin and Range and Rio Grande tectonic events resulted in the mobilization of U and other elements by meteoric fluids heated by geothermal activity. Trace element geochemistry (U, Th, REE) provides evidence for local mobilization of uranium under oxidizing conditions. In addition, O- and H-isotope geochemistry of kaolinite, smectite, opal and calcite suggests that argillic alteration proceeded at shallow depth with meteoric water at 25-75 °C. Focussed along breccia zones, fluids precipitated several generations of pyrite and uraninite together with kaolinite, as in the Nopal 1 mine, indicating that mineralization and hydrothermal alteration of volcanic tuffs are contemporaneous. Low δ34S values (~ -24.5 ‰) of pyrites intimately associated with uraninite suggest that the reducing conditions at the origin of the U-mineralization arise from biological activity. Later, the uplift of Sierra Pena Blanca resulted in oxidation and remobilization of uranium, as confirmed by the spatial distribution of radiation-induced defect centers in kaolinites. These data show that tectonism and biogenic reducing conditions can play a major role in the formation and remobilization of uranium in epithermal deposits. By comparison with the other uranium deposits at Sierra Pena Blanca and nearby Sierra de Gomez, Nopal 1 deposit is one of the few deposits having retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  16. Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.; Fayek, M.; Goodell, P.; Ghezzehei, T.; Melchor, F.; Murrell, M.; Oliver, R.; Reyes-Cortes, I.A.; de la Garza, R.; Simmons, A.

    2008-08-01

    The Nopal I site in the Pena Blanca uranium district has a number of geologic and hydrologic similarities to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, making it a useful analogue to evaluate process models for radionuclide transport. The PB-1 well was drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a DOE-sponsored natural analogue study to constrain processes affecting radionuclide transport. The well penetrates through the Tertiary volcanic section down to Cretaceous limestone and intersects the regional aquifer system. The well, drilled along the margin of the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. Detailed observations of these units were afforded through petrographic description and rock-property measurements of the core, together with geophysical logs of the well. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich, rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. This cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, goethite, jarosite, and opal. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the Nopal Formation is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation consists of poorly sorted conglomerate containing clasts of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert

  17. Mapping Glacier Dynamics and Proglacial Wetlands with a Multispectral UAV at 5000m in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigmore, O.; Mark, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    The glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru are rapidly retreating as a result of rising temperatures, transforming the hydrology and impacting the socio-economic and environmental systems of the Rio Santa basin. Documenting the heterogeneous spatial patterns of these changes to understand processes of water storage and flow is hindered by technologic and logistic challenges. Highly complex topography, cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution limit the application of satellite data while airborne data collection remains costly and potentially dangerous. However, recent developments have made Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology a viable and potentially transformative method for studying glacier dynamics and proglacial hydrology. The extreme altitudes (4000-6700m) of the Cordillera Blanca limit the use of 'off the shelf' UAVs. Therefore we developed a low cost multispectral (visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared) multirotor UAV capable of conducting fully autonomous aerial surveys at elevations over 5000m within the glacial valleys of the Cordillera Blanca. Using this platform we have completed repeat aerial surveys (in 2014 and 2015) of the debris covered Llaca Glacier, generating highly accurate 10-20cm DEM's and 5cm orthomosaics using a structure from motion workflow. Analysis of these data reveals a highly dynamic system with some areas of the glacier losing as much as 16m of vertical elevation, while other areas have gained up to 5m of elevation over one year. The magnitude and direction of these changes appears to be associated with the presence of debris free ice faces and meltwater ponds. Additionally, we have mapped proglacial meadow and wetland systems. Thermal mosaics at 10-20cm resolution are providing novel insights into the hydrologic pathways of glacier meltwater including mapping the distribution of artesian springs that feed these wetland systems. The high spatial resolution of these UAV datasets facilitates a better understanding of the

  18. Trace elements in mineral separates of the Pena Blanca Spring aubrite - Implications for the evolution of the aubrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.; Palme, H.; Wlotzka, F.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed chemical study is conducted of the Pena Blanca Spring aubrite in order to clarify both the origin of the aubrite parent body (APB) and its relation to the enstatite chondrites. The distribution of REE among aubritic minerals cannot be the result of fractional distillation, which would occur if high degrees of partial melting had occurred on the APB. The REE distributions instead indicate a complete equilibrium of oldhamite and other phases, so that a brief nonequilibrium melting episode must have led to the segregation of metal and sulfides.

  19. New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, A.; Vilímek, V.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a new and easily repeatable objective method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes within the Peruvian region of Cordillera Blanca (excluding ice-dammed lakes, which do not reach significant volumes in this region). The presented method was designed to meet four basic principles, which we considered as being crucial. These are: (a) principle of regional focus; (b) principle of objectivity; (c) principle of repeatability; and (d) principle of multiple results. Potential hazardousness is assessed based on a combination of decision trees for clarity and numerical calculation for objectivity. A total of seventeen assessed characteristics are used, of which seven have yet to be used in this context before. Also, several ratios and calculations are defined for the first time. We assume that it is not relevant to represent the overall potential hazardousness of a particular lake by one result (number), thus the potential hazardousness is described in the presented method by five separate results (representing five different glacial lake outburst flood scenarios). These are potentials for: (a) dam overtopping resulting from a dynamic slope movement into the lake; (b) dam overtopping following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream; (c) dam failure resulting from a dynamic slope movement into the lake; (d) dam failure following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream; and (e) dam failure following a heavy earthquake. All of these potentials theoretically range from 0 to 1. The presented method was verified on the basis of assessing the pre-flood conditions of seven lakes which have produced ten glacial lake outburst floods in the past and ten lakes which have not. A comparison of these results showed that the presented method successfully identifies the potentially hazardous lakes.

  20. Diagnosing the imbalance of Yanamarey Glacier in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan; Ames, Alcides

    1995-03-01

    A detailed glaciological observation program was conducted on the Yanamarey Glacier in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru, including the monitoring of net balance and ice flow velocity during 1977-1988 and mappings of the surface topography in 1973, 1982, and 1988. These observations are here evaluated to combine net balance, surface lowering, and ice flow into a consistent picture of the mode of operation of a tropical glacier on the scale of a decade. The glacier extends between 5100 and 4500 m with a total area of 9×105 m2 and length of about 1.3 km. Maximum flow velocity is 17.4 m yr-1 and maximum volume flux 336×103 m3 yr-1. In the ablation area, net balance is about -6 m yr-1 and surface lowering 3 m yr-1. About half of the mean annual water discharge from the glacier of 80 L s-1 is not renewed by precipitation but supplied by the ice thinning. The rate of surface lowering of 1.5 m yr-1 liquid water equivalent translates to a glacier average departure heat supply for melting of 16 W m-2. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this could be produced by a cloudiness increase of less than one tenth, an air temperature decrease of 2°C, an increment in specific humidity of less than 1 g kg-1, or some combination of heat budget processes. Such changes in the atmospheric environment would be required to stabilize the glacier at its recent volume. As another indication of the recent imbalance, the maximum volume flux is found some 100 m below the equilibrium line altitude. Under continuation of the recent climatic conditions, the glacier may survive for more than half a century.

  1. New measurements of particulates in glacial snow and ice in the Cordillera Blanca mountains of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    All, J.; Schmitt, C.; Celestian, A. J.; Rucks, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Cole, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the local dry season (June/July) of 2011 and 2012, the American Climber Science Program (organized with the assistance of the American Alpine Club) conducted scientific expeditions in Huascaran National Park in Peru. The Park is located in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range and contains the world's largest collection of tropical mountain glaciers. One component of the environmental research program was sampling particulates on glacier surfaces by means of snow collection and filtration. Over 150 samples were collected during the two expeditions by volunteer climbers working with scientists in the field. Glacier snows were collected on over fifteen peaks throughout the range at altitudes from 4800 to nearly 6800 meters. Snow samples were kept frozen until the climber-scientists returned to basecamp - at which point they were rapidly melted and then immediately filtered through 0.7 micron PallFlex tissuequartz filters. The particulates captured on the filters have been analyzed for their bulk heat absorption properties as well as to determine the properties of individual particles through X-ray diffraction for bulk mineral identification, and Raman microscopy for chemical mapping of minerals. Preliminary results indicate that snow age, altitude, as well as geographic location (with respect to urban areas, mines, and predominant wind direction) all play significant roles in the amount and types of contaminants. Multiple locations were sampled during both expeditions as well as at different times during the same climbing season. Results include the relative heating capacity of the samples at various wavelengths as well as mineral composition information across the range. Local weather patterns and geographic observations will be used to identify potential sources of contaminants. Sampling will continue under the American Climber Science Program in 2013 and beyond.

  2. Infrared Imaging and Modeling of Proglacial Stream Temperature in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E. A.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Somers, L. D.; Wigmore, O.; Glose, A.; Glas, R. L.; Mark, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    In the tropical Andes, glacial meltwater is an important water resource for downstream communities, especially during the dry season. Due to climate change, glacial retreat is accelerating and straining already limited water resources in the region. It is hypothesized that groundwater storage and discharge will play a critical role in sustaining future river flows. To improve our understanding of the hydrologic fluxes in proglacial valleys of the tropical Andes, we monitored a ~1.2 km reach of the Quilcayhuanca River, in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, using a high resolution infrared (IR) camera and in-stream temperature sensors. We positioned the IR camera on the southern valley wall, 96 m above the valley floor, and collected >700 IR images at 10 minute intervals over 5 days. We deployed 40 temperature sensors along the stream at ~25 m intervals and 10 sensors at additional control points throughout the surrounding valley, recording temperature at 10 minute intervals. Groundwater temperature was recorded in 6 wells in the study area. The reach had diurnal temperature fluctuations from ~4 to 13°C, but did not exhibit large longitudinal temperature differences. Stream temperature profiles within the water column show stream water is well mixed, improving the ability of the IR camera to accurately observe the stream temperature at this research site. Temperature sensors in 4 reach tributaries recorded warmer temperatures than the main channel. The daily temperatures of one tributary fluctuated within the range of the groundwater temperature (~9 to 11°C), while another tributary exhibited a range of ~18°C. A weather station in the study area recorded climate data (air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation) at 10 minute intervals. We used this field data as input for a spatial and temporal energy balance model of the reach. Our model demonstrates the utility of IR imagery to monitor stream temperatures and improves our understanding of energy fluxes in

  3. Water Resources and Groundwater in a Glaciated Andean Watershed (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Gordon, R.; Baraer, M.; Lautz, L.; Mark, B. G.; Wigmore, O.; Chavez, D.; Aubry-Wake, C.

    2014-12-01

    It is estimated that almost 400 million people live in watersheds where glaciers provide at least 10% of the runoff, yet many questions remain regarding the impact of climate change and glacier recession on water resources derived from these high mountain watersheds. We present research from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, an area with the highest density of glaciers in the tropics. While glacier meltwater buffers stream discharge throughout the range, groundwater is a major component of dry season runoff, contributing up to 50-70% of outflow in some tributaries. In order to predict future changes to water resources it is critical to understand how groundwater can offset future hydrologic stress by maintaining stream baseflow, including recharge mechanisms, subsurface pathways, storage, and net fluxes to rivers. We present a synthesis of results based on hydrologic modeling, drilling/piezometers, geophysics, and artificial and natural hydrologic tracers. Our findings show that 'pampas', low-relief mountain valleys, are critical for baseflow generation by storing groundwater on interannual timescales. Pampas have a total area of ~65 km2 and are comprised of unconsolidated glacial, talus, lacustrine and wetland (bofedales) deposits. The valleys commonly have buried talus aquifers that are overlain by low permeability, glaciolacustrine deposits. Glaciofluvial outwash deposits and small wetlands also act as unconfined aquifers. These groundwater systems appear to be primarily recharged by wet season precipitation, and at higher elevations also by glacial meltwater. Additionally a ubiquitous feature in the valleys are springs, often located at the base of talus deposits, which generate a large hydrologic flux within the hydrologic systems. While glaciers are the most visible and vulnerable component of the Andean waterscape, we argue that it is crucial to understand the complete mountain hydrologic cycle, including groundwater, in order to understand the ongoing

  4. Basic diagnosis of solid waste generated at Agua Blanca State Park to propose waste management strategies.

    PubMed

    Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett

    2012-03-01

    State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.

  5. Characterization of U-series disequilibria at the Pena Blanca natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Goodell, P.C.; Anthony, E.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate radionuclide migration from a uranium-mineralized breccia pipe. The site provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate radionuclide mobility in a geochemical environment similar to that around the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Samples represent fracture-infillings from both within and outside the breccia pipe. Mineral assemblages within the fractures include (1) pure kaolinite, (2) a mixture of iron-oxyhydroxides (goethite and hematite) with associated alunite and jarosite, which the authors refer to as the Fe-mineral assemblage, and (3) carbonates. Uranophane, weeksite, soddyite, and boltwoodite are associated with samples from within the breccia zone. The authors obtain radionuclide activities from gamma-ray rather than alpha spectroscopy, and the methodology for these measurements is presented in detail. Plots of {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U vs. {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th show three distinct mobility trends. (1) The majority of the Fe-mineral samples from within the breccia pipe yield values between 1.0 and 1.1 for both ratios, (2) Fe-mineral samples from outside the ore zone and a kaolinite from within the ore zone have {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U of 0.58 to 0.83 and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th of 1.09 to 1.42, and (3) some Fe-mineral samples from within the breccia pipe have values of 1.2 and 0.9 respectively. These data, combined with those from other studies at Pena Blanca suggest that U and Ra are sometimes mobile in the near-surface environment and that multiple episodes of enrichment and leaching are required to explain the trends.

  6. Hydrological and depositional processes associated with recent glacier recession in Yanamarey catchment, Cordillera Blanca (Peru).

    PubMed

    López-Moreno, J I; Valero-Garcés, B; Mark, B; Condom, T; Revuelto, J; Azorín-Molina, C; Bazo, J; Frugone, M; Vicente-Serrano, S M; Alejo-Cochachin, J

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigate changes in the glaciated surface and the formation of lakes in the headwater of the Querococha watershed in Cordillera Blanca (Peru) using 24 Landsat images from 1975 to 2014. Information of glacier retreat was integrated with available climate data, the first survey of recent depositional dynamics in proglacial Yanamarey Lake (4600m a.s.l.), and a relatively short hydrological record (2002-2014) at the outlet of Yanamarey Lake. A statistically significant temperature warming (0.21°C decade(-1) for mean annual temperature) has been detected in the region, and it caused a reduction of the glacierized area since 1975 from 3.5 to 1.4km(-2). New small lakes formed in the deglaciated areas, increasing the flooded area from1.8ha in 1976 to 2.8ha in 2014. A positive correlation between annual rates of glacier recession and runoff was found. Sediment cores revealed a high sedimentation rate (>1cmyr(-1)) and two contrasted facies, suggesting a shift toward a reduction of meltwater inputs and higher hydrological variability likely due to an increasing role of precipitation on runoff during the last decades. Despite the age control uncertainties, the main transition likely occurred around 1998-2000, correlating with the end of the phase with maximum warming rates and glacier retreat during the 1980s and 1990s, and the slowing down of expansion of surface lake-covered surface. With this hydrological - paleolimnological approach we have documented the association between recent climate variability and glacier recession and the rapid transfer of hydroclimate signal to depositional and geochemical processes in high elevation Andean environments. This, study also alerts about water quality risks as proglacial lakes act as secondary reservoirs that trap trace and minor elements in high altitude basins.

  7. Role of plate kinematics and plate-slip-vector partitioning in continental magmatic arcs: Evidence from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, B.A.; Farber, D.L.; Wallace, G.S.; Lopez, R.; Palacios, O.

    1998-09-01

    New structural and geochronological data from the Cordillera Blanca batholith in the Peruvian Andes, coupled with Nazca-South American plate-slip-vector data, indicate that oblique convergence and associated strike-slip partitioning strongly influenced continental magmatic arc evolution. Both the strain field and mode of magmatism (plutonism vs. volcanism) in the late Miocene Peruvian Andes were controlled by the degree to which the arc-parallel component of the plate slip vector was partitioned into the arc. Strong strike-slip partitioning at ca. 8 Ma produced arc-parallel sinistral shear, strike-slip intercordilleran basins and east-west-oriented tension fractures that facilitated emplacement of the Cordillera Blanca batholith (ca. 8.2 {+-} 0.2 Ma). Periods during which the strike-slip component was not partitioned into the arc (ca. 10 and ca. 7 Ma) were associated with roughly arc-normal contraction and ignimbrite volcanism. The data thus support the contention that contraction within continental magmatic arcs favors volcanism, whereas transcurrent shear favors plutonism. The tie between oblique convergence and batholith emplacement in late Miocene Peruvian Andes provides a modern analogue for batholiths emplaced as the result of transcurrent shear in ancient arcs.

  8. Recent trends in annual snowline variations in the northern wet outer tropics: case studies from southern Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veettil, Bijeesh Kozhikkodan; Wang, Shanshan; Bremer, Ulisses Franz; de Souza, Sergio Florêncio; Simões, Jefferson Cardia

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the changes in the annual maximum snowlines of a selected set of mountain glaciers at the southern end of the Cordillera Blanca between 1984 and 2015 using satellite images. Furthermore, we analysed the existing glacier records in the Cordillera Blanca since the last glacial maximum to understand the evolution of glaciers in this region over a few centuries. There was a rise in the snowline altitude of glaciers in this region since the late 1990s with a few small glacier advances. Historical to the present El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) records were also analysed to understand whether there was a teleconnection between the glacier fluctuations in the region and the phase changes of ENSO and PDO. We also assessed the variations in three important climatic parameters that influence the glacier retreat—temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity—over a few decades. We calculated the anomalies as well as the seasonal changes in these variables since the mid-twentieth century. There was an increase in temperature during this period, and the decrease in precipitation was not so prominent compared with the temperature rise. There was an exceptionally higher increase in relative humidity since the early 2000s, which is relatively higher than that expected due to the observed rate of warming, and this increase in humidity is believed to be the reason behind the unprecedented rise in the snowline altitudes since the beginning of the twenty-first century.

  9. Recent glacier retreat and lake formation in the Querecocha watershed, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Moreno, J.; Valero-Garces, B.; Revuelto, J.; Azorín-Molina, C.; Bazo, J.; Cochachin, A.; Fontaneda, S.; Mark, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    In the Andes, and specifically in the Peruvian mountains a marked decrease of the glaciated area has occurred since the end of the Little Ice Age, and it has been accelerated since the last decades of the 20th century. As a result of the glacier retreat new pro-glaciar lakes are originated, and often the area and volume of existing ones increases. The study of these newly-formed lakes and their recent evolution may provide a better understanding of the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of deglaciated areas, and a better evaluation of the risk of glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFS). In this work, we use 26 annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1975 to 2010 to determine changes of the glaciated surface, snow line elevation and lakes formation in the headwaters of the Querecocha watershed in Cordillera Blanca (Perú). We also present the information derived from 10 short sediment cores (up to 50 cm long) retrieved along several transects in Yanamarey Lake. Both data sets inform of the sediment yield and lake development in recently deglaciated environments of the Andes. Results demonstrate that only one third of the surface covered by ice in 1975 remained in 2010. In this period, snowline has shifted up more than 100 meters in elevation in both, Yanamarey North and South areas respectively. At the same time, new lakes have been formed very quickly in these deglaciated areas. Preliminary 137Cs dating of Yanamarey sediment core indicates that at least the top 50 cm of the lake sequence deposited after 1960. This is coherent with the Landsat image of 1975 that showed the current surface of the lake still covered by ice. The high sediment rate (> 1 cm/yr) in the lake demonstrates the very high sediment yield in these geomorphically active settings. The sediment cores are composed of cm-thick sequences defined by grain-size (silt-clay) common in proglacial lakes reflecting the variability of hydrological response associated to the glacier retreat in the

  10. U-Sries Disequilibra in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell

    2006-03-16

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U, which is greater than unity, {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th, which is also greater than unity, and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks {sup 230}Th peaks, but contains {sup 234}U and {sup 226}Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate {sup 226}Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only

  11. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de

  12. Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    M. Fayek; P. Goodell; M. Ren; A. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U{sup 6+} minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled {approx}50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained ({approx}50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few {micro}m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 {+-} 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is <1 Ma. Oxygen isotopic analyses show that uraninite from the ore body has a {delta}{sup 18}O = -10.8{per_thousand}, whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.5{per_thousand}. If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ({delta}{sup 18}O = -7{per_thousand}), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation

  13. Archaeometric study of ceramic figurines from the Maya settlement of La Blanca (Petén, Guatemala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horcajada, P.; Roldán, C.; Vidal, C.; Rodenas, I.; Carballo, J.; Murcia, S.; Juanes, D.

    2014-04-01

    In this article, analytical results will be presented and discussed regarding a selected set of figurines from the ancient Maya settlement of La Blanca in Petén, Guatemala. The objective is to characterize the ceramic material by two analytical complementary techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The data obtained by means of both XRD and TXRF were compared and analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to obtain sample groups according to their chemical composition. The results of this archaeometric study have been compared to those that have been obtained through macroscopic characterization by means of the traditional classification system know as Type-Variety. Discordances have been found between the clusters obtained by the Type-Variety classification system and the multivariate classification procedures performed on analytical data.

  14. Emerging Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: A Case Study at Arteson Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, R. E.; Mckinney, D. C.; Gomez, J.; Voss, K.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resources systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glacier mass balance. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2012 at the Arteson glacier in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. A new lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Arteson glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create landslides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. This new lake is part of a series of three lakes that have formed below the Arteson glacier. The two lower lakes, Artesonraju and Paron, are much larger so that if there were an avalanche or landslide into the new lake below Arteson glacier, the impact could potentially be more catastrophic than a GLOF from one single lake. Estimates of how the lake mass balance is likely to evolve due to the retreating glacier are key to assessing the flood risk from this dynamic three-lake system. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, the ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Arteson glacier and underlying bedrock give us a clue to how the lake is likely to evolve. GPR measurements of

  15. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  16. Review Article: Lake and breach hazard assessment for moraine-dammed lakes: an example from the Cordillera Blanca (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, A.; Vilímek, V.

    2013-06-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows represent a significant threat in high mountainous areas across the globe. It is necessary to quantify this threat so as to mitigate their catastrophic effects. Complete GLOF hazard assessment incorporates two phases: the probability of water release from a given glacial lake is estimated through lake and breach hazard assessment while the endangered areas are identified during downstream hazard assessment. This paper outlines a number of methods of lake and breach hazard assessment, which can be grouped into three categories: qualitative, of which we outline eight; semi-quantitative, of which we outline two; and quantitative, of which we outline three. It is considered that five groups of critical parameters are essential for an accurate regionally focused hazard assessment method for moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. These comprise the possibility of dynamic slope movements into the lake, the possibility of a flood wave from a lake situated upstream, the possibility of dam rupture following a large earthquake, the size of the dam freeboard (or ratio of dam freeboard), and a distinction between natural dams and those with remedial work. It is shown that none of the summarised methods uses all these criteria with, at most, three of the five considered by the outlined methods. A number of these methods were used on six selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca: lakes Quitacocha, Checquiacocha, Palcacocha, Llaca, Rajucolta, and Tararhua. The results have been compared and show that each method has certain advantages and disadvantages when used in this region. These methods demonstrate that the most hazardous lake is Lake Palcacocha.

  17. New method for assessing the susceptibility of glacial lakes to outburst floods in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, A.; Vilímek, V.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new and easily repeatable method for assessing the susceptibility of glacial lakes to outburst floods (GLOFs) within the Peruvian region of the Cordillera Blanca. The presented method was designed to: (a) be repeatable (from the point of view of the demands on input data), (b) be reproducible (to provide an instructive guide for different assessors), (c) provide multiple results for different GLOF scenarios and (d) be regionally focused on the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca. Based on the input data gained from remotely sensed images and digital terrain models/topographical maps, the susceptibility of glacial lakes to outburst floods is assessed using a combination of decision trees for clarity and numerical calculation for repeatability and reproducibility. A total of seventeen assessed characteristics are used, of which seven have not been used in this context before. Also, several ratios and calculations are defined for the first time. We assume that it is not relevant to represent the overall susceptibility of a particular lake to outburst floods by one result (number), thus it is described in the presented method by five separate results (representing five different GLOF scenarios). These are potentials for (a) dam overtopping resulting from a fast slope movement into the lake, (b) dam overtopping following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream, (c) dam failure resulting from a fast slope movement into the lake, (d) dam failure following the flood wave originating in a lake situated upstream and (e) dam failure following a strong earthquake. All of these potentials include two or three components and theoretically range from 0 to 1. The presented method was verified on the basis of assessing the pre-flood conditions of seven lakes which have produced ten glacial lake outburst floods in the past and ten lakes which have not. A comparison of these results showed that the presented method successfully identified lakes

  18. Investigating Glacier Surface Conditions using High-Definition Ground Based Infrared Imagery: Insight from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry-Wake, C.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Wigmore, O.; Hellstrom, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Cordillera Blanca, Peru, has the highest concentration of glaciers in the tropics. These glaciers, which in some valleys provide up to 70% of the dry season runoff, are rapidly retreating, with potential impacts on water resources. To predict the future changes in water resource in the region, it is important to better understand the processes driving tropical glacier ablation at the headwater of these systems. However, due to the glaciers' high altitude and the remote location, new techniques are needed to investigate these processes. Here we use high-definition ground-based infrared thermal imagery, paired with traditional weather monitoring instruments located on and adjacent to the glacier, to obtain high temporal and spatial resolution temperature maps of the surface of the Cuchillacocha glacier in the Cordillera Blanca. For four consecutive dry seasons (July 2011-2014), 24 to 48 hours of time-lapse imagery (5-30 minute spacing) of the glacier surface and surrounding area were acquired in conjunction with climate data. We compare the spatial and temporal variability of the surface temperature with numerous factors, including the surface conditions (e.g. ice, firn, debris cover, etc.), the thermal gradient at the edge of the glacier and with night time radiative cooling under different atmospheric conditions. The results show that sub-daily fluctuations in runoff from the glacier can be explained in large part by the incoming solar radiation and that the heating not only of the ice surface, but the surround bedrock, are important controls on the rate of meltwater generation. This study shows the potential utility for collecting and analyzing ground based infrared imagery for glacier studies, with implications for hydrologic and water resource applications.

  19. Legendary lost city Ciudad Blanca found under tropical forest in Honduras, using ERS-2 and JERS-1 SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakam-Simen, Francis; Nezry, Edmond; Ewing, James J.; Maschal, Ted

    1998-10-01

    The legendary 'Ciudad Blanca' of Honduras was first referred to under the name Xucutaco by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes already in 1526. Located in the remote, impenetrable and incompletely mapped rainforest of the Mosquito Coast, it was never conquered by the Spanish. With the time, it was slowly abandoned and forgotten. Two JERS-1 and one ERS-2 SLC Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been used to identify and to locate the lost city, a task made difficult due to the thick vegetation cover. To this end, advanced processing tools for the detection of artificial targets under forest cover, and for SAR data fusion have been used. Among the techniques used, a new Bayesian Distribution Entropy Maximum A Posteriori (DE-MAP) vector speckle filter, particularly suited for the restoration of a strongly textured scene, has been used to enhance the SAR images. This new speckle filter incorporates a statistical description of the effects of the SAR imaging system: in order to account for the effects due to the spatial correlation of the speckle in SAR images, an estimator originating from the local spatial autocorrelation function (ACF) of the SAR signal are incorporated to this filter, to refine the evaluation of the non-stationary first order local statistics, to improve the restoration of the scene textural properties, and to preserve the useful spatial resolution in the speckle filtered image. On the other hand, radargrammetric techniques have been used to: (1) produce a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area; (2) fuse ERS and JERS information in order to allow visual identification of the remnants of Ciudad Blanca by visual photo-interpretation. Using the processed images, geocoded UTM spatio-maps of the region have also been produced to locate accurately our findings, and guide a ground expedition in the future.

  20. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. French; E.Y. Anthony; P.C. Goodell

    2005-07-18

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 234}Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment.

  1. Búsqueda de los sitios de observación del tránsito de Venus de 1882 en territorio argentino. II. Bahía Blanca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, G. E.; Vázquez, R. A.

    We present here the results of an investigation that allowed us to determine the precise site of the Temporary Astronomical Station; settled in the city of Bahia Blanca; Provincia de Buenos Aires; in order to observe the transit of Venus in front of the solar disk on 6 December 1882. Our work sets the geographical coordinates of the station and clears up some confusion about its true location. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Digital aeromagnetic data and derivative products from a helicopter survey over the town of Blanca and surrounding areas, Alamosa and Costilla counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a helicopter geophysical survey in southern Colorado during October 2003. The survey covers the town of Blanca and surrounding communities in Alamosa and Costilla Counties. Several derivative products from these data are also presented, including reduced-to-pole, horizontal gradient magnitude, and downward continued grids and images.

  3. Tracing Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn occurrence in the Bahía Blanca estuary through commercial fish species.

    PubMed

    La Colla, Noelia S; Botté, Sandra E; Oliva, Ana L; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decades the anthropogenic contamination impact has substantially increased in the Bahía Blanca estuarine area, and scarce information exists regarding metals in the biotic compartment of this estuary. Thus, fish tissues were used to evaluate metal accumulation within this aquatic environment. The study focused on the determination of Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn in the gills, liver and muscle tissues of six commercial fish species (Brevoortia aurea, Odontesthes argentinensis, Micropogonias furnieri, Cynoscion guatucupa, Mustelus schmitti and Paralichthys orbignyanus). From the results it can be summarized that C. guatucupa tends to accumulate higher metal levels in the liver tissues, mostly Cr and Fe, than the other studied species. O. argentinensis and P. orbignyanus, both permanent inhabitants of the BBE, achieved the highest metal values in the gill tissues, mostly in comparison to M. schmitti. The gill tissues were found to be the main organ of Mn and Ni accumulation for most species, whereas in general, minimum concentrations were found for all the analyzed metals in the muscle tissues. Nevertheless, and according to the guidelines, all fish species showed at least one sample with concentrations of Mn and/or Cr above the permissible levels for human consumption. Finally, it was highlighted the usefulness of selecting these fish species as bioindicators of metal pollution, since they are either permanent inhabitants of the estuary or, according to the sizes under analyses, spend much of their time in this coastal waters.

  4. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  5. Microplankton dynamics under heavy anthropogenic pressure. The case of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    López Abbate, M Celeste; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Guinder, Valeria A; Dutto, M Sofía; Barría de Cao, M Sonia; Ruiz Etcheverry, Laura A; Pettigrosso, Rosa E; Carcedo, M Cecilia; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S

    2015-06-15

    Quantifying biotic feedbacks in response to environmental signals is fundamental to assess ecosystem perturbation. We analyzed the joint effects of eutrophication, derived from sewage pollution, and climate at the base of the pelagic food web in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (SW Atlantic Ocean). A two-year survey of environmental conditions and microplankton communities was conducted in two sites affected by contrasting anthropogenic eutrophication conditions. Under severe eutrophication, we found higher phytoplankton abundance consistently dominated by smaller sized, non siliceous species, while microzooplankton abundance remained lower and nutrient stoichiometry showed conspicuous deviations from the Redfield ratio. Phytoplankton growth in such conditions appeared controlled by phosphorous. In turn, microplankton biomass and phytoplankton size ratio (<20μm:>20μm) displayed a saturation relationship with nutrients in the highly eutrophic area, although mean phytoplankton growth was similar in both eutrophic systems. The strength of links within the estuarine network, quantified through path analysis, showed enhanced relationships under larger anthropogenic eutrophication, which fostered the climate influence on microplankton communities. Our results show conspicuous effects of severe sewage pollution on the ecological stoichiometry, i.e., N and P excess with respect to Si, altering nutrient ratios for microplankton communities. This warns on wide consequences on food web dynamics and ultimately in ecosystem assets of coastal pelagic environments.

  6. Investigation of environmental pollution effects on stone monuments in the case of Santa Maria La Blanca, Seville (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, P.; Vázquez, M. A.; Ortiz, R.; Martin, J. M.; Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize specimens submitted to the effects of weathering in an urban atmosphere. Samples investigated were stones covered by crusts and deposits of thickness ranging from micrometers to millimetres due to traffic pollutants and mineral dust. The pieces were collected in the Church of Santa Maria La Blanca in Seville (South Spain). In the Historical Centre of this city, the traffic is the main source of sulphur oxides. Several analytical techniques have been employed to determine composition of specimens: OM, XRD, XRF, SEM-EDX and LIBS. The main weathering form was gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O), and it has its source in sulphur oxides from traffic. Over this alteration layer, the deposits of atmospheric particles have been found. According to LIBS results, these particles can be composed of Al, Si, Ba, K, Na, Ti, V, Mg and Ca, while XRF technique also detect S, Fe, Mn and P. These atmospheric particles can have an anthropogenic or terrigenous origin, including the weathering of the building materials and its restoration products.

  7. [Hydrological and edaphic structure of an oyster-farming site: Duna Blanca (Bay of Dakhla, south Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Zidane, H; Orbi, A; Mouradi, A; Zidane, F; Blais, J F

    2008-09-01

    Morocco shelters lagoons, estuaries and bays along its paralic coasts which are among the most productive in the world. The Bay of Dakhla is the longest and the most important site in Morocco due to its halieutic richness. In fact, this bay is an ecosystem with great potential in terms of aquaculture, mainly shellfish farming, and shelters favorable zones for tapiculture, mytiliculture and ostreiculture, in accordance with ecological planning. A hydrological study (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll "a", suspended matter and organic matter) was conducted on a breeding project of the cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) installed on the Duna Blanca site since April 2003. A seasonal follow-up of sediment structure was carried out involving granulometric and metallic studies. The hydrological sampling was performed monthly on the surface and at the bottom, during spring tides, low tide and high tide. The results confirmed that the site encompasses a wealth of nutritive elements and a significant chlorophyll-rich biomass. A gradient of hypersalinity is well correlated with seasonal variation of the temperature. The sedimentary structure ranges from muddy-sandy to sandy type. The metal concentrations in the sediments never exceeded the toxicity thresholds. However, the site's production potential cannot be limitless and could be affected by the extension and installation of new conchylaceous farms.

  8. The Point Sal–Point Piedras Blancas correlation and the problem of slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault, central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Existing models for large-magnitude, right-lateral slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault system imply much more deformation of the onshore block in the Santa Maria basin than is supported by geologic data. This problem is resolved by a model in which dextral slip on this fault system increases gradually from 0–10 km near Point Arguello to ∼150 km at Cape San Martin, but such a model requires abandoning the cross-fault tie between Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas, which requires 90–100 km of right-lateral slip on the southern Hosgri fault. We collected stratigraphic and detrital zircon data from Miocene clastic rocks overlying Jurassic basement at both localities to determine if either section contained unique characteristics that could establish how far apart they were in the early Miocene. Our data indicate that these basins formed in the early Miocene during a period of widespread transtensional basin formation in the central Coast Ranges, and they filled with sediment derived from nearby pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. Although detrital zircon data do not indicate a unique source component in either section, they establish the maximum depositional age of the previously undated Point Piedras Blancas section to be 18 Ma. We also show that detrital zircon trace-element data can be used to discriminate between zircons of oceanic crust and arc affinity of the same age, a potentially useful tool in future studies of the California Coast Ranges. Overall, we find no characteristics in the stratigraphy and provenance of the Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas sections that are sufficiently unique to prove whether they were far apart or close together in the early Miocene, making them of questionable utility as piercing points.

  9. Assessing the variability of glacier lake bathymetries and potential peak discharge based on large-scale measurements in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian; Salazar, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Frey, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Over timescales of hundreds to thousands of years ice masses in mountains produced erosion in bedrock and subglacial sediment, including the formation of overdeepenings and large moraine dams that now serve as basins for glacial lakes. Satellite based studies found a total of 8355 glacial lakes in Peru, whereof 830 lakes were observed in the Cordillera Blanca. Some of them have caused major disasters due to glacial lake outburst floods in the past decades. On the other hand, in view of shrinking glaciers, changing water resources, and formation of new lakes, glacial lakes could have a function as water reservoirs in the future. Here we present unprecedented bathymetric studies of 124 glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Huallanca, Huayhuash and Raura in the regions of Ancash, Huanuco and Lima. Measurements were carried out using a boat equipped with GPS, a total station and an echo sounder to measure the depth of the lakes. Autocad Civil 3D Land and ArcGIS were used to process the data and generate digital topographies of the lake bathymetries, and analyze parameters such as lake area, length and width, and depth and volume. Based on that, we calculated empirical equations for mean depth as related to (1) area, (2) maximum length, and (3) maximum width. We then applied these three equations to all 830 glacial lakes of the Cordillera Blanca to estimate their volumes. Eventually we used three relations from the literature to assess the peak discharge of potential lake outburst floods, based on lake volumes, resulting in 3 x 3 peak discharge estimates. In terms of lake topography and geomorphology results indicate that the maximum depth is located in the center part for bedrock lakes, and in the back part for lakes in moraine material. Best correlations are found for mean depth and maximum width, however, all three empirical relations show a large spread, reflecting the wide range of natural lake bathymetries. Volumes of the 124 lakes with bathymetries amount to 0

  10. Unraveling Tropical Mountain Hydroclimatology by Coupling Autonomous Sensor Observations and Climate Modeling: Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Fernandez, A.; Mark, B. G.; Covert, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Peru will face critical water resource issues in the near future as permanent ice retreats. Much of current global and regional climate research neglects the meteorological forcing of lapse rates and valley wind dynamics on critical components of the Peruvian Andes' water-cycle. In 2004 and 2005 we installed an autonomous sensor network (ASN) within the glacierized Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca (9°S), consisting of discrete, cost-effective, automatic temperature loggers located along the valley axis and anchored by two automatic weather stations. Comparisons of these embedded atmospheric measurements from the ASN and climate modeling (CM) by dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model elucidate distinct diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the mountain valley winds and lapse rates. Wind, temperature, humidity, and cloud simulations by WRF suggest that thermally driven valley winds converging with easterly flow aloft enhance late afternoon and evening cloud development which helps explain detected nocturnal precipitation maxima measured by the ASN. We attribute sustained evapotranspiration (ET), as estimated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model, to an abundance of glacial melt-water during the dry season and strong pre-noon solar heating during the wet season. Furthermore, the extreme diurnal variability of along-valley-axis lapse rates and valley wind detected from ground observations and confirmed by dynamical downscaling demonstrate the importance of realistic scale parameterizations of the boundary layer to improve regional CM projections in mountainous regions. Our findings portray ET as an integral yet poorly represented process in Andean hydroclimatology. We show that coupling ASN and CM can improve understanding of multi-scale atmospheric and associated hydrological processes in mountain valleys.

  11. Investigating potential precipitation changes with impacts on small-scale farming in mountain villages, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Hofer, Marlis; Juen, Irmgard; Schauwecker, Simone; Singer, Katrin; Neuburger, Martina; Kaser, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Small subsistence farmers on the slopes above the city of Huaraz in the Peruvian Cordillera Blanca assign recent challenges in agricultural production - beyond other factors - to decreasing precipitation during the early crop cultivation period in August and September. In general, local climate is characterized by low annual variation in air temperature but a strong seasonality in precipitation. While driest conditions prevail in June and July, precipitation increases gradually towards the October to April wet season with strong topographically induced gradients. Because seeding occurs soon after the core dry months, cultivation is highly vulnerable to potential alterations in the transition period from dry to wet conditions. Within this study we try to find "data-based" evidence for changes in precipitation patterns, even though the availability of meteorological information for proving precipitation trends is generally poor for this region. We currently investigate the respective potential of connecting approx. 10 years (2003-2013) of ground measurements (weekly resolution with some gaps) with ERA-interim total precipitation output (0.75 deg. resolution) by (1) selecting those adjacent model grid points that explain measured precipitation variability best and by (2) fitting the data from the selected grid points to the measurements with quantile mapping. Uncertainties arising from the transfer functions are assessed with a cross validation approach. Our preliminary results suggest that (1) ground measurements are fairly explained by ERA interim data (despite the very complex topography), that (2) no significant trends in precipitation at the end of the dry season (August, September) are detectable for the period 1979-2013, but relatively high year-to-year variability occurs and that (3) process based limited area modeling might be required to effectively assess specific requests of user groups related to local precipitation variability.

  12. Time-lapse and UAV Thermal Imaging of Glacial and Periglacial Environments in the Peruvian Andes (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Wigmore, O.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Mark, B. G.; Hellstrom, R. A.; Lautz, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the tropics, the acquisition of high-resolution geospatial data of high-mountain glacial and periglacial systems presents unique challenges due to remote site access and very high elevations. For glaciers and hydrologic systems, a key variable of interest is surface temperature as it constrains glacier melt rates, traces hydrologic processes, and is needed for the calibration of energy budget models. We present results from two studies that acquired high resolution temperature data from the Cuchillacocha Glacier, Peru (9.24°S, 77.21°W). The glacier resides on the western drainage of the Cordillera Blanca with an elevation range of 4700 to 6096 m. In the first study we use high resolution time-lapse infrared imagery (5-10 minute interval over 3 days; 0.6 m2 pixel size) to observe diel changes in the surface energy budget of the glacier and to demonstrate how radiation from bare rock adjacent to the glacier may affect melt rates. In the second study we use a newly developed, inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for high resolution multispectral mapping of the glacier (2 cm resolution orthomosaic and 5 cm resolution DEM). We present results showing how the time-lapse and the high-resolution UAV imagery can be combined to further strengthen our understanding of the Cuchillacocha Glacier's energy budget and possible insights about turbulent heat fluxes. While the new instruments provide unprecedented data acquisition capabilities, there is an outstanding need for proper data correction. Spatial/thermal control points and post-processing algorithms are needed to produce quantifiable datasets. For example, our post-processed time-lapse imagery has an r2 > 0.9 after emissivity, transmissivity and offset corrections.

  13. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  14. Evaluation of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (AD 1962 1999): spatial distribution of mass loss and climatic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Bryan G.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.

    2005-11-01

    We use a combination of aerial photogrammetry, satellite imagery, and differential GPS mapping to quantify the volume of ice lost between AD 1962 and 1999 from three glaciers on Nevado Queshque in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú (˜10°S). The largest averaged surface lowering (thinning) occurred in the southwest aspect (22 m) and the least in the eastern aspect (5 m). A heuristic sensitivity analysis indicates that 9.3 W m -2 was required to melt the total observed ice loss and this can be explained by sensible heat transfer related to a temperature rise of 1 °C, combined with a latent heat decrease related to a 0.14 g kg -1 increase in specific humidity. A first-difference analysis of temperature records from 29 stations in the Cordillera Blanca shows an average rising trend of 0.26 °C per decade over the 37 year interval, more than adequate to supply the hypothesized sensible heat transfer. A simple transmittivity model within a digital elevation model indicates solar radiation related to altered cloudiness was not a predominant climatic forcing. The distribution of glacier area with altitude calculated with the digital terrain model explains the observed asymmetrical ice melt.

  15. The artisanal fishery of Cynoscion guatucupa in Argentina: Exploring the possible causes of the collapse in Bahía Blanca estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Molina, Juan Manuel; Ruarte, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Cynoscion guatucupa Cuvier 1829 is a migratory pelagic fish species, which has a wide geographical distribution. It is the most important fishing resource for local communities in Bahía Blanca estuary and has been captured by artisanal fishermen since the 1900s. The industrial fleet has been fishing this species in the coastal area of Buenos Aires province since the 1950s, and, since 1970, landings have increased sharply. Between 2000 and 2004, the artisanal fishery in the estuarine waters of Bahía Blanca collapsed. Variations in total landings of the artisanal fleet might have arisen from the environmental variables within the estuary, fishing activity in the surrounding sea region, local pressure within the estuary and/or several other variables. Our results suggest that neither oceanographic parameters nor local pressure seem to have influenced the artisanal fishery of C. guatucupa in the estuarine region. Instead, this fishery seems to have been partially influenced by the increasing fishing pressure exerted by the industrial fishing fleet operating in open waters around the estuary. This study emphasizes the need to take into account fisheries data from both the estuarine environment and the surrounding sea region, particularly when designing management plans for the sustainable use of migrating fish resources.

  16. Surface-exposure Dating of Late Quaternary Glacial Advances in the Cordillera Blanca, Peruvian Andes (9°-10°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Zehner, S. P., Jr.; Bowen, D. R.; Rodbell, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    New 10Be surface-exposure ages from boulders on lateral moraines bordering Querococha Valley (9°44.6' S, 77°21.6' W) in the southern Cordillera Blanca, Peru, indicate that late-glacial (˜16 ka) ice extended as much as 15 km downvalley from the headwall(s). With the glacier terminus at ˜3900 masl and the headwall at ˜5200 masl, THAR reconstruction (THAR=0.45) places the late-glacial equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) at ˜4485 masl, as compared to an estimated modern ELA of ˜5100 masl. The late-glacial Querococha advance was coeval with late-glacial advances at the Nevado Jeulla Rajo (NJR) massif at the southern end of the Cordillera Blanca (10°00'S, 77°16'W; peaks ˜5600 masl), ˜35 km to the south, where we have dated multiple moraines. Surface-exposure ages (10Be) indicate that the largest lateral moraines from Jeullesh Valley at NJR are compound features deposited during both the local last glacial maximum (˜30 ka) and a late-glacial readvance (˜15 ka). Late-glacial moraines are the largest lateral moraines in neighboring Quenua Ragra and Tuco valleys. The timing of the late-glacial advances in the Cordillera Blanca suggests a link to increased precipitation associated with Heinrich Event I (˜17 ka). Additional new 10Be surface-exposure ages from boulders on a moraine crossing a side valley in the upper reaches of Jeullesh Valley are early Holocene (˜9-11 ka), suggesting retreat of 3-4 km from the late-glacial terminal position in ˜4 kyr. Using the same THAR methodology, the late-glacial ELA in Jeullesh Valley was ˜4815 masl and the early Holocene ELA was ˜4995 masl. The active, west-dipping Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault (CBNF) vertically offsets the crests of 10Be-dated moraines in six valleys where we have profiled CBNF scarps: Jeullesh, Quenua Ragra, and Tuco valleys in the NJR massif; and Llaca, Cojup, and Querococha valleys in the south-central Cordillera Blanca (9°28'-45'S, 77°28'-21'W). In Jeullesh Valley, the CBNF scarp offsets both late

  17. Modelling cascading and erosional processes for glacial lake outburst floods in the Quillcay catchment, Huaraz, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Patrick; Huggel, Christian; Frey, Holger; Chisolm, Rachel; McKinney, Daene; McArdell, Brian; Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    Huaraz as the largest city in Cordillera Blanca has faced a major disaster in 1941, when an outburst flood from Lake Palcacocha killed several thousand people and caused widespread destruction. Recent studies on glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) modelling and early warning systems focussed on Lake Palcacocha which has regrown after the 1941 event, from a volume of half a million m3 in 1974 to a total volume of more than 17 million m3 today. However, little research has been conducted so far concerning the situation of other lakes in the Quillcay catchment, namely Lake Tullparaju (12 mill. m3) and Cuchillacocha (2.5 mill. m3), which both also pose a threat to the city of Huaraz. In this study, we modelled the cascading processes at Lake Tullparaju and Lake Cuchillacocha including rock/ice avalanches, flood wave propagation in the lake and the resulting outburst flood and debris flows. We used the 2D model RAMMS to simulate ice avalanches. Model output was used as input for analytical 2D and 3D calculations of impact waves in the lakes that allowed us to estimate dam overtopping wave height. Since the dimension of the hanging glaciers above all three lakes is comparable, the scenarios in this study have been defined similar to the previous study at Lake Palcacocha. The flow propagation model included sediment entrainment in the steeper parts of the catchment, adding up to 50% to the initial flow volume. The results for total travel time as well as for inundated areas and flow depth and velocity in the city of Huaraz are comparable to the previous studies at Lake Palcacocha. This underlines the importance of considering also these lakes within an integral hazard analysis for the city of Huaraz. A main challenge for modelling GLOFs in the Quillcay catchment using RAMMS is the long runout distance of over 22 km combined with the very low slope gradient of the river. Further studies could improve the process understanding and could focus on more detailed investigations

  18. [Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis: first case confirmed by isolation and molecular typification in Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gertiser, M L; Giagante, E; Sgattoni, E; Basabe, N; Rivero, F; Luján, H; Occhionero, M; Paniccia, L; Visciarelli, E; Costamagna, S R

    2010-01-01

    Some species of the Acanthamoeba genus cause keratitis, a very painful, most likely unilateral corneal infection , associated with eye and vision impairment. We here present a case of a 31-year-old female patient, a regular user of soft contact lenses without good practices of lens hygiene and handling. The patient attended medical consultation after two months of inflammation and pain in her right eye. After ophthalmological studies, and due to suspicion of a parasitic infection, a biopsy was performed and the sample submitted for bacteriological and parasitological analyses. Moreover, contact lens holders and lens cleaning solutions were studied. The samples yielded negative results for bacterial infection. However, cultivation of all samples showed the presence of amoeboid parasites. Isolated amoebae were morphologically and molecularly classified as members of the Acanthamoeba genus. This is the first case of keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba in Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, where the parasite was identified by specific and sensitive molecular techniques.

  19. A baseline study of the metallothioneins induction and its reversibility in Neohelice granulata from the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Buzzi, N S; Marcovecchio, J E

    2016-11-15

    Contamination by heavy metals causes serious effects in marine systems. Nowadays, the combination of chemical and biological data is recommended in monitoring programs. Metallothioneins (MT) are early-warning signals of metal exposure and are widely used in biomonitoring. The present research evaluates the heavy metals levels in sediments and the MT synthesis in the crab Neohelice granulata from the Bahía Blanca Estuary (BBE). Then, the recovery capabilities of N. granulata followed by a depuration phase are assessed. Results demonstrate a slow decline in the level of metals in the study area. In relation to MT, female crabs showed elevated MT when compared to males. Furthermore, MT synthesis diminished after the depuration phase. These data constitute the first MT information in organisms from the BBE and may be considered as baseline for future studies in this matter. Although pollution level found was low, further biomonitoring considering both types of data is recommended.

  20. Reducing risks from hazardous glacier lakes in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru): Six decades of experience and perspectives for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portocarrero, Cesar; Cochachin, Alejo; Frey, Holger; González, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Outbursts from glacier lakes at various spatial and temporal scales have had marked geomorphological effects in many mountain ranges. In many glacierized Andean mountain regions substrates of human settlements made out of flood and debris-flow deposits are testimonies of such events. Examples in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, are the towns of Caraz, Carhuaz or parts of Huaraz. Continued glacier shrinking since the end of the Little Ice Age caused the formation or enlargement of numerous lakes. The outburst of Laguna Palcacocha, destroying the centre of Huaraz and causing more than 1800 losses of life in December 1941, marked the beginning of systematic risk reduction work in Peru. Corresponding efforts included glacier and lake inventories, hazard assessments, definition of high-risk situations, and completion of engineering work for lake-level lowering in more than 30 cases. The latter comprises outlet reinforcements on morainic dams as well as artificial tunnels in bedrock thresholds. This work has been remarkably efficient as documented in the latest case of the Laguna Huallcacocha (Carhuaz-Ancash), where the earlier made installations withstood the erosive power of an impact wave from an ice avalanche in 2015. In the case of the Laguna 513, the impact wave and far-reaching flood caused by a rock/ice avalanche from Nevado Hualcán in April 2010 showed that the risk had been essentially reduced by the preventive lake-level lowering in the early 1990s but not to zero. Risk assessments, planning, construction and non-structural risk reduction efforts continue. Work is in progress to increase the safety of Laguna Palcacocha where extensive assessments and model calculations had been carried out. Risks related to rock/ice avalanches into lakes from steep icy slopes and related to de-buttressing processes as well as long-term permafrost degradation increases. Based on morphological indications and numerical modelling (GlabTop) an inventory of possible future lakes

  1. Effect of semen collection method (artificial vagina vs. electroejaculation), extender and centrifugation on post-thaw sperm quality of Blanca-Celtibérica buck ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; del Olmo, E; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Bisbal, A; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Soler, A J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of semen collection method (artificial vagina compared to electroejaculation), season in which the semen was collected (breeding season compared to non-breeding season), freezing extender (Biladyl(®), Andromed(®) and skim milk based extender) and pre-treatment procedure (washing compared to non-washing) on post-thaw semen quality in buck. Ejaculates from seven bucks of the Blanca-Celtibérica breed were collected by artificial vagina and electroejaculation during the breeding (July to December) and non-breeding season (January to June). Samples were split in two aliquots and one of them was washed. Three freezing extenders were evaluated on washing and non-washing sperm samples. Ejaculates collected by artificial vagina had a greater sperm quality after thawing, with greater values (P≤0.05) for SM (sperm motility), NAR (acrosome intact), YO-PRO-1-/PI- (intact spermatozoa), and Mitotracker+/YO-PRO-1- (spermatozoa with active mitochondria) and lower % DFI (DNA fragmentation index). Thawed sperm samples which were collected during the breeding season had greater values (P≤0.05) for NAR, intact spermatozoa and spermatozoa with active mitochondria, than those semen samples obtained during the non-breeding season. Semen freezing with Biladyl(®) and Andromed(®) resulted in a greater sperm quality (P≤0.05) after thawing in relation to milk-based extender. Washing procedure had no effect on sperm parameters assessed at thawing. Results from the present study suggest that the success of semen cryopreservation in Blanca-Celtibérica goat depends on semen collection method and season, as well as on the extender used. Thus, the post-thaw sperm quality will be greater (P≤0.05) when samples are collected by artificial vagina during the breeding season and when Biladyl(®) or Andromed(®) are used as freezing extenders.

  2. Spatiotemporal variability and differentiation between anthropogenic and natural contamination of heavy metals of surface water: a case study in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittard, A.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Walsh, E.; Santos Perez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Santa, Peru, drains the western slopes of the glacierized Cordillera Blanca and provides water resources at almost all levels of the watershed. As it flows away from the valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, the Rio Santa takes out pollution from numerous sources, including acid mine drainage and natural sulfide oxidation by-products. The Rio Santa dry season discharge decline that is projected to be a consequence of glaciers retreat will probably have implications for the evolution of water pollution. This threat makes the characterization of the actual contamination mechanisms of primary importance. The present study focuses, first, on the spatiotemporal variability of heavy metal contamination across the entire Rio Santa Watershed and secondly on differentiating anthropogenic and natural contaminated sites. First, a macroscale sampling has been done during the summer 2013 to provide an overview of the contamination by trace metal, in water, suspended sediments and riverbed sediments. In addition, 30 water samples were taken from a point next to the city of Huaraz at a frequency of once every 2 weeks and analyzed for trace metals. Secondly, in order to identify hydrochemical contaminant origin dependant signatures in the Rio Santa watershed, 5 areas of known contamination origins were sampled during the summer 2014.Spatially speaking, we observed that most pollution is located in the south of the watershed, and that a large part of the arsenic that reaches the Santa in an aqueous phase does not make it to the outlet but remains trapped in the riverbed. Annual variation in water shows a very unusual fluctuation in Mn compare to other trace metal which are relatively stable. By differencing anthropogenic and natural sites and by considering glaciers melt and decrease water in future what would be the impact of the part of natural contaminated sites versus anthropogenic, mining and cities, on the water quality? Preliminary results show that anthropogenic sites

  3. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  4. A record of uranium-series transport at Nopal I, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico: Implications for natural uranium deposits and radioactive waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Paviet, P.; Nunn, A. J.; Amato, R. S.; Hinrichs, K. A.

    2016-04-10

    Studies of uranium-series (U-series) disequilibria within and around ore deposits provide valuable information on the extent and timing of actinide mobility, via mineral-fluid interaction, over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Such information is useful in studies of analogs of high-level nuclear-waste repositories, as well as for mining and mineral extraction sites, locations of previous nuclear weapons testing, and legacy nuclear waste contamination. In this study we present isotope dilution mass spectrometry U-series measurements for fracture-fill materials (hematite, goethite, kaolinite, calcite, dolomite and quartz) from one such analog; the Nopal I uranium ore deposit situated at Peña Blanca in the Chihuahua region of northern Mexico. The ore deposit is located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff and fracture-fill materials from surface fractures as well as fractures in a vertical drill core have been analyzed. High uranium concentrations in the fracture-fill materials (between 12 and 7700 ppm) indicate uranium mobility and transport from the deposit. Furthermore, uranium concentrations generally decrease with horizontal distance away from the deposit but in this deposit there is no trend with depth below the surface.

  5. A record of uranium-series transport at Nopal I, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico: Implications for natural uranium deposits and radioactive waste repositories

    DOE PAGES

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Paviet, P.; ...

    2016-04-10

    Studies of uranium-series (U-series) disequilibria within and around ore deposits provide valuable information on the extent and timing of actinide mobility, via mineral-fluid interaction, over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Such information is useful in studies of analogs of high-level nuclear-waste repositories, as well as for mining and mineral extraction sites, locations of previous nuclear weapons testing, and legacy nuclear waste contamination. In this study we present isotope dilution mass spectrometry U-series measurements for fracture-fill materials (hematite, goethite, kaolinite, calcite, dolomite and quartz) from one such analog; the Nopal I uranium ore deposit situated at Peña Blanca inmore » the Chihuahua region of northern Mexico. The ore deposit is located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff and fracture-fill materials from surface fractures as well as fractures in a vertical drill core have been analyzed. High uranium concentrations in the fracture-fill materials (between 12 and 7700 ppm) indicate uranium mobility and transport from the deposit. Furthermore, uranium concentrations generally decrease with horizontal distance away from the deposit but in this deposit there is no trend with depth below the surface.« less

  6. The Role of Insolation and the Equatorial Pacific in South American Climate during the Holocene: A Paleoclimate Record from Laguna Blanca, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polissar, P. J.; Abbott, M.; Wolfe, A. P.; Bezada, M.; Vuille, M.

    2009-12-01

    Insolation forcing of tropical climate at precessional timescales appears to be a widespread phenomenon in South America. This could reflect the influence of local insolation changes on rainfall and evaporation, and hence migration of the marine intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and its terrestrial expression, the South American summer monsoon. However, modern interannual climate variability in South America is also closely linked to ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropical Pacific expressed primarily as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The timing of climate changes in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere tropics is one way to distinguish between these mechanisms. Precessional forcing of Atlantic ITCZ migration would cause changes in the northern and southern hemispheres that are opposite in sign. In contrast, ENSO variability has a similar character in the Andean regions of both hemispheres. Here we develop a new terrestrial paleoclimate record in the northern tropics of South America. Lake level fluctuations from Laguna Blanca, located in the Venezuelan Andes, exhibit arid-humid intervals during the past 10,000 years that occur at the same time as those in the neotropics of both hemispheres. This pattern suggests that millennial-scale climate trends in Andean South America may reflect changes in the mean state and variability of the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

  7. The NS3 protein of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus suppresses RNA silencing in plant and insect hosts by efficiently binding both siRNAs and miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hemmes, Hans; Lakatos, Lóránt; Goldbach, Rob; Burgyán, József; Prins, Marcel

    2007-07-01

    RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense as well as in developmental processes in plants and insects. Negative strand RNA viruses such as the plant virus Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV) replicate in plants and in their insect transmission vector. Like most plant-infecting viruses, RHBV encodes an RNA silencing suppressor, the NS3 protein, and here it is demonstrated that this protein is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in both plants and insect cells. Biochemical analyses showed that NS3 efficiently binds siRNA as well as miRNA molecules. Binding of NS3 is greatly influenced by the size of small RNA molecules, as 21 nucleotide (nt) siRNA molecules are bound > 100 times more efficiently than 26 nt species. Competition assays suggest that the activity of NS3 is based on binding to siRNAs prior to strand separation during the assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex. In addition, NS3 has a high affinity for miRNA/miRNA* duplexes, indicating that its activity might also interfere with miRNA-regulated gene expression in both insects and plants.

  8. Insights from analyzing and modelling cascading multi-lake outburst flood events in the Santa Cruz Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Perú)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin; Juřicová, Anna; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Little Ice Age, the Cordillera Blanca of Perú has experienced tens of lake outburst floods (LOFs), resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant material damages. Most commonly involving glacial lakes, such events are often directly or indirectly related to glacier retreat. Here we analyze an event on 8th February 2012 involving four lakes and affecting two valleys (Santa Cruz and Artizón) in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca. Using the combination of field data, satellite images, digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS-based modelling approaches, the main objectives are: (i) to better understand complex multi-lake outburst flood and related foregoing and induced geomorphological processes; and (ii) to evaluate and discuss the suitability, potentials and limitations of the r.avaflow model for modelling such complex process chains. Analyzing field geomorphological evidence and remotely-sensed images, we reconstruct the event as follows: a landslide from the recently deglaciated left lateral moraine of Lake Artizón Alto (4 639 m a.s.l.), characterized by steep slopes and a height of more than 200 m produced a displacement wave which overtopped the bedrock dam of the lake. The resulting flood wave breached the dam of the downstream moraine-/landslide-dammed Lake Artizón Bajo (4 477 m a.s.l.), decreasing the lake level by 10 m and releasing 3 x 105 m3 of water. Significant amounts of material were eroded from the steeper parts of the Artizón Valley (mean slope >15°) and deposited further downstream in the flatter part of the Santa Cruz Valley (mean slope <2°; confluence of the two valleys at 3 985 m a.s.l.). The flood affected two debris cone-dammed lakes (Jatuncocha and Ichiccocha) in the Santa Cruz Valley. Some minor damages to the dam of Lake Jatuncocha were documented. Geomprohological evidence of the event was observed more than 20 km downstream from Lake Artizón Alto. The described multi-LOF event was employed as a

  9. Quantifying groundwater-surface water interactions using a stream energy balance model and dye tracing in a proglacial valley of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, L. D.; Gordon, R.; McKenzie, J. M.; Lautz, L.; Wigmore, O.; Baraer, M.; Mark, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Streams in many Andean regions provide downstream communities and industries with water sourced from both groundwater and glacier melt, such as the streams of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, which has the highest density of glaciers in the tropics. From May to September, when precipitation is minimal, approximately half the discharge in the region's proglacial streams comes from groundwater. However, due to the remote nature of the region, there are few effective field methods to identify the spatial distribution of groundwater discharge at the reach scale. An energy balance model, Rhodamine WT dye tracing, and high-definition kite-borne imagery were used to determine gross and net groundwater inputs to a 4 km reach of the Quilcay River within Huascaran National Park, Peru. The HFLUX computer program (http://hydrology.syr.edu/hflux.html) was used to simulate the Quilcay River's energy balance using stream temperature observations, meteorological measurements, and kite-borne areal photography. Model results indicate 29% of stream discharge at the reach outlet was contributed by groundwater discharge over the study section. A constant rate Rhodamine-WT dye tracing experiment, coupled with the energy-balance model, shows that approximately 49% of stream water is exchanged (ie. no net gain) with the subsurface as gross gains and losses. The energy balance simulations suggest the largest net groundwater gains in streamflow occur in reaches situated in low gradient meadows, likely a product of the abundant springs that flow into the main channel. Dye tracing results indicate significant groundwater-surface water exchange occurs in stream sections that traverse cross-valley moraines, where connectivity between the subsurface and the stream is highest. These insights into pathways of groundwater-surface water interaction can be applied to improve hydrological modeling in proglacial catchments throughout South America.

  10. Short-term variability on mesozooplankton community in a shallow mixed estuary (Bahía Blanca, Argentina): Influence of tidal cycles and local winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, María C.; Piccolo, María C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.

    2012-10-01

    The short-term dynamics of zooplankton in coastal ecosystems are strongly influenced by physical processes such as tides, riverine runoff and winds. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes of the representative taxa within mesozooplankton in relation to the semidiurnal tidal cycles. Also, we evaluated the influence of local winds on this short-term variability. Sampling was carried out bimonthly from December 2004 to April 2006 in a fixed point located in the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Mesozooplankton samples were taken by pumps during 14-h tidal cycles at 3-h intervals, from surface and bottom. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity as well as water samples to determine suspended particulate matter were acquired at each sampling date. All data concerning winds were obtained from a meteorological station and water level was recorded with a tide gauge. Holoplankton dominated numerically on meroplankton and adventitious fraction. Concerning holoplanktonic abundance, the highest values were attained by the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora americana. Meroplankton occurred mainly as barnacle larvae while benthic harpacticoids and Corophium sp. dominated the adventitious component. Semidiurnal tide was the main influence on the A. tonsa variability. However, noticeable differences in the abundance pattern as function of wind intensity were detected. Meroplankton abundance did not show a clear variation along the tidal cycle. Distributional pattern of harpacticoids seemed to be mainly modulated by velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents, in the same way as suspended particulate matter. However, the Corophium sp. distribution indicated probable behavioural responses associated with tides. The obtained results show how variable the mesozooplankton community structure can be over short-term time scales in mesotidal temperate estuaries. This variability should be taken into account for any zooplankton monitoring

  11. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  12. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  13. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  14. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    SciTech Connect

    S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell

    2005-07-11

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that

  15. Uranium-rich opal from the Nopal I uranium deposit, Peña Blanca, Mexico: Evidence for the uptake and retardation of radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Michael; Fayek, Mostafa; Hawthorne, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit of the Sierra Peña Blanca, Mexico, has been the focus of numerous studies because of its economic importance and its use as a natural analog for nuclear-waste disposal in volcanic tuff. Secondary uranyl minerals such as uranophane, Ca[(UO 2)(SiO 3OH)] 2(H 2O) 5, and weeksite, (K,Na) 2[(UO 2) 2(Si 5O 13)](H 2O) 3, occur in the vadose zone of the deposit and are overgrown by silica glaze. These glazes consist mainly of opal A, which contains small particles of uraninite, UO 2, and weeksite. Close to a fault between brecciated volcanic rocks and welded tuff, a greenish silica glaze coats the altered breccia. Yellow silica glazes from the center of the breccia pipe and from the high-grade pile coat uranyl-silicates, predominantly uranophane and weeksite. All silica glazes are strongly zoned with respect to U and Ca, and the distribution of these elements indicates curved features and spherical particles inside the coatings. The concentrations of U and Ca correlate in the different zones and both elements inversely correlate with the concentration of Si. Zones within the silica glazes contain U and Ca in a 1:1 ratio with maximum concentrations of 0.08 and 0.15 at.% for the greenish and yellow glazes, respectively, suggesting trapping of either Ca 1U 1-aqueous species or -particles in the colloidal silica. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and oxygen-isotope ratios measured by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) indicate higher U 6+/U 4+ ratios, higher proportions of Si-OH groups and lower δ 18O values for the greenish silica glaze than for the yellow silica glaze. These differences in composition reflect increasing brecciation, porosity, and permeability from the center of the breccia pipe (yellow silica glaze) toward the fault (green silica glaze), where the seepage of meteoric water and Eh are higher.

  16. Coastal landscape evolution on the western margin of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) mirrors a non-uniform sea-level fall after the mid-Holocene highstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratolongo, Paula; Piovan, María Julia; Cuadrado, Diana G.; Gómez, Eduardo A.

    2016-11-01

    Sedimentary descriptions and radiocarbon ages from two cores obtained from coastal plains along the western margin of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) were integrated with previous information on landscape patterns and plant associations to infer landscape evolution during the mid-to-late Holocene. The study area comprises at least two marine terraces of different elevations. The old marine plain (OMP), at an average elevation of 5 m above mean tidal level (MTL), is a nearly continuous flat surface. The Recent marine plain (RMP), 2 to 3 m above MTL, is a mosaic of topographic highs and elongated depressions that may correspond to former tidal channels. Mollusks at the base of the OMP core (site elevation 5.09 m above MTL), with ages between 5,660 ± 30 and 5,470 ± 30 years BP, indicate a subtidal setting near the inland limits of the marine ingression. The sandy bottom of the core is interpreted as the last stage of the transgressive phase, followed by a tight sequence of dark laminated muds topped by a thick layer of massive gray muds. The RMP core (site elevation 1.80 m above MTL) has a similar sedimentary sequence, but unconformities appear at lower elevations and the massive mud deposits are less developed. The thickness of the grayish mud layer is a major difference between the OMP and RMP cores, but deeper layers have similar ages, suggesting a common origin at the end of the transgressive phase. The overlying massive muds would correspond to rapid sedimentation during a high sea-level stillstand or slow regression. It is proposed that, after a rapid sea-level drop to about 3 m above MTL, a flat and continuous surface corresponding to the OMP emerged, and more recent coastal dynamics shaped the dissected landscape of the RMP. For the Bahía Blanca Estuary, smooth regressive trends have been proposed after the mid-Holocene highstand, but also stepped curves. A stillstand or slowly dropping sea level was described around 3,850 ± 100 years BP, as well as

  17. The effects on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration: An assessment of the response of Trifolium Repens L. cv. Blanca grown at F.A.C.E.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.E.

    1994-11-01

    Understanding how photosynthetic capacity acclimates to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations is vital in predicting the response of important grassland species such as Trifolium repens. Previous studies of acclimatization have been carried out in artificial experimental conditions, such as acrylic greenhouses or controlled environment chambers. The advent of FACE technology has enabled a large area of crop to be fumigated in the field, providing more realistic growing conditions. Pure stands of Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca grown at either 355 or 600{mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} were examined, and their photosynthetic response to elevated Ca determined via gas exchange studies. Rates of photosynthesis of young, fully expanded leaves were increased between 21 and 36% when grown and measured at elevated CO{sub 2}. This increase in A corresponded to a decrease in g{sub S} of between 18 and 52%. No acclimation effect was observed in the most frequently cut stands, whilst the response of stands clipped only 4 times per year was more variable. When down regulation of V{sub cmax} did occur, this was not nearly as marked as that which occurred in 3 other temperate species (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Ranunculus friesianus, Plantago lanceolata (L.) J. & C. Presl.), at similar growth regimes. No acclimation of stomatal frequency, SI or pore length was found to occur in the enriched clover stands.

  18. Glacier changes since Local Last Glacial Maximum in the South-West slope of Nevado Hualcán, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, deduced from moraine mapping and GIS-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giráldez, Claudia; Palacios, David; Haeberli, Wilfried; Úbeda, Jose; Schauwecker, Simone; Torres, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Anticipating and assessing hazards and risks associated with the shrinking of surface and subsurface ice in cold mountain chains is facilitated by empirical-quantitative data on present and past rates of change, as well as by a general understanding of related landforms and landscape evolution through time. Rock/ice avalanches and devastating outburst floods from glacial lakes indeed constitute a major cause of severe damage in populated mountain areas such as the Cordillera Blanca whose combination of tectonic, topographic and glaciological characteristics make it a threatened region. This study focuses on the Río Chucchún catchment above the city of Carhuaz, which was recently affected by a flood/debris flow from a rock/ice avalanche impacting a recently grown lake (Laguna 513). Traces left by past glaciations strongly affect the current geomorphodinamic behaviour of the catchment. For instance, a prominent sediment-filled glacial overdeepening behind Younger Dryas (YD) moraines (Pampa de Shonquil) with its retention function strongly influenced the chain of processes initiated by the outburst of Laguna 513. The aim of this study is to reconstruct earlier glacial phases in the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán (Río Chucchún catchment), in order to compile quantitative information on surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs). To do so, glacier stages were assigned to five different glacial phases, through photointerpretation and moraine cartography: 2003; 1962; Hualcán-I-LIA (15th to 18th centuries); Hualcán-II-YD (~12,5 ka BP); and Hualcán-III-LLGM (~34 to 21 ka BP). Glacial stages Hualcán-I-LIA, Hualcán-II-YD and Hualcán-III-LLGM present relative dating based on previous studies from different authors in the Peruvian Andes. Once glaciers were delimited, their surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) were calculated. For ELA estimation three different methods were used: the mid-range elevation, the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR), and the

  19. Captura de satélites durante a formação de Júpiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-08-01

    O planeta Jupiter apresenta um grande número de satélites irregulares. As características das órbitas destes objetos indicam que os mesmos não teriam se formado ao redor do planeta que se encontram. As teorias existentes são de que estes objetos teriam se formado em uma região distante do planeta e sua evolução dinâmica os teria levado a uma captura gravitacional pelo planeta. Tendo em vista que o processo de captura gravitacional sem efeitos dissipativos não produz uma captura permanente, estudamos o processo de captura durante o estágio de formação do planeta. Realizamos simulações numéricas para os casos de satélites prógrados e retrógrados que inicialmente se encontram ao redor de Jupiter com sua massa atual e então, evoluimos a integração voltando no tempo de modo que o planeta sofra uma redução em sua massa (de 100% para 10% de sua massa atual) e verificamos o instante em que o satélites escapa do planeta (quando sua energia do problema de dois corpos se torna positiva). Assim, analisando o problema inverso no tempo, obtivemos em qual estágio de formação de Jupiter aquele hipotético satélite teria sido capturado. Os resultados mostram que os satélites retrógrados são capturados assim que entram na região delimitada pela esfera de Hill do planeta, enquanto que os satélites prógrados só são capturados quando entram numa região bem mais próxima ao planeta, uma fração da esfera de Hill.

  20. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  1. Pena blanca natural analogue project: summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Schon S; Goldstein, Steven J; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I

    2010-12-08

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill core. Datafrom site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  2. Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Project: Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.; Goldstein, S.; Dobson, P.F.; Goodell, P.; Ku, T.-L.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Saulnier, G.; Fayek, M.; de la Garza, R.

    2011-02-01

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill cores. Data from site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  3. Sécurité de la plus récente classe d’antagonistes des opioïdes durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Shirley; Pupco, Anna; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente dont 6 semaines de grossesse viennent d’être confirmées. Depuis 6 mois, elle suit une thérapie pour une dépendance aux opioïdes à l’aide d’une combinaison de buprénorphine et de naloxone. Devrais-je m’inquiéter qu’elle ait été exposée à cette combinaison de médicaments jusqu’à ce stade de sa grossesse? Faudrait-il que je change sa médication pour de la méthadone maintenant qu’elle est enceinte? Réponse Les données limitées sur l’exposition à la buprénorphine durant la grossesse ne révèlent pas d’augmentation du risque de résultats indésirables chez le nouveau-né. Il y a peu de données sur la naloxone durant la grossesse; par ailleurs, on ne s’attendrait pas à ce que l’administration par voie orale soit associée avec un risque accru de résultats de grossesse défavorables. On conseille aux médecins qui traitent des femmes enceintes ou qui deviennent enceintes et dont l’état est stable en prenant une thérapie à la buprénorphine et naloxone de continuer ce traitement mais d’envisager une transition à une monothérapie à la buprénorphine.

  4. Résultats à long terme de la transplantation hépatique orthotopique durant l'ère de la cyclosporine12

    PubMed Central

    Lerut, J.; Stieber, A. C.; Makowka, L.; Esquivel, C. O.; Iwatsuki, S.; Gordon, R. D.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Résumé 313 patients ont subi consécutivement à l'Université de Pittsburgh 393 transplantations hépatiques orthotopiques (THO) durant l'ère de la cyclosporine 1980–1984. Tous les patients ont été suivis au moins durant trois ans après la transplantation ou jusqu'au moment de leur décès. 216 (69%) des 313 patients ont survécu au moins une année après la THO; 26 patients (12%) sont décédés après la première année postopératoire. Les résultats de la transplantation hépatique pour les diverses indications sont discutés. Les taux de survie actuarielle à cinq ans pour les maladies métaboliques, les atrésies des voies biliaires, la cirrhose biliaire primitive, la cholangite sclérosante primitive, la cirrhose posthépatitique et les tumeurs hépatobiliaires primitives sont respectivement de 75%, 68%, 60%, 58,9%, 53,2%, 23,8%. La récidive de la maladie primaire après THO pour maladie hépatique bénigne est, à l'exception de la cirrhose posthépatique B et le syndrome de Budd-Chiari, rare; elle est par contre élevée après THO réalisée pour maladie hépatobiliaire maligne. 27% (86) des 313 patients ont subi 112 retransplantations hépatiques durant la période du follow-up. 45 (21%) des 216 patients survivant plus qu'une année après la THO ont dû être traités pour un rejet de leur greffon; 18 patients ont dû être retransplantés pour un rejet chronique du greffon. Les complications extrahépatiques, survenant plus d'une année après la transplantation hépatique, sont plutôt rares (19/216 patients – 8,8%). Seulement trois patients ont dû subir une modification de la thérapie d'immunosuppression à cyclosporine pour cause d'insuffisance rénale incontrôlable. La qualité de vie des patients ayant une survie à long terme est excellente. 37 patients de cette série ont survécu au moins cinq ans après la THO. 81% (17/21) des enfants et douze des seize adultes (75%) ont une réintégration familiale, écolière et

  5. Regulación del flujo sanguíneo uterino. I. Funciones de estrógeno y receptores estrogénicos α/β en el endotelio vascular uterino durante el embarazo

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villalón L.; López, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jesús; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El estrógeno y los receptores estrogénicos clásicos (REs), RE-α y RE-β, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsable por las adaptaciones endoteliales uterinas durante el embarazo al corto y largo plazo. Las diferencias moleculares y estructurales, junto con los diferentes efectos causados por estos receptores en las células y los tejidos, sugieren que su función varía dependiendo de la manera en la cual el estrógeno se comunica con sus receptores. En ésta revisión bibliográfica se discuten la función del estrógeno y sus receptores clásicos en las adaptaciones cardiovasculares durante el embarazo y la expresión de los Res in vivo e in vitro en el endotelio de la arteria uterina durante el ciclo ovárico y el embarazo, a la vez comparado con la expresión en endotelio arterial de tejidos reproductivos y no reproductivos. Estos temas integran el conocimiento actual de este amplio campo científico con interpretaciones e hipótesis diversas relacionadas con los efectos estrogénicos mediados bien sea por uno o los dos REs. Esta revisión también incluye la relación con las adaptaciones vasodilatadoras y angiogénicas requeridas para modular el dramático incremento fisiológico en la perfusión útero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113750

  6. Malformaciones arteriovenosas revisión y análisis descriptivo de 52 mavs tratadas durante el periodo de 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariano; Mezzano, Emilio; Berra, Matias S.; Parés, Herald R.; Olocco, Ricardo V.; Papalini, Francisco R.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir nuestra experiencia en el manejo de las Mavs analizando las características clínicas de los pacientes y los resultados postoperatorios. Método de análisis: Realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de 52 pacientes admitidos en el Servicio de neurocirugía para manejo quirúrgico: La información de referencia incluyo síntomas al inicio, diagnostico de admisión, hallazgos neurológicos y hallazgos en estudio por imágenes tales como tomografía cerebral, IRM cerebral y angiografía por sustracción digital. Los hallazgos postoperatorios de interés fueron: Mortalidad, examen neurológico postoperatorio y complicaciones asociadas. Presentamos nuestro análisis estadístico. Resultados: Edad promedio: 37,7 años. Distribución: Hombres: 61,5%. Motivos de consulta más frecuentes: Cefalea 63,5%, evento hemorrágico 59,6%, convulsiones 26,9%. Localización: Supratentorial: 92,9%, Infratentorial: 7,2%. 30,8%, de las Mavs fueron grado 2 y grado 3 Cincuenta por ciento del total presentaron aneurismas, del total de la MAVs, 59,6% debutó con sangrado, 26,9% con Crisis Convulsivas y 13,5% con déficit neurológico. Recibieron tratamiento endovascular previo a cirugía 30,7%. Durante el postoperatorio 23,1% presentaron mejoría clínica, 57,7% no presento modificación, 19,2% empeoraron en el postoperatorio. La mortalidad fue 13,5%. Conclusión: Creemos que el subgrupo de Mavs grados III a V representan una entidad que requiere una compleja toma de decisiones dada la alta incidencia de aneurismas asociados que presentan y su asociación con eventos de sangrado. Nuestra mortalidad postoperatoria coincide con la bibliografía. Palabras clave, Mavs- aneurismas asociados- Acv hemorrágico- convulsiones. PMID:26600984

  7. Cómo aumentar la actividad física de los niños durante el período del recreo en las escuelas

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, David

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Analizamos si la participación de las escuelas en el Programa de Mejoramiento del Recreo (PMR) en la primavera del año 2011 estuvo asociada a tasas más altas de actividad física intensa en los niños. Métodos. En el PMR, un coordinador dirige a los niños para que practiquen juegos adecuados para la edad a fin de aumentar su nivel de actividad física. Durante el recreo en 25 escuelas primarias públicas de la ciudad de Nueva York (15 participantes en el PMR, 10 no participantes en el PMR) los investigadores observaron algunas áreas predeterminadas (n = 1 339 observaciones) y registraron el número de niños que estaban sedentarios, caminando o muy activos. Resultados. Tras el análisis estadístico con múltiples variables se encontró que la participación en el PMR era una variable predictiva significativa (P = 0,027) de la tasa de actividad física intensa (porcentaje de niños muy activos en las áreas de observación) cuyas medias de los mínimos cuadrados fueron de 41% en las escuelas participantes en el PMR y de 27% en escuelas no participantes en el PMR. En las escuelas participantes en el PMR se siguió registrando una tasa significativamente superior incluso cuando el coordinador de juegos no estaba en el área de observación, lo que sugiere un cambio en la cultura del recreo en las escuelas que participan en este programa. Conclusiones. La tasa de actividad física intensa en las escuelas participantes en el PMR fue 14 puntos porcentuales (o 52%) superior a la tasa registrada en las escuelas no participantes en el PMR. Esta intervención de bajo costo podría ser un agregado valioso a las herramientas para combatir la obesidad infantil y podría valer la pena reproducirla en otros sitios. PMID:24899455

  8. Managing glacier related risks in the Chucchún Catchment, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Randy; Gonzáles, César; Price, Karen; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Cochachin, Alejo; García, Javier; Mesa, Luis

    2015-04-01

    On April 11 2010, the city of Carhuaz and settlements in the Chucchún Catchment (Ancash region, Peru) suffered the impact of a glacier lake outburst flood. An avalanche of rock and ice from the Mount Hualcán hit the glacier lake 513, triggering a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) of 1 million m3 which destroyed farmland and several infrastructures. Although there was no loss of human life, the event caused panic in the population. In consequence, the Municipality of Carhuaz prioritized GLOF-related risk management. The Glacier Project, funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and executed by CARE Peru and the University of Zurich, fosters the coordination among public institutions (Glaciological Unit of the National Water Authority, the Ministry of Environment and Municipality) and the population for risk management. In this contribution we present all components of the risk management strategy as well as the lessons learned during the implementation. Risk management involves managing both glacier hazard as well as the vulnerability of the population. In this framework a glaciological and geomorphological characterization of Mount Hualcán and lake 513 was perfomed in order to model past and potential future outburst floods and to assess the slope stability conditions. Based on three potential GLOF scenarios of different magnitudes, a hazard map was produced for the entire catchment, which served as the basis for the vulnerability and risk assessment as well as for the design and the implementation of an Early Warning System (EWS), including evacuation planning. The EWS consists of 4 components: 1) knowledge of risk, through hazard and vulnerability characterization; 2) monitoring and alert, through the installation of monitoring stations on lake 513 for detecting avalanches with geophones and cameras; 3) broadcasting and communications, through the implementation of communication protocols between the Municipality of Carhuaz and emergency institutions (police, health centers and schools) and also authorities at higher coordination levels (Regional Government and the National Emergency Operations Center) enabling rapid emergency care; and 4) Responsiveness, through strengthening and training of public and private institutions and local leaders that make up the Civil Defense Platforms, the development of Emergency Operations Plan, and continuous organization of simulations for the population. As result, the population is aware of the risks they face and knok how to respond in case of a lake outburst event. In addition, the results generated during studies related to the risk analysis are used for land management of the Municipality of Carhuaz. The successful implementation of this risk management strategy was only possible by combining comprehensively scientific and local knowledge. This EWS represents a pilot experience in Peru and the Andes, and contributes to relatively scarce international experience with GLOF EWS. An important lesson is that these processes require active leadership of local authorities and continuous learning by the population. The mere existence of technology does not ensure the success of the risk reduction measures; this can only be attained by the internalization of processes and by taking responsibility against the existing hazard by each resident, authority and institution.

  9. FUTURE STUDIES AT PENA BLANCA: RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE OF AN ALLUVIAL FAN

    SciTech Connect

    P. Goodell; J. Walton; P.J. Rodriguez

    2005-07-11

    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration.

  10. Nuevas estrellas preenanas blancas pulsantes de masa extremadamente baja descubiertas en el CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J.

    2016-08-01

    The Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs (ELM, M 0.18--0.20 M) could arise after the loss of large amount of mass suffered by a red giant star in a binary system. The low mass white dwarfs have become an important source of study because some of them are pulsating stars. The latter is an unprecedented opportunity to know their interior and the evolutionary channels leading to their origin, by employing asteroseismology. In this paper, we present photometric analysis of data obtained in the CASLEO (Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito) about four new pulsating stars, that according to their surface gravities and effective temperatures, would be pre-ELM white dwarf stars. With this discovery, the number of pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars known would increase to six members.

  11. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge dried, such as Rn-222 and its short-lived daughters. No filtration was used during the pumping of PB-1 or PB-2.

  12. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL 1 SITE, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Olver; R. de la Garza; S. Harder

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Determine the main source of the groundwater (GW) found within the DOE wells (PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3); and (2) Determine whether the Nopal I GW has any relationship to the connectivity between the regional Encinillas Aquifer to the west and the El Cuervo Aquifer to the east.

  13. Structural analysis of the Cordillera Blanca detachment: Geometry, kinematics and fault rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, C. A.; Jessup, M. J.; Hughes, C. A.; Newell, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Cordillera Banca Detachment (CBD) in the north-central Peruvian Andes is recognized as a rare example of active extension parallel to the direction of shortening within a convergent orogenic setting. Despite longstanding interest in the geodynamic significance of the CBD relatively little work has been done to characterize the basic geometry, kinematics and evolution of the detachment or the petrology and distribution of brittle and ductile tectonites within the fault zone. This contribution presents preliminary results of a basic structural analysis of the CBD based on field observations, laboratory results, and GIS analysis. Basic structural observations of fault geometry and kinematics are needed to constrain the regional geodynamic role of the CBD. The NNW topographic trace of the CBD is defined by faceted ridges up to 2000 m in height. The lower slopes of the facets are locally cut by steep fault scarps that offset quaternary glacial moraines, debris fans and colluvium. The shear zone comprises both brittle and ductile tectonites including mylonite series rocks, pseudotachylyte, and breccia - often highly silicified. Highly polished mirrored surfaces are observed locally. Deformation mechanisms show a consistent progression from plastic in structurally lower positions to brittle in structurally higher positions. Evidence for overprinting deformation mechanisms is preserved in many samples. The shear zone ranges up to about 200 m thick. The average orientation of mylonitic foliation and fault slip surfaces (strike/dip = 140/30) and lineations/slickenlines (plunge-trend = 35-235) is quite consistent along the ~200 km detachment, but some systematic variation along strike may be related to concave fault segments or corrugations. Slip indicators are nearly down-dip with a minor left-lateral or right-lateral component in some locations. Offsets in marker horizons constrain total offset between about 4500 m near the central section of the fault to near zero approaching the fault tips. Structural observations are consistent with a long history of displacement across the CBD resulting in the progressive exhumation of deep rocks under relatively constant tectonic conditions.

  14. Development of unusual rock weathering features in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodbell, Donald T.; Frey, Holli M.; Manon, Matthew R. F.; Smith, Jacqueline A.; McTurk, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Mylonite textures in granodiorite boulders are responsible for higher rates of surface denudation of host rocks and the progressive development of unusual rock weathering features, termed weathering posts. These textures are characterized by smaller grain sizes, higher biotite content, and a higher biotite axial ratio in host rocks relative to weathering posts. Elemental concentrations do not show a significant difference between weathering posts and the host rocks in which they are found, and this reflects the absence of a weathering residue on the rock surfaces. Chemical weathering loosens the bonds between mineral grains through the expansion of biotite, and the loosened grains fall off or are blown off the boulder surface and continue their chemical alteration in the surrounding soil. The height of weathering posts on late Quaternary moraines increases at a linear rate of ~ 1.45 ± 0.45 cm (1000 yr)- 1 until post heights reach the diameter of host rocks. Such a rate of boulder denudation, if unrecognized, would generate significant errors (> 20%) in cosmogenic exposure ages for Pleistocene moraines. Given the paucity of boulders with diameters that significantly exceed 1.5 m, the maximum age of utility of weathering posts as a numeric age indicator is ~ 100 ka.

  15. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas con envolturas de hidrógeno.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    The present study is aimed at exploring the effects of hydrogen envelopes on the structure and evolution of white dwarf stars by means of a detailed and updated evolutionary code. In particular, we treat the energy transport by convection within the formalism of the full spectrum turbulence theory developed by Canuto, Goldman & Mazzitelli (1996) (CGM). Furthermore, we take into account convective mixing in the outer layers and a detailed network of thermonuclear reaction rates for hydrogen burning as well. Our attention is focused mainly on the ZZ Ceti evolutionary stage with the aim of assessing the compatibility of the CGM model with new observations of the hottest pulsating DA white dwarfs. We also extend our calculations to the case of low - mass helium white dwarfs, which have recently begun to be detected in various binary configurations.

  16. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  17. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-06-25

    Three wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes. The wells penetrate through the Tertiary volcanic section down to the Cretaceous limestone basement, and intersect the top of the regional aquifer system. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, and goethite. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the basal vitrophyre is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded, lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. The Nopal I ore body is restricted to a brecciated zone that intersects these two volcanic units. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation in the PB-1 core consists of interbedded, poorly sorted sandstone and conglomerate layers. The conglomeratic clasts consist of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert. Thin (2-6 m) intervals of intercalated pumiceous tuffs were observed within this unit. The contact between the Pozos Formation and the underlying Cretaceous limestone basement was observed at a depth of 244.4 m.

  18. Incertezas en la estratificacion quimica del nucleo de las enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geronimo, F. C.; Althaus, L. G.; Corsico, A. H.

    This work is focused on the estimation of the uncertainties in the chemical profiles expected in the cores of white dwarf stars; resulting from the incomplete knowledge of the nuclear reaction rate; and the exact amount of extra-mixing ocurring during the core He burning stage. Evolutionary sequences of 2.5; 4 and 6 stars were analyzed; with solar metalicity (0.725; Z=0.01). An updated (Kunz et al. 2002; ApJ; 567; 643) rate was considered to derive the uncertainties. The sequences obtained with this rate were compared with those obtained using an older rate (Angulo et al. 1999; Nuclear Physics A; 656; 3). Also; the impact of extra mixing process like overshooting and breathing pulses was analyzed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Climate Change and Mountain Community Fire Management in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    All, J.; Medler, M.; Cole, R. J.; Arques, S.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the central Andes of Peru, climate change is altering fire risk through changes in local meteorology and fuel loading. Greater moisture and favorable growing conditions are increasing vegetative productivity, which in turn increases fuel loads. This process is accentuated during El Nino events and potentially results in increased fire occurrence and frequency during relatively dry La Nina events. Park officials are concerned about the ramification of the changes on local ecology and tourist use of the resources. However, using a time-series of two different products from the MODIS Terra and Aqua platforms (Active Fire and Burned Area), TRMM 3B43 precipitation data, and Multivariate ENSO Index data we document fire occurrence and extent from 2000 to 2010 and our analysis indicates that fires are burning exclusively during winter months when there are no natural ignition sources. Globally, fire is used in conjunction with grazing to improve the regeneration and yield of grasses. During our interviews, locals claimed to only set fires in the buffer zone outside of the park, but our analysis indicates that the buffer zone rarely burns and that most fires begin within the park and only occasionally move into the buffer zones. Additionally, we determined that although this is small-scale fire activity every year, overall fire is having a very minor effect on local systems. The park service must develop programs to work with local grazing stakeholders to better limit the impacts of fire, while also address the negative perceptions from tourists in the future. In this instance, fire perception and fire reality are not the same and the challenge for resource managers is how to reconcile these two factors in order to more effectively manage the parklands.

  20. Procesos cuasi-moleculares en enanas blancas frías

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R. D.; Althaus, L. G.; Kepler, S. O.

    We show that the radiation emitted by very cool white dwarf stars (Teff ~< 3000 K) with pure hydrogen atmospheres, is fully formed by radiative processes induced by atomic and molecular collisions. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. A 60Co multipurpose radiation processing facility at Bahia Blanca, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    The aim of the project is to have a multipurpose facility which will enable us to show the techno-economic viability of the irradiation process applied to regional products, important from the economic point of view. The topics will fundamentally be connected with regional themes such as food preservation and the modification of polymer structures. This project will make it possible to carry out basic and applied studies related to radiation chemistry, dosimetry and engineering irradiation processes. The facility will operate in the Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) with a maximum activity of 18.5 PBq of Co-60. The viability and design of the irradiation facility is supported by the Government of the Buenos Aires Province since it is interested in the socio-economic benefit of this technology at the regional level.

  2. Offshore geology and geomorphology from Point Piedras Blancas to Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Roberts, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Sea level was approximately 120 to 130 m lower during the Last Glacial Maximum (about 21 ka). This approximate depth corresponds to the modern shelf break, a lateral change from the gently dipping (0.8° to 1.0°) outer shelf to the slightly more steeply dipping (about 1.5° to 2.5°) upper slope in the central and northern parts of the map area. South of Point San Luis in San Luis Bay, deltaic deposits offshore of the mouth of the Santa Maria River (11 km south of the map area) have prograded across the shelf break and now form a continuous low-angle (about 0.8°) ramp that extends to water depths of more than 160 m. The shelf break defines the landward boundary of slope deposits. North of Estero Bay, the shelf break is characterized by a distinctly sharp slope break that is mapped as a landslide headscarp above landslide deposits. Multibeam imagery and seismic-reflection profiles across this part of the shelf break show evidence of slope failure, such as slumping, sliding, and soft-sediment deformation, along the entire length of the scarp. Notably, this shelf-break scarp corresponds to a west splay of the Hosgri Fault that dies out just north of the scarp, suggesting that faulting is controlling the location (and instability) of the shelf break in this area.

  3. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  4. Épidémiologie descriptive de la brûlure dans un territoire de santé exemple du « territoire nord franche-comté » durant l’année 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, J.L.; Bitar, M.P.; Marx, T.; Macher, J.M.; Desmettre, T.; Ravat, F.; Labourey, J.M.; Capellier, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cette étude est une analyse épidémiologique rétrospective du recours aux services de santé du nord de la Franche-Comté en raison d’une brûlure durant l’année 2014 (114 patients). L’âge moyen était de 26 ans (8 mois-81 ans), 1/3 des brûlures ont touché des enfants de moins de 15 ans. Les brûlures, plus fréquentes l’été, surviennent principalement autour de l’heure des repas, les jours « sans école », à domicile, avec un liquide chaud. Elles sont peu étendues (4,81% de la SCT) et souvent superficielles. Elles nécessitent un passage dans un Service d’Accueil des Urgences dans 88,59% des cas, suivi d’un transfert en CTB (Lyon plus que Nancy ou Metz) dans 12,28% des cas. PMID:27252605

  5. Autoreporte de exposición a publicidad y promoción de tabaco en una cohorte de fumadores mexicanos: Antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del tabaco en 2008

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Rosaura Pérez; Thrasher, James F.; Bolaños, Rosibel Rodríguez; Gutiérrez, Inti Barrientos; Hernández, Norma A Ibañez

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Determinar en población fumadora el nivel de exposición a la mercadotecnia por parte de la Industria Tabacalera (IT), a través de diferentes métodos de promocionar sus productos de tabaco, antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco (LGCT) en 2008. Material y métodos Estudio de cohorte en fumadores adultos (n=941 pre-LGCT y n=1051 post-LGCT) de cuatro ciudades mexicanas. Se realizaron análisis multivariados mediante modelos de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada (GEE). Resultados Se incremento el autoreporte de recepción de muestras gratis de cigarros (3.7% a 8.1%), ropa o artículos con marcas o logos (3.6% a 6.4%), haber visto información sobre eventos especiales (1.9% a 4.7%), y bares, antros y discos para mayores de edad (21.4% a 28%). Se observaron decrementos de publicidad en exteriores (54.7% a 47.2%). Conclusión Es necesaria una política integral con prohibiciones totales de la publicidad y promoción de los productos de tabaco que integre mayor vigilancia y sanciones para lograr la disminución y prevención del consumo de tabaco. PMID:22689158

  6. Évaluation des caractéristiques mécaniques du polissoir en polyuréthanne utilisé comme porte abrasifs durant le processus du polissage du verre optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouane, T.; Bouzid, D.; Belkhir, N.; Bouzid, S.; Herold, V.

    2005-05-01

    La fabrication des composants en verre optique nécessite des moyens de grande précision dans les procédés de finition vue l'importance accordée à leur qualité.
Durant le processus de polissage des verres optiques, le polissoir est un élément clé et a un impact direct sur les performances des composants optiques, non seulement il est utilisé comme support de grains abrasifs mais il doit posséder la fonction de transmission de la pression aux grains. La connaissance de ses propriétés, essentiellement mécanique, est impérative afin d'obtenir un état de surface optimal des composants optiques destinés à remplir des fonctions très précises dans des appareils optiques très performants.
Dans cette étude, nous avons constaté que les propriétés des polissoirs en polyuréthanne tel que la dureté, le module d'élasticité et la densité varient au cours du polissage. Ce changement a des effets sur l'état de surface de verre optique, causé par le changement microstructural de la surface du polissoir (distribution et dimensions des pores) et par conséquent sur la quantité des abrasifs (en oxyde de cérium) insérée dans les pores, ce qui influe sur la quantité de verre enlevée et sur l'état de surface du composant.
Sur la base des résultats obtenus, il a été prouvé que le polissoir subit des modifications très importantes ce qui influe considérablement sur son efficacité de polissage.

  7. El efecto de la difusión del Ne en las propiedades evolutivas y pulsacionales de las enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    Due the large neutron excess of Ne, this isotope rapidly sediments in the interior of the white dwarfs. This process releases an extra amount of energy, thus delaying the cooling times of the white dwarf. Furthermore, the overabundance of Ne in the inner regions of the star, modifies the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, thus, altering its pulsational properties. In this work, we discuss the impact of Ne sedimentation in white dwarfs derived from solar metallicity progenitors (). We performed evolutionary calculations of white dwarfs of, , and . These models are the result of the full evolutionary calculations of their progenitor stars, starting at the zero age main sequence. Our computations show that Ne sedimentation delays the cooling times of white dwarfs in about 1 Gyr at low luminosities (), affecting the techniques that use white dwarfs to date stellar populations. Neglecting Ne sedimentation when calculating the theoretical white dwarf luminosity function, implies to underestimate the age of the stellar population. Additionally, we studied the consequences of Ne sedimentation on the pulsational properties of ZZ Ceti white dwarfs.

  8. Reticulate evolution in the Acrolophus subgroup (Centaurea L., Compositae) from the western Mediterranean: origin and diversification of section Willkommia Blanca.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N; Salinas, Maria J; Garcia-Jacas, Núria; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Blanca, Gabriel

    2007-04-01

    Section Willkommia (Centaurea, Compositae) is endemic to the east-central portion of the Iberian Peninsula and northwestern Africa. The section has been included with sections Acrolophus and Phalolepis in the informal subgroup Acrolophus. We have used a molecular phylogenetic approach to test the hypothesis proposed by earlier authors that the diversification of section Willkommia involved a schizoendemic process from an ancestral syngameon. Comparative analysis of the transcribed spacer sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS and 3'ETS) regions reveals the presence of three different types of ribosomal sequences in the Acrolophus subgroup (referred to here as the Willkommia, Acrolophus-Phalolepis and Simulans ribotypes) which show a sectional-independent geographic structure. This evidence, together with the presence of additive polymorphic sites in the Willkommia sequences which agree with the geographic distribution of the taxa, suggests that members of section Willkommia and the western Mediterranean taxa of sections Acrolophus and Phalolepis fit a reticulate evolution model.

  9. URANIUM-SERIES CONSTRAINTS ON RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND GROUNDWATER FLOW AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell

    2006-04-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (< 10 m/yr). Field tests, well productivity, and uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.

  10. Uranium Elemental and Isotopic Constraints on Groundwater Flow Beneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Goldstein; M.T. Murrell; A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit in Chihuahua, Mexico, is an excellent analogue for evaluating the fate of spent fuel, associated actinides, and fission products over long time scales for the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository. In 2003, three groundwater wells were drilled directly adjacent to (PB-1) and 50 m on either side of the uranium deposit (PB-2 and PB-3) in order to evaluate uranium-series transport in three dimensions. After drilling, uranium concentrations were elevated in all of the three wells (0.1-18 ppm) due to drilling activities and subsequently decreased to {approx}5-20% of initial values over the next several months. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were similar for PB-1 and PB-2 (1.005 to 1.079) but distinct for PB-3 (1.36 to 1.83) over this time period, suggesting limited mixing between groundwater from these wells over these short time and length scales. Regional groundwater wells located up to several km from the deposit also have distinct uranium isotopic characteristics and constrain mixing over larger length and time scales. We model the decreasing uranium concentrations in the newly drilled wells with a simple one-dimensional advection-dispersion model, assuming uranium is introduced as a slug to each of the wells and transported as a conservative tracer. Using this model for our data, the relative uranium concentrations are dependent on both the longitudinal dispersion as well as the mean groundwater flow velocity. These parameters have been found to be correlated in both laboratory and field studies of groundwater velocity and dispersion (Klotz et al., 1980). Using typical relationships between velocity and dispersion for field and laboratory studies along with the relationship observed from our uranium data, both velocity (1-10 n/yr) and dispersion coefficient (1E-5 to 1E-2 cm{sup 2}/s) can be derived from the modeling. As discussed above, these relatively small flow velocities and dispersivities agree with mixing considerations derived from the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U data. While these results and the limited productivity of these wells consistently suggest limited groundwater flow and mixing, we anticipate additional work with artificial tracers to better establish groundwater flow velocities and gradient at this site.

  11. Uranium-series constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater flow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Steven J; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I; Murrell, Michael T; Dobson, Patrick F; Norman, Deborah E; Amato, Ronald S; Nunn, Andrew J

    2010-03-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the Nopal I uranium ore deposit were obtained to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes for a nuclear waste repository located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 are consistent with a simple physical mixing model that indicates that groundwater velocities are low ( approximately 10 m/y). Uranium isotopic constraints, well productivities, and radon systematics also suggest limited groundwater mixing and slow flow in the saturated zone. Uranium isotopic systematics for seepage water collected in the mine adit show a spatial dependence which is consistent with longer water-rock interaction times and higher uranium dissolution inputs at the front adit where the deposit is located. Uranium-series disequilibria measurements for mostly unsaturated zone samples indicate that (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.005 to 0.48 and (226)Ra/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.006 to 113. (239)Pu/(238)U mass ratios for the saturated zone are <2 x 10(-14), and Pu mobility in the saturated zone is >1000 times lower than the U mobility. Saturated zone mobility decreases in the order (238)U approximately (226)Ra > (230)Th approximately (239)Pu. Radium and thorium appear to have higher mobility in the unsaturated zone based on U-series data from fractures and seepage water near the deposit.

  12. Formación y evolución de estrellas enanas blancas deficientes en Hidrógeno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.

    In the present work, we compute the formation and evolution of hydrogen - deficient white dwarfs, classified as spectral type DB. They constitute about 20 % of all observed white dwarfs. White dwarfs are the most abundant stars and they are important for the study of globular clusters and galaxies. It's well known that these stars are ideal laboratories that allow us to test the stellar evolution theory. It is currently believed that DB white dwarfs are the results of post-AGB stars experiencing a last helium thermal pulse on the white dwarf cooling branch, where it burns most of his hydrogen content. During this last flash, the star expand to red giant dimensions, suffering the so - called born - again scenario. We calculate the formation and evolution of DB white dwarfs progenitor from the ZAMS, through the thermally pulsing phase, stage of mass loss, planetary nebulae, the formation the PG 1159 stars and born - again scenario. To this end we employed a full evolutionary code with takes into account a time - dependent scheme for treating no-instantaneous mixing and diffusive overshooting. We present preliminary results, particulary regarding the chemistry variations along the whole evolution. We find that after the born-again scenario surface abundances are in good agreement with observational expectations for PG 1159 stars.

  13. Formación y evolución de enanas blancas deficientes en Hidrógeno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J.; Althaus, L. G.

    For long time the explanation of existence of hydrogen deficient stars was of great discussion. A possible mechanism that explain formation of post-AGB stars with these characteristics, involve a late thermonuclear flash that occur in a rich-helium shell. For obtain this models we have compute the prior evolution for intermediate mass stars from ZAMS to white dwarf cooling branch, since is very important to obtain a realist chemical profile, that is only possible by means of computing the complete evolution.

  14. 75 FR 2477 - Plan Development for Kiowa, Rita Blanca, Black Kettle and McClellan Creek National Grasslands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... to comments-grasslandsplan@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Champe Green (Forest Planner... or accelerate movement of vegetation types toward conditions within the historical range of...

  15. Efectos difusivos en la formación de enanas blancas de Helio de baja masa en sistemas binarios cerrados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    In the last years, and thanks to advances in observational techniques, many astronomers have discovered in a great number of binary radio-pulsars the presence of a helium white dwarf resulting from a previous evolutionary state in which the progenitor of this star experienced one or more episodes of mass transfer to the compact component in the pair. That is the case for PSR B1855+09 (van Kerkwijk, M. H., Bell, J. F, Kaspi, V. M., & Kulkarni, S. R. 2000, ApJ 530, L37), where the mass for the white dwarf is known accurately from measurements of the Shapiro delay of the pulsar signal, MWD = 0.258+0.028-0.016 M⊙; for PSR J02018 + 4232 (Bassa, C. G., van Kerkwijk, M. H., & Kulkarni, S. R. 2003, A&A, 403, 1067), the spectra confirm that the companion is a helium-core white dwarf of ≈ 0.2 M⊙. On the other hand, there are several authors (Ferraro, F., Possenti, A., Sabbi, E., & D'Amico, N. 2003, ApJ, 596, L211; Bassa et al. 2003) that have identified the optical binary companion to the BMSP PSR J1911 - 5958A, located in the halo of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752, like a blue star whose position in the color-magnitude diagram is consistent with the cooling sequence of a low-mass, ≈ 0.17 - 0.20 M⊙, low metallicity helium white dwarf at the cluster distance. Finally, the color and magnitude of the stellar companion for B 1620-26 indicate that is a white dwarf of 0.34 ± 0.04 M⊙ (Sigurdson, S., Richer, H. B., Hansen, B. M., Stairs, I. H. & Thorset, S. E. 2003, Science, 301, 193S). This has motivated us to study the formation of low mass helium white dwarfs in the context of binary evolution. For that purpose, using the code of binary evolution, entirely developed in the Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, we have investigated the effects of diffusive processes on the evolution of a star member of a close binary system. A similar study was performed for Althaus, L. G., Serenelli, A. M., & Benvenuto, O. G. (2001, MNRAS, 323, 471) but in that paper the mass transfer was mimicked by subtracting mass to a progenitor of 1 M⊙ to obtain the mass for the desired object. Actually, our binary code has a full nuclear reactions network for hydrogen and helium burning that allowed us to follow the abundances of fifteen isotopes throughout the entire evolution of the star. We have also included a detailed equation of state. The mass loss treatment is non conservative. We have modified the conditions for the beginning and end of mass transfer episodes. In our previous version, we assumed it to occur when the stellar radius was greater or smaller, respectively, that the Roche Lobe radius for the star. This introduced numerical problems, especially at the end of mass transfer phases. We adopted H. Ritter (1988, A&A, 202, 93) formulation that considers a finite scale height in the stellar atmosphere. The numerical behaviour in much more satisfactory, besides that it constitutes a more appropriate description for the physical problem. We perform the calculations for the evolution of the primary star in a close binary system of initial mass 2 M⊙, initial period of 1 day, initial mass ratio of 1.4142 and solar metallicity. We have done the calculations in four cases: A) with diffusion and all Roche Lobe overflows, B) with diffusion and only the first Roche Lobe overflow, C) without diffusion and all Roche Lobe overflows, D) without diffusion and only the first Roche Lobe overflow. Cases B) and D) where performed to compare with results obtained for Althaus et al. (2001). The main conclusion of this work is that the age of these objects is mainly determined by diffusive effects, and the late stages of mass transfer, not considered in Althaus et al. (2001), constituted a minor effect on the scales of cooling times.

  16. Technical and economic evaluation of biogas capture and treatment for the Piedras Blancas landfill in Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Francisca, Franco Matías; Montoro, Marcos Alexis; Glatstein, Daniel Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) management is one of the most important tasks for landfill operation and closure because of its impact in potential global warming. The aim of this work is to present a case history evaluating an LFG capture and treatment system for the present landfill facility in Córdoba, Argentina. The results may be relevant for many developing countries around the world where landfill gas is not being properly managed. The LFG generation is evaluated by modeling gas production applying the zero-order model, Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]), Scholl Canyon model, and triangular model. Variability in waste properties, weather, and landfill management conditions are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of implementing different treatment systems. The results show the advantages of capturing and treating LFG in order to reduce the emissions of gases responsible for global warming and to determine the revenue rate needed for the project's financial requirements. This particular project reduces by half the emission of equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) compared with the situation where there is no gas treatment. In addition, the study highlights the need for a change in the electricity prices if it is to be economically feasible to implement the project in the current Argentinean electrical market.

  17. Uranium-series constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater flow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.J.; Abdel-Fattah, A.I.; Murrell, M.T.; Dobson, P.F.; Norman, D.E.; Amato, R.S.; Nunn, A. J.

    2009-10-01

    Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the Nopal I uranium ore deposit were obtained to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes for a nuclear waste repository located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 are consistent with a simple physical mixing model that indicates that groundwater velocities are low ({approx}10 m/y). Uranium isotopic constraints, well productivities, and radon systematics also suggest limited groundwater mixing and slow flow in the saturated zone. Uranium isotopic systematics for seepage water collected in the mine adit show a spatial dependence which is consistent with longer water-rock interaction times and higher uranium dissolution inputs at the front adit where the deposit is located. Uranium-series disequilibria measurements for mostly unsaturated zone samples indicate that {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.005-0.48 and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.006-113. {sup 239}Pu/{sup 238}U mass ratios for the saturated zone are <2 x 10{sup -14}, and Pu mobility in the saturated zone is >1000 times lower than the U mobility. Saturated zone mobility decreases in the order {sup 238}U{approx}{sup 226}Ra > {sup 230}Th{approx}{sup 239}Pu. Radium and thorium appear to have higher mobility in the unsaturated zone based on U-series data from fractures and seepage water near the deposit.

  18. Impacto de la emisión de axiones sobre las propiedades evolutivas y pulsacionales de enanas blancas DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battich, T.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    White dwarfs are found to be good laboratories for studying the properties of fundamental particles such as the hypothetical axions. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, abandoning these stars without interact again, becoming an important energy sink. This would have a detectable effect on the evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarfs. This effect was already studied for DA white dwarfs (white dwarfs with a surface rich in hydrogen), but not for DB white dwarfs (hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs). We studied the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of DB white dwarfs and on the pulsational properties of DBV white dwarfs (pulsating DBs) with the aim of determining the potential of these stars to study the physics of axions. Moreover, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the DBV white dwarf PG 1351489 corresponding to the dominant period to derive a new limit on axion mass.

  19. General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    BLANCAS 2110612 BLANCA7 1220438 BLANCA7 1220460 BNORM BN2 *BN2 BLANCA7 1220460 BLANCA7 1220501 BNORM *N2 1520202 BLANCA7 1220501 BLANCA7 1220601 BNORN...GROUP NAME - FAA MANUFACTURER/MODEL CODES (CONTINUED) SDR FAA SDR FAA SDR FAA BOEING747 1384823 CASA C212 2410304 CESSNA180 2072616 8OEING747 1384856... CASA C212 2410202 CESSNA18O 2072618 BOEING75 1380102 CESSNA120 2071402 CESSNA180 2072622 BOEING75 1380104 CESSNA140 2071602 CESSNA180 2072624 BOEING75

  20. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  1. On the impact of using downscaled reanalysis data instead of direct measurements for modeling the mass balance of a tropical glacier (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, Stephan; Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas; Großhauser, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Due to their setting, tropical glaciers are sensitive indicators of mid-tropospheric meteorological variability and climate change. Furthermore these glaciers are of particular interest because they respond faster to climatic changes than glaciers located in mid- or high-latitudes. As long-term direct meteorological measurements in such remote environments are scarce, reanalysis data (e.g. ERA-Interim) provide a highly valuable source of information. Reanalysis datasets (i) enable a temporal extension of data records gained by direct measurements and (ii) provide information from regions where direct measurements are not available. In order to properly derive the physical exchange processes between glaciers and atmosphere from reanalysis data, downscaling procedures are required. In the present study we investigate if downscaled atmospheric variables (air temperature and relative humidity) from a reanalysis dataset can be used as input for a physically based, high resolution energy and mass balance model. We apply a well validated empirical-statistical downscaling model, fed with ERA-Interim data, to an automated weather station (AWS) on the surface of Glaciar Artesonraju (8.96° S | 77.63° W). The downscaled data is then used to replace measured air temperature and relative humidity in the input for the energy and mass balance model, which was calibrated using ablation data from stakes and a sonic ranger. In order to test the sensitivity of the modeled mass balance to the downscaled data, the results are compared to a reference model run driven solely with AWS data as model input. We finally discuss the results and present future perspectives for further developing this method.

  2. Enanas blancas post-AGB deficientes en Hidrógeno: su evolución espectral PG1159-DB-DQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Serenelli, A. M.; Scóccola, C. G.; García-Berro, E.

    This work explore the formation and evolution of hydrogen-deficient post-AGB white dwarfs. To this end, we compute the complete evolution of an initially 2.7 M sun star from the ZAMS through the thermally pulsing and mass-loss phases to the white dwarf stage. Particular attention is given to the chemical abundance changes during the whole evolution. The evolution is extended to the domain of the helium-rich, carbon-contaminated DQ white dwarfs to exploring the possible evolutionary connection PG1159-DB-DQ.

  3. [Listeria monocytogenes detection in different food products and environmental samples from a large chain of supermarkets in the city of Bahía Blanca (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Marzocca, M A; Marucci, P L; Sica, M G; Alvarez, E E

    2004-01-01

    This work on Listeria monocytogenes detection in different foods was carried out between January 2002 and July 2003. Ninety cold-served cooked meats, sliced and packaged by different methods and 132 pieces of soft cheeses were studied. These products were analyzed using the presence/absence in 25 g criterion. L. monocytogenes was not found either in foods sliced over the counter or in controlled cheeses, but it was found in 10% of sliced cold-served foods and 5% of cut and cold-served meats vacuum packaged. These results led us to investigate the presence of these pathogen bacteria in different environmental samples. A hundred and fifteen points were swabbed including processing lines, raw materials, tools, and refrigerators. L. monocytogenes was found in 13.2% of the analyzed samples: 5% in packaging sector, 6.7% in meat processing lines and 1.5% in personalized sales. These results showed the presence of sites where the microorganism may reside and create reservoirs, so that routinary measures of hygiene and disinfection were increased.

  4. The ovary of the bignose fanskate Sympterygia acuta Garman, 1877 (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae) in the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina: morphology and reproductive features.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Andrade, M C; Galíndez, E; Estecondo, S

    2009-05-01

    Chondrichthyes have become an important economic resource in recent years. In spite of this importance, there is little knowledge about their reproductive biology, especially of species from the south-western Atlantic. In this work, we study the morphology and histology of the ovary of Sympterygia acuta. The results show that oogonia were present only in the immature females (stage I of maturity scale), whereas specimens in stages II and III of maturity displayed oocytes in all developmental steps. The most important histological features that vary throughout oocyte development are the presence or absence of yolk, the number of types and layers of follicular cells and the degree of development of the thecae. Follicular cells are, at least, of two different types. Finally, a new point of view for the determination of maturity stages in the field based on the size of follicles is discussed.

  5. [Smoking cessation at work exemplified by "action blanca casa", a project for smoking cessation in the D. Swarovski & Co., Wattens, firm].

    PubMed

    Ott, G; Hammer, E; Seipel, K G; Mark, G

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies about the efficacy of smoking cessation programs in the workplace have brought up to common difficulties. Only long-term-programs show remarkable effects on smoking habits of the workers. Presenting ongoing long-term strategies for open discussion can improve the design of more powerful cessation programs in the future. Our program as an important part of modern "human resources management" is demonstrated and the results after 18 months are discussed.

  6. For the relief of Rosa Isela Figueroa Rincon, Miguel Angel Figueroa Rincon, Blanca Azucena Figueroa Rincon, and Nancy Araceli Figueroa Rincon.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. DeGette, Diana [D-CO-1

    2009-02-12

    03/10/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. A Record of Uranium-Series Transport in Fractured, Unsaturated Tuff at Nopal I, Sierra Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J.; Goldstein, S. J.; Paviet, P.; Nunn, A. J.; Amato, R. S.; Hinrichs, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize U-series disequilibria measurements to investigate mineral fluid interactions and the role fractures play in the geochemical evolution of an analogue for a high level nuclear waste repository, the Nopal I uranium ore deposit. Samples of fracture-fill materials have been collected from a vertical drill core and surface fractures. High uranium concentrations in these materials (12-7700 ppm) indicate U mobility and transport from the deposit in the past. U concentrations generally decrease with horizontal distance away from the ore deposit but show no trend with depth. Isotopic activity ratios indicate a complicated geochemical evolution in terms of the timing and extent of actinide mobility, possibly due to changing environmental (redox) conditions over the history of the deposit. 234U/238U activity ratios are generally distinct from secular equilibrium and indicate some degree of open system U behavior during the past 1.2 Ma. However, calculated closed system 238U-234U-230Th model ages are generally >313 ka and >183 ka for the surface fracture and drill core samples respectively, suggesting closed system behavior for U and Th over this most recent time period. Whole rock isochrons drawn for the drill core samples show that at two of three depths fractures have remained closed with respect to U and Th mobility for >200 ka. However, open system behavior for U in the last 350 ka is suggested at 67 m depth. 231Pa/235U activity ratios within error of unity suggest closed system behavior for U and Pa for at least the past 185 ka. 226Ra/230Th activity ratios are typically <1 (0.7-1.2), suggesting recent (<8 ka) radium loss and mobility due to ongoing fluid flow in the fractures. Overall, the mainly closed system behavior of U-Th-Pa over the past ~200 ka provides one indicator of the geochemical immobility of these actinides over long time-scales for potential nuclear waste repositories sited in fractured, unsaturated tuff.

  8. Cybrids between Dancy tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanca) and Ruby Red grapefruit (C. paradisi Mafc.) for improvement of citrus fruit traits [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the plant. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments....

  9. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy in a case of late-onset eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Castrillo-Sanz, Ana; Mendoza, Amelia; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Raúl; Zamora, M Isabel; Morollón, Noemí; Rodríguez-Sanz, M Fernanda; Duarte, Jacinto

    2013-08-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de encefalopatia posterior reversible (SEPR) es un sindrome clinico-radiologico de presentacion aguda o subaguda que se caracteriza por la presencia de cefalea, vomitos, crisis epilepticas, trastornos visuales y alteracion del nivel de conciencia asociado a lesiones localizadas fundamentalmente en la sustancia blanca de regiones posteriores cerebrales. Caso clinico. Mujer de 32 años que desarrollo un SEPR en el periodo posparto secundario a eclampsia tardia. La paciente presento 10 dias despues del parto un cuadro clinico consistente en cefalea, crisis epilepticas, ceguera y deterioro del nivel de conciencia. El estudio de imagen con resonancia magnetica confirmo la afectacion de la sustancia blanca de predominio posterior. Conclusiones. Aunque la eclampsia es una entidad tipica del embarazo y puerperio inmediato, es necesario recordar que tambien puede producirse de forma tardia tras el parto y que puede ser la causa de otros sindromes, como el SEPR. Aunque en estos casos el pronostico suele ser favorable, el tratamiento debe ser precoz, efectuando un rapido control de la tension arterial y las convulsiones con el fin de evitar un daño cerebral permanente. Es necesario considerar siempre este sindrome en mujeres con crisis epilepticas u otros sintomas neurologicos durante el posparto.

  10. International Aircraft Operator Information System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    24 24 BEECH BE-80 BUol 70 70 0 BEECH BE-80 AD21 36 17 * BLANCA BL-1413 RG01 307 BEECH BE-90 AD41 3,466 92 * BLANCA BL-1413 NA01 18 18 BEECH BE-90 NA01...1,806 1,806 BLANCA BL-1413 AD21 18 18 * BEECH BE-90 JN01 1,716 1,716 * BEECH BE-90 RG01 1,170 BLANCA BL-1419 RG01 239 BEECH BE-90 BU01 237 BLANCA BL...1419 NA01 15 15 BEECH BE-90 F101 225 BLANCA BL-1419 AD21 15 15 * BEECH BE-90 AD21 42 BEECH BE-90 AD01 30 BLANCA BL-17 RG01 1,099 BLANCA BL-17 MA01 31

  11. FISH OIL AND VITAMIN E CHANGE LIPID PROFILES AND ANTI-LDL-ANTIBODIES IN TWO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS OF WOMEN TRANSITIONING THROUGH MENOPAUSE.

    PubMed

    Alves Luzia, Liania; Mendes Aldrighi, José; Teixeira Damasceno, Nágila Raquel; Rodrigues Sampaio, Geni; Aparecida Manólio Soares, Rosana; Tande Silva, Isis; De Queiroz Mello, Ana Paula; Ferreira Carioca, Antonio Augusto; Ferraz da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: diversos estudios han investigado la relación entre la transición a la menopausia y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Generalmente, la población de etnia blanca posee bajos niveles de factores de riesgo coronarios, particularmente dislipidemia, hipertensión, obesidad, diabetes y bajas tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades del corazón en comparación con la población de etnia negra. Además, varios estudios demostraron efectos cardioprotectores y antiinflamatorios provenientes de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados omega-3 (ácido eicosapentaenoico y ácido docosahexaenoico) de origen marino. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar el efecto de la suplementación de omega-3 combinado o no con vitamina E en biomarcadores oxidativos y perfiles lipídicos en mujeres blancas y no blancas con dislipidemia en transición hacia la menopausia. Métodos: fue realizado un estudio randomizado, duplo- ciego, placebo-controlado. Setenta y cuatro mujeres elegibles fueron escogidas para recibir: aceite de pescado, aceite de pescado con vitamina E y placebo durante tres meses. Fueron recogidas muestras de sangre en de referencia, 45 y 90 días para realizar exámenes bioquímicos y de biomarcadores para estrés oxidativo. Las variables socioeconómicas y de estilo de vida fueron recogidas por medio de cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: después de 90 días, el grupo tratado con aceite de pescado con vitamina E tuvo una disminución significativa para colesterol total y LDL-C. Además, hubo una disminución de anticuerpos anti-LDL después de 45 días. La concentración de plasma TBARS aumentó después de 90 días en el grupo que recibió solamente aceite de pescado, comparado con los grupos placebo y aceite de pescado con vitamina E. Todos los efectos observados fueron independientes del grupo étnico. Conclusión: la suplementación con aceite de pescado y vitamina E redujo el colesterol total y LDL-C, pero tuvo un efecto opuesto en el estrés oxidativo

  12. [Hematological changes induced by erythrocytapheresis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morales, Sindy Karina Ibeth; Moreno-López, Luis Carlos; Gallardo, Juan Manuel; Paniagua, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El efecto del procedimiento en los índices hematológicos del donador rara vez se determina al finalizar una sesión de donación. El propósito de este estudio es identificar las posibles alteraciones hematológicas en los donadores sometidos a eritroféresis. Métodos: Se evaluaron 30 donadores adultos, aparentemente sanos. El procedimiento de eritroféresis se realizó utilizando un equipo automatizado. Las mediciones hematológicas (hemoglobina, hematocrito, células blancas y plaquetas) se realizaron antes y después de la eritroféresis. Resultados: Existe disminución significativa en hemoglobina (p < 0.0001), hematocrito (p < 0.0001), leucocitos totales (p < 0.0001), linfocitos (p = 0.0267), y plaquetas (p < 0.0001) tras el procedimiento de donación. Por otro lado, los segmentados tienen un ligero aumento. No se encontraron cambios en monocitos, eosinófilos ni en basófilos poseritroféresis. Conclusiones: durante el procedimiento de donación sanguínea mediante eritroféresis se producen cambios hematológicos tanto en la formula roja como blanca en los donadores estudiados, a pesar de ello, ninguno de los donadores manifestaron signos de trombocitopenia o anemia. Este trabajo demuestra que existen cambios hematológicos postdonación y por ello se requiere de estudios amplios y multicéntricos, con el fin de establecer directrices para establecer un procedimiento seguro para el donador y mejorar la evaluación de idoneidad de los donadores.

  13. Usando el Periodico durante el desarollo (Growing Up Using the Newspaper: Ideas for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Nancy A.

    Written for parents, this guide offers suggestions for using the newspaper at home to practice reading skills, to discover new information, and to teach critical reading. Activities in the guide are arranged according to grade level (kindergarten through grade two, grades one through three, grades four through six, and grades seven through twelve)…

  14. Environmental Perturbations, Behavioral Change, and Population Response in a Long-term Northern Elephant Seal Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Nicholas Island and Piedras Blancas. A team of three researchers, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Nikky Teutschel, and Greg Breed, conducted resights at San...Nicholas Island. Pat Morris conducted resights at Piedras Blancas. Both surveys occurred January 29-February 1, 2010. RESULTS Analysis of shouthern...had not seen an elephant seal with a green flipper tag in 20 years of observations. Of the 55 tags detected on females at Piedras Blancas, eight

  15. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Wilderness/Natural Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-02

    area studied for possible M-X deployment, only Texas and New Mexico contain National Grasslands. Rita Blanca National Grasslands in Texas, and Kiowa...County, Texas, project siting in Buffalo Springs potential National Natural Landmark and in Rita Blanca National Grasslands could destroy approximately...actual Buftalo Springs potential National NaturalC Landmark, is for general locational purposes; most of the area is within Rita Blanca National

  16. [A very slow-growing exophytic hemisphere glioma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Carlos; Caballero, Hugo; Bucheli, Carlos; Berciano, José; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso; Martino, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Los gliomas de bajo grado presentan un patron de crecimiento caracteristico a traves de las fibras de la sustancia blanca. El crecimiento exofitico en gliomas de bajo grado hemisfericos no se ha descrito previamente. Se presenta un caso de glioma hemisferico de lenta progresion y con crecimiento exofitico. Caso clinico. Varon de 55 años, con crisis parciales motoras secundarias a un oligodendroglioma de grado II de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. El tumor infiltraba la circunvolucion frontal superior con extension exofitica que se extendia por encima de la circunvolucion precentral. Fue seguido con controles clinicorradiologicos durante 23 años. El analisis de la evolucion radiologica del tumor demostraba un crecimiento tumoral lento, con una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año. Durante la exeresis quirurgica se definio un plano subaracnoideo entre el componente exofitico y la circunvolucion precentral, que se encontraba desplazada inferiormente sin infiltracion tumoral. La estimulacion electrica intraoperatoria no evidencio funcion en el componente exofitico, pero si en la circunvolucion precentral. No se observaron deficits neurologicos postoperatorios. Conclusiones. La velocidad de crecimiento en gliomas de bajo grado se ha estimado en 4-6 mm al año. El tumor que se describe aqui tiene una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año, muy por debajo de esta media. La identificacion de la porcion exofitica es un paso importante en la planificacion preoperatoria. Este componente es mas facil de resecar debido al plano de clivaje subaracnoideo y a la ausencia de funcion.

  17. Prise en charge du cancer du col utérin durant la grossesse: à propos de 05 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Bouhafa, Touria; Loukili, Kaoutar; El Kacemi, Hanan; Lalya, Issam; Hassouni, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    L'association d'un cancer du col utérin avec une grossesse est une éventualité rare. Son incidence est assez mal évaluée, elle se situe selon les études entre 1 et 2/10 000. Lorsque la découverte en est faite, il faut conjuguer deux impératifs parfois totalement divergents: le traitement de la mère et la prise en charge du foetus. Cette association pose schématiquement quatre grands problèmes, qui sont: Celui du diagnostic, qui est loin d’être évident, compte tenu des remaniements cervicaux observés en début de gestation, le pronostic de l'affection, la date du traitement chirurgical et du délai entre le diagnostic et la prise en charge thérapeutique, enfin et de manière plus accessoire, le devenir de la grossesse et le mode d'accouchement. Nous rapportons une série de 5 cas de cancer du col utérin découverts au cours de la grossesse colligés dans notre service entre 2010 et 2013. La prise en charge thérapeutique est identique à celle des patientes en dehors de la grossesse même si quelques adaptations sont nécessaires du fait de l’état gravide, le pronostic du cancer ne semble pas être modifié par la grossesse. PMID:25852788

  18. History of the USDA-ARS Watershed, Water Resources and Climate Research at Chickasha, Durant, and El Reno, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watershed, water resources and climate research conducted at the Great Plains Agroclimate and Natural Resources Research Unit at the USDA, ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory in El Reno, Oklahoma, is rooted in events reaching as far back as the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. In this narrat...

  19. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  20. Automatización de la adquisición de campos planos de cielo durante el atardecer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areal, M. B.; Acosta, J. A.; Buccino, A. P.; Perna, P.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P.

    2016-08-01

    Since 2009, the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio keeps in development an optical observatory mainly aimed to the detection of extrasolar planets and the monitoring of stellar activity. In this framework, the telescopes Meade LX200 16 Horacio Ghielmetti in the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, and MATE (Magnetic Activity and Transiting Exoplanets) in the Estación de Altura at the Observatorio Astronomico Felix Aguilar were assembled. Both telescopes can operate automatically through all night, which generates a massive volume of data. Because of this, it becomes essential the automatization of the acquisition and analysis of the regular observations as well as the calibration images; in particular the flat fields. In this work a method to simplify and automatize the acquisition of these images was developed. This method uses the luminosity values of the sky, registered by a weather station located next to the observation site.

  1. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    Cloud Seeding. Cloud Physics; Weather Average Work Force: 25 - Total Modification; Convective Storms; Hydrometeorology; Precipita- tion Measurement...8217.v.r.. .,~r’:: Experience: Cametoid has more than 25 years of active sub- Canada Ltd, Bata Engineering; Bell Northern Research, Canada contract...the US Coast Guard over the past 25 years. meeting international aerospace and defense companies all military specifications satisfactorily The

  2. Hospitalization Cost Offset of a Hostility Intervention for Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Karina W.; Gidron, Yori; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated hospitalization cost offset of hostility management group therapy for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from a previously published randomized controlled trial (Y. Gidron, K. Davidson, & I. Bata, 1999). Twenty-six male patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina were randomized to either 2 months of…

  3. 51. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 EAST END OF BLOCK NO. 3 HOUSES NOS. 17 AND 18. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  4. 70. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 7 FROM ROOF HOUSE NO. 12. (SHU-TRA-MEETZ KIVA) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  5. 61. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON (BLOCK NO. 5) HOUSE NO, 6 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  6. 44. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 11 AND 12 IN BLOCK NO. 3 FROM ROOF - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  7. 56. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH SIDE BLOCK NO. 5 FROM BLOCK NO. 7 (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 1 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW (LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM CHURCH ROOF) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  9. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL HOUSE NO. 4, BLOCK NO. 1 (LOOKING WEST) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  10. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 2 (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  11. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR HOUSE No. 5 BLOCK No. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  12. 62. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 FIREPLACE HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON (Showing Ceiling) BLOCK No 5 HOUSE No.6 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  13. 57. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 5 FROM BLOCK NO. 7 (SHOWING KOS-KA-TSIETZ KIVA) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  14. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 WEST END OF BLOCK NO. 1 FROM SOUTH EAST (SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 2 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  15. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES NOS. 12, 13 AND 14, BLOCK NO. 3. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  16. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 1 FROM BLOCK NO. 5 (SHOWING KIVA RIGHT CENTER) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  17. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 18, 1934 HOUSE No. 7, BLOCK No. 2 (DETAIL STAIR BULKHEAD) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  18. 34. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 11, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 1, 2, AND 3, BLOCK NO. 3. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  19. 36. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 INTERIOR SANTANA SANCHEZ HOUSE - HOUSE NO. 2 BLOCK NO. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  20. 37. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 INTERIOR SANTANA SANCHEZ HOUSE - HOUSE NO. 2, BLOCK NO. 3 (SHOWING FIREPLACE) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  1. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR HOUSE No. 5 BLOCK No. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  2. 32. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 3 FROM SOUTHEAST (STARTING WITH HOUSE NO. 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  3. 63. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 FIREPLACE HOUSE OF MARIA CIMARRON, BLOCK NO. 5. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  4. 42. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 17, 1934 BLOCK NO. 3 SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 9, 10, 11, 12 AND 13. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  5. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES 15 AND 16 BLOCK NO. 3 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  6. 74. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION HOUSES NOS. 1, 2 AND 3, BLOCK NO. 7 - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  7. 58. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 5 FROM SOUTHEAST (SHOWING HOUSE NO. 1 TO 6) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW (LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CHURCH ROOF) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  9. 77 FR 56840 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ..., Rita Blanca, Black Kettle, and McClellan Creek National Grasslands Land and Resource Management Plan... Activity Bethesda, Montgomery County, MD, Comment Period Ends: 10/29/2012, Contact: Joseph Macri 301-...

  10. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). South America and Selected Island Coastal Marine Areas, East Coast. Volume 2. Area 9-Rio de Janeiro, Area 10-Florianopolis, Area 11-Porto Alegre, Area 12-Buenos Aires, Area 13-Bahia Blanca, Area 14-Rawson, Area 15-Puerto Deseado, Area 16-Magellan Strain East.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    its 7.10 10. TOTAL HOM 4190 (000 (1000 10004 NM 4116 TOTAL us$Y 0o#, clove (SOY (I ANDS* AND I* 065 00605 .R .1 .6 $,*15, 6s$ 1.9 MI0 00605 .7 1.7 7.6...14.4 24.4 2.6 390 ?.2 S?.7 TOTAL Ito R99 $45 219 242 274 M6 194 ?OTAC NMINBE OP 061l 10*5 PC? PAIR NH (5/63 Ga.$ -TABLE -7A P5CINTAGE PoEl OP Cow CLOves

  11. Alongshore Sub-Thermocline Current Variability in the Central California Current System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    observations were made along the central Caflfornia contintental slope from PtL Piedras Blancas to the Farallon Islands. The study area covered an... Farallon Islands (D and E). Time and frequency domain analyses were performed on three time segments that included data from combinations of the above...the Farallon Islands. The study area covered an alongshore distance of approximately 290 km and examined the data from off Pt. Piedras Blancas (P4), Pt

  12. Model Network Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    effects in property rela- tions for stepwise p~lyfunctional polymerization," Macromolecules 13, 1063 (1980). 10. F. Lopez- Serrano , J. M. Castro, M. V...Engineering, University del Sur, Bahia Blanca , Argentina) David J. Yarusso, B.S. June, 1978 (currently Ph.D. candidate, Department of Chemical...Ph.D. July, 1980 (currently Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering, Universidad del Sur, Bahia Blanca , Argentina) Richard J. Rolando, M.S. July

  13. Distribution and Abundance of the Interior Population of the Least Tern (Sternula Antillarum), 2005; A Review of the First Complete Range-Wide Survey in the Context of Historic and Ongoing Monitoring Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Jenkins of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department for Lake Casa Blanca and nearby gravel pits; Terry Maxwell of Angelo State University, Texas, for...Andrew Bibey, Gene Bormann, Sandy Chan, George Chandler, Doug Clarke, Katie Coleman, Eddie de la Rosa , Joe Delvaux, Bob Dodd, Jordan Dood, RH...reservoir (O.C. Fischer) on the nearby North Concho River (Kasner et al. 2005) (Appendix C). Habitat conditions at Lake Casa Blanca on the Rio Grande and

  14. Sand Waves in Tidal Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    example, in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina), the sand wave field terminated when the surficial sand sheet became too thin (Aliotta and Perillo... Rosa Island partially breached near the present-day location of the inlet mouth, but soon closed. It was reopened in March 1929 when the local...and Perillo, 1987) Bahia Blanca Estuary mean 11˚ max 30˚ mean 4˚ (Anthony and Leth, 2002) North Sea 2-4˚ 66 Figure 24. Sand wave

  15. 9. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1928 Vol I. Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, BIA-Phoenix, Box 40, National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region) Photographer unknown. CASA BLANCA CANAL, HEADING AND FLUME, APRIL 10, 1928 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Casa Blanca Canal, Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  16. 10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1928. Vol I. Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, BIA-Phoenix, Box 40, National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region) Photographer unknown. CASA BLANCA CANAL, HEADING AND FLUME, APRIL 10, 1928 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Casa Blanca Canal, Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  17. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron

  18. CHOQUES AGREGADOS E INVERSIÓN EN CAPITAL HUMANO: EL LOGRO EDUCATIVO SUPERIOR DURANTE LA DÉCADA PERDIDA EN MÉXICO

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo documenta una respuesta agregada negativa del logro educativo superior (más de 12 años de escolaridad) en México a la recesión de 1982–83 y el estancamiento que le siguió. La respuesta no fue homogénea entre géneros, regiones y entornos familiares. Los hombres experimentaron una caída en el logro mientras que las mujeres experimentaron un crecimiento más lento. En promedio, los estados con un mayor logro antes del choque experimentaron mayores caídas. La respuesta entre distintos entornos familiares no presenta un patrón claro. Sin embargo, el efecto negativo en el logro se observa incluso entre hermanos. La evidencia sugiere una historia por el lado de la demanda: la caída en el ingreso de los hogares parece ser el determinante de la caída/desaceleración del logro educativo superior. La conclusión es que la recesión y la falta de crecimiento que le siguió tuvieron un efecto negativo importante y duradero en la formación de capacidades en México. PMID:25328251

  19. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  20. Caracterización de los cinturones de radiación durante tormentas geomagnéticas de origen solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanabere, V.; Dasso, S.

    2016-08-01

    A radiation belt in the space environment of a magnetized planet contains energetic particles, electrically charged, trapped by the magnetic field of the planet. In the terrestrial case, the inner van Allen belt extends from (1--3) Earth radii at the equator and the outer van Allen belt from (3--9) Earth radii at equator. The purpose of this work is to characterize different aspects of the population of electrons in the energy range (0.249--3) MeV, at 660 km altitude using measurements made by the detector ICARE-NG/CARMEN-1 on board the polar Argentinean satellite SAC-D. The variations of the electron flux in quiet periods and disturbed conditions for an event of magnetic storm in March 2012 are quantified. During the storm, an enhancement of the electron flux at high latitudes associated with the outer radiation belt, reaching respect the annual mean value is observed. The relaxation toward the typical values found during non-storm periods is slow, showing that even two weeks later, the difference reaches values of .

  1. During Her Pregnancy, Kathy Prepares for Breastfeeding. Mother-to-Mother Support = Durante Su Embarazo, Josefa Se Prepara para la Lactancia. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in a cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. They explain the importance of both prenatal care and breastfeeding. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (KFT)

  2. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the…

  3. Variation du coefficient de collage de l'argent et de l'or durant leur condensation sur film de MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrousseaux, G.; Carlan, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1993-10-01

    The incidence rate dependence of the sticking coefficient during the growth of gold (or silver) condensate on MgO film is experimentally investigated for a substrate kept at room temperature. This MgO substrate is deposited on quartz monitor by evaporation under UHV from a Knudsen cell. Then, from another cell, the flux of metal atoms impinges on the MgO film which covers the quartz. Under this flux of incident metal atoms, the changes (respectively θ and f) of the temperature and of the frequency of the quartz oscillator are then simultaneously recorded. Both continuous measurements enable us to calculate, at different times t, the sticking coefficient η (t) defined as the ration between the condensed metal rate q and the incident rate R. We use the results to plot η versus t and examine the slope of η-rise until the time t at which η (t) reaches unity. The progression of η (t) reaches unity. The progression of η (t) from zero to unity during the metal deposition is explained by assuming that the nucleation on preferred sites with capture of adatoms at the edge of stable germs is the prevailing condensation mechanism at the initial stage of the condensation. Our experimental results could be fitted better by assuming an exponential growth of the site occupation than an increase of the number density n_s(t) with (Rt)^{1/3}. On étudie expérimentalement la dépendance que peut présenter, par rapport au flux métallique incident, la progression vers l'unité du coefficient de collage. Pour cela, on suit cette progression pour l'or et l'argent condensés sur film de MgO à température proche de l'ambiante. Le substrat de MgO est déposé sur un quartz de pesée par évaporation sous ultra-vide à partir d'une cellule de Knudsen. Une autre cellule est utilsée pour déposer l'un de ces métaux sur le film de MgO couvrant le quartz. Les variations θ et f de la température et de la fréquence d'oscillations du quartz de pesée sous le flux d'atomes incidents sont simultanement enregistrées. De telles mesures continues de θ et f permettent de calculer, à tout instant t, le coefficient η (t), défini comme le rapport du flux métallique condensé q(t) au flux d'atomes incidents R. Nous pouvons, de cette manière, représenter η (t) et examiner le changement d'allure de sa progression vers l'unité lorsque R croît. Pour interpréter cette progression, nous examinons les effets de la nucléation sur sites préférentiels et de la capture d'adatomes par les germes stables. Un modèle de croissance exponentielle de l'occupation des sites permet un meilleur ajustement théorique des résultats expérimentaux que celui obtenu avec une croissance de la densité de germes stables n_s(t) en (Rt)^{1/3}.

  4. Mediciones de irradiancia solar y capa de ozono durante el eclipse de Sol de 1994 en el Observatorio Astronómico de Rosario, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, R. D.; Micheletti, M. I.

    We show results of measurements made during the Sun's eclipse of November 3, 1994, in Observatorio Astronómico de Rosario (32o 57' S, 60o 37' W, 25 m a.s.l.). The eclipse begin at 8:41 local hour, reached its maximum with 77% of the surface covered at 9:51 and finished at 11:04. The direct solar irradiance of 300 nm and 313 nm were able to be measured, due to the fact that during the whole period the sky remained completed uncovered (zero percent cloudiness). The measurements were made with the portable ozonometer developed by Tocho and co-workers. They show the characterictic decrease due to the occultation of the source, which is approximately proportional to the surface's diminution. When crossing the earth's atmosphere to arrive to the observation point, these irradiances are affected mainly by the ozone layer, specially the irradiance at lower wavelength, what let it to determine by comparison the thickness of this layer. The total ozone thickness distributed between the troposphere and the stratosphere shows an oscillation, whose amplitude, since the occurence of the maximum of occulation, has a mean value of 4%, and whose period is of approximately 2100 seconds, being both numbers considerably larger than the ones registred by Mims III y Mims (Geophysical Research Letters, 20, 367, 1993) during the eclipse of July 11, 1991 and by Tocho, Da Silva y Rivas (XVIII Quadriennial Ozone Symposiom, Italy, September, 1996) during the same eclipse analyzed in the present work, but observed in Salta. As complementary results, we measured the global irradiance and the ambient temperature during this astronomical event.

  5. Ferroelectrics Volume 121 Numbers 1-4, 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June 1991. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    CHIRAL ESTERS AND THEIR MIXTURES WITH STABLE S*. PHASE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE [P-135] J. SZABON, L. BATA, K. FODOR-CSORBA, N. EBER AND A. VAJDA 275... ambient which in some cases readily supercool well below room temperature. In addition, it has been found that many of these com- pounds appear to...intermediate 3 which yields 4 after removal of the trimethylsilyl group with NaOH 50% at ambient temperature1". Diisopropylamine is not only used as the

  6. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of three prickly pear species with different ripening behavior.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Talia; Carrillo-López, Armando; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2005-12-01

    Biochemical and nutritional changes were studied during the ripening process of three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behavior: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Esmeralda (Opuntia sp.) of early, early-intermediate, and intermediate-late ripening, respectively. In loss of fresh weight, Naranjona showed the highest values, while in Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda, a discrete weight loss was found. No significant differences were found among morphospecies in soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH during the postharvest days. Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda showed an increase in the content of carotenoids, while these diminished in Naranjona. The cell wall enzymes evaluated showed particular behaviors during the ripening of each morphospecies suggesting a fine biochemical control and not a clear relationship between fruit softening and enzyme activity. This study provides basic information on prickly pear ripening, in order to understand this process for its control and for improving shelf life.

  7. NSR&D FY14 Final Report: Friction/Impact Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Duan Zhong; Ma, Xia; Giguere, Paul T.

    2014-09-19

    The LANL-developed CartaBlanca code uses advanced techniques, including the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method, to calculate fluid, solid motions and fluid-structure interactions. In the last year we have implemented the ViscoSCRAM material model in CartaBlanca based on Clements’ Abaqus-Explicit Finite Element implementation. In this fiscal year, we study numerical properties of this implementation. To consider coupled mechanical, thermal and chemical effects, we have implemented Henson’s HE decomposition model to couple with the thermal and mechanical packages in CartaBlanca. We have also developed porous media flow modules to consider heat convection effects of the reaction product gas inside pores of HE. The next immediate step is to perform numerical simulations to study interactions among these different mechanisms. We have started such calculation and obtained interesting initial results at the end of this fiscal year.

  8. Evaluating Connectivity between Marine Protected Areas Using CODAR High-Frequency Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    SMCA/SMR, (6) Big Creek SMCA/SMR, (7) Piedras Blancas SMCA/SMR, (8) Cambria SMCA/White Rock SMCA, (9) Pt. Buchon SMCA/SMR, and (10) Vandenberg SMR...52 grid- points, (7) Piedras Blancas 47 grid-points, (8) Cambria 20 grid-points, (9) Pt. Buchon 45 grid- points, and (10) the Vandenberg MPA had 62...COLUMN HEADERS. Back-projected from: (Sorted north- to-south) Año Nuevo Soquel Canyon Portuguese Ledge Point Lobos Point Sur Big Creek Piedras

  9. Identification of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex species (Diptera: Culicidae) using rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2-based polymerase chain reaction primes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Brazil Para Maraj6 Is. 10 00’S 31 AY828339· (type locality) 49°30’W AY828340 marajoara COI9 Venezuela Cojedes Finca " Rosa 9° 36’ N 9 AY828344- Blanca ...34 68° 54’W AY828345 marajoara COIIO Venezuela Cojedes Finca " Rosa 9° 36’ N 4 AY828346- Blanca " 68° 54’W AY828341 marajoara BR4 Brazil Roraima Boa Vista...domes/icus Galvao & Damesceno with An. mal’ajoara and declared An. allopha Peryassu to be a nomen dubium. Subsequently, Rosa -Freitas (1989) described a

  10. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Photography and Beach Profile Index.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    approximate mile 392.0 (Piedras Blancas Point) in San Luis Obispo County. Counties within the coastal mileage are presented in 1 Table 1. A listing of the...B E ET S A N L U. . ........ ......... 3....... 0.. 3 3 . 0- 3 9 .5 22. TOPANGA .................................. 151.5-159.0 49. IEDRAS BLANCAS ...from 100 ft downcoast from "CAMBRIA" sign. 380.40 Cambria, Station 1: On paved road off Highway 1 about 1/2 mi west of Cambria, overlooking Santa Rosa

  11. Prevalence of scabies and head lice among children in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Zayyid, M; Saidatul Saadah, R; Adil, A R; Rohela, M; Jamaiah, I

    2010-12-01

    This is a survey of 120 children for scabies and head lice infestations in a welfare home in Pulau Pinang. Children from this welfare home (Rumah Kanak-Kanak Taman Bakti, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) were randomly selected. Majority of them were Malays (72.5%) and the rest were Indians. The infestation rates were highest in the 10-12 years age group with 46% and 70% for scabies and head lice respectively. Head lice was more commonly seen in girls (65%) than boys (29%). Scabies was more commonly seen in boys (50%) than girls (16%). Overall prevalence rate for scabies was 31% and for head lice infestation was 49%.

  12. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  13. Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

  14. El teatro espanol del Siglo de Oro en Rusia durante la primera mitad del XIX (The Spanish Golden Age Theater in Russia During the Early Part of the Nineteenth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jack

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the popularity of Spanish Golden Age drama presented in printed form and stage productions in Russia during the reigns of Alexander I (1801-1825) and Nicholas I (1825-1855). Attributes the apparent widespread interest in Hispanic culture to common ideals shared during the Napoleonic wars. (DS)

  15. Contrôle de la température durant le processus de dégradation d'un acier Z12CNS20 en frottement avec un acier Z200C13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanafi-Benghalem, N.; Loucif, K.; Benghalem, K.; Boudoukha, H.; Louahdi, R.

    2005-05-01

    La température de contact lors des essais d'usure varie d'une manière spontanée et aléatoire. Cette température de contact dépend essentiellement de la nature du couple des matériaux en contact de la charge et de la vitesse. Cependant la mesure de la température est très difficile à effectuer compte tenu du choix de l'endroit de prise de la température et des phénomènes d'évacuation de la chaleur et de la dissipation de l'énergie. Dans ce travail nous exposons une méthode très simple de mesure de la température et nous étudions par conséquent la variation de la température du Z12CNS20 / Z200C13. Au cours des essais d'usure pour différentes vitesses de glissement, nous montrons en effet que la température augmente d'une manière progressive en fonction de la vitesse puis elle s'élève brutalement au fur et à mesure qu'on se rapproche du point de contact, et enfin nous prouvons par observation métallographique que l'échantillon subit un écoulement plastique provoqué par l'élévation de la température en fonction de la vitesse.

  16. Ideologies Revealed during the Construction of Meaning in an EFL Class (Ideologías reveladas durante la construcción de significado en una clase de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo Mora, Néstor Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an interpretive qualitative study conducted at a public university in Bogotá with 26 pre-service social studies teachers. It is focused on unveiling which ideologies are discovered when they construct the meaning of texts through text-based tasks in an English as a foreign language class. The data were collected by using…

  17. 75 FR 27118 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...); (INDIVIDUAL) 3. JIMENEZ URREGO, Blanca Virginia, c/o JUAN SEBASTIAN Y CAMILA ANDREA JIMENEZ RAMIREZ Y CIA S.C... INTEGRADOS LTDA, Bogota, Colombia; c/o JUAN SEBASTIAN Y CAMILA ANDREA JIMENEZ RAMIREZ Y CIA S.C.S., Bogota... RAMIREZ Y CIA S.C.S., Bogota, Colombia; DOB 28 Jan 1969; Citizen Colombia; Cedula No. 65552011...

  18. Darwin’s legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle’s voyage

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle’s voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly. PMID:24574856

  19. Release of ‘UI Platinum’ hard white spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘UI Platinum’ (Reg. No. CV------, PI 672533) hard white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2014. UI Platinum was derived from the cross ‘Blanca Grande’ x ‘Jerome’ and tested under experimental numbers A01178S, IDO694, and I...

  20. New Frontiers in Literacy: Education and Mental Health of the Homeless. Southeast Florida Training Center for Adult Literacy Educators Conference Proceedings (Miami, Florida, May 5-6, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL. Southeast Florida Training Center for Adult Literacy Educators.

    This document is a transcript of a tape of a conference on homelessness and mental illness conducted by adult literacy educators in Florida. Persons whose remarks are transcribed include Blanca Polo, Director of the Southeast Florida Training Center for Adult Literacy Educators; David K. Fike, author of a study on homelessness in southern Florida;…

  1. 66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 6 FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, AND 8. THREE KIVAS (LEFT - SUS - KATZ - HOUSE NO. 3, CENTER MAU-HA-ROTZ - HOUSE NO. 5, RIGHT - HY-ME-TA-TIES - HOUSE NO. 8) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  2. 67. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934. BLOCK No. 6 FROM SOUTH SHOWING HOUSES Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. HY-ME-TA-TIES KIVA IN FRONT OF HOUSE No. 8. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. PHOTOGRAPH OF AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. PHOTOGRAPH OF AN AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH BOUGHT AT THE KIMO CURIO SHOP IN ALBUQUERQUE N.M. IN 1928. SHOWS ENTIRE VILLAGE AND THE CHURCH. - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM

  4. A measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum and composition at the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, J. W.; Fortson, L. F.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kieda, D. B.; Ong, R. A.; Pryke, C. L.; Sommers, P.

    2001-03-01

    The energy spectrum and primary composition of cosmic rays with energy between 3×10 14 and 3×10 16 eV have been studied using the CASA-BLANCA detector. CASA consisted of 957 surface scintillation stations; BLANCA consisted of 144 angle-integrating Cherenkov light detectors located at the same site. CASA measured the charged particle distribution of air showers, while BLANCA measured the lateral distribution of Cherenkov light. The data are interpreted using the predictions of the CORSIKA air shower simulation coupled with four different hadronic interaction codes. The differential flux of cosmic rays measured by BLANCA exhibits a knee in the range of 2-3 PeV with a width of approximately 0.5 decades in primary energy. The power law indices of the differential flux below and above the knee are -2.72±0.02 and -2.95±0.02, respectively. We present our data both as a mean depth of shower maximum and as a mean nuclear mass. A multi-component fit using four elemental species suggests the same composition trends exhibited by the mean quantities, and also indicates that QGSJET and VENUS are the preferred hadronic interaction models. We find that an initially mixed composition turns lighter between 1 and 3 PeV, and then becomes heavier with increasing energies above 3 PeV.

  5. eLearning--Theories, Design, Software and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislandi, Patrizia, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Chapters in this book include: (1) New e-Learning Environments: e-Merging Networks in the Relational Society (Blanca C. Garcia); (2) Knowledge Building in E-Learning (Xinyu Zhang and Lu Yuhao); (3) E-Learning and Desired Learning Outcomes (Ralph Palliam); (4) Innovative E-Learning Solutions and Environments for Small and Medium Sized Companies…

  6. Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

    1999-08-01

    This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

  7. Darwin's legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle's voyage.

    PubMed

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle's voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly.

  8. 47 CFR 73.202 - Table of Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Tecopa 288A, 291A Trona 247A Twentynine Palms 270A Wasco 224A Waterford 294A Westley *238A Willow Creek 253A, 258A Willows 292A Wofford Heights 251A COLORADO Akron 279C1 Arriba 240A Aspen 228A Blanca...

  9. 47 CFR 73.202 - Table of Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... *298A Tecopa 288A Trona 247A Twentynine Palms 270A Wasco 224A Waterford 294A Westley *238A Willow Creek 258A Willows 292A Wofford Heights 251A COLORADO Akron 279C1 Blanca 249C2 Crested Butte 246C3...

  10. 47 CFR 73.202 - Table of Allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Tecopa 288A, 291A Trona 247A Twentynine Palms 270A Wasco 224A Waterford 294A Westley *238A Willow Creek 253A, 258A Willows 292A Wofford Heights 251A COLORADO Akron 279C1 Arriba 240A Aspen 228A Blanca...

  11. "My Student Was Apprehended by Immigration": A Civics Teacher's Breach of Silence in a Mixed-Citizenship Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbach, Dafney Blanca

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dafney Blanca Dabach investigates how teachers and their students of different citizenship statuses navigate tensions in formal state-sponsored citizenship education. In traditional US high school civics courses, undocumented immigrant youths' liminal status is often invisible and overlooked as undocumented youth are educated…

  12. Bibliografia Bibliotecologica Argentina [Hasta 1967] (A Bibliography of Library Science in Argentina [to 1967]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matijevic, Nicolas, Comp.

    A guide to library services, management, and organization is offered to professionals in this comprehensive bibliography, written in Spanish, of approximately 2500 items. Published by the Universidad Nacional del Sur (The National University of the South) in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, the list covers books, articles, monographs, manuals, catalogs,…

  13. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter; R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  14. A Neural Network Based Workstation for Automated Cell Proliferation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    proliferation analysis, of cytological microscope images. The software of the system assists the expert biotechnologist during cell proliferation and...work was supported by the Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Desarrollo e Investigacíon en Informática REDII 2000. We thank Blanca Itzel Taboada for

  15. Oral History of Coastal Engineering Activities in Southern California, 1930-1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    7 p .. . - -= p -- -. San Luis Obispo County Monterey Co._ ( ~ San Luis Obispo Co. SAN SIMEON Pedr PASO ROBLES A L Blancas CAMBRIA Pt Esteros LL...CARPINTERIA - Santd Barbara Channel Santa Cruz Is. S Santa Rosa Is. San Miguel Is. 00 26 , Miles *"Jk .i *19 ’II ELLWOD/GOLTASSOUGH PAC F C at araaP

  16. Malaria transmission in two localities in north-western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dantur Juri, María J; Zaidenberg, Mario; Claps, Guillermo L; Santana, Mirta; Almirón, Walter R

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that affects people globally. The influence of environmental conditions in the patterns of temporal distribution of malaria vectors and the disease has been studied in different countries. In the present study, ecological aspects of the malaria vector Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis and their relationship with climatic variables, as well as the seasonality of malaria cases, were studied in two localities, El Oculto and Aguas Blancas, in north-western Argentina. Methods The fluctuation of An. pseudopunctipennis and the malaria cases distribution was analysed with Random Effect Poisson Regression. This analysis takes into account the effect of each climatic variable on the abundance of both vector and malaria cases, giving as results predicted values named Incidence Rate Radio. Results The number of specimens collected in El Oculto and Aguas Blancas was 4224 (88.07%) and 572 (11.93%), respectively. In El Oculto no marked seasonality was found, different from Aguas Blancas, where high abundance was detected at the end of spring and the beginning of summer. The maximum mean temperature affected the An. pseudopunctipennis fluctuation in El Oculto and Aguas Blancas. When considering the relationship between the number of malaria cases and the climatic variables in El Oculto, maximum mean temperature and accumulated rainfall were significant, in contrast with Aguas Blancas, where mean temperature and humidity showed a closer relationship to the fluctuation in the disease. Conclusion The temporal distribution patterns of An. pseudopunctipennis vary in both localities, but spring appears as the season with better conditions for mosquito development. Maximum mean temperature was the most important variable in both localities. Malaria cases were influenced by the maximum mean temperature in El Oculto, while the mean temperature and humidity were significant in Aguas Blancas. In Aguas Blancas peaks of

  17. Water Resources in a Peruvian Mountain Watershed: Hydrochemical Tracing of Groundwater and Glacier Meltwater Impact on Streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Callejon de Huaylas, Peru, is a large (~5000 km2; elevation range from ~1800 to 1650 masl) drainage basin for the Rio Santa, which is fed by the glacierized Cordillera Blanca and the non-glacierized Cordillera Negra. The region is well-populated, with extensive agricultural diversity and natural resources, but currently receding glaciers are threatening the future water supply. During the dry season (May to September) glacial melt water from the Cordillera Blanca partially buffers stream-flow, although the magnitude of this effect is not easily measured. We attempt to evaluate the relative contribution of glacier meltwater and groundwater to the regional stream discharge, from 1st order basins to the whole watershed. In July, 2004 and July, 2005 we collected 89 water samples from streams, springs, and groundwater within the Callejon de Huaylas and analyzed for major dissolved ions and the isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. The water generally has a Ca-Mg-HCO3 chemical signal, consistent with the regional geology. Preliminary δ18O and δD values range from -15.6‰ to -4.9‰ and -113‰ to -51.3‰ respectively. Transects of surface water samples from Cordillera Blanca glaciers to the Rio Santa show isotopic enrichment with lower elevation. We sampled 14 groundwater wells and springs, and found the isotopic composition of the water to be isotopically enriched and very similar to surface water within the Cordillera Negra. The Rio Santa is a mixture of Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Negra surface waters, and the down gradient transect becomes relatively depleted with lower elevation, possibly due to the distribution of glacier mass in the Cordillera Blanca. This research is the beginning of a long term water sampling and monitoring program to identify unique geochemical end-members for quantification of glacier meltwater and groundwater contributions and to assess changes in the hydrologic balance within the Callejon de Huaylas as a result of glacier recession.

  18. Dental age estimation: Comparison of reliability between Malay formula of Demirjian method and Malay formula of Cameriere method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghali, R.; Kamaruddin, A. F.; Mokhtar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: The application of forensic odontology using teeth and bones becomes the most commonly used methods to determine age of unknown individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of Malay formula of Demirjian and Malay formula of Cameriere methods in determining the dental age that is closely matched with the chronological age of Malay children in Kepala Batas region. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. 126 good quality dental panoramic radiographs (DPT) of healthy Malay children aged 8-16 years (49 boys and 77 girls) were selected and measured. All radiographs were taken at Dental Specialist Clinic, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The measurements were carried out using new Malay formula of both Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calibrated examiner. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis between the chronological age with Demirjian and Cameriere has been calculated. The Demirjian method has shown a better percentage (91.4%) of ICC compared to Cameriere (89.2%) which also indicates a high association, with good reliability. However, by comparing between Demirjian and Cameriere, it can be concluded that Demirjian has a better reliability. Conclusion: Thus, the results suggested that, modified Demirjian method is more reliable than modified Cameriere method among the population in Kepala Batas region.

  19. [Abundance and diversity of littoral invertebrates in the Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mille-Pagaza, Silvia; Carrillo-Laguna, J; Pérez-Chi, A; Sánchez-Salazar, M E

    2002-03-01

    Composition, abundance, diversity and distribution of the littoral benthic invertebrates of Socorro Island with transects (parallel to the coast and with 1 m2 quadrats) were analyzed. During the spring of 1991 and 1992 samples were taken from the upper and middle levels of the intertidal zone in Vargas Lozano, Braithwaite, Blanca SW, Blanca NE, Binners, Grayson, Academia and Norte bays. The 161 species found belong to Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelmintha, Nemertina, Sipunculida, Annelida, Mollusca, Anthropoda and Echinodermata. Crustaceans and mollusks were the richest groups in both years, as in other rocky shores. Highest total density was found in Blanca NE bay in both samplings, with 281 orgs./m2 in the first and 172 orgs./m2 in the second. Most frequently found species were Isognomon janus (Mollusca, Pelecypoda), Littorina pullata (Mollusca, Gastropoda), Hipponix panamensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda), Pachygrapsus transversus (Crustacea, Grapsoidea) and Turbo funiculosus (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Because of the complexity of the habitat structure, Vargas Lozano was the bay with the highest specific richness (83 species), greatest diversity (4.7 bits/individual) and lowest dominance (0.065). Most species were classified as accidentals with the Dajoz's frequency classification, while the dominant species were accessories and only I. janus, in the spring 1991, was a constant species. Two kinds of bays were distinguished: those with some dominant species (density) and those in which there was no evident dominance by a particular species. Consequently, the diversity and evenness values were set apart: homogeneous communities (Vargas Lozano and Binners) and heterogeneous communities (Grayson bay and others), characterized by intermediate evenness values. The Jaccard similarity index identified two regions: one formed by bays found mainly in the southwest part of the island (Binners, Vargas Lozano, Braithwaite, Grayson and Blanca SW) and the other found in the northern

  20. Chemical and biochemical changes in prickly pears with different ripening behaviour.

    PubMed

    Silos-Espino, Héctor; Fabian-Morales, Lourdes; Osuna-Castro, Juan Alberto; Valverde, María Elena; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2003-10-01

    Chemical and biochemical changes were studied in ripening prickly pears from three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behaviour: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Charola (O. streptacantha), of early, intermediate, and late ripening, respectively. At fullyripe stage (commercial maturity), Blanca Cristalina showed the biggest fruits, the hardest texture, and its pulp had the highest protein content. There were no significant differences among morphospecies in pH or total soluble solids in fully ripe fruits. The three species exhibited considerable levels of vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc. Protein expression was analysed in pulp and skin from every species at physiological and commercial maturity. Some proteins appeared at both stages, while many others expressed differentially. This study evaluated prickly pear components important for human nutrition and health, and provided basic information on pricky pear ripening, with a view to its control and to improving shelf life.

  1. A study of microseismicity in northern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. L.; Koczynski, T.; Madrid, J.

    1976-01-01

    Five microearthquake instruments were operated for 2 months in 1974 in a small mobile array deployed at various sites near the Agua Blanca and San Miguel faults. An 80-km-long section of the San Miguel fault zone is presently active seismically, producing the vast majority of recorded earthquakes. Very low activity was recorded on the Agua Blanca fault. Events were also located near normal faults forming the eastern edge of the Sierra Juarez suggesting that these faults are active. Hypocenters on the San Miguel fault range in depth from 0 to 20 km although two-thirds are in the upper 10 km. A composite focal mechanism showing a mixture of right-lateral and dip slip, east side up, is similar to a solution obtained for the 1956 San Miguel earthquake which proved consistent with observed surface deformation.

  2. Geologic evaluation of remote sensing data, site 157, Awza-Borrego Desert, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, E. W.

    1969-01-01

    Remote sensing data were obtained at site 157 in May 1968 under mission 73 of the NASA aircraft program. The site is located in an area of high temperatures and extreme aridity immediately west of the Imperial Valley, Southern California. Site 157 is partially surrounded by pre-Cenozoic crystalline rocks exposed in the Fish Creek, Vallecito, and Tierra Blanca Mountains. The study area itself is underlain by more than 20,000 feet of sedimentary strata of late Cenozoic age.

  3. Attenuation of Seismic Waves at Regional Distances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-27

    States (SALMON, GASBUOG, RULISON and RIO BLANCA) and in the French Sahara ( SAPHIR and RUBIS). The hard-rook ITS calibration curve, when applied to these...so that two of the explosions, SAPHIR and RUBIS, had measure- able Lg-wave amplitudes. Figure 4 gives an example of Lg waves of SAPHIR recorded at...for RUBIS and SAPHIR . Station HLW is in Egypt, and SDB in Angola. Both shots were in granite. For the Nevada explosions SHOAL and PILEDRIVER, also in

  4. Sand Waves. Report 1. Sand Wave Shoaling in Navigation Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    heights range from 0.8 m in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy (Dalrymple 1984) to 6.0 m in the Bahia Blanca Estuary, Argentina (Aliotta and Perillo 1987...26 PART IV: SITE-SPECIFIC SAND WAVE SHOALING PROBLEMS .. ........ 30 Columbia River Navigation Channel ........ ............... .. 30 Panama ...problem location discussed in this report is at St. Andrew Bay near Panama City, Florida. A relatively short section of the jettied inlet channel requires

  5. The United States, the South Atlantic, and Antarctic: Interests and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    and Panama Canals are threatened. Even now, the large supertankers and larger naval vessels, such as amphibious landing ships and aircraft car- riers...War has the United States maintained a base in South America. The Panama Canal, while still an important interest, is no longer a "vital" concern...port at Bahia Blanca. The terms of the contract were highly favorable, including a financing scheme by Soviet-procured sources and credits payable in

  6. Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    The message , the messenger(s), the ideology’s supporting institutions, and the in- stitutions of the counter-ideology. A fifth line lies in both the...Operation: Attack the Message The first and most important line of operation is attacking the Qutbist message . While the West has a supporting role, it...technique.46 Mohammed VI, the King of Morocco, in response to the 2003 Casa- blanca bombings, took a number of steps to attack the extremist’s message

  7. Networks 90: Polymer Networks Group Meeting (10th) and IUPAC international Symposium on Polymer Networks (10th) Held in Jerusalem on 20-25 May 1990. Programme and Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-25

    at the ambient temperatureI (T) and pressure (p); pu, is the "contribution’ of the network to u,; q is the degree of swelling, which equals 1i/ where...Antonio Rey and Walther Burcharda) a) Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg 7800 Freiburg, FRG b) Departimento di Quimica Fisica...Ingenieria Quimica , 12 de octubre 1842, 8000 Bahia Blanca, Argentina. P-36 BRANCHING KINETICS OF EPOXY POLYMERIZATION OF 1,4-BUTANEDIOL DIGLYCIDYL ETHER

  8. Taxonomy and Biology of Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    Diptera, Psychodidae). Rev. Med. Exp., Lima 13:125-134. Blancas, F. & A. Herrer. 1959-1960. Estudios sobre la enfermedad de Carrion en el valle...distribuipo geografica e da incidencia por tipo de capture de 64 especies identificadas. Revta Ser. Exp. Saude Pub. 2:817-842. Damasceno, R. G., 0. R...verruga en el Departamento de Cajamarca. II. Observaciones entomologicas. Rev. Med.3 exp., Lima 2:354-361. 1949-1951. Estudios sobre leishmaniasis

  9. Accomplishments under the Airport Improvement Program: Fiscal Year 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SANTA MARIA PUBLIC SIGNS; IMPROVE DRAINAGE (PRIMARY) IMULTI-YEAR PROJECT. TOTAL FEDERAL COMMITMENT $ 388,890’ SANTA ROSA 07 $300.000 ACQUIRE LAND FOR...INSTALL SECURITY FENCING AND LIGHTING; SIERRA BLANCA REGIONAL CONSTRUCT TAXIWAY AND EQUIPMENT STORAGE (COMMERCIAL SERVICE) BUILDING SANTA FE 01...362,726 INSTALL WEATHER REPORTING EQUIPMENT VARIOUS LOCATIONS (GENERAL AVIATION) SANTA ROSA 01 $36,000 CONDUCT MASTER PLAN STUDY SANTA ROSA MUNICIPAL

  10. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume 3. Part 1. Affected Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    northwest and west central (near Santa Rosa , New Mexico) portions, due to increasing topographic relief as well as decreasing aridity. The southwestern...3.3.2.8-2, respectively. Aquatic Species (3.3.2.8.3) Protected fish occur mostly in the Pecos River near Roswell, Fort Sumner, and Santa Rosa , in the...National Park Service holding is the Lake Meredith National Recreational Area. The Kiowa and Rita Blanca National Grasslands are administered by the U.S

  11. Late Pleistocene equilibrium-line reconstructions in the northern Peruvian Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodbell, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    ELA reconstructions using the toe-to-headwall-altitude ratio method for paleoglaciers in the Cordilleras Blanca and Oriental, northern Peruvian Andes indicate that ELAs during the last glacial maximum (LGM; marine isotope stage 2)) were c.4300 m in the Cordillera Blanca, c.3900-3600 m on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental, and c.3200 m on the east (Amazon Basin) side of the Cordillera Oriental. Comparison with estimated modern ELAs and glaciation thresholds indicate that ELA depression ranged from c.700 m in the Cordillera Blanca to c.1200 m on the east side of the Cordillera Oriental. Palynological evidence for drier conditions during the LGM in the tropical Andes suggests that ELA depression of this amount involved a temperature reduction (>5-6??C) that greatly exceeded the tropical sea-surface temperature depression estimates of CLIMAP (<2??C). The west to east increase in ELA depression during the LGM indicates that the steep modern precipitation gradients may have been even steeper during the LGM. -from Author

  12. Variations in macrobenthic community structure in relation to changing environmental conditions in sandy beaches of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcedo, M. Cecilia; Fiori, Sandra M.; Piccolo, M. Cintia; López Abbate, M. Celeste; Bremec, Claudia S.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes for the first time the intertidal macrobenthic community of exposed sandy beaches located near the Bahía Blanca Estuary (38°S) and reports the physical characterization of this coastal fringe. The main objective of the study was to link environmental variables to biotic information, analyzing the results in the context of the Swash Exclusion Hypothesis (SEH) and possible estuarine influence. Four beaches were sampled seasonally at different distances from the mouth of the Bahía Blanca Estuary. To characterize the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the Dean parameter (Ω) was calculated. Multivariate analyses were used to assess benthic community structures and their relationships with physical variables. The two beaches located closest to the Bahía Blanca Estuary were classified as intermediate and those located further from the estuary as dissipative. Richness, diversity and biomass of intertidal macrobenthic communities varied with the SEH, increasing towards the dissipative beaches. However, total density was higher on intermediate beaches, possibly because of nutrient-rich silt-clay sediment input from the estuary, enabling them to maintain a higher density of organisms than dissipative beaches. The estuary acts as a moderator of habitat hardness, which together with the morphodynamic state of the beaches is an important factor in the structuring of the macrobenthic community along this coastal fringe.

  13. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  14. Satellite-derived NDVI, LST, and climatic factors driving the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes in a former malarious area in northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Estallo, Elizabet; Almirón, Walter; Santana, Mirta; Sartor, Paolo; Lamfri, Mario; Zaidenberg, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Distribution and abundance of disease vectors are directly related to climatic conditions and environmental changes. Remote sensing data have been used for monitoring environmental conditions influencing spatial patterns of vector-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climatic factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and accumulated rainfall) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina using Poisson regression analyses. Samples were collected from December, 2001 to December, 2005 at three localities, Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. We collected 11,206 adult Anopheles species, with the major abundance observed at El Oculto (59.11%), followed by Aguas Blancas (22.10%) and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (18.79%). Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species at El Oculto, Anopheles argyritarsis predominated in Aguas Blancas, and Anopheles strodei in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with the highest peaks during the spring seasons. LST and mean temperature appear to be the most important variables determining the distribution patterns and major abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis within malarious areas.

  15. Geologic structure and tectonics of inner continental borderland of northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.; Victor, W.O.; Francisco, S.V.

    1987-05-01

    Detailed marine geophysical surveys of the inner California continental borderland west of northern Baja California show that the region is underlain by two major, northwest-trending, Quaternary, dextral wrench fault systems. The San Clemente fault system lies along the western part of the inner borderland and is delineated by the San Clemente and San Isidro fault zones. Together, these fault zones connect to form a long (300 km), narrow (5-10 km), continuous zone of faulting that is very similar to the larger San Andreas fault system onshore. The Agua Blanca fault system is a complex zone of shear delineated by three or more subparallel wrench fault zones in the eastern part of the inner borderland. The westernmost San Diego Trough-Bahia Soledad fault zone consists of relatively long (50 km), continuous, main fault traces which cut the Quaternary sediments of the nearshore basin trough. The Coronado Bank-Agua Blanca fault zone is more complicated, with numerous discontinuous, subparallel, right- and left-stepping, anastomosing fault traces which are associated with significant structural relief. A nearshore zone of faults, marked by the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault zone in the north and the Estero-Descanso fault zone in the south, parallels the coast and defines the eastern boundary of the California continental borderland structural province. All of these eastern fault zones merge into the transpeninsular Agua Blanca fault, and their N30/sup 0/W trend differs substantially from the trend of the major peninsular ranges fault zones.

  16. Living and dying with glaciers: people's historical vulnerability to avalanches and outburst floods in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Mark

    2005-07-01

    Human populations worldwide are vulnerable to natural disasters. Certain conditions—such as geographical location or people's income level—can affect the degree to which natural disasters impact people's homes and livelihoods. This paper suggests that vulnerability to natural disasters increases when local people, scientists, and policymakers do not communicate and trust each other. Additionally, a breakdown in interaction and confidence among these groups can disrupt the implementation of sound science or well-intentioned policies. This case study analyzes how local people, scientists, and government officials responded to glacier hazards in Peru's Cordillera Blanca mountain range. Cordillera Blanca glacier retreat since the late-19th century has triggered some of the world's most deadly avalanches and glacial lake outburst floods. Although a Peruvian glaciology and lakes security office has "controlled" 35 Cordillera Blanca glacial lakes, 30 glacier disasters have killed nearly 30,000 people in this region since 1941. A lack of local faith in government officials and scientists as well as the State's failure to follow scientists' warnings about potential disasters have endangered or led to the death of thousands of local residents, many of which remain living in hazard zones today.

  17. Importance of Viscoelastic Property Measurement of a New Hydrogel for Health Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Niladri; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2009-07-01

    A simple technology based new hydrogel "PVP-CMC-BA" has been prepared by the scientists of Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic. Its swelling property (in presence of water, human blood and different pH), antimicrobial property (in presence of skin infection causing agents like: Staphylococcus aureus; bacteria and Candida albicans; fungi) and viscoelastic properties such as storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G") and complex viscosity (η*) were investigated at room temperature (25-28° C) which demonstrate that PVP-CMC-BA hydrogel is maintaining requisite properties for health care application, specially as a wound dressing material. The elasticity and antimicrobial property of PVP-CMC-BA is directly correlated with percentage of boric acid, an antiseptic agent. The consequential values of viscoelastic properties of the hydrogel (before drying) enable us to understand its specific flexible condition to apply on the surface of human body.

  18. New generalized poisson mixture model for bimodal count data with drug effect: An application to rodent brief‐access taste aversion experiments

    PubMed Central

    Soto, J; Orlu Gul, M; Cortina‐Borja, M; Tuleu, C; Standing, JF

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic (PD) count data can exhibit bimodality and nonequidispersion complicating the inclusion of drug effect. The purpose of this study was to explore four different mixture distribution models for bimodal count data by including both drug effect and distribution truncation. An example dataset, which exhibited bimodal pattern, was from rodent brief‐access taste aversion (BATA) experiments to assess the bitterness of ascending concentrations of an aversive tasting drug. The two generalized Poisson mixture models performed the best and was flexible to explain both under and overdispersion. A sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) model with logistic transformation was introduced to link the drug effect to the data partition within each distribution. Predicted density‐histogram plot is suggested as a model evaluation tool due to its capability to directly compare the model predicted density with the histogram from raw data. The modeling approach presented here could form a useful strategy for modeling similar count data types. PMID:27472892

  19. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a gene coding for a novel aspartate aminotransferase from Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, J R; Kahn, M L

    1993-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) is an important enzyme in aspartate catabolism and biosynthesis and, by converting tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates to amino acids, AAT is also significant in linking carbon metabolism with nitrogen metabolism. To examine the role of AAT in symbiotic nitrogen fixation further, plasmids encoding three different aminotransferases from Rhizobium meliloti 104A14 were isolated by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotroph that lacks three aminotransferases. pJA10 contained a gene, aatB, that coded for a previously undescribed AAT, AatB. pJA30 encoded an aromatic aminotransferase, TatA, that had significant AAT activity, and pJA20 encoded a branched-chain aminotransferase designated BatA. Genes for the latter two enzymes, tatA and batA, were previously isolated from R. meliloti. aatB is distinct from but hybridizes to aatA, which codes for AatA, a protein required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The DNA sequence of aatB contained an open reading frame that could encode a protein 410 amino acids long and with a monomer molecular mass of 45,100 Da. The amino acid sequence of aatB is unusual, and AatB appears to be a member of a newly described class of AATs. AatB expressed in E. coli has a Km for aspartate of 5.3 mM and a Km for 2-oxoglutarate of 0.87 mM. Its pH optimum is between 8.0 and 8.5. Mutations were constructed in aatB and tatA and transferred to the genome of R. meliloti 104A14. Both mutants were prototrophs and were able to carry out symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Images PMID:8320232

  1. Individual versus corporate responsibility for smoking-related illness: Australian press coverage of the Rolah McCabe trial.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie; McLeod, Kim; Smith, Katherine Clegg

    2003-12-01

    This paper provides a thematic frame analysis of Australian newspaper reporting of the outcome and implications of the trial of Rolah McCabe versus British American Tobacco Australasia (BATA). In this trial, a Melbourne woman was awarded A$700,000 damages for smoking-attributable lung cancer when the defendant, BATA, had its case dismissed due to document destruction. In 60 commentaries from Australian national or capital city newspapers between 12 April and 9 May 2002, a total of 79 instances of eight tobacco-related frames were identified. Overall, 43% of the 79 instances were positive for tobacco control, 46% were negative for tobacco control and 11% were neutral. The most common frame that was negative for tobacco control (in 35% of articles) was the conception that smokers exert 'free will' in deciding to smoke and should therefore be personally responsible for their smoking and any disease that arises as a result of it. A related, but less commonly employed frame (in 18% of articles) was the expressed fear of a 'slippery slope' of litigation, which portrayed smoking as similar to eating fast food or other 'vices'. The most common frame that was positive for tobacco control (in 35% of articles) was the notion that the tobacco industry was 'evil' and, to a lesser extent, that the government should 'do more' to control smoking (15% of articles). These findings provide a sobering public health challenge to improve public communication efforts about the powerful forces that conspire to induce people to start smoking and keep them smoking for decades, despite a strong desire to quit. There is a need to fund public education programs and quit smoking services more adequately to address the complex education task of understanding the nature of addiction to tobacco and the enormity of the health risk.

  2. Facilitating Professional Development during International Practicum: Understanding Our Work as Teacher Educators through Critical Incidents (Facilitando el desarrollo profesional durante la práctica internacional: Comprendiendo nuestro trabajo como formadores de profesores a través de incidentes críticos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Judy; Grierson, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative self-study details the experiences of an Australian teacher educator and a Canadian teacher educator, who led teacher candidates on international practicum placements to the Cook Islands and Kenya respectively. Focusing on critical incidents, they collaboratively analyzed dilemmas that occurred when providing professional…

  3. Physical Measurements of Water Properties Across the Mouth of the Gulf of California during April 2013 (PESCAR24 Cruise) (Mediciones Fisicas de las Propiedades del Agua a Traves de la Boca del Golfo de California Durante Abril de 2013 (Crucero PESCAR24)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-26

    interés en determinar la estructura de la Corriente de California en el área (Rago et al., 1992). Un aspecto relevante del proyecto fue la medición...salinómetros y las mediciones de conductividad por el CTD en el momento que las botellas Niskin fueron disparadas. En este punto, sin embargo, fue

  4. The Nopal 1 Uranium Deposit: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Galoisy, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal 1 natural analogue is located in the Pena Blanca uranium district, about 50 kms north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit is hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs, dated at 44 Ma (Nopal and Colorados formations), and overlying the Pozos conglomerate formation and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The deposit is exposed at the ground surface and consists of a near vertical zone extending over about 100 m with a diameter of 40 m. An interesting characteristic is that the primary mineralization has been exposed above the water table, as a result of the uplift of the Sierra Pena Blanca, and subsequently oxidized with a remobilization of hexavalent uranium. The primary mineralization has been explained by various genetic models. It is associated to an extensive hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic tuffs, locally associated to pyrite and preserved by an intense silicification. Several kaolinite parageneses occur in fissure fillings and feldspar pseudomorphs, within the mineralized breccia pipe and the barren surrounding rhyolitic tuffs. Smectites are mainly developed in the underlying weakly welded tuffs. Several radiation-induced defect centers have been found in these kaolinites providing a unique picture of the dynamics of uranium mobilization (see Allard et al., this session). Another evidence of this mobilization is given by the spectroscopy of uranium-bearing opals, which show characteristic fluorescence spectra of uranyl groups sorbed at the surface of silica. By comparison with the other uranium deposits of the Sierra Pena Blanca and the nearby Sierra de Gomez, the Nopal 1 deposit is original, as it is one of the few deposits hving retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  5. Alternate source term models for Yucca Mountain performance assessment based on natural analog data and secondary mineral solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.; Codell, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    Performance assessment calculations for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were conducted using the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Total-System Performance Assessment (TPA 3.2) code to test conceptual models and parameter values for the source term based on data from the Pena Blanca, Mexico, natural analog site and based on a model for coprecipitation and solubility of secondary schoepite. In previous studies the value for the maximum constant oxidative alteration rate of uraninite at the Nopal I uranium body at Pena Blanca was estimated. Scaling this rate to the mass of uranium for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository yields an oxidative alteration rate of 22 kg/y, which was assumed to be an upper limit on the release rate from the proposed repository. A second model was developed assuming releases of radionuclides are based on the solubility of secondary schoepite as a function of temperature and solution chemistry. Releases of uranium are given by the product of uranium concentrations at equilibrium with schoepite and the flow of water through the waste packages. For both models, radionuclides other than uranium and those in the cladding and gap fraction were modeled to be released at a rate proportional to the uranium release rate, with additional elemental solubility limits applied. Performance assessment results using the Pena Blanca oxidation rate and schoepite solubility models for Yucca Mountain were compared to the TPA 3.2 base case model, in which release was based on laboratory studies of spent fuel dissolution, cladding and gap release, and solubility limits. Doses calculated using the release rate based on natural analog data and the schoepite solubility models were smaller than doses generated using the base case model. These results provide a degree of confidence in safety predictions using the base case model and an indication of how conservatism in the base case model may be reduced in future analyses.

  6. Exploring impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation on Meteorological Forcing within the Glaciated Llanganuco Valley, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, J. M.; Hellstrom, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is known to be the primary modulator of inter-annual weather patterns in the Andes, but its impact in the Cordillera Blanca (White Range) is not fully understood. In 2004 an autonomous sensor network (ASN) was installed in the Llanganuco Valley in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru consisting of two automatic weather stations (AWS) located at the base and upper ridge of the valley connected by four air temperature/humidity micro-loggers at equal elevation intervals. The ASN permits high resolution evaluations of the micro-scale meteorology within the valley. Twenty-four hour composites and monthly averages of wind, solar insolation, air temperature profiles, and precipitation obtained from the ASN were analyzed for the historical wet and dry seasons between the years of 2005 and 2015. The evidence suggests that teleconnections exist between eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures and meteorological forcing within the Valley. Comparisons between the two AWS units reveal similar ENSO impacts during the wet season that are not replicated in the dry season. We found that warm and cold ENSO create anomalies that appear unique to this region of the outer Tropics. Warm ENSO phases promote wetter than normal dry seasons and dryer than normal wet seasons and visa versa for cold phases of ENSO. Air temperature is strongly positively correlated to warm ENSO phases during the wet season and depends on elevation during the dry season. Insolation is negatively correlated to warm ENSO phases at higher elevations with weak positive correlation at lower elevations. We attribute observed seasonality, in part, to interactions between channeling of synoptic flow and thermally driven winds. Although the sporadic availability of data prevents definitive conclusions at this time, recent improvements in the ASN infrastructure will facilitate deeper understanding of ENSO impacts on meteorological forcing within pro-glacial valleys of the

  7. Operation HARDTACK 2, 1958.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-03

    AGG3 c 8 L7 x0 II I/ TAMALPAIS EVANS I _ 1 12/ 8 LOGAN 01_ iBLANCA 1 I RUSHMORE 1 2 91 MAZAMA EDDY MORA QUAY LEA I DONA ANA 4 7SOCORRO - -DE BACABJY I... RUSHMORE ....... ................... . 147 5.12.1 Department of Defense Participation in Scientific and Support Activities ..... ... 147 5.12.2... RUSHMORE , 22 October 1958, Mid-time 1600 ........ .................... 151 5-10 Initial Survey for Shot SANFORD, 26 October 1958, Mid-time 0242

  8. Nopal I uranium deposit: A study of radionuclide migration

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Anthony, E.; Goodell, P.

    1996-12-01

    This summary reports on activities of naturally-occurring radionuclides for the Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Activities were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. In addition, data reduction procedures and sample preparation (for Rn retention) will be discussed here. Nopal I uranium deposit has been identified as one of the most promising sites for analogue studies to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this research is to study the potential for radionuclide migration by testing whether any portion of the deposit is in secular equilibrium.

  9. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    PubMed

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  10. [The Ebro River and the Camino de Santiago].

    PubMed

    Cuchí de la Cuesta, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Humans travel for many reasons; here we concentrate in pilgrimage and the role of the Ebro River as their means of transportation. The Camino de Santiago through the Ebro is linked to the devotion to Santa María del Pilar de Zaragoza, where according to the tradition appeared in flesh and body (January 2, 40, BC). Famous pilgrims are Luis VII of France, Lady Blanca, daughter of Carlos III. The Ebro's navigability allowed sustaining the fervor alive as it is proven by the many records found Catón, Estrabrón, Plinio, Avieno) describing its use for pilgrimage and commercial purposes.

  11. Compilation of Local Fallout Data from Test Detonations 1945-1962 Extracted from DASA 1251. Volume I. Continental U.S. Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    pt . ! 381 "’.~--- 58 PROJECT - Uranus Safety Experiment PST CMT Sponsor: UCRL DTE: 14 Mar 195 14 Mar 1958 TIME: 1400 2200 SITE: NTS - Area 12d 37r 11...Hodograph for H1ARfACK II - Blanca. I 1J 494• I i OPERATION 5ARIDACK II - Titania Safety Experiment PST GH4T Sponsor: UCRL ,T E: 30 Oct 1956 30 Oct 1958...HADTMACK II - Titania . On-site dose rate contours in r/hr at H+l hour. 496 { !Ak 103 NNVDAI WIND oTA IPOR GP&TON RM ACK II- T - ltitude H-hour - hour

  12. M-X Environmental Technical Report - Selection of Suitable Locational Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    to the DDA. To the south of the proposed Dalhart site the terrain from the Punta Agua , Rita Blanca, and Canadian rivers becomes extremely erratic and...could be used to lessen potable water demands or could be used to recharge the local aquifer. 4-14 i m / I I III , ,- ,- H 04 -) 4"m4 ( NJ, 4-15) Wa...District to supply treated potable water by pipeline from Las Vegas.) In an overall assessment of water supply, each base location except Ely would

  13. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    Brasil Ent. 33:455-463. Blancas, F. & A. Herrer. 1959-1960. Estudios s~bre Ia enfermedad de Carrion en el valle interandino del Mantaro. mI. Descripcion... tipo do capture de 64 espdcies idaitificadas. Rev. Ser. Exp. Siude Pub. 2:817-842. References Cited 807 Damasceno, R. G. & 0. R. Causey. 1944. Estudo...r6giones endtmicas leishmaniasis cutbnea del Paraguay. Rev. Med. Paraguay 2:12. Gonzalez, R. B. & 1. Garcia Avila. 1981. Estudio y distribucion de la

  14. Assessing volume change of tropical Peruvian glaciers from multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, K.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Although far smaller than large polar ice caps, mountain glaciers are significant contributors to sea level rise and tropical glaciers in particular are sources of critical water resources to regional societies. The glaciers in Cordillera Blanca, the Andes of Peru, hold important environmental and economic concerns of regional water supplies to communities in the arid western part of the country under continued global climate change. Yet steep relief and remote locations present challenges for measuring mass changes in tropical glaciers. Remotely sensed images provide feasible opportunities to measure glacier surface area changes. We use a combination of satellite and airborne remote sensing, digital photogrammetry and geospatial techniques to assess the surface area, volume and topographic changes of key glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru between 1962 and 2008. The intercomparison of digital elevation models (DEMs) from airborne Light Detection and Range (LiDAR) data of 2008, multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) of 2001-2008 and stereo-paired airborne photographs of 1962 for deriving elevation differences over time reveal the data quality to measure the volume loss in the area. The DEMs over non-glacier areas in the study sites were selected and differentially corrected Global Positioning System (dGPS) data points were used for comparison as well. The motivation of this study is to refine a surface area to volume scaling for tropical glaciers to enable extrapolation of more detailed inventory of glacier volume and water resources.

  15. CO{sub 2} looping cycle performance of a high-purity limestone after thermal activation/doping

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony; Gemma Grasa; J. Carlos Abanades

    2008-09-15

    The influence of thermal pretreatment on the performance of a high-purity limestone (La Blanca) during CO{sub 2} capture cycles is investigated in this paper. This limestone was chosen for more detailed investigation because, in earlier research, it failed to show any favorable effect as a result of thermal pretreatment. Here, the original sample, with a particle size of 0.4-0.6 mm, and ground samples were thermally pretreated at 1000-1200{sup o}C, for 6-24 h, and then subjected to several carbonation/calcination cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). This work shows that thermal pretreatment failed to produce a significant self-reactivation effect during CO{sub 2} cycles, despite the use of a wide range of conditions during pretreatment (grinding, temperature, and pretreatment duration) as well as during cycling (CO{sub 2} concentration and duration of the carbonation stage). Additional doping experiments showed that both high Na content and lack of Al in La Blanca limestone cause poor self-reactivation performance after thermal pretreatment. Scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses also confirmed more pronounced sintering and loss of activity, which we believe are caused by the relatively high Na content. However, stabilization of sorbent particle morphology by Al can allow this limestone to show self-reactivation performance and higher conversions over a longer series of CO{sub 2} cycles. 35 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. ABA-mediated heterophylly is regulated by differential expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 in lilies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Hwang, San-Gwang; Chen, Shiau-Ming; Shii, Chou-Tou; Cheng, Wan-Hsing

    2011-10-01

    Although exogenous ABA-regulated heterophylly has been well documented in multiple plant species, the effect of endogenous ABA and its molecular mechanism remain uncharacterized. In the present study, the effects of endogenous ABA on heterophyllous switching were investigated in two different lily varieties, Lilium formosanum and Lilium oriental hybrid 'Casa Blanca'. Seedlings of L. formosanum, which have scale-leaf-type growth, displayed low levels of both 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3 (LfNCED3) transcripts and ABA, whereas seedlings of L. oriental hybrid 'Casa Blanca', which have scale-type growth, displayed high levels of both LoNCED3 transcripts and ABA. Sucrose induced endogenous ABA production in cultured lilies; low ABA induction shows scale-leaf-type growth, whereas scale-type growth becomes predominant when ABA levels are high. Heterologous expression of either LfNCED3 or LoNCED3 was found to complement the Arabidopsis Atnced3 mutant. Interestingly, the expression patterns of LfNCED3 and LoNCED3 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants are distinguishable. Further promoter analysis revealed that a putative E2F-like element in the LfNCED3 promoter, but not in the LoNCED3 promoter, plays a negative role in controlling its activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NCED3 plays a key role in ABA-mediated heterophylly in lilies.

  17. A new Tertiary borax deposit in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R. N.; Helvacı, C.; Sureda, R. J.; Viramonte, J. G.

    1988-10-01

    The Loma Blanca borate deposit was formed in the muds of playa-lake environments during the Late Miocene and is the fourth Tertiary commercial borax deposit discovered within the borate districts of the world. It is the only South American deposit known to contain any of the minerals colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax, tincalconite and teruggite with a unique and characteristic mineral sequence among the other Argentinian borate deposits. The Loma Blanca deposit is characterized by abundant Ca, Na and B, very low Cl and relatively high As, S and Mg concentrations compared with other borate deposits. Thermal springs and hydrothermal solutions associated with local volcanic activity are thought to be the source of the borates. The early colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax and teruggite nodules and crystals appear to have been formed directly from brines penecontemporaneously within the unconsolidated sediments, and they continued to grow as the sediments were compacted. Later generations of borate minerals occur in vughs, veins and as thin layers. Diagenetic alterations include the partial replacement of borax by ulexite and tincalconite; when weathered, borates are often almost completely replaced by calcite.

  18. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-02-24

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.

  19. [Spoilage of a recreational area due to the effects of a sewage dump].

    PubMed

    Streitenberger, M E; Baldini, M D

    2010-01-01

    Maldonado is the only municipal bathing resort in Bahía Blanca. Its pool receives water from the estuary of Bahia Blanca. The so-called "Planta de Tratamiento de Líquidos Cloacales para la Tercera Cuenca" located nearby, started to operate in September 2008. It is known that the use of fecal contaminated waters increases the disease risk in the population. The aim of this work was to compare current data with the results obtained in previous studies carried out in the Maldonado bathing resort. Five stations were established to assess the presence of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Results showed an increase in E. coli counts in the area of interest. The results obtained both in the pool and at the floodgate during the period 2008-2009 showed that fecal indicators in the samples exceeded the levels required for recreational waters by approximately 80%. During time the sampling lasted, the treatment plant did not work properly. Therefore, it is necessary for the involved authorities to design the right strategies to ensure the proper operation of the plant, and to raise general awareness of environmental and health issues.

  20. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  1. Comparison of Storm-Generated Sediment Concentrations and Loads in an Urban Disturbed Basin and a Rural Undisturbed Basin, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A. C.

    2002-05-01

    The factors controlling storm-generated suspended-sediment loads and concentrations were examined for two basins of contrasting land use in Puerto Rico from 1989 to 1995. The Quebrada Blanca Basin (8.39 km2), a relatively undisturbed basin, drains pasture (54%), forest (21%), cropland (8%), and rural (15%). The Rio Piedras Basin (19.4 km2) is 73% urban and is considered disturbed because of extensive urbanization in the remaining 23% forested areas of the basin, involving many construction projects that expose bare soil. Twenty-three runoff events, defined by a peak over 0.42 m3/s, were examined in Quebrada Blanca and 26 events, defined by a peak over 1.4 m3/s, were examined in Rio Piedras. Three dependent factors were used to describe suspended-sediment transport: (1) suspended-sediment load, (2) discharge-weighted sediment concentration, and (3) time-weighted sediment concentration. Thirteen independent factors controlling sediment were delineated into three time categories: (1) characteristics of the previous event, (2) characteristics between events, and (3) characteristics of the current event. The dependent and independent factors were separated into quickflow and total runoff to determine if one was more significant in explaining sediment. Forward stepwise regression analysis for Quebrada Blanca showed that the most significant variables explaining sediment load and concentrations were directly correlated to the characteristics of the current storm event (for both the quickflow and total runoff aspects of the hydrographs). These included the total quickflow, sum of peak flows, and maximum rate of hydrograph rise for any peak. In Rio Piedras, the three dependent variables for both aspects of the hydrograph were inversely correlated to the rainfall since the previous runoff event. These are smaller rainfall totals that do not cause significant increases in streamflow but are flushing sediment from the system that would be available for the current sampled

  2. Yeast Infection and Diabetes Mellitus among Pregnant Mother in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sopian, Iylia Liyana; Shahabudin, Sa’adiah; Ahmed, Mowaffaq Adam; Lung, Leslie Than Thian; Sandai, Doblin

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaginal yeast infection refers to irritation of the vagina due to the presence of opportunistic yeast of the genus Candida (mostly Candida albicans). About 75% of women will have at least one episode of vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime. Several studies have shown that pregnancy and uncontrolled diabetes increase the infection risk. Reproductive hormone fluctuations during pregnancy and elevated glucose levels characteristic of diabetes provide the carbon needed for Candida overgrowth and infection. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vaginal yeast infection among pregnant women with and without diabetes. Methods This was a case-control study using cases reports from Kepala Batas Health Clinic, Penang State, Malaysia from 2006 to 2012. In total, 740 pregnant ladies were chosen as sample of which 370 were diabetic and 370 were non-diabetic cases. Results No relationship between diabetes and the occurrence of vaginal yeast infection in pregnant women was detected, and there was no significant association between infection and age group, race or education level. Conclusion In conclusion, within radius of this study, vaginal yeast infection can occur randomly in pregnant women. PMID:27540323

  3. Asians seek end to girls' trafficking.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Each year, approximately 1 million Asian children under 18 years old, many of them female, become prostitutes. With regard to this problem, the Summit Foundation, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, and the Centre for Development and Population Activities are sponsoring a conference entitled "Girls' Rights, Society's Responsibility: Taking Action Against Child Sexual Exploitation," on December 8-10, 1997, at the Nehru Centre, Worli, Bombay. Policy makers from government, the legal and police professions, corporations, the tourism industry, and grassroots organizations will attend. Representatives from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand will develop coordinated strategies to end the abuse. The experiences of community-based nongovernmental organizations will be used to develop approaches to prevent exploitation, provide surveillance, and rehabilitate girls who have been exploited. The Nehru Centre, Jet Airways, and the President Hotel of Bombay will provide support. Participants are to include the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, UNIFEM, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Oxfam, CIDA, SIDA, NORAD, and many corporations (Bata, Apeejay, Pepsi, Tata, Godrej, Mahindra and Mahindra, and hotel and tourist businesses).

  4. Molecular characterization of Argulus bengalensis and Argulus siamensis (Crustacea: Argulidae) infecting the cultured carps in West Bengal, India using 18S rRNA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Avijit; Mondal, Anjan; Banerjee, Sayani; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterized Argulus spp. infecting the cultured carps using 18S rRNA gene sequences, estimated the genetic similarity among Argulus spp. and established their phylogenetic relationship. Of the 320 fish samples screened, 34 fish (10.6%) had Argulus infection. The parasitic frequency index (PFI) was observed to be high (20%) in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Labeo bata. The frequency of infection was high in September (PFI: 17%) and October (PFI: 12.9%). The 18S rRNA sequences of five A. bengalensis (KF583878, KF192316, KM016968, KM016969, and KM016970) and one A. siamensis (KF583879) of this study showed genetic heterogeneity and exhibited 77-99% homology among the 18S rRNA gene sequences of Argulus spp. of NCBI GenBank database. Among the Indian Argulus spp. the sequence homology was 87–100%. Evolutionary pair-wise distances between Indian Argulus spp. and other Argulus spp. ranged from 0 to 20.20%. In the phylogenetic tree, all the crustaceans were clustered together as a separate clade with two distinct lineages. The lineage-1 comprised exclusive of Branchiura (Argulus spp.). All Argulus bengalensis clustered together and A. siamensis (KF583879) was closely related to Argulus sp. JN558648. The results of the present study provided baseline data for future work on population structure analysis of Indian Argulus species. PMID:28097169

  5. Dynamic Querying of Mass-Storage RDF Data with Rule-Based Entailment Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianni, Giovambattista; Krennwallner, Thomas; Martello, Alessandra; Polleres, Axel

    RDF Schema (RDFS) as a lightweight ontology language is gaining popularity and, consequently, tools for scalable RDFS inference and querying are needed. SPARQL has become recently a W3C standard for querying RDF data, but it mostly provides means for querying simple RDF graphs only, whereas querying with respect to RDFS or other entailment regimes is left outside the current specification. In this paper, we show that SPARQL faces certain unwanted ramifications when querying ontologies in conjunction with RDF datasets that comprise multiple named graphs, and we provide an extension for SPARQL that remedies these effects. Moreover, since RDFS inference has a close relationship with logic rules, we generalize our approach to select a custom ruleset for specifying inferences to be taken into account in a SPARQL query. We show that our extensions are technically feasible by providing benchmark results for RDFS querying in our prototype system GiaBATA, which uses Datalog coupled with a persistent Relational Database as a back-end for implementing SPARQL with dynamic rule-based inference. By employing different optimization techniques like magic set rewriting our system remains competitive with state-of-the-art RDFS querying systems.

  6. Inactivation of a single gene enables microaerobic growth of the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Brian M.; Baughn, Anthony D.; Gallegos, Rene; Malamy, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis can replicate in atmospheres containing ≤0.05% oxygen, but higher concentrations arrest growth by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that inactivation of a single gene, oxe (i.e., oxygen enabled) in B. fragilis allows for growth in concentrations as high as 2% oxygen while increasing the tolerance of this organism to room air. Known components of the oxidative stress response including the ahpC, kat, batA-E, and tpx genes were not individually important for microaerobic growth. However, a Δoxe strain scavenged H2O2 at a faster rate than WT, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a critical role in limiting growth of this organism to low-oxygen environments. Clinical isolates of B. fragilis displayed a greater capacity for growth under microaerobic conditions than fecal isolates, with some encoding polymorphisms in oxe. Additionally, isolation of oxygen-enabled mutants of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron suggests that Oxe may mediate growth arrest of other anaerobes in oxygenated environments. PMID:22778399

  7. Morphotaxonomical description of three new species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from edible freshwater fishes of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subarna; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2017-03-01

    Three new species of Myxobolus are described from the mucous membrane around gill lamellae of carps of West Bengal. The new species have been named as M. muralidharani sp. n., M. nilimae sp. n. from Labeo rohita, and M. harpreetae sp. n. from Labeo bata respectively. Spores of M. muralidharani sp. n. measured 13.84 ± 0.049 (13-14) × 4.95-6 (5.35) µm, with two elongated equal sized polar capsules. Spores of M. nilimae sp. n. measured 15.9-17.1 (16.65) µm × 6.2-7.5 (6.9) µm, with two equal petal shaped polar capsules, 9.0-11 (10.4) µm × 3-3.5 (3.16) µm. In contrast to aforementioned two new species, M. harpreetae sp. n. had two unequal polar capsules, 8.7-9.2 (9.149) µm × 2.9-4.0 (3.45) µm and 7.6-8.3 (7.94) µm × 2.8-3.3 (2.9) µm in each spore, 11.4-13.8 (13.2) µm × 4.9-7.8 (6.51) µm.

  8. Phase Transitions in Quasi-one-dimensional Selenide BaNbSe 3and Superconductivity in BaNb 2Se 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, T.; Honji, S.; Takano, M.

    1997-08-01

    Samples with various compositions around BaNbSe3were prepared. X-ray analysis revealed that the compound is stable at the composition of BaNb0.80Se3, which formally requires Nb5+ions (d0). The single-phase region extends to the composition BaNb0.95Se3. A semiconductor-to-metal transition was observed at ∼140 K in BaNb0.95Se3. Seebeck measurements showed that the dominant carriers were electrons, which are considered to originate from Nb4+ions (d1) coexisting with Nb5+ions. On the basis of detailed phase study, the transition was revealed to be intrinsic to BaNb0.95Se3with a very slight Ba deficiency. BaNb0.95Se3with a slight Ba excess shows a semiconductor-to-semiconductor transition at 200-300 K. Seebeck measurements showed that the dominant carriers are electrons above the transition and are holes below the transition. A new compound, BaNb2Se5with a BaTa2S5-type structure, was found to show superconductivity at 2.5 K.

  9. Node-surface and node-line fermions from nonsymmorphic lattice symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qi-Feng; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Rui; Wang, Zhi; Weng, Hongming

    2016-02-01

    We propose a kind of topological quantum state of semimetals in the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) crystal family BaMX 3 (M =V , Nb, or Ta; X =S or Se) by using symmetry analysis and first-principles calculation. We find that in BaVS3 the valence and conduction bands are degenerate in the kz=π /c plane (c is the lattice constant along the z ̂ axis) of the Brillouin zone (BZ). These nodal points form a node surface, and they are protected by a nonsymmorphic crystal symmetry consisting of a twofold rotation about the z ̂ axis and a half-translation along the same z ̂ axis. The band degeneracy in the node surface is lifted in BaTaS3 by including strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of Ta. The node surface is reduced into 1D node lines along the high-symmetry paths kx=0 and kx=±√{3 }ky on the kz=π /c plane. These node lines are robust against SOC and guaranteed by the symmetries of the P 63/m m c space group. These node-line states are entirely different from previous proposals which are based on the accidental band touchings. We also propose a useful material design for realizing topological node-surface and node-line semimetals.

  10. The Dúdar landslide: a huge slope instability associated to active tectonics in the NE border of the Granada Basin (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Peces, M. J.; Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Azañón, J. M.; Ureña, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Dúdar landslide is located at the eastern border of the Granada Basin (South Spain), which is a Neogene-Quaternary intramontane depression located in the central part of the Betic Cordillera. The mean landslide area is about 380 ha and can be regarded as one of the largest landslides developed in this part of the cordillera. The landslide development was controlled by the great altitude differences between the Aguas Blancas and Darro rivers, which in turn are the consequence of the tectonic activity of the NW-SE striking normal faults of the northeast border of the Granada Basin and the related NE-SW directed-folds. This tectonic activity produces uplift of the footwall block developing unstable slopes. In the northwest margin of the Aguas Blancas River, slope instabilities are also determined by the relative bad geotechnical quality of the materials involved, which are mainly marls and silty sediments with gypsum interlayers. As for other large landslides located in the Granada Basin (e.g. Güevéjar landslide), the most likely triggering factor seems to be a great earthquake. Nevertheless, there are not historical data for such event but probably occurred prior to 1400, which is the date of the first historical records of the Dúdar village, located in one side of the landslide. In addition, the active faults in the NE border of the Granada Basin can potentially generate earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw=6.0, making the Granada Basin one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. In this work, we have carried out a geomorphologic description of the Dúdar landslide with the aid of a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) derived from LIDAR data. We have analysed the significant changes that the landslide caused in the drainage system of the Aguas Blancas and Darro rivers. These modifications comprise river diversions and active incision within the body of the landslide, making it susceptible to future reactivations. Finally, a

  11. A case of paleo-creep? Comparison of fault displacements in a trench with the corresponding earthquake record in lake sediments along the Polochic fault, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, Gilles; Anselmetti, Flavio

    2014-05-01

    The Polochic and Motagua strike-slip faults in Guatemala accommodate the displacement (~2 cm/y) across the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. Both faults are expected to produce large destructive earthquakes such as the Mw 7.5 earthquake of 1976 on the Motagua fault. Former large earthquakes with magnitudes larger than Mw 7.0 are suggested from the areal extent of destructions to Precolombian Mayan cities and churches, and both the Motagua and Polochic fault have been suspected as the sources of these earthquakes. The available record, however, is surprisingly poor in large earthquakes, suggesting either that the record is sketchy or that such earthquakes are effectively infrequent. We investigated the activity of the Polochic fault by opening trenches along its major strand in Uspantán, Quiché, and Agua Blanca, Alta Verapaz. Recent displacements are evidenced in Agua Blanca, with soils less than 350 years old disrupted by the fault. We combined the study of the trenches with the study of sediment cores in Laguna Chichój, a lake located 4 km north of the Polochic fault. We had previously conducted an analysis of the sensitivity of the Chichój lake sediments to earthquakes in the 20th century. In the 20th centurey the earthquake record is well known, as well the locally felt intensity of these earthquakes. We found that for MMI intensities of VI and higher turbidites and slumps are produced in the lake. We used this calibration to study the earthquake record of the past 12 centuries and identified a cluster of earthquakes with MMI > VI between 830 and 1450 AD. The oldest seismite temporally matches widespread destructions in Mayan cities in 830 AD. Surprisingly, no earthquakes are recorded between 1450 and 1976 AD. Yet, the trench in Agua Blanca records substantial displacement of the Polochic fault over the period. It seems therefore that this ultimate displacement did not produce any substantial earthquake, and may correspond to a period

  12. Preliminary Geologic Map of the North-Central Part of the Alamosa 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Alamosa, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts) and line (terrace and lacustrine spit/barrier bar) vector data for a map comprised of four 7.5' quadrangles in the north-central part of the Alamosa, Colorado, 30' x 60' quadrangle. The quadrangles include Baldy, Blanca, Blanca SE, and Lasauses. The map database, compiled at 1:50,000 scale from new 1:24,000-scale mapping, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic, tectonic, and stratigraphic interest. The mapped area is located primarily in Costilla County, but contains portions of Alamosa and Conejos Counties, and includes the town of Blanca in its northeastern part. The map area is mainly underlain by surficial geologic materials (fluvial and lacustrine deposits, and eolian sand), but Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks crop out in the San Luis Hills, which are in the central and southern parts of the mapped area. The surficial geology of this area has never been mapped at any scale greater than 1:250,000 (broad reconnaissance), so this new map provides important data for ground-water assessments, engineering geology, and the Quaternary geologic history of the San Luis Basin. Newly discovered shoreline deposits are of particular interest (sands and gravels) that are associated with the high-water stand of Lake Alamosa, a Pliocene to middle Pleistocene lake that occupied the San Luis basin prior to its overflow and cutting of a river gorge through the San Luis Hills. After the lake drained, the Rio Grande system included Colorado drainages for the first time since the Miocene (>5.3 Ma). In addition, Servilleta Basalt, which forms the Basaltic Hills on the east margin of the map area, is dated at 3.79+or-0.17 Ma, consistent with its general age range of 3.67-4.84 Ma. This map provides new geologic information for better understanding ground-water flow paths in and adjacent to the Rio Grande system. The map abuts U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1392 (a map of

  13. Characterization of Two Microbial Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB

  14. Science and Technology: The Making of the Air Force Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Blaise Durante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Ms. Wendy...of the Air Force, gave her perspective on the single lab. Also, Mr. Blaise Du ran te , who briefed Secretary Widnall on the final single-lab proposal...which reported di- rectly to General Viccellio. Russo also routinely interacted with Blaise Durante , deputy ass is tant secretary for manage

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 574: Neptune, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-04-30

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 574 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Neptune' and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 12 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune); and (2) CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca). This Closure Report presents information supporting closure of CAU 574 according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]) and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 574 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The following activities were performed to support closure of CAU 574: (1) In situ external dose rate measurements were collected using thermoluminescent dosimeters at CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca). (2) Total effective dose rates were determined at both sites by summing the internal and external dose rate components. (3) A use restriction (UR) was implemented at CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune). Areas that exceed the final action level (FAL) of 25 millirems per year (mrem/yr) based on the Occasional Use Area exposure scenario are within the existing use restricted area for CAU 551. The 25-mrem/yr FAL is not exceeded outside the existing CAU 551 UR for any of the exposure scenarios (Industrial Area, Remote Work Area, and Occasional Use Area). Therefore, the existing UR for CAU 551 is sufficient to bound contamination that exceeds the FAL. (4) An administrative UR was implemented at CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca) as a best management practice (BMP). The 25-mrem/yr FAL was not exceeded for the Remote Work Area or Occasional Use Area exposure scenarios; therefore, a UR is not required. However, because the 25-mrem/yr FAL was exceeded for the Industrial Area exposure scenario, an administrative UR was established as a BMP. UR documentation is included as Appendix B. The UR at CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune

  16. River suspended sediment modelling using a fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Emin Karahan, M.; En, Zekai

    2006-12-01

    Correct estimation of sediment volume carried by a river is very important for many water resources projects. Conventional sediment rating curves, however, are not able to provide sufficiently accurate results. In this paper, a fuzzy logic approach is proposed to estimate suspended sediment concentration from streamflow. This study provides forecasting benchmarks for sediment concentration prediction in the form of a numerical and graphical comparison between fuzzy and rating-curve models. Benchmarking was based on a 5-year period of continuous streamflow and sediment concentration data of Quebrada Blanca Station operated by the United States Geological Survey. The benchmark results showed that the fuzzy model was able to produce much better results than rating-curve models. The fuzzy model proposed in the study is site specific and does not simulate the hysteresis effects. Copyright

  17. Argentine plant increases capacity, improves NGL recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Fernandez, C.L.

    1997-10-06

    Total cryogenic processing capacity at Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A.`s (TGS) Cerri complex in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, is being increased from 22 MMcmd to 40 MMcmd (776 to 1,410 MMcfd) with a future ethane-recovery capacity of 1,900 metric tons/day (mtd; 33,600 b/d) using Ortloff technology. Very high propane recovery can be maintained as the ethane recovery is controlled over a range of 1,000--1,900 mtd as needed to meet local ethane demand. Total NGL recovery can be increased from 2,600 mtd to 4,500 mtd without additional compression. The paper describes current operations, inlet-residue compression, train retrofit, C{sub 3} recovery, C{sub 2} rejection, C{sub 2} recovery, and the final dual-mode design.

  18. Argentine gas plant expansion makes most of existing infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, K.; Carranza, D.

    1997-05-26

    Expansion currently under way at a large gas-processing plant near Bahia Blanca, Argentina, illustrates how incremental projects leveraged off existing facilities can be built at reduced investment. For $60 million, Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS) is increasing capacity at the General Cerri gas-processing plant by a net 17 million cu m/day (490 MMcfd) and storage capacity by 45,000 cu m. To build these facilities from scratch would cost as much as $150 million. By taking advantage of, or leveraging off, the infrastructure in place (land, compression, pipelines, water, and electricity), the project is capitalizing on existing gas flows. The paper describes current operations, the expansion, the addition of aftercoolers, and storage expansion.

  19. End to deficit of LPG. [Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Andrich, V.

    1980-03-01

    In the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, Gas de Estado is constructing the future heart of the petrochemical complex, Bahia Blanca. The complex contains 2 absorption-refrigeration plants, a gas compressing plant, equipment maintenance shops and an important operations base for the Argentine truck gas pipelines. This will be the largest LPG plant in Latin America. The General Cerri plant, under construction, is located in an area of 40,000 sq m with new installations to extract ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The design optimizes the extraction of hydrocarbons from the natural gas and recovers 76% of the ethane. Selection of the process resulted from an investigation that compared the system with processes that use water cooling and absorption with refrigerated oil.

  20. Comparing peasants' perceptions of precipitation change with precipitation records in the tropical Callejón de Huaylas, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Juen, Irmgard; Singer, Katrin; Neuburger, Martina; Schauwecker, Simone; Hofer, Marlis; Kaser, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Pronounced hygric seasonality determines the regional climate and, thus, the characteristics of rain-fed agriculture in the Peruvian Callejón de Huaylas (Cordillera Blanca). Peasants in the Cuenca Auqui on the eastern slopes above the city of Huaraz attribute recently experienced challenges in agricultural production mainly to perceived changes in precipitation patterns. Statistical analyses of daily precipitation records at nearby Recuay (1964 to 2013) and Huaraz (1996 to 2013) stations do not corroborate the perceived changes. Either insufficient temporal resolution of available precipitation records or other environmental and sociopolitical factors impacting traditional farming methods may be the reason for the lack of concordance between the two information sources investigated in this study.

  1. Mapping hazards from glacier lake outburst floods based on modelling of process cascades at Lake 513, Carhuaz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Huggel, C.; Cochachin, A.; Guillén, S.; García, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent warming has had enormous impacts on glaciers and high-mountain environments. Hazards have changed or new ones have emerged, including those from glacier lakes that form as glaciers retreat. The Andes of Peru have repeatedly been severely impacted by glacier lake outburst floods in the past. An important recent event occurred in the Cordillera Blanca in 2010 when an ice avalanche impacted a glacier lake and triggered an outburst flood that affected the downstream communities and city of Carhuaz. In this study we evaluate how such complex cascades of mass movement processes can be simulated coupling different physically-based numerical models. We furthermore develop an approach that allows us to elaborate corresponding hazard maps according to existing guidelines for debris flows and based on modelling results and field work.

  2. Department of Defense. Atlas/Data Abstract for the United States and Selected Areas, Fiscal Year 1996.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    68 Montana (MT) 27 70 Nebraska (NE) 28 72 Nevada (NV) 29 74 New Hampshire (NH) 30 76 New Jersey (NJ) 31 73 New Mexico (NM) 32 80 New York (NY...44,777 New Mexico 301,576 526,874 29,052 310,569 1,168,071 6,064 670,327 676,391 20,408 New York 485,232 635,461 171,141 395,777 1,687,611 64,365...MAP NO. 32 NEW MEXICO GALLUP • »CINIZA •FT. TflNGATE LACUNA LOS ALAMOS ®SANTA FE •PENA BLANCA • SANDIA •LOS RANCHOS DE ALBUQUERQUE

  3. Measuring glacier surface temperatures with ground-based thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry-Wake, Caroline; Baraer, Michel; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Mark, Bryan G.; Wigmore, Oliver; Hellström, Robert È.; Lautz, Laura; Somers, Lauren

    2015-10-01

    Spatially distributed surface temperature is an important, yet difficult to observe, variable for physical glacier melt models. We utilize ground-based thermal infrared imagery to obtain spatially distributed surface temperature data for alpine glaciers. The infrared images are used to investigate thermal microscale processes at the glacier surface, such as the effect of surface cover type and the temperature gradient at the glacier margins on the glacier's temperature dynamics. Infrared images were collected at Cuchillacocha Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, on 23-25 June 2014. The infrared images were corrected based on ground truth points and local meteorological data. For the control points, the Pearson's correlation coefficient between infrared and station temperatures was 0.95. The ground-based infrared camera has the potential for greatly improving glacier energy budget studies, and our research shows that it is critical to properly correct the thermal images to produce robust, quantifiable data.

  4. Oxidative alteration of uraninite at the Nopal I deposit, Mexico: Possible contaminant transport and source term constraints for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, B.W.; Pearcy, E.C.; Prikryl, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico is being studied as a natural analog of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Identification of secondary uranium phases at Nopal I, and the sequence of their formation after uraninite oxidation, provides insight into the source term for uranium, and suggests that uranophane may control uranium release and transport in a silici, tuffaceous, chemically oxidizing, and hydrologically unsaturated environment. Possible constraints on contaminant transport at Nopal I are derived from the spatial distribution of uranium and from measurements of {sup 238}U decay-series isotopes. The analyses indicate that flow of U-bearing fluids was influenced strongly by fracture density, but that the flow of these fluids was not restricted to fractures. Gamma spectroscopic measurements of {sup 238}U decay-series isotopes indicates secular equilibrium, which suggests undetectable U transport under present conditions.

  5. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A.; Rice, G.

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  6. Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Ghezzehei; P.F. Dobson; J.A. Rodriguez; P.J. Cook

    2006-06-20

    The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit.

  7. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-11-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece.

  8. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  9. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  10. Evolución estelar en sistemas binarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O.

    Definición y clasificación de sistemas binarios; descripción del comportamiento del sistema frente a la variación de su masa; binarias de rayos X; transferencia de masa en sistemas binarios masivos aplicado al posible esclarecimiento del progenitor azul de la supernova SN 1987A; comentario acerca de la evolución de enanas blancas de helio de baja masa y su conexión con los sistemas binarios; reseña del trabajo de Kippenhahn y Weigert sobre el cual está basado el código evolutivo desarrollado en la FCAG por el Dr. Benvenuto y sobre el cual se trabajará para poder incluir la evolución de una estrella con pérdida de masa perteneciente a un sistema binario.

  11. Late Quaternary in a South Atlantic estuarine system: Stratigraphic and paleontologic indicators of coastal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliotta, Salvador; Ginsberg, Silvia S.; Spagnuolo, Jorge O.; Farinati, Ester; Giagante, Darío; Vecchi, Laura G.

    2013-08-01

    The decisive influence of Late Quaternary sea level changes on the geological evolution of the coastal plain and adjacent continental shelf around the world has long been recognized. Coastal environments evolve actively during transgressive-regressive cycles whose development depends on sea level and sediment supply variations. The interaction of these variables was key to the current morphological and sedimentological configuration of coastal regions. Particularly, the estuarine system of Bahía Blanca (Argentina) presents various types of deposits and marine fossil accumulations, such as paleochannels in the subbottom, sand-shell ridges and extensive layers with fossils in life position. These features are important geological indicators, because its analysis allows us to define different paleoenvironmental conditions that prevailed during the coastal evolutionary process.

  12. [Gnathostomiasis in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cruz, J M; Bravo-Zamudio, R; Aranda-Patraca, A; Martínez-Marañón, R

    1989-01-01

    Since 1975, increasing numbers of patients with inflammatory, migrant, recidivant nodules were observed in the towns of Temazcal, state of Oaxaca, Tierra Blanca, Veracruz and others along the Papaloapan river. Larvae of Gnathostoma sp. have been obtained from some of them. The local species, although not completely identified, must be very close to G. spinigerum. Infection is related to ingestion of "ceviche", a very popular mexican delicacy made with raw Cyclid fishes of the Miguel Aleman dam. Ecological and social changes provoked by the construction of the dam and hypotheticaly related to the dissemination of the parasite are described. As the Temazcal Fish Culture Center has delivered tilapia fishes to many secondary culture centers, it is feared that the infection could spread through the country, so signs and symptoms of the disease are described in order to help Mexican doctors make the diagnosis if they were to encounter the disease.

  13. Extensive characterisation of bioactive phenolic constituents from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Abu-Reidah, Ibrahim M; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to characterise the phenolic compounds in artichoke (hearts) by using HPLC coupled to DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS, which proved useful in characterising 61 phenolic and other polar compounds. Notably, of the 61 compounds characterised, 34 new phenolic compounds with their isomers have been tentatively characterised in artichoke for the first time, namely: 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 17 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 lignans, 7 flavones, 2 flavonols, and 1 phenol derivative. Moreover, a total of 28 isomers of previously described phenolics have also been detected. The data compiled from the qualitative polyphenol characterisation indicate that the artichoke extract analysed (Blanca de Tudela variety) could be regarded as a bioactive functional food and also as a promising source of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  14. Cosmic ray air shower characteristics in the framework of the parton-based Gribov-Regge model NEXUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard, G.; Drescher, H. J.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Ostapchenko, S.; Pavlov, A. I.; Pierog, T.; Vishnevskaya, E. A.; Werner, K.

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first we want to introduce a new type of hadronic interaction model (NEXUS), which has a much more solid theoretical basis than, for example, presently used models such as QGSJET and VENUS, and ensures therefore a much more reliable extrapolation towards high energies. Secondly, we want to promote an extensive air shower (EAS) calculation scheme, based on cascade equations rather than explicit Monte Carlo simulations, which is very accurate in calculations of main EAS characteristics and extremely fast concerning computing time. We employ the NEXUS model to provide the necessary data on particle production in hadron-air collisions and present the average EAS characteristics for energies 1014-1017 eV. The experimental data of the CASA-BLANCA group are analyzed in the framework of the new model.

  15. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.W. )

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Canderlaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan, The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone 16 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  16. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  17. Northwestern Mexico as photographed from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An oblique view of northwestern Mexico (30.0N, 113.5W), as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen. This photograph was taken on a seep down the coast to document the fault patterns of southern California and northwest Mexico. The specific reason for the picture was to see of the Agua Blanca Fault in Baja California extends to the east toward the Gulf of California. No such extension was found. The fault appeard to disappear into an area of sand and heavily eroded material that obscured any feature that might be present deeper. This area of sand and loose material is the light-colored area in the center of Baja at the extreme north part of the photograph.

  18. Radio Brightness Temperatures and Angular Dimensions of Recently Predicted Vl-Bi Small-Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Muestro que analisis recientes publicados de fuentes de radio galacticas y extragalacticas predicen estructuras en pequera escala en fuentes de radio extendidas, remanentes de supernova, vientos protoestelares, nubes moleculares, distorsiones del fondo de 3 K, enanas blancas magnetizadas, estrellas de tipo tardio y el Sol. Discuto las temperatu- ras de brillo de radio de estas estructuras y sus ditnensiones. Muestro que estas estructuras son detectables con las sensibilidades actuales de VLBI (o en el futuro cercano). ABSTRACT. I show that recently published analysis of galactic and extragalactic radio sources make predictions of small-scale structures in extended radio sources, supernovae remnants, protostellar winds, molecu- lar clouds, distortions of the 3 K background, magnetized white dwarf binaries, late-type stars and the sun. I discuss the radio brightness temperatures of these structures and their dimensions. I show that these structures are detectable with present (or near future) VLBI sensitivities. : RADIO SOURCES-EXTENDED

  19. NSR&D FY15 Final Report. Modeling Mechanical, Thermal, and Chemical Effects of Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Christopher Curtis; Ma, Xia; Zhang, Duan Zhong

    2015-11-02

    The main goal of this project is to develop a computer model that explains and predicts coupled mechanical, thermal and chemical responses of HE under impact and friction insults. The modeling effort is based on the LANL-developed CartaBlanca code, which is implemented with the dual domain material point (DDMP) method to calculate complex and coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical effects among fluids, solids and the transitions between the states. In FY 15, we have implemented the TEPLA material model for metal and performed preliminary can penetration simulation and begun to link with experiment. Currently, we are working on implementing a shock to detonation transition (SDT) model (SURF) and JWL equation of state.

  20. Arsenic in Water Resources of the Southern Pampa Plains, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Juan D.; Sequeira, Mario E.; Espósito, Martín E.; Fiorentino, Carmen E.; del C. Blanco, María

    2009-01-01

    Confronted with the need for accessible sources of good quality water and in view of the fact that the threat to public health posed by arsenic occurs mainly through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, the presence and distribution of arsenic was evaluated in the southern Pampa Plains of Bahía Blanca district in Argentina. The findings show variable concentrations of arsenic in a complex distribution pattern. Complementary information is provided on the behavior of the groundwater resource and its salinity in terms of dissolved ions. Groundwater is the most severely affected, 97% of the samples exceeding the guideline value for arsenic in drinking water as recommended by the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2004). and showing maximum concentrations of up to 0.30 mg/L. Informing those responsible for preventive medicine and alerting the community at large will facilitate measures to mitigate exposure and ensure the safety of drinking water. PMID:19936127

  1. Alisitos Formation calcareous facies - Early Cretaceous episode of tectonic calm

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez-Vidal, F.

    1986-04-01

    The Alisitos Formation (Aptian-Albian), shaped as a marine volcanic arc, crops out along the western side of Baja California bounding the Peninsula Range batholith. Lithologically, this formation is formed by volcanic breccias, porphyritic flows, biohermal limestones, and tuffaceous and pyroclastic sediments. The distribution of the different facies depends on the nature of volcanism and the distance from a volcanic center, although the presence of massive biohermal limestone indicates that in the Early Cretaceous (during tectonic episodes), the volcanic activity decreased to the level that the environmental conditions were favorable for the development of an organic barrier reef behind an island arc. Such conditions pertained south of the Agua Blanca fault and extended to El Arco, Baja California. Based on field observation and petrologic analysis in the Alisitos limestone, an attempt has been made to re-create the environmental condition in the Punta China and San Fernando, Baja California, sites.

  2. Alisitos Formation, calcareous facies: Early Cretaceous episode of tectonic calm

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez-Vidal, F.

    1986-07-01

    The Alisitos Formation (Aptian-Albian), shaped as a marine volcanic arc, crops out along the western side of the peninsula of Baja California bounding the Peninsular Range batholith. Lithologically, this formation is formed by volcanic-breccias, porphyritic flows, biohermal limestones, and tuffaceous and pyroclastic sediments. The distribution of the different facies depends on the nature of volcanism and the distance from a volcanic center, although the presence of massive biohermal limestone indicates that in the Early Cretaceous (during the tectonic episodes), the volcanic activity decreased to the level that the environmental conditions were favorable for the development of an organic reef barrier, behind an island arc. Such conditions existed south of the Agua Blanca fault and extended to El Arco, Baja California. Based upon field observations and petrological analysis of the Alisitos limestone, an attempt is made to recreate the environmental condition in the Punta China and San Fernando, Baja California, sites.

  3. Age and extent of the Ilopango TBJ Tephra inferred from a Holocene chronostratigraphic reference section, Lago De Yojoa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehringer, P.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Wollwage, L.K.; Sheets, P.

    2005-01-01

    Eruption of central El Salvador's Ilopango Volcano early in the first millennium A.D. caused death, cultural devastation, and exodus of southern Mesoamericans. It also left a time-stratigraphic marker in western El Salvador and adjacent Guatemala - the Ilopango Tierra Blanca Joven, or TBJ tephra. Mineral suites and major element abundances identify a silicic volcanic ash in cores from Lago de Yojoa, Honduras, as Ilopango TBJ. This extends its reported range more than 150 km to the northeast. Analyses of glass from the TBJ tephra from the Chalchuapa archaeological site, El Salvador, and from Lago de Yojoa, Honduras, establish the first major element reference fingerprint for the TBJ tephra. The Lago de Yojoa cores also hold two previously undated trachyandesitic tephra layers originating from the nearby Lake Yojoa Volcanic Field. One fell shortly before 11,000 14C yr B.P. and the other about 8600 14C yr B.P. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  4. Age and extent of the Ilopango TBJ Tephra inferred from a Holocene chronostratigraphic reference section, Lago De Yojoa, Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehringer, Peter J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wollwage, Lance K.; Sheets, Payson

    2005-03-01

    Eruption of central El Salvador's Ilopango Volcano early in the first millennium A.D. caused death, cultural devastation, and exodus of southern Mesoamericans. It also left a time-stratigraphic marker in western El Salvador and adjacent Guatemala—the Ilopango Tierra Blanca Joven, or TBJ tephra. Mineral suites and major element abundances identify a silicic volcanic ash in cores from Lago de Yojoa, Honduras, as Ilopango TBJ. This extends its reported range more than 150 km to the northeast. Analyses of glass from the TBJ tephra from the Chalchuapa archaeological site, El Salvador, and from Lago de Yojoa, Honduras, establish the first major element reference fingerprint for the TBJ tephra. The Lago de Yojoa cores also hold two previously undated trachyandesitic tephra layers originating from the nearby Lake Yojoa Volcanic Field. One fell shortly before 11,000 14C yr B.P. and the other about 8600 14C yr B.P.

  5. Associational Patterns of Scavenger Beetles to Decomposition Stages.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Nestor D

    2015-07-01

    Beetles associated with carrion play an important role in recycling organic matter in an ecosystem. Four experiments on decomposition, one per season, were conducted in a semirural area in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Melyridae are reported for the first time of forensic interest. Apart from adults and larvae of Scarabaeidae, thirteen species and two genera of other coleopteran families are new forensic records in Argentina. Diversity, abundance, and species composition of beetles showed differences between stages and seasons. Our results differed from other studies conducted in temperate regions. Four guilds and succession patterns were established in relation to decomposition stages and seasons. Dermestidae (necrophages) predominated in winter during the decomposition process; Staphylinidae (necrophiles) in Fresh and Bloat stages during spring, summer, and autumn; and Histeridae (necrophiles) and Cleridae (omnivores) in the following stages during those seasons. Finally, coleopteran activity, diversity and abundance, and decomposition rate change with biogeoclimatic characteristics, which is of significance in forensics.

  6. Holocene Paleoglacier History of Glaciar Dalla Vedova, Cordillera DARWIN, Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynhout, S.

    2015-12-01

    Southernmost South America is unique in its position immediately north of the present-day Antarctic Convergence, making it ideally suited for the evaluation of Antarctic influences on terrestrial paleoclimate. Here we present a glacial geomorphic interpretation of the paleoglacial history of Glaciar Dalla Vedova in Bahía Blanca, Cordillera Darwin, Chile (53°S). This interpretation is further constrained by radiocarbon dating, cosmogenic dating, dendrochronology, and historical photogrammetry. Preliminary field work suggests that Holocene glacier fluctuations have been constrained to within 3 km of the present glacier boundary, punctuated by rapid recent glacier retreat over the past century. By comparing the observed chronology with the record contained further north in Patagonia, we will evaluate possible mechanisms of regional climate variability over the Holocene across southernmost South America.

  7. Estudio espectroscópico de la simbiótica CD-43o14304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, L. G.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O. E.; Barbá, R.

    En base a un monitoreo espectroscópico de estrellas simbióticas del hemisferio sur, realizado entre 1990 y 1997, se han reunido espectros en intermedia y alta resolución de la simbiótica CD-43o14304. Se trata de un sistema binario compuesto por una enana blanca y una gigante tipo K5 con un período orbital recientemente determinado, de 1448 días. Por primera vez se analiza el comportamiento espectral del objeto en un amplio rango espectral (3700-10000 Å) y en función de las fases orbitales observadas. Se interpretan las velocidades radiales de las emisiones y absorciones presentes y las variaciones en los perfiles estructurados de las líneas de Balmer y en el resto de las emisiones.

  8. Geological Survey investigations in the U12e.05 tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diment, William H.; Wilmarth, V.R.; Houser, F.N.; Dickey, D.D.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Botinelly, T.; Wilcox, R.E.; Byers, F.M.

    1959-01-01

    The U12e.05 tunnel, one of two laterals from the main U12e tunnel, trends west and connects with the main tunnel about U960 feet from the portal (fig. 2). The U12e.05 tunnel was driven for the nuclear test, code name Blanca, which took place on October 30, 1958. Before the explosion, the tunnel was 8 feet high and 8 to 9 feet wide and consisted of 990 feet of workings, a shot chamber, and an alcove (fig. 2). The original shot chamber, at the west end of the tunnel, was 19 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 15 feet high. The vertical and minimum cover over the original shot chamber are 1,150 and 950 feet, respectively. After detonation of the nuclear device in the test, code named Logan, in the U12e.02 tunnel on October 15, 1958, the U12e.05 tunnel, locally, was damaged severely.

  9. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  10. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact.

  11. [Encephalopathy and neuromyelitis optica: the importance of recognising atypical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Hervás-García, José V; Grau-López, Laia; Doménech-Puigcerver, Sira; Ramo-Tello, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. La neuromielitis optica (NMO) o enfermedad de Devic es un trastorno autoinmune, inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que afecta principal y caracteristicamente al nervio optico y a la medula espinal. Los anticuerpos antiacuaporina-4 (AQ-4) son un biomarcador especifico de esta entidad y, desde su descubrimiento, se ha ampliado el numero de sintomas y datos radiologicos de la enfermedad y se ha definido el concepto de espectro clinico de NMO. Caso clinico. Mujer de 66 años diagnosticada de NMO por haber sufrido brotes de neuritis optica y mielitis de repeticion junto con anticuerpos AQ-4 positivos. Presento un cuadro de disminucion del nivel de conciencia, con resonancia magnetica cerebral que mostro multiples lesiones en la sustancia blanca, sin realce de contraste, que se resolvio sin tratamiento. Un mes despues, sufrio empeoramiento del estado general, sindrome confusional y ceguera. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral se observaron nuevas lesiones en la sustancia blanca y aumento del tamaño de otras ya existentes. Se emitio el diagnostico de encefalopatia en el contexto de NMO y se trato a la paciente con corticoides e inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, con lo que se produjo mejoria clinica y radiologica. Conclusiones. Desde el descubrimiento de los anticuerpos AQ-4, ha aumentado el numero de manifestaciones clinicas y radiologicas de la NMO mas alla de la afectacion del nervio optico y de la medula espinal, entre ellas las manifestaciones cerebrales. Reconocerlas es muy importante para hacer un diagnostico precoz, evitar pruebas complementarias no necesarias e instaurar el tratamiento adecuado.

  12. Microseismicity Studies in Northern Baja California: General Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frez, J.; Acosta, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Nava, F.; Suarez, F.

    2005-12-01

    Between 1997 and 2003, we installed local seismological networks in northern Baja California with digital, three-component, Reftek instruments, and with 100-125 Hz sampling. Each local network had from 15 to 40 stations over an area approximately of 50 x 50 km2. Surveys have been carried out for the Mexicali seismic zone and the Ojos Negros region (1997), the San Miguel fault system (1998), the Pacific coast between Tijuana and Ensenada (1999), the Agua Blanca and Vallecito fault systems (2001), the Sierra Juarez fault system (2002), and other smaller areas (2001 and 2003). These detailed microseismicity surveys are complemented with seismograms and arrival times from regional networks (RESNOM and SCSN). Selected locations presented here have errors (formal errors from HYPO71) less than 1 km. Phase reading errors are estimated at less than or about 0.03 s. Most of the activity is located between mapped fault traces, along alignments which do not follow the fault traces, and where tectonic alignments intersect. The results suggests an orthogonal pattern at various scales. Depth distributions generally have two maxima, one secondary maximum, at about 5 km; the other, located at 12-17 km. The Agua Blanca fault is essentially inactive for earthquakes with ML > 1.7. Most focal mechanisms are strike-slip with a minor normal component; the others are dominantly normal; the resulting pattern indicates a regional extensional regime for all the regions with an average NS azimuth for the P-axes. Fracture directions, obtained from directivity measurements, show orthogonal directions, one of which approximately coincides with the azimuth of mapped fault traces. These results indicate that the Pacific-North American interplate motion is not being entirely accommodated by the NW trending faults, but rather is creating a complex system of conjugate faults.

  13. Cryophenomena in the Cold Desert of Atacama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchroithner, Dr.; Trombotto, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    The study area of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas in the High Atacama Andes of Chile (68°39' W, 27°02' S), a kind of Patagonian "bajo sin salida", shows well preserved landforms resulting from a combination of slope, eolian, lacustrine/litoral, fluvial, glacial and periglacial regimes. They permit the reconstruction of geomorphological processes within this isolated catchment of approximately 160 km2. The mean annual air temperature varies between -2 and -4 °C and the precipitation is approximately 150 mm/a. Snowfall is frequent but the snow is quickly sublimated, redeposited and/or covered by cryosediments, i.e. mainly pumice pebbles. Water bodies present icings, even in summer. Regarding its climatic conditions the study area represents an extremely cold desertic region. Extremophile microfauna was also found. The area displays both in situ mountain permafrost and creeping permafrost. The active layer is 30 to 45 cm thick. It is a periglacial macro-environment where interdependent processes, and not only cryogenic processes but also erosion and eolian deposition and the action of fluvial washout mainly caused by precipitation, accumulation, retransportation/redeposition and melting of snow, play an important role. The cryogenic geomorphology of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas is varied and contains microforms such as patterned ground and microforms caused by cryoturbation, as well as mesoforms like rockglaciers and cryoplanation surfaces. Slopes are strongly affected by gelifluction. New cryoforms in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere like the Atacama Pingo (Pingo atacamensis) and Permafrosted Dunes ("Dunas heladas") were found. Intense niveo-eolian processes participate in the erosion of preexisting landforms, in the formation of subterraneous ice layers, and the retransportation/redeposition of snow and sediments. Studies of this periglacial environment are crucial for the understanding of Tundrean paleoenvironments and Martian conditions.

  14. [The role of diffusion tensor imaging in the pre-surgical study of temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pallero, M A; Torres, C V; Manzanares-Soler, R; Camara, E; Sola, R G

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. La imagen por tensor de difusion (DTI) es una tecnica no invasiva que puede ser utilizada para evaluar la integridad de la sustancia blanca cerebral. Objetivo. Investigar la utilidad de la DTI en pacientes con epilepsia del lobulo temporal (ELT) y ver su relacion con la lateralizacion del foco epileptogeno en estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizan 11 pacientes diagnosticados de ELT segun el protocolo de evaluacion prequirurgica de nuestra unidad de epilepsia, y libres de crisis a los dos años de la realizacion de una lobectomia temporal mas amigdalohipocampectomia (tecnica de Spencer). Como parte de su estudio preoperatorio, se realiza una resonancia magnetica cerebral de 1,5 T con secuencia de tensor de difusion y se estudian, mediante un analisis basado en voxel, las diferencias en la conectividad entre el hemisferio intervenido y el contralateral. Resultados. Comparado con el hemisferio contralateral, se observo una reduccion de la anisotropia fraccional estadisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) en el cuerpo calloso, el cingulo, el fasciculo longitudinal superior, las radiaciones talamicas anteriores, la capsula interna, los nucleos ventral lateral y pulvinar del talamo, el fasciculo frontooccipital inferior, el fasciculo uncinado, el fasciculo longitudinal inferior y el giro parahipocampal ipsilaterales al foco epileptogeno. Conclusiones. La caracterizacion de las anormalidades en la conectividad de la sustancia blanca cerebral, a traves de la DTI en pacientes con ELT, puede tener un valor importante para la lateralizacion del foco epileptogeno en la evaluacion prequirurgica. Serian necesarios estudios con un numero mas elevado de pacientes para confirmar estos resultados.

  15. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.

    2011-09-01

    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  16. Evaluation of an early warning system for glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) events in Huaraz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D. C.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    People in Cordillera Blanca range in Peru have a long history dealing with natural disasters associated to high mountains; particularly Glacier Lakes Outburst Flood (GLOF). Examples in the Cordillera Blanca vary from a GLOF that occurred in 1941 that killed more than 5000 people in the city of Huaraz to recent events from Lake Artison Baja in 2012 and Lake 513 on 2010, which were not devastating thanks to safety systems previously installed in those lakes. However, glaciers continue melting leaving new lakes or changing the characteristics of lakes that were previously controlled making safety systems obsolete that worked successfully in the past protecting communities downstream. Lake Palcacocha has evolved from being safe after the installation of a safety system in 1970 to an imminent source of GLOF risk due to the expansion that has occurred during the last 40 years increasing from a volume of 500,000 to 17 million m3. In response to this risk the community in Huaraz is planning an Early Warning System (EWS) that will allow the population to mobilize to a safe area in case a GLOF occurs. In this work we present an adaptation of the LifeSIM model to calculate the benefits from such an EWS using 2007 census data and a FLO-2D flood simulation model. The outputs are the number of people in Huaraz that could lose their life due to a GLOF. Our results indicate that without an EWS around 19,773 people could lose their life; whereas, if an EWS is installed the number of victims reduces to 7344. Finally, if mobilization of the affected population is improved the value reduces to 2865. The results show the importance of the EWS as well as informing and training the population to how to react if a GLOF occurs.

  17. [Analysis of a series of cases with an initial diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis over the period 2000-2010].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Cristina; López-Marín, Laura; López-Pino, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Solana, Luis G; Soto-Insuga, Víctor; Conejo-Moreno, David

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EMAD) es una enfermedad desmielinizante que afecta fundamentalmente a la sustancia blanca del sistema nervioso central. El diagnostico se basa en hallazgos clinicorradiologicos y evolutivos. La resonancia magnetica cerebral es la herramienta diagnostica mas util. El curso suele ser monofasico y el tratamiento inicial de eleccion, los corticoides. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 18 pacientes con diagnostico de sospecha inicial de EMAD. Se analizo la sintomatologia, los hallazgos radiologicos, la evolucion y el tratamiento. El diagnostico definitivo se establecio en 12 pacientes, excluyendo un paciente con reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa positiva para el virus herpes simple en el liquido cefalorraquideo, uno con clinica compatible pero resonancia magnetica cerebral normal, y cuatro con inicio similar a EMAD cuyos diagnosticos definitivos fueron: sindrome de Rassmusen, sindrome hemofagocitico, tumor cerebral y MELAS (encefalomiopatia mitocondrial con acidosis lactica y accidentes cerebrovasculares). Resultados. La mediana de edad fue de 31 meses, sin predominio de sexo. La infeccion de la via respiratoria superior fue la causa mas frecuente en niños mayores y la gastrointestinal, en menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron alteracion en el nivel de conciencia y deficits neurologicos multifocales. El hallazgo radiologico mas frecuente fue la alteracion multifocal bihemisferica de la sustancia blanca. Los corticoides fueron el tratamiento de eleccion en la mayoria. La evolucion fue favorable en casi todos los pacientes excepto en dos, que tuvieron secuelas importantes. Conclusiones. La EMAD puede presentarse a cualquier edad, incluyendo lactantes. Hay multiples entidades que pueden simular una EMAD en un inicio.

  18. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A < 37 μm, and 37 < B < 50 μm) before elemental analysis. Major, minor and trace elements namely, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from <0.3 μg g-1 (Sb) to 14.6 ± 0.6% (Ca). Ions concentrations in the soluble fraction measured at mg g-1 levels were in the order Cl- > Na+ ≅ SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  19. A new climate and glacier baseline for the Cordillera Vilcanota, Peru, reduces critical information gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, Nadine; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Silverio, Walter; Mark, Bryan G.; Cochachin, Alejo; Suarez, Wilson; Giráldez, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    The Cordillera Vilcanota in the Southern Peruvian Andes is the second largest ice-covered Cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca) and serves for the Cusco Region as a temporary water storage for fresh-water and hydropower generation and irrigation. Despite the Cordillera Vilcanota's size and socio-economic relevance, there has so far no comprehensive baseline data been available for climate and glacier evolution. In the framework of two jointly launched -Peruvian-Swiss climate change impact and adaptation programs (Climate Change Adaptation Programm - PACC; Glacier Change Adaptation and Desaster Risk Reduction Programm - Glacier 513) significant efforts have been undertaken and are on the way to create a climate, glacier and hazard baseline for the Cordillera Vilcanota. Because of the remoteness of the area and the scarcity of available data, multiple sources such as climate stations, climate reanalysis and satellite data have been collected, processed and analyzed. Based on our data, we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, but a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume). These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, and mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums, which probably cannot fully explain the observed substantial ice loss. The likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, probably played a major role in the observed massive of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades. The mass balance measurements initiated in 2010 on two glaciers of the Cordillera Vilcanota, and the climate station installed in 2011 on one of the glaciers, preliminarily indicate that ice loss (in water equivalent) is clearly lower that in the Cordillera Blanca. In the near future the data will provide new and important insights on climate and

  20. [Historical aspects of the risk factors of Schistosoma intercalatum schistosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Jusot, J F; Simarro, P; De Muynck, A

    1996-01-01

    Bilharziosis is a considerable public health problem. It is caused by many species of schistosoma, four of which have wide geographical distribution: Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. intercalatum. The recently discovered S. intercalatum is limited to central and west Africa. Its spread is progressive and its pathogenicity is not completely known. S. intercalatum bilharziosis is usually manifested in the form of dysentery. The physiopathologic explanation of this clinical manifestation is less clear. Immunopathologically, the formation of an inflammatory granuloma constitutes the origin of its symptoms. This is due to many biological factors including delayed hypersensitivity reactions. All cellular immunity changes will facilitate the appearance of symptoms. Our aim has been to show the importance of malnutrition as a pathogenic factor of S. intercalatum bilharziosis. The initial research hypothesis was as follows: malnutrition plays a role in the evolution of a patient from an asymptomatic state of infection to a symptomatic state of illness. We carried out the study in the suburbs of Bata, in Equatorial Guinea. The inhabitants of Ncolombong, essentially rural immigrants, comprised our study population. Following their consent, we recruited individuals less than 45 years of age who had not taken praziquantel during the last 12 months. We included a total of 297 patients. Our study was a case-control, matching on sex and age. A case was defined as an infected patient with acute or chronic diarrhea occurring within the last month' preceding the stool sample analysis. All cases were retained after exhaustive screening of the study population. Each case (group 1) was matched with one or several asymptomatic infected patients (group 2) and two or several asymptomatic noninfected patients chosen at random (group 3). The definition of malnutrition was as follows: weight/height < or = 90% for children less than 15 years of age or weight/height < or

  1. Andesite petrogenesis in a hybrid arc-rift setting: the Western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Tuena, A.; Vázquez-Duarte, A.; Díaz-Bravo, B.; Mori, L.

    2011-12-01

    The western sector of the Mexican subduction zone is characterized by the steep subduction of one of the youngest slabs on the planet (Rivera plate), and by the existence of a continental rift at ~230 km to the north from the trench (the so-called Tepic-Zacoalco rift, TZR), under which the subducted slab is either extremely deep or even absent (>250 km). The volcanic front is located at ~170 km from the trench and contains abundant potassic-alkaline lamprophyres with strong subduction (Ba/Ta= 1600-6000) and garnet signatures (Gd/Yb= 2-8), that have been recently interpreted as influenced by deep K2O-rich slab melts or supercritical fluids (Gómez-Tuena et al., 2011, GCA). In contrast, the most mafic rocks within the TZR are high-Nb, intraplate-like basalts that appear to derive from low extents of melting of a dryer (Ba/Ta= 800-60) and shallower (Gd/Yb= 2-2.5) mantle source. Even though a simple transition from an arc environment to an extensional tectonic regime is apparent when only the most primitive volcanic rocks are taken into account, the scenario becomes more complicated since at least five stratovolcanoes have been erupting typical arc andesites within the TZR over the last million years (San Juan, Sanganguey, Tepetiltic, Ceboruco and Tequila). Surprisingly, true calc-alkaline basalts that could be parental to andesites have not been found, indicating that andesites may have a direct mantle origin. Indeed, mayor and trace element compositions of volcanic rocks from western Mexico arrange in discrete suites with linear trends that are indicative of mixing, but they form sub-parallel arrays that do not converge to a common primitive basaltic melt, and often follow diverging trends in trace element-ratio plots. Melt-crust interactions likely occurred during magma ascent, since the volcanic rocks frequently include xenoliths and disequilibrium textures, but correlations among isotopic compositions and indexes of fractionation are not clearly observed in the

  2. Treatment Adherence of Tuberculosis Patients Attending Two Reference Units in Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Eyene, Juan; Momo, Juan Carlos; Biyé, Lucia; Esono, Teodoro; Ondó Mba Ayecab, Marcial; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Africa. Incomplete adherence to TB treatment has been identified as one of the most serious remaining problem in tuberculosis control. The following study is aimed at determining the adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in Equatorial Guinea and its determinants, as well as at assessing the knowledge of the people about the disease. In this cross-sectional study, participants were recruited by non-probabilistic consecutive sampling amongst patients who attended the reference units for TB in Bata and Malabo between March and July 2015. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Adherence to treatment and knowledge about TB were assessed by Morisky-Green-Levine and Batalla tests and a questionnaire on adherence related factors specifically prepared for this research. Descriptive statistics were computed to summarize the data and bivariate analyses by adherence profile were performed with χ2 test for categorical data. A total of 98 patients with TB were interviewed. 63.27% of interviewees had good knowledge about TB (Batalla test) while 78.57% of respondents were adherent according to the Morisky-Green-Levine test. A low educational level, lack of family support and lack of medical advice about the disease were significantly associated to lower adherence level. Patients with re-infection (due to relapse or treatment failure) and those who have suffered from drug shortages were also less adherents. The National Programme for TB Control should consider improving the early diagnosis and follow-up of TB cases, as well as the implementation of all components of DOTS (Directly observed Treatment, short-course) strategy all over the country. PMID:27622461

  3. Kinetics and regulation of human keratinocyte stem cell growth in short-term primary ex vivo culture. Cooperative growth factors from psoriatic lesional T lymphocytes stimulate proliferation among psoriatic uninvolved, but not normal, stem keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bata-Csorgo, Z; Hammerberg, C; Voorhees, J J; Cooper, K D

    1995-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of primary ex vivo keratinocyte cultures demonstrated that stem cells, (beta 1 integrin+, keratin 1/keratin 10 [K1/K10-], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA-] [Bata-Csorgo, Zs., C. Hammerberg, J. J. Voorhees, and K. D. Cooper. 1993. J. Exp. Med. 178:1271-1281]) establish such cultures. This methodology also enabled the quantitation of synchronized recruitment of these cells from G0 into G1 of the cell cycle (PCNA expression), which preceded bright beta 1 integrin expression. (beta 1 integrinbright expression has been shown to be a characteristic feature of keratinocyte stem cells in culture (Jones, P. H., and F. M. Watt. 1993. Cell. 73:713-724). Using the above assay, we determined whether lesional T lymphocytes in psoriasis could be directly responsible for the induction of the stem cell hyperproliferation that is characteristic of this disease. Indeed, CD4+ T lymphocytes, cloned from lesional psoriatic skin and stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 plus fibronectin, promoted psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cell proliferation via soluble factors. This induction appeared to be through accelerated recruitment of stem cells from their quiescent state (G0) into cell cycle. By contrast, normal keratinocyte stem cells exhibited no such growth stimulation. Supernatants exhibiting growth induction all contained high levels of GM-CSF and gamma-IFN, low IL-3 and TNF-alpha, and variable IL-4. Only anti-gamma-IFN antibody was able to neutralize growth stimulatory activity of the supernatants on psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cells. However, because recombinant gamma-IFN alone inhibited growth in this assay, these data suggest that, in psoriasis, gamma-IFN acts cooperatively with other growth factors in the immune induction of cell cycle progression by the normally quiescent stem cell keratinocytes. Images PMID:7529261

  4. Treatment Adherence of Tuberculosis Patients Attending Two Reference Units in Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fagundez, Gabriela; Perez-Freixo, Hugo; Eyene, Juan; Momo, Juan Carlos; Biyé, Lucia; Esono, Teodoro; Ondó Mba Ayecab, Marcial; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar; Herrador, Zaida

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Africa. Incomplete adherence to TB treatment has been identified as one of the most serious remaining problem in tuberculosis control. The following study is aimed at determining the adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in Equatorial Guinea and its determinants, as well as at assessing the knowledge of the people about the disease. In this cross-sectional study, participants were recruited by non-probabilistic consecutive sampling amongst patients who attended the reference units for TB in Bata and Malabo between March and July 2015. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Adherence to treatment and knowledge about TB were assessed by Morisky-Green-Levine and Batalla tests and a questionnaire on adherence related factors specifically prepared for this research. Descriptive statistics were computed to summarize the data and bivariate analyses by adherence profile were performed with χ2 test for categorical data. A total of 98 patients with TB were interviewed. 63.27% of interviewees had good knowledge about TB (Batalla test) while 78.57% of respondents were adherent according to the Morisky-Green-Levine test. A low educational level, lack of family support and lack of medical advice about the disease were significantly associated to lower adherence level. Patients with re-infection (due to relapse or treatment failure) and those who have suffered from drug shortages were also less adherents. The National Programme for TB Control should consider improving the early diagnosis and follow-up of TB cases, as well as the implementation of all components of DOTS (Directly observed Treatment, short-course) strategy all over the country.

  5. Bitter tastant responses in the amoeba Dictyostelium correlate with rat and human taste assays.

    PubMed

    Cocorocchio, Marco; Ives, Robert; Clapham, David; Andrews, Paul L R; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-01-01

    Treatment compliance is reduced when pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste and this is particularly marked for paediatric medications. Identification of bitter taste liability during drug discovery utilises the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion (BATA) test which apart from animal use is time consuming with limited throughput. We investigated the suitability of using a simple, non-animal model, the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to investigate taste-related responses and particularly identification of compounds with a bitter taste liability. The effect of taste-related compounds on Dictyostelium behaviour following acute exposure (15 minutes) was monitored. Dictyostelium did not respond to salty, sour, umami or sweet tasting compounds, however, cells rapidly responded to bitter tastants. Using time-lapse photography and computer-generated quantification to monitor changes in cell membrane movement, we developed an assay to assess the response of Dictyostelium to a wide range of structurally diverse known bitter compounds and blinded compounds. Dictyostelium showed varying responses to the bitter tastants, with IC50 values providing a rank order of potency. Comparison of Dictyostelium IC50 values to those observed in response to a similar range of compounds in the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion test showed a significant (p = 0.0172) positive correlation between the two models, and additionally a similar response to that provided by a human sensory panel assessment test. These experiments demonstrate that Dictyostelium may provide a suitable model for early prediction of bitterness for novel tastants and drugs. Interestingly, a response to bitter tastants appears conserved from single-celled amoebae to humans.

  6. Description of three new species of the genus Myxobolus infecting carp fishes of India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subarna; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2017-03-01

    Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Bivalvulida, Myxobolidae) is an important parasitic protozoan of freshwater fishes reported from almost all over the world. The severity of infection may lead to mortality of the host fish. The present paper deals with the description of three new species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882, Myxobolus sonarpurensis sp. nov., Myxobolus elongatum sp. nov. and Myxobolus petalum sp. nov. from a freshwater minor carp Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) and major carp Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) respectively from West Bengal, India. Spores of Myxobolus sonarpurensis sp. nov. measures 12.16 µm × 6.74 µm, with two elongated unequal sized polar capsules measuring, 8.84 µm × 3.019 µm and 7.71 µm × 3.12 µm. Spores of Myxobolus elongatum sp. nov. are 16.23 µm × 7.9 µm with two equal polar capsules 8.896 µm × 3.468 µm and 6.51 µm × 3.46 µm. In comparison to aforementioned two new species, Myxoboluspetalum sp. nov. have two equal polar capsules, 7.905 µm × 2.975 µm (2.9 µm) in each spore, 12.07 µm × 5.95 µm.

  7. Evaluation of Three Field-Based Methods for Quantifying Soil Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Rice, Charles W.; Wielopolski, Lucien; Ebinger, Michael H.; Reeves, James B.; Thomson, Allison M.; Harris, Ron; Francis, Barry; Mitra, S.; Rappaport, Aaron; Etchevers, Jorge; Sayre, Ken D.; Govaerts, Bram; McCarty, G. W.

    2013-01-31

    Three advanced technologies to measure soil carbon (C) density (g C m22) are deployed in the field and the results compared against those obtained by the dry combustion (DC) method. The advanced methods are: a) Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), b) Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and c) Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). The measurements and soil samples were acquired at Beltsville, MD, USA and at Centro International para el Mejoramiento del Maiz y el Trigo (CIMMYT) at El Bata´n, Mexico. At Beltsville, soil samples were extracted at three depth intervals (0–5, 5–15, and 15–30 cm) and processed for analysis in the field with the LIBS and DRIFTS instruments. The INS instrument determined soil C density to a depth of 30 cm via scanning and stationary measurements. Subsequently, soil core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for soil bulk density (kg m23), C concentration (g kg21) by DC, and results reported as soil C density (kg m22). Results from each technique were derived independently and contributed to a blind test against results from the reference (DC) method. A similar procedure was employed at CIMMYT in Mexico employing but only with the LIBS and DRIFTS instruments. Following conversion to common units, we found that the LIBS, DRIFTS, and INS results can be compared directly with those obtained by the DC method. The first two methods and the standard DC require soil sampling and need soil bulk density information to convert soil C concentrations to soil C densities while the INS method does not require soil sampling. We conclude that, in comparison with the DC method, the three instruments (a) showed acceptable performances although further work is needed to improve calibration techniques and (b) demonstrated their portability and their capacity to perform under field conditions.

  8. Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga2O3-Ta2O5 system and the structure of Ba6Ga21TaO40.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiang; Yu, Xiaodi; Kuang, Xiaojun; Su, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) ternary system at 1200 °C were determined. The A(6)B(10)O(30) tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) related solution in the BaO-Ta(2)O(5) subsystem dissolved up to ~11 mol % Ga(2)O(3), forming a ternary trapezoid-shaped TTB-related solid solution region defined by the BaTa(2)O(6), Ba(1.1)Ta(5)O(13.6), Ba(1.58)Ga(0.92)Ta(4.08)O(13.16), and Ba(6)GaTa(9)O(30) compositions in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Two ternary phases Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) and eight-layer twinned hexagonal perovskite solid solution Ba(8)Ga(4-x)Ta(4+0.6x)O(24) were confirmed in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) crystallized in a monoclinic cell of a = 15.9130(2) Å, b = 11.7309(1) Å, c = 5.13593(6) Å, β = 107.7893(9)°, and Z = 1 in space group C2/m. The structure of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was solved by the charge flipping method, and it represents a three-dimensional (3D) mixed GaO(4) tetrahedral and GaO(6)/TaO(6) octahedral framework, forming mixed 1D 5/6-fold tunnels that accommodate the Ba cations along the c axis. The electrical property of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was characterized by using ac impedance spectroscopy.

  9. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During ... médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give birth every year, ...

  10. [Update on endocrinology: management of prolactinomas during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Cecenarro, Laura A; Estario, Paula; Estario, María E; Fux-Otta, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Los prolactinomas son los tumores hipofisarios funcionantes más comunes. La hiperprolactinemia que generan se asocia con anovulación e infertilidad. OBJETIVOS: a) describir la relación entre hiperprolactinemia y fertilidad, b) revisar los resultados del uso de agonistas dopaminérgicos durante el embarazo y el desarrollo embriofetal y c) actualizar el manejo terapéutiterapéutico en micro y macroprolactinomas durante la gestación.

  11. Groundwater-surface water interactions in a glacierized catchment and their influence on proglacial water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R. P.; Lautz, L. K.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    The tropical glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca of Peru are retreating rapidly due to climate change, which threatens water resources for the quarter-million inhabitants of the upper Rio Santa river valley and many more downstream. Recent studies have shown that glacial melt supplies approximately half of dry season stream discharge in Cordillera Blanca valleys. The remainder of streamflow is supplied by groundwater stored in alpine meadows, moraines and talus slopes. In the future, when glacier loss has reduced the influence of melt water on streams, groundwater discharge will be the primary dry-season source of stream water for irrigation, municipalities, and hydropower in the Santa watershed. A better understanding of the dynamics of alpine groundwater, including sources and exchange fluxes, is therefore important for future planning in this region. Understanding these groundwater-surface water interactions is necessary for making accurate estimates of meltwater contributions to the hydrologic budget, and for our ability to make predictions about future water resources under deglaciating conditions. We combined measurements of groundwater-surface water exchange during the dry season with synoptic sampling of stream water and end-members in order to quantify the groundwater contributions to streamflow from an alpine meadow, debris fan, and moraine complex in a glacierized valley of the Cordillera Blanca. Using stream tracer-dilution techniques, we calculated channel water balances for 9 stream reaches of 100-200 m throughout the meadow and measured the discharge of glacial meltwater into debris fan and moraine units. We used vertical heat tracing to measure stream-groundwater exchange at 2-hour increments over 2 weeks in 13 stream locations in the meadow, debris fan, and moraine units. Channel water balance and heat tracing results show that, during the studied portion of the dry season, the stream loses water (2.5 l/s or ~25% of flow) to the subsurface in the

  12. Glacier lake outburst floods - modelling process chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to impacts from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an impact. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. For appropriate integral risk management it is crucial to gain knowledge on how the processes (rock-/ice-avalanches - impact waves in lake - impact on dam - outburst flood) interact and how the hazard potential related to corresponding process chains can be assessed. Research in natural hazards so far has mainly concentrated on describing, understanding, modeling or assessing single hazardous processes. Some of the above mentioned individual processes are quite well understood in their physical behavior and some of the process interfaces have also been investigated in detail. Multi-hazard assessments of the entire process chain, however, have only recently become subjects of investigations. Our study aims at closing this gap and providing suggestions on how to assess the hazard potential of the entire process chain in order to generate hazard maps and support risk assessments. We analyzed different types of models (empirical, analytical, physically based) for each process regarding their suitability for application in hazard assessments of the entire process chain based on literature. Results show that for rock-/ice-avalanches, dam breach and outburst floods, only numerical, physically based models are able to provide the required information, whereas the impact wave can be estimated by means of physically based or empirical assessments. We demonstrate how the findings could be applied with the help of a case study of a recent glacier lake outburst event at Laguna

  13. Modelling rock-avalanche induced impact waves: Sensitivity of the model chains to model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to impacts from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an impact. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. Usually natural hazards are assessed as single hazardous processes, for the above mentioned reasons, however, development of assessment and reproduction methods of the hazardous process chain for the purpose of hazard map generation have to be brought forward. A combination of physical process models have already been suggested and illustrated by means of lake outburst in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, where on April 11th 2010 an ice-avalanche of approx. 300'000m3 triggered an impact wave, which overtopped the 22m freeboard of the rock-dam for 5 meters and caused and outburst flood which travelled 23 km to the city of Carhuaz. We here present a study, where we assessed the sensitivity of the model chain from ice-avalanche and impact wave to single parameters considering rock-/ice-avalanche modeling by RAMMS and impact wave modeling by IBER. Assumptions on the initial rock-/ice-avalanche volume, calibration of the friction parameters in RAMMS and assumptions on erosion considered in RAMMS were parameters tested regarding their influence on overtopping parameters that are crucial for outburst flood modeling. Further the transformation of the RAMMS-output (flow height and flow velocities on the shoreline of the lake) into an inflow-hydrograph for IBER was also considered a possible source of uncertainties. Overtopping time, volume, and wave height as much as mean and maximum discharge were considered decisive parameters for the outburst flood modeling and were therewith

  14. Groundwater, springs, and stream flow generation in an alpine meadow of a tropical glacierized catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, R.; Lautz, L. K.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.; Chavez, D.

    2013-12-01

    Melting tropical glaciers supply approximately half of dry season stream discharge in glacierized valleys of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The remainder of streamflow originates as groundwater stored in alpine meadows, moraines and talus slopes. A better understanding of the dynamics of alpine groundwater, including sources and contributions to streamflow, is important for making accurate estimates of glacial inputs to the hydrologic budget, and for our ability to make predictions about future water resources as glaciers retreat. Our field study, conducted during the dry season in the Llanganuco valley, focused on a 0.5-km2 alpine meadow complex at 4400 m elevation, which includes talus slopes, terminal moraines, and a debris fan. Two glacial lakes and springs throughout the complex feed a network of stream channels that flow across the meadow (~2 km total length). We combined tracer measurements of stream and spring discharge and groundwater-surface water exchange with synoptic sampling of water isotopic and geochemical composition, in order to characterize and quantify contributions to streamflow from different geomorphic features. Surface water inputs to the stream channels totaled 58 l/s, while the stream gained an additional 57 l/s from groundwater inputs. Water chemistry is primarily controlled by flowpath type (surface/subsurface) and length, as well as bedrock lithology, while stable water isotopic composition appears to be controlled by water source (glacial lake, meadow or deep groundwater). Stream water chemistry is most similar to meadow groundwater springs, but isotopic composition suggests that the majority of stream water, which issues from springs at the meadow/fan interface, is from the same glacial source as the up-gradient lake. Groundwater sampled from piezometers in confined meadow aquifers is unique in both chemistry and isotopic composition, but does not contribute a large percentage of stream water exiting this small meadow, as quantified by

  15. Geochronology of Quaternary glaciations from the tropical Cordillera Huayhuash, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Sarah R.; Farber, Daniel L.; Ramage, Joan M.; Rodbell, Donald T.; Finkel, Robert C.; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Mark, Bryan G.; Kassel, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    The Cordillera Huayhuash in the central Peruvian Andes (10.3°S, 76.9°W) is an ideal mountain range in which to study regional climate through variations in paleoglacier extents. The range trends nearly north-south with modern glaciers confined to peaks >4800 m a.s.l. Geomorphology and geochronology in the nearby Cordillera Blanca and Junin Plain reveal that the Peruvian Andes preserve a detailed record of tropical glaciation. Here, we use ASTER imagery, aerial photographs, and GPS to map and date glacial features in both the western and eastern drainages of the Cordillera Huayhuash. We have used in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in quartz bearing erratics on moraine crests and ice-polished bedrock surfaces to develop an exposure age chronology for Pleistocene glaciation within the range. We have also collected sediment cores from moraine-dammed lakes and bogs to provide limiting 14C ages for glacial deposits. In contrast to the ranges to the north and south, most glacial features within the Cordillera Huayhuash are Lateglacial in age, however we have identified features with ages that span ˜0.2 to ˜38 ka with moraine sets marking the onset of glacier retreat at ˜0.3 ka, ˜9-10 ka, ˜13-14 ka, ˜20-22 ka, and >26 ka. The range displays a pronounced east-west variation in maximum down-valley distance from the headwall of moraine crests with considerably longer paleoglaciers in the eastern drainages. Importantly, Lateglacial paleoglaciers reached a terminal elevation of ˜4000 m a.s.l. on both sides of the Cordillera Huayhuash; suggesting that temperature may have been a dominant factor in controlling the maximum glacier extent. We suggest that valley morphology, specifically valley slope, strongly influences down-valley distance to the maximum glacier extent and potential for moraine preservation. While regionally there is an extensive record of older (>50 ka) advances to the north (Cordillera Blanca) and to the south (Junin region), the apparent

  16. Geochronology of Tropical Alpine Glaciations From the Cordillera Huayhuash, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D. L.; Rodbell, D. T.; Finkel, R. C.; Ramage, J. M.; Smith, J. A.; Mark, B. G.; Seltzer, G. O.

    2004-12-01

    The Cordillera Huayhuash of the Central Peruvian Andes (10.3° S, 76.9° W) is an ideal range to study regional climate signals and variations in paleo-ice volumes. Located between the Cordillera Blanca to the north and the Junin region to the south, the range trends nearly north-south with modern glaciers confined to the high peaks (>4800 m). Cross-cutting relationships, geomorphology, and correlation with surface exposure dated moraines in the nearby Cordillera Blanca suggest the region preserves a rich record of tropical glaciation. In order to determine the glacial chronology we mapped and dated glacial features of the Jahuacocha valley (which drains the western side of the range) and two eastern drainages, the Mitococha valley, and the Carhuacocha valley. At each locality we used ASTER data, aerial photographs, and GPS to map glacial features both within main valleys and tributaries. We sampled quartz-bearing erratics on moraine crests as well as ice-polished bedrock surfaces for exposure age dating using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al. In the Jahuacocha valley, the greatest ice extent reached an elevation of ˜4090m and moraine crest boulders yield and age of ˜11.2 ±0.6 ka suggesting a significant late Glacial ice advance or stillstand. A younger cluster of moraines exists ˜1 km up-valley at an elevation of ˜4100m. These moraines, dated at ˜8.0 ±1.0 ka, suggest an early Holocene advance. In the Mitococha valley, a young moraine and polished bedrock dated at ˜0.2 ka and ˜11.4 ±0.4 ka respectively span the late Glacial through recent. The late Glacial features of this eastern drainage occur at an elevation of ˜4100m while the recent events occur at an elevation of ˜4380m. Our preliminary results suggest that all three valleys experienced a very similar glacial history with minor differences likely due to the variations in valley morphology. Comparing the chronology of glaciation in the Cordillaera Huayhuash with that in regions to the

  17. Glacier Runoff and Human Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Case of Export Agriculture in Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, M.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing concern about the effects of climate change and ensuing glacier shrinkage on water supplies for mountain communities worldwide. The issue is only becoming more complex as researchers seek to quantify glacier contributions to streamflow and to pinpoint when and how much glacier runoff will likely change as a result of future climate change and glacier variation. Additionally, some researchers are beginning to recognize the importance of understanding the human dimensions of glacier retreat to identify which social groups (stakeholders) use glacier runoff and how much they use, as well as what socio-environmental forces affect both water supplies and water use. This presentation examines these societal aspects of glacier runoff to analyze human vulnerability to hydrological changes in Peru's Santa River watershed below the most glaciated tropical mountain range in the world, the Cordillera Blanca. Specifically, it focuses on the billion-dollar export-oriented agricultural industry within the Chavimochic irrigation project, which uses Santa River water to irrigate approximately 80,000 hectares in the coastal desert region. Since the 1980s, Santa River water has allowed Chavimochic to sustain a major export economy, provide jobs in the agro-industry and related services, stimulate human migration, enhance or alter livelihoods, generate hydroelectricity, supply drinking water, and shape urban growth and land use practices. All of these variables are dependent on glacier meltwater from the Cordillera Blanca, especially during the dry season when glaciers provide most of the Santa River's water. In short, hundreds of thousands of people have come to depend on glacier runoff, thus revealing their high level of vulnerability to hydrological fluctuations in a glacier-fed watershed. What's more, people worldwide rely on the asparagus, avocados, and artichokes grown with glacier runoff. Consequently, the export-oriented agriculture, through the "virtual water

  18. Crustal deformation in the central California coast region inferred from Global Positioning System data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Thatcher, W. R.; Onishi, C. T.; Svarc, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Central California Coast Region (CCCR), defined here as the area from north of Point Piedras Blancas (36°N) south to Point Arguello (34.6°N) and west of the Rinconada and East Huasna faults, is a structurally complex region cut by several subparallel, late Quaternary faults. Despite relatively low rates of deformation inferred from geologic studies of the CCCR, the occurrence of the 2003 Mw 6.5 San Simeon earthquake southeast of Point Piedras Blancas highlights the need to better understand the ongoing patterns of deformation here as a means for assessing the seismic hazard. Geological and geophysical data from this region have been interpreted as evidence for ongoing transpression due to the clockwise rotation of the Transverse Ranges which would predict crustal contraction normal to the plate boundary. However an alternative interpretation concludes that the region instead experiences the active westward transfer of right-lateral strike-slip motion in a left-stepping fashion which would result in northwest-southeast contraction. Geodetic data can be used to elucidate how strain is currently partitioned between shear parallel to the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and contraction within the CCCR and to identify actively deforming structures. We use a newly compiled Global Positioning System (GPS) secular velocity field for the CCCR as well as GPS velocities for the greater southern California region from the SCEC Crustal Motion Map v.4 and the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory velocity solution to constrain block models of deformation. We solve for the rotation of fault-bounded blocks, fault slip rates, and internal strain within blocks. Results thus far indicate that the data do not require substantial slip on the Rinconada fault (for which the estimated slip rate is ~2 mm/yr) or on the Oceanic and West Huasna faults that bound the eastern edge of the CCCR in an alternative block configuration (for which the estimated slip rate is <1 mm/yr). The data also do

  19. A geochemical study of the winonaites: Evidence for limited partial melting and constraints on the precursor composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Alison C.; Benedix, Gretchen K.; Hammond, Samantha J.; Bland, Philip A.; Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Strekopytov, Stanislav

    2017-02-01

    The winonaites are primitive achondrites which are associated with the IAB iron meteorites. Textural evidence implies heating to at least the Fe, Ni-FeS cotectic, but previous geochemical studies are ambiguous about the extent of silicate melting in these samples. Oxygen isotope evidence indicates that the precursor material may be related to the carbonaceous chondrites. Here we analysed a suite of winonaites for modal mineralogy and bulk major- and trace-element chemistry in order to assess the extent of thermal processing as well as constrain the precursor composition of the winonaite-IAB parent asteroid. Modal mineralogy and geochemical data are presented for eight winonaites. Textural analysis reveals that, for our sub-set of samples, all except the most primitive winonaite (Northwest Africa 1463) reached the Fe, Ni-FeS cotectic. However, only one (Tierra Blanca) shows geochemical evidence for silicate melting processes. Tierra Blanca is interpreted as a residue of small-degree silicate melting. Our sample of Winona shows geochemical evidence for extensive terrestrial weathering. All other winonaites studied here (Fortuna, Queen Alexander Range 94535, Hammadah al Hamra 193, Pontlyfni and NWA 1463) have chondritic major-element ratios and flat CI-normalised bulk rare-earth element patterns, suggesting that most of the winonaites did not reach the silicate melting temperature. The majority of winonaites were therefore heated to a narrow temperature range of between ∼1220 (the Fe, Ni-FeS cotectic temperature) and ∼1370 K (the basaltic partial melting temperature). Silicate inclusions in the IAB irons demonstrate partial melting did occur in some parts of the parent body (Ruzicka and Hutson, 2010), thereby implying heterogeneous heat distribution within this asteroid. Together, this indicates that melting was the result of internal heating by short-lived radionuclides. The brecciated nature of the winonaites suggests that the parent body was later disrupted by

  20. Lessons from Natural Analog Studies for Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    For over fifty years natural analog studies have provided lessons addressing scientific, technical, and social problems concerning geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Idealized concepts for permanent disposal environments evolved from an understanding of the geological, geochemical and hydrological characteristics of analogous rocks including natural salt deposits (as advocated by the US National Academy of Sciences in 1957), ancient cratonic rocks (as investigated at Lac du Bonnet, Canada, Aspö, Sweden, and Vienne, France), and marine sedimentary rock formations (as studied at Mol, Belgium, and Bure, France). Additional multidisciplinary studies have been conducted at natural sites that bear characteristics analogous to potential repository systems, notably at natural uranium (and thorium) deposits including Poços de Caldas, Brazil, Alligator Rivers, Australia, Peña Blanca, Mexico, and Oklo, Gabon. Researchers of natural analogs for geologic disposal have addressed technical uncertainties regarding processes that have transpired over large time and space scales, which are generally inaccessible to laboratory studies. Principal questions for nuclear waste disposal include the geochemical stability and alteration rates of radionuclide bearing minerals and the mechanisms and rates of transport of radionuclides in groundwater. In their most direct applications, natural analogs studies have been devoted to testing specific models for repository performance and the experimental data that support those models. Parameters used in predictive performance assessment modeling have been compared to natural system data, including mineral solubilities, sorption coefficients, diffusion rates, and colloid transport properties. For example, the rate of uraninite oxidation and the natural paragenesis of uranium mineral alteration at Peña Blanca have been compared favorably to results of experimental studies of spent fuel alteration related to the proposed repository

  1. Paired moraine-dammed lakes: a key landform for glaciated high mountain areas in the tropical Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    The tropical mountain range of the Cordillera Blanca hosts one of the main concentrations of proglacial lakes in high-mountain settings worldwide, which have formed as a result of the dominant trend of modern glacier retreat. Based on empirical data from field research in over 20 valleys and the analysis of air and satellite images, a genetic classification of major lake types with their barriers and a generalized model for the distribution of the present lakes and paleolakes was set up. The origin of the lakes and their recurrent distribution pattern are associated with the individual stages of the Pleistocene to modern glaciation and their corresponding geomorphological landforms. Characteristic repetitive moraine sequences are found in the upper parts of numerous valleys of the Cordillera Blanca. In terms of the spatial arrangement of the lake types, combined lakes are classified as a distinct composite lake type. These lakes occur at nearly the same elevation or at successively lower elevations, and form characteristic lake sequences of two or more lakes. They may occur as multi-moraine-dammed lakes or mixed combined lakes such as moraine-rock-dammed lakes or multi-debris-dammed lakes. From special interest are in this study the paired moraine-dammed lakes (e.g. Lagunas Qoyllurcochas, Lagunas Safuna Alta and Baja). They are composed of the Great Endmoraine (GEM), primarily formed during the Little Ice Age and earlier, and the pre-GEM, formed during the Holocene. Both moraines are located in rather close vicinity to each other at a distance of 1-3 km. In contrast to the prominent sharp-crested GEM, the pre-GEM is a low-amplitude end-moraine complex, which usually does not exceed a few meters to tens of meters in height. The latter is often composed of several inserted moraine ridges or an irregular hummocky moraine landscape. It is argued here that the process of formation of these combined lakes is mainly controlled by a combination of distinct topographical

  2. Revised Geologic Map of the Fort Garland Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.; Machette, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    The map area includes Fort Garland, Colo., and the surrounding area, which is primarily rural. Fort Garland was established in 1858 to protect settlers in the San Luis Valley, then part of the Territory of New Mexico. East of the town are the Garland mesas (basalt-covered tablelands), which are uplifted as horsts with the Central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. The map also includes the northern part of the Culebra graben, a deep structural basin that extends from south of San Luis (as the Sanchez graben) to near Blanca, about 8 km west of Fort Garland. The oldest rocks exposed in the map area are early Proterozic basement rocks (granites in Ikes Creek block) that occupy an intermediate structural position between the strongly uplifted Blanca Peak block and the Culebra graben. The basement rocks are overlain by Oligocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of unknown origin. The volcanic rocks were buried by a thick sequence of basin-fill deposits of the Santa Fe Group as the Rio Grande rift formed about 25 million years ago. The Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of 3.7?4.8 Ma old flood basalts, was deposited within sediment, and locally provides a basis for dividing the group into upper and lower parts. Landslide deposits and colluvium that rest on sediments of the Santa Fe Group cover the steep margins of the mesas. Exposures of the sediment beneath the basalt and within the low foothills east of the Central Sangre de Cristo fault zone are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesas and in the graben is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The alluvial deposits are subdivided into three Pleistocene-age units and three Holocene-age units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) is preserved as isolated remnants that cap high surfaces north and east of Fort Garland. The primary geologic hazards in the map area are from earthquakes, landslides, and localized flooding. The Central

  3. High-performance Thin-layer Chromatography Method Development, Validation, and Simultaneous Quantification of Four Compounds Identified in Standardized Extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Suzana; Beh, Hooi Kheng; Hamil, Mohamad Shahrul Ridzuan; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    . stamineus extracts specifically ethanol, 50% ethanol and water extract were successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used: HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography; RA: Rosmarinic acid; TMF: 3’-hydroxy-5,6,7,4’-tetramethoxyflavone; SIN: Sinensitin; EUP: Eupatorin; E: Ethanol; EW: 50% ethanol; W: Water; BK: Batu Kurau; KB: Kepala Batas; S: Sik; CJ: Changkat Jering; SB: Sungai Buloh PMID:27695261

  4. Relationship between anthropogenic sewage discharge, marsh structure and bird assemblages in an SW Atlantic saltmarsh.

    PubMed

    Cardoni, D A; Isacch, J P; Fanjul, M E; Escapa, M; Iribarne, O O

    2011-03-01

    One of the main effects of urbanization on coastal areas is through the discharge of sewage, which increases nutrient concentrations in the receiving environment. Salt marshes, like other coastal marine environments, are limited by nutrients, mainly nitrogen, and thus increasing nutrient loadings to a marsh may have consequences on marsh characteristics. We evaluated how the effects of nutrient enrichment in the form of sewage input, affected the vegetation structure and bird assemblages in a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh system near Bahía Blanca, Argentina (39° 01' S - 56° 25' W). Surveys of nutrient concentration, vegetation and birds were made at three different distances from the sewage discharge source. The concentration of ammonium, phosphate, and nitrate and the percent organic matter was higher in marshes nearest to the sewage discharge source. Bird composition and abundance, and vegetation physiognomy changed along a gradient of nutrient concentration. The increased habitat complexity found near the areas of higher nutrient concentration was exploited by birds that use neighboring interior and coastal habitats, including Spartina densiflora marshes, freshwater marshes and upland shrubby habitats. Our results show that local increases of nutrient inputs directly changed the vegetation physiognomy, and indirectly the composition and abundance of bird assemblages.

  5. Biomass, decomposition and nutrient cycling in a SW Atlantic Sarcocornia perennis marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrin, Vanesa L.; Pratolongo, Paula D.; de Villalobos, Ana E.; Botté, Sandra E.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2015-03-01

    Biomass dynamics, decomposition and nutrient cycling were studied in a Sarcocornia perennis salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca estuary (Argentina) to achieve a better understanding of these processes and provide information about a species and a region underrepresented in the literature. Above and belowground biomass stocks and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration in plant tissues were monitored every 2 months during a year. The decomposition rate and the concentration of C, N and P during the process were also estimated in above and belowground tissues. Biomass values were low (mean of 363 ± 43 and 242 ± 27 g m- 2 for aboveground and belowground tissues, respectively), presumably associated with the high salinity of this estuary. The general trend of higher values for aboveground biomass is in agreement with other reports for this species and has an effect on nutrients pools, which are higher for aboveground tissues for C and N. Above and belowground decomposition rates were high (64 and 70% after a year, respectively), meaning this process plays a significant role in the cycling of organic matter. C/N and C/P ratios changed during decomposition, but final ratios were usually higher, suggesting a net release of nutrients. Our results indicate that significant amounts of C, N and P are recycled by S. perennis, highlighting the role of this species and suggesting important consequences of its lost in the study area.

  6. Influence of flooding and vegetation on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in the pore water of a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Negrin, Vanesa L; Spetter, Carla V; Asteasuain, Raúl O; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2011-01-01

    Four sites were selected in a salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina): (1) low marsh (flooded by the tide twice daily) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (2) non-vegetated low marsh; (3) high marsh (flooded only in spring tides) vegetated by S. alterniflora; (4) non-vegetated high marsh. The pH and Eh were measured in sediments, while dissolved nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in pore water. pH (6.2-8.7) was only affected by vegetation in low areas. Eh (from -300 to 250 mV) was lower at low sites than at high ones; in the latter, the values were higher in the non-vegetated sediments. The POM concentration was greater in the high marsh than in the low marsh, with no effect of vegetation. Ammonium was the most abundant nitrogen nutrient species in pore water, except in the non-vegetated high marsh where nitrate concentration was higher. All nitrogen nutrients were affected by both flooding and vegetation. Phosphate was always present in pore water at all sites throughout the year and its concentration varied within narrow limits, with no effect of flooding and greater values always at non-vegetated sites. Our results showed that the variability of the pore water composition within the marsh is greater than the temporal variation, meaning that both tidal flooding and vegetation are important in the dynamics of nutrients and organic matter in the sediment pore water.

  7. Nucleic acid binding property of the gene products of rice stripe virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Delin; Ma, Xiangqiang; Qu, Zhicai; Hull, Roger

    2005-10-01

    GST fusion proteins of the six gene products from RNAs 2,3 and 4 of the tenuivirus, Rice stripe virus (RSV), were used to study the nucleic acid binding activities in vitro. Three of the proteins, p3, pc3 and pc4, bound both single- and double-stranded cDNA of RSV RNA4 and also RNA3 transcribed from its cDNA clone, while p2, pc2-N (the N-terminal part of pc2) nor p4 bound the cDNA or RNA transcript. The binding activity of p3 is located in the carboxyl-terminus amino acid 154-194, which contains basic amino acid rich beta-sheets. The acidic amino acid-rich amino-terminus (amino acids 1-100) of p3 did not have nucleic acid binding activity. The related analogous gene product of the tenuivirus, Rice hoja blanca virus, is a suppressor of gene silencing and the possibility of the nucleic acid binding ability of RSV p3 being associated with this property is discussed. The C-terminal part of the RSV nucleocapsid protein, which also contains a basic region, binds nucleic acids, which is consistent with its function. The central and C-terminal regions of pc4 bind nucleic acid. It has been suggested that this protein is a cell-to-cell movement protein and nucleic acid binding would be in accord with this function.

  8. Comparing the skill of different reanalyses and their ensembles as predictors for daily air temperature on a glaciated mountain (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    It is well known from previous research that significant differences exist amongst reanalysis products from different institutions. Here, we compare the skill of NCEP-R (reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NCEP), ERA-int (the European Centre of Medium-range Weather Forecasts Interim), JCDAS (the Japanese Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System reanalyses), MERRA (the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CFSR (the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis by the NCEP), and ensembles thereof as predictors for daily air temperature on a high-altitude glaciated mountain site in Peru. We employ a skill estimation method especially suited for short-term, high-resolution time series. First, the predictors are preprocessed using simple linear regression models calibrated individually for each calendar month. Then, cross-validation under consideration of persistence in the time series is performed. This way, the skill of the reanalyses with focus on intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability is quantified. The most important findings are: (1) ERA-int, CFSR, and MERRA show considerably higher skill than NCEP-R and JCDAS; (2) differences in skill appear especially during dry and intermediate seasons in the Cordillera Blanca; (3) the optimum horizontal scales largely vary between the different reanalyses, and horizontal grid resolutions of the reanalyses are poor indicators of this optimum scale; and (4) using reanalysis ensembles efficiently improves the performance of individual reanalyses.

  9. Digital Data from the Great Sand Dunes and Poncha Springs Aeromagnetic Surveys, South-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, B.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Bankey, Viki; New Sense Geophysics, Ltd.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for two high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in south-central Colorado: one in the eastern San Luis Valley, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, and the other in the southern Upper Arkansas Valley, Chaffee County. In the San Luis Valley, the Great Sand Dunes survey covers a large part of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and extends south along the mountain front to the foot of Mount Blanca. In the Upper Arkansas Valley, the Poncha Springs survey covers the town of Poncha Springs and vicinity. The digital files include grids, images, and flight-line data. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including two grids of reduced-to-pole aeromagnetic data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  10. Estimating Heat Transfer at Glacier Margins using Ground-Based Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry-Wake, C.; Zephir, D.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical glaciers constitute an important water resource for downstream populations. However, our understanding of their physical processes is limited due to their high elevation and remote location. In order to gain information on the processes driving the ablation of tropical glaciers, we acquired time-lapse (5-10 minute interval) high-resolution (0.64 m2 pixel size) infrared imagery of the Cuchillacocha Glacier in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in June 2014. This temperature dataset allows for the investigation of small-scale processes observed on the surface of the glacier and surroundings, such as the longwave transfer from the rock adjacent to the glacier. This process is particularly important for tropical glaciers, where the intense incoming solar radiation results in relatively high temperatures of the rocks adjacent the glacier and enhances longwave radiation emission. This radiative flux, varying between 81 and 120 W m-2 daily, is affected by local shading but shows no significant dependency on elevation. The longwave flux derived from the infrared images is integrated into an energy-balance model of the glacier to compare melt at the glacier margin to that occurring on the surface of the glacier. We can then estimate the melt volume generated by this enhanced longwave radiation at the glacier margins during the dry season. Including the quantification of the longwave flux at the glacier margin results in an improved assessment of glacier energy budget and melt water generation of tropical glaciers.

  11. [The neuroanatomy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: neuropsychological and clinical correlates].

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Fernandez-Jaen, A; Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, D; Lopez-Martin, S; Fernandez-Perrone, A L; Calleja-Perez, B; Jimenez-De la Pena, M; Recio-Rodriguez, M

    2016-07-16

    Introduccion. El desarrollo de la resonancia magnetica estructural y de nuevos metodos de analisis ha permitido examinar, como nunca antes, las bases neuroanatomicas del trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). No obstante, poco se sabe todavia sobre la relacion de los sintomas clinicos y las disfunciones neuropsicologicas caracteristicas del TDAH con las alteraciones neuroanatomicas observadas. Objetivo. Explorar la relacion entre neuroanatomia, clinica y neuropsicologia en el TDAH. Desarrollo. A nivel de grupo, existen diferencias marcadas entre el cerebro de niños adolescentes y adultos con TDAH y el cerebro de personas con desarrollo tipico. Estas diferencias se observan transversal y longitudinalmente en todas las medidas, tanto de la sustancia gris como de la sustancia blanca. Aunque todavia escasa, cada vez existe mayor evidencia que señala que estas diferencias se relacionan con los sintomas nucleares del trastorno y con el grado de disfuncion clinica. Tambien parecen asociarse con el funcionamiento cognitivo (principalmente, atencion y control inhibitorio). Conclusiones. La relacion entre los distintos niveles de analisis de estudio del TDAH acerca la investigacion a la clinica y permite comprender y tratar mejor el trastorno. Aunque el avance en este campo es innegable, todavia son muchas las cuestiones que hay que explorar y profundizar en mayor detalle. Se requiere comprender mejor la asociacion entre las medidas neuroanatomicas y cada dimension sintomatologica, y la relacion con otros procesos neuropsicologicos tambien implicados en el trastorno.

  12. Different types of degradable vectors from low-molecular-weight polycation-functionalized poly(aspartic acid) for efficient gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Dou, X B; Hu, Y; Zhao, N N; Xu, F J

    2014-03-01

    Poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) has been employed as the potential backbone for the preparation of efficient gene carriers, due to its low cytotoxicity, good biodegradability and excellent biocompatibility. In this work, the degradable linear or star-shaped PBLA was first prepared via ring-opining polymerization of β-benzyl-L-aspartate N-carboxy anhydride (BLA-NCA) initiated by ethylenediamine (ED) or ED-functionalized cyclodextrin cores. Then, PBLA was functionalized via aminolysis reaction with low-molecular-weight poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) with one terminal primary amine group (PDMAEMA-NH2), followed by addition of excess ED or ethanolamine (EA) to complete the aminolysis process. The obtained different types of cationic PAsp-based vectors including linear or star PAsp-PDM-NH2 and PAsp-PDM-OH exhibited good condensation capability and degradability, benefiting gene delivery process. In comparison with gold standard polyethylenimine (PEI, ∼ 25 kDa), the cationic PAsp-based vectors, particularly star-shaped ones, exhibited much better transfection performances.

  13. Wool traits of three sympatric sheep populations in Chiapas Region, México.

    PubMed

    Parés-Casanova, Pere M; Perezgrovas, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    A total of 344 pure animals, representing seven American and South European breeds (White Chiapas Blanca, Brown Chiapas Café, Black Chiapas Negra, Churra Badana, Churra da Terra Quente, Chilean Latxa, and Spanish Merino), were randomly sampled and wool evaluated for isoalcohol scouring yield, length, and proportion for each type of fiber (long-thick, short-thin, and kemp), average of fiber diameter, and F30 (percentage of fibers with a diameter of >30 μm). The objective of this study was to characterize these breeds according to their wool traits. A low percentage of the phenotypic variability in the analyzed animals was due to differences among breeds, and that the largest part of that variability is due to differences within breeds. The obtained topology in the principal coordinates analysis showed the grouping of the three Chiapas breeds clearly separated, but the similarity with their original breed was only evident for Brown Chiapas Café. The three Chiapas sheep breeds must be regarded as clearly sympatric populations.

  14. Effects of parasitism and environment on shell size of the South American intertidal mud snail Heleobia australis (Gastropoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alda, Pilar; Bonel, Nicolás; Cazzaniga, Néstor J.; Martorelli, Sergio R.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of parasitism and certain environmental factors on the shell size of Heleobia australis (Hydrobiidae, Cochliopinae). We report sporocysts and metacercariae of Microphallus simillimus (Microphallidae, Trematoda) parasitizing the gonad and digestive gland of H. australis specimens from two sites of Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher (34.17% in winter and 68.14% in late spring) in snails from the outer estuary at Site 2 than in those from the inner estuary at Site 1 (5.88% and 4.71% respectively). The only known definitive host for this digenean is the white-backed stilt Himantopus melanurus (Recurvirostridae, Aves), most abundant in the estuary during winter. Parasitism by M. simillimus causes variations in the shell dimensions of H. australis, the shells of infected snails being narrower than those of uninfected snails. Snails from Site 2 were found in general to be significantly smaller than those at Site 1, possibly as a result of differences in environmental factors such as the degree of exposure to wave energy, the allocation of energy to reproduction rather than growth (induced by predation and/or parasitic castrators) and anthropogenic stressors.

  15. Mineral precipitation on modern siliciclastic tidal flats colonized by microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrado, Diana G.; Carmona, Noelia B.; Bournod, Constanza N.

    2012-10-01

    The preservation and cementation of sedimentary structures under the influence of microorganisms in siliciclastic environments have been poorly studied in contrast to carbonatic settings, where they have been extensively investigated. Whereas in carbonatic environments, microbial mat-induced precipitation of calcium carbonate results in a cementation process producing a quick lithification, in siliciclastic environments other minerals would act as cement. The focus of this paper is to document the presence of authigenic minerals within a biosedimentary fabrics and the possible link of these minerals with the extensive microbial mats that colonize the tidal flat of the temperate Bahía Blanca estuary. "Anoxic" minerals (e.g. pyrite) and authigenic zeolites such as analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, phillipsite and chabazite were recognized through SEM and EDX analyses. These minerals were most likely formed by alteration of volcanic ash, which is present in this tidal flat and also silica may result from dissolution of frustules of benthic diatoms. Minerals precipitated in this setting are significant as they would act as early cement in the eogenesis, enhancing the preservation of sedimentary and biogenic structures.

  16. Migration behavior of naturally occurring radionuclides at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, James D.; Pickett, David A.; Murphy, William M.; Pearcy, English C.

    1997-04-01

    Oxidation of pyrite at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Peña Blanca district, Chihuahua, Mexico has resulted in the formation of Fe-oxides/hydroxides. Anomalous U concentrations (i.e. several hundred to several thousand ppm) measured in goethite, hematite, and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides in a major fracture that crosscuts the deposit and the absence of U minerals in the fracture suggest that U was retained during secondary mineral growth or sorbed on mineral surfaces. Mobilization and transport of U away from the deposit is suggested by decreasing U concentrations in fracture-infilling materials and in goethite and hematite with distance from the deposit. Greater than unity {234U}/{238U} activity ratios measured in fracture-infilling materials indicate relatively recent ( < 1 Ma) U uptake from fluids that carried excess 234U. Systematic decreases in {234U}/{238U} activity ratios of fracture materials with distance from the deposit suggest a multistage mobilization process, such as remobilization of U from 234U-enriched infill minerals or differential or diminished transport of U-bearing solutions containing excess 234U.

  17. Nuclear fuel corrosion over millennia interpreted using geologic data

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, E.C.; Manaktala, H.K.

    1994-12-31

    Corrosion of nuclear fuel over the 10,000 year regulatory period in a geologic repository will be a function of physical characteristics (e.g., crystallinity, crystal sizes, crystal forms) and chemical characteristics (e.g., crystal composition, compositional variability, accessory phases). Natural uraninite (nominally UO{sub 2+x}) which has undergone long-term corrosion can be studied to infer the long-term behavior of nuclear fuel. Previously, uraninite from the Nopal I deposit, Pena Blanca district, Chihuahua, Mexico, has been shown to constitute an outstanding analog material for comparison with nuclear fuel. Similarities between Nopal I uraninite and nuclear fuel have been shown to include bulk composition, general crystal structure, and total trace element content. Data presented here suggest that, as a bulk material, Nopal I uraninite compares favorably with irradiated nuclear fuel. Nevertheless, some fine-scale differences are noted between Nopal I uraninite and irradiated nuclear fuel with respect to both internal structures and compositions. These observations suggest that whereas the long-term responses of the two materials to oxidative alteration in a geologic repository may be similar, the detailed mechanisms of initial oxidant penetration and the short-term oxidative alternation of Nopal I uraninite and irradiated nuclear fuel are likely to be different.

  18. [Is there overuse of neuroimaging procedures in patients with chronic migraine? An study in a Health Area in Asturias, Spain].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramos, Juana; Santamarta-Liébana, Elena; Saiz-Ayala, Antonio; García-Cabo, Carmen; Álvarez-Escudero, Rocío; Pascual, Julio

    2014-09-01

    Introduccion. Existe la creencia del abuso de las tecnicas de neuroimagen en pacientes con cefalea en nuestro medio. Objetivo. Analizar el consumo de tecnicas de neuroimagen, y fundamentalmente de la tomografia computarizada (TC), ya que es de acceso libre en nuestra area, en la practica clinica habitual en pacientes con migraña cronica (MC). Pacientes y metodos. Se revisan las historias clinicas de una serie de mujeres consecutivas diagnosticadas en nuestra consulta de cefaleas de MC. Se recogieron datos acerca de la realizacion de tecnicas de neuroimagen a todos niveles (urgencias, consultas y pacientes ingresados). Resultados. Se incluyeron 139 mujeres con MC. Un total de 106 pacientes (76%) tenia al menos una TC de craneo y 28 (20%) dos o mas estudios de TC de craneo. En seis de estas pacientes (21%) existia justificacion clinica para la repeticion del estudio, pero no en las 22 (79%) restantes. Ya en nuestro servicio se solicito resonancia magnetica (RM) a 59 pacientes (42%). En 43 (73%), la RM fue normal; en nueve (15%) puso de manifiesto lesiones inespecificas en la sustancia blanca; y en siete (11%) fue patologica, si bien en ninguno de estos casos habia relacion directa entre la lesion de la RM y la clinica de MC. En 15 pacientes con MC (11%) no se habia solicitado ningun estudio de neuroimagen. Conclusiones. En contra de nuestra hipotesis inicial, no encontramos un abuso de las tecnicas de neuroimagen en pacientes con MC en nuestra area de salud.

  19. A 3-D view of field-scale fault-zone cementation from geologically ground-truthed electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, H.; Spinelli, G. A.; Mozley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fault-zones are an important control on fluid flow, affecting groundwater supply, hydrocarbon/contaminant migration, and waste/carbon storage. However, current models of fault seal are inadequate, primarily focusing on juxtaposition and entrainment effects, despite the recognition that fault-zone cementation is common and can dramatically reduce permeability. We map the 3D cementation patterns of the variably cemented Loma Blanca fault from the land surface to ~40 m depth, using electrical resistivity and induced polarization (IP). The carbonate-cemented fault zone is a region of anomalously low normalized chargeability, relative to the surrounding host material. Zones of low-normalized chargeability immediately under the exposed cement provide the first ground-truth that a cemented fault yields an observable IP anomaly. Low-normalized chargeability extends down from the surface exposure, surrounded by zones of high-normalized chargeability, at an orientation consistent with normal faults in the region; this likely indicates cementation of the fault zone at depth, which could be confirmed by drilling and coring. Our observations are consistent with: 1) the expectation that carbonate cement in a sandstone should lower normalized chargeability by reducing pore-surface area and bridging gaps in the pore space, and 2) laboratory experiments confirming that calcite precipitation within a column of glass beads decreases polarization magnitude. The ability to characterize spatial variations in the degree of fault-zone cementation with resistivity and IP has exciting implications for improving predictive models of the hydrogeologic impacts of cementation within faults.

  20. Effects of Vent Asymmetry on Explosive Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, S.; Ogden, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Current computer models of volcanic eruptions are typically based on symmetric vent and conduit geometries. However, in natural settings, these features are rarely perfectly symmetric. For example, the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens (MSH) took place through a highly asymmetrical crater due to the preceding landslide and subsequent vent erosion. In supersonic, high pressure eruptions, such as what may have occurred at MSH, vent and crater asymmetry can strongly affect the directionality of the gas-thrust region. These effects on eruption direction may have implications for the formation of lateral blasts and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Here, we present preliminary results from numerical simulations using CartaBlanca, a Java based simulation tool for non-linear physics as developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using 2D time-dependent simulations of explosive volcanic eruptions, we study the effects of vent asymmetry on a variety of eruptive conditions. Preliminary results suggest that asymmetric vent shape may provide an additional mechanism for the formation of lateral blasts and PDCs.

  1. Some effects of giant Andean stem-rosettes on ground microclimate, and their ecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of giant Andean stem-rosettes ( Coespeletia lutescens) on air and soil temperatures was studied in the Páramo de Piedras Blancas (Venezuela) at 4265 and 4385 m altitude during the dry season, which is the coldest season in this tropical mountain area. Maximum air temperatures beneath a plant canopy were only slightly higher than in the open. Minimum temperatures below the stem-rosettes were 4.7° to 7.0°C higher than in the open. This substantially reduced the intensity of nightly freezing. Soil temperature minima at 20 cm depth were 2.4° to 4.2°C higher below plants, but maxima were somewhat lower than in bare soil. These microclimatic alterations are ecologically significant for stemprosette seedlings, which should have a higher probability of survival due to the reduced frequency of frost and needle ice formation below large plants. Warmer soils at night should also result in greater water uptake by seedlings during the early morning hours, thus reducing dry-season mortality.

  2. Occurrence of soil water repellency in arid and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, D. F.; Dekker, L. W.; Ritsema, C. J.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.

    2000-05-01

    Soil water repellency generally tends to increase during dry weather while it decreases or completely vanishes after heavy precipitation or during extended periods with high soil water contents. These observations lead to the hypothesis that soil water repellency is common in dry climates and rare in humid climates. The study objective is to test this hypothesis by examining the occurrence of soil water repellency in an arid and humid climate. The main conclusion of this study is that the effect of climate on soil water repellency is very limited. Field observations in the arid Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico (USA) and the humid Piedras Blancas Watershed in Colombia show that the main impact of climate seems to be in which manner it affects the production of organic matter. An extremely dry climate will result in low organic matter production rates and, therefore, less potential for the development of soil water repellency. On the other hand, a very humid climate is favorable for organic matter production and, therefore, for the development of water repellency.

  3. Effective extracellular trehalose production by Cellulosimicrobium cellulans.

    PubMed

    Seto, A; Yoshijima, H; Toyomasu, K; Ogawa, H-O; Kakuta, H; Hosono, K; Ueda, K; Beppu, T

    2004-06-01

    A bacterium isolated from a petal of Casa Blanca Lily (ST26 strain) produced a marked amount of extracellular trehalose (alpha- d-glucopyranosyl-[1,1]-alpha- d-glucopyranose) in culture medium containing glucose. 16S rDNA-based phylogeny showed that ST26 belongs to, or is related to, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, a close relative of Cellulomonas spp. Various Cellulomonas strains obtained from culture collections also showed extracellular trehalose productivity, suggesting that trehalose production is a common property of this bacterial genus. ST26 accumulated trehalose in medium supplied with glucose but not with sucrose, glycerol or maltose. Effective extracellular trehalose production by ST26 was achieved by supplying 0.5-1% ammonium sulfate and 0.5-1% CaCO(3). The addition of CaCO(3) adjusted the pH of the culture to around 5.0. The optimized culture conditions yielded trehalose from glucose at a conversion rate of 61%. The addition of ammonium sulfate greatly reduced the dry cell weight of ST26 and intracellular content of trehalose, which suggests that the addition of ammonium sulfate makes ST26 cells leak trehalose into the medium. ST26 effectively propagated in minimal medium containing trehalose as a sole carbon source, which suggests that trehalose serves as a carbohydrate reserve of this organism.

  4. On the mass composition of primary cosmic rays in the energy region 1015-1016 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, R. V.; Vereshkov, G. M.

    2012-10-01

    A method to determine the primary cosmic ray mass composition is presented. Data processing is based on the theoretical model representing the integral muon multiplicity spectrum as the superposition of the spectra corresponding to different kinds of primary nuclei. The method consists of two stages. In the first stage, the permissible intervals of primary nuclei fractions fi are determined on the basis of the EAS spectrum versus the total number of muons (Eμ ⩾ 235 GeV). In the second stage, the permissible intervals of fi are narrowed by the fitting procedure. We use the experimental data on high multiplicity muon events (nμ ⩾ 114) collected at the Baksan underground scintillation telescope. Within the framework of three components (protons, helium and heavy nuclei), the mass composition in the region 1015-1016 eV has been defined: fp = 0.235 ± 0.02, fHe = 0.290 ± 0.02, fH = 0.475 ± 0.03. The average logarithmic mass is lnA ≃ 1.93 and it is in good agreement with results before the knee energy obtained by JACEE, RUNJOB, ATIC. At energies above the knee (1015-1016 eV) our analysis supports KASCADE results and contradicts to CASA-BLANCA and DICE data.

  5. Life histories and fitness of two tuber moth species feeding on native Andean potatoes.

    PubMed

    Horgan, F G; Quiring, D T; Lagnaoui, A; Pelletier, Y

    2012-08-01

    In the inter-Andean valleys of central Perú, two species of tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) and Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen), often occur simultaneously in stored potatoes. Traditional farming communities in the region produce a variety of native potatoes for local consumption. These include Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena, the presumed predecessor of commercial potatoes, S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum. In this study, we examined resistance against P. operculella in ten native Peruvian potato varieties (Casa blanca, Chispiadita, Madre de vaca, Mamaco negro, Misha, Chorisa, Mamaco rosado, Occa papa, Vacapa jayllo, and Yana tornasol). We also compared resistance in the first five of these varieties against S. tangolias. Varieties with pigmented periderms showed moderate resistance (30-40% against P. operculella in Mamaco negro, Mamaco rosado, and Yana tornasol and 55% against S. tangolias in Mamaco negro). All the other varieties were susceptible to both moth species. Small tubers tended to be the most resistant to the attack by both moths; however, this was not related to the availability of food for developing larvae, since pupal weight and development time were unaffected by the size of tubers. Similar responses by the two moths to native potatoes indicate that tuber resistance could be used to control the complex of tuber moths that damage potatoes in the Andes. We suggest that native potatoes, which are often easily introgressed with commercial potatoes, are a potential source of resistance against tuber moths.

  6. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.; Hash, John M.; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. New information We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown. PMID:28325980

  7. Degradable, pH-sensitive, membrane-destabilizing, comb-like polymers for intracellular delivery of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ling; Jiang, Guohua; Birrell, Lisa K; El-Sayed, Mohamed E H

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the design and synthesis of a new series of degradable, pH-sensitive, membrane-destabilizing, comb-like polymers that can enhance the intracellular delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids. These comb-like polymers are based on a diblock polymer backbone where the first block is a copolymer of pH-sensitive ethyl acrylic acid (EAA) monomers and hydrophobic butyl methacrylate (BMA) or hexyl methacrylate monomers. The second block is a homopolymer of N-acryloxy succinimide (NASI) or ss-benzyl l-aspartate N-carboxy-anhydride (BLA-NCA) monomers, which are functionalized to allow controlled grafting of hydrophobic HMA and cationic trimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (TMAEMA) copolymers via acid-labile hydrazone linkages. These comb-like polymers displayed high hemolytic activity in acidic solutions, which increased with the increase in polymer concentration. All comb-like polymers degraded into small fragments upon incubation in an acidic solution (pH 5.8) due to hydrolysis of the hydrazone linkages connecting the hydrophobic/cationic grafts to the polymer backbone. Comb-like polymers successfully complexed anti-GAPDH siRNA molecules into serum- and nuclease-stable particles, which successfully silenced GAPDH expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results collectively indicate the potential of these new comb-like polymers to serve as vehicles for effective intracellular delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids.

  8. A separate phase drag model and a surrogate approximation for simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process

    SciTech Connect

    Padrino-Inciarte, Juan Carlos; Ma, Xia; VanderHeyden, W. Brian; Zhang, Duan Zhong

    2016-01-01

    General ensemble phase averaged equations for multiphase flows have been specialized for the simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. In the average momentum equation, fluid-solid and fluid-fluid viscous interactions are represented by separate force terms. This equation has a form similar to that of Darcy’s law for multiphase flow but augmented by the fluid-fluid viscous forces. Models for these fluid-fluid interactions are suggested and implemented into the numerical code CartaBlanca. Numerical results indicate that the model captures the main features of the multiphase flow in the SAGD process, but the detailed features, such as plumes are missed. We find that viscous coupling among the fluid phases is important. Advection time scales for the different fluids differ by several orders of magnitude because of vast viscosity differences. Numerically resolving all of these time scales is time consuming. To address this problem, we introduce a steam surrogate approximation to increase the steam advection time scale, while keeping the mass and energy fluxes well approximated. This approximation leads to about a 40-fold speed-up in execution speed of the numerical calculations at the cost of a few percent error in the relevant quantities.

  9. Identification and dating of indigenous water storage reservoirs along the Rio San José at Laguna Pueblo, western New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huckleberry, Gary; Ferguson, T.J.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Banet, Chris; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into indigenous water storage on the Rio San José in western New Mexico was conducted in support of efforts by the Pueblo of Laguna to adjudicate their water rights. Here we focus on stratigraphy and geochronology of two Native American-constructed reservoirs. One reservoir located near the community of Casa Blanca was formed by a ∼600 m (2000 feet) long stone masonry dam that impounded ∼1.6 × 106 m3 (∼1300 acre-feet) of stored water. Four optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages obtained on reservoir deposits indicate that the dam was constructed prior to AD 1825. The other reservoir is located adjacent to Old Laguna Pueblo and contains only a small remnant of its former earthen dam. The depth and distribution of reservoir deposits and a photogrammetric analyses of relict shorelines indicate a storage capacity of ∼6.5 × 106 m3 (∼5300 ac-ft). OSL ages from above and below the base of the reservoir indicate that the reservoir was constructed sometime after AD 1370 but before AD 1750. The results of our investigation are consistent with Laguna oral history and Spanish accounts demonstrating indigenous construction of significant water-storage reservoirs on the Rio San José prior to the late nineteenth century.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 574: Neptune, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-08-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 574, Neptune. CAU 574 is included in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996 [as amended March 2010]) and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune); (2) CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca). This plan provides the methodology for the field activities that will be performed to gather the necessary information for closure of the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 574 using the SAFER process. Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, field screening, analytical results, the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process (Section 3.0), and an evaluation of corrective action alternatives (Appendix B), closure in place with administrative controls is the expected closure strategy for CAU 574. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to verify and support the expected closure strategy and provide a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  11. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el desarrollo de carcinoma escamocelular a partir del liquen plano bucal es controversial. Describimos un caso con carcinoma escamocelular intrabucal, que cursa con lesiones de liquen plano bucal y se analizan las dificultades para distinguir los cambios incipientes del carcinoma escamocelular de las lesiones por liquen plano intrabucales que lleven a establecer un diagnóstico certero de ambas entidades. Caso clínico: hombre de 57 años, con antecedente de tabaquismo y hábito alcohólico crónico, que presenta lesión tumoral ulcerada en borde lateral izquierdo de lengua y placas blancas reticulares bilaterales en mucosa yugal, bordes laterales y vientre de lengua. El reporte histopatológico fue de carcinoma escamocelular invasor moderadamente diferenciado y liquen plano respectivamente. Conclusiones: la naturaleza premaligna del liquen plano bucal es controvertida, esto por inconsistencia en los criterios diagnóstico clínicos e histológicos que permitan diferenciar los casos de liquen plano bucal de otras lesiones como las reacciones liquenoides o displasias intraepiteliales con alto potencial de malignización. Posiblemente las reacciones liquenoides bucales tienen un mayor riesgo de transformación maligna al compararse con el clásico liquen plano bucal.

  12. Geoelectrical Characterization of the Punta Banda System: A Possible Structural Control for the Geothermal Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Flores-Marquez, E.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Working Group, I.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of sufficient drinking water in México has become a very serious problem, especially in the northern desert regions of the country. In order to give a real solution to this phenomenon the IMPULSA research program has been created to develope novel technologies based on desalination of sea and brackish water using renewable sources of energy to face the problem. The Punta Banda geothermal anomaly is located towards the northern part of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico). High water temperatures in some wells along the coast depicted a geothermal anomaly. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was carried out in the area as a preliminary study, both to understand the process generating these anomalous temperatures and to assess its potential exploitation to supply hot water to desalination plants. Among the electromagnetic methods, the audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) method is appropriated for deep groundwater and geothermal studies. The survey consisted of 27 AMT stations covering a 5 km profile along the Agua Blanca Fault. The employed array allowed us to characterize the geoelectrical properties of the main structures up to 500 m depth. Two main geoelectrical zones were identified: 1) a shallow low resistivity media located at the central portion of the profile, coinciding with the Maneadero valley and 2) two high resitivity structures bordering the conductive zone possibly related to NS faulting, already identified by previous geophysical studies. These results suggest that the main geothermal anomalies are controlled by the dominant structural regime in the zone.

  13. El contexto de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos del estudio EPESE hispano

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Camacho, María E.; Eschbach, Karl; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN En este artículo se discute el papel de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos méjico-americanos del estudio EPESE (Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly) hispano. La paradoja epidemiológica consiste en que, a pesar de estar en desventaja socioeconómica, los ancianos hispanos tienen mortalidad relativamente menor que los ancianos de raza blanca. Esto es especialmente cierto cuando el anciano vive en los vecindarios donde hay un porcentaje alto de méjico-americanos. La familia también juega un papel importante en estos ancianos al disminuir el riesgo de institucionalización o de morbilidad. Asimismo, el estrés originado en problemas económicos o al depender económicamente de la familia, habiendo inmigrado en edades tardías, puede sobrepasar la capacidad de amortiguamiento del estrés y afectar la salud del anciano méjico-americano. PMID:25190897

  14. [The neural networks of facial expression].

    PubMed

    Gordillo, F; Mestas, L; Castillo, G; Perez, M A; Lopez, R M; Arana, J M

    2017-02-01

    Introduccion. La percepcion de caras involucra una amplia red de conexiones entre regiones corticales y subcorticales que intercambian y sincronizan informacion a traves de haces de sustancia blanca. Este preciso sistema de comunicacion puede verse afectado tanto a traves de las propias estructuras como por las vias que las conectan. Objetivos. Delimitar el sustrato neuronal que subyace a la percepcion de la expresion facial y analizar los diferentes factores que participan modulando la integridad de esta red neuronal, con el fin de proponer mejoras en los programas de rehabilitacion. Desarrollo. Cuando la compleja red de conexiones que participa en la percepcion de la expresion facial se altera por traumatismos, patologias neurodegenerativas, trastornos del desarrollo, incluso por aislamiento social o contextos negativos, se deteriora tambien la capacidad para interactuar de manera adaptativa con el entorno. Conclusiones. La posibilidad de restaurar la integridad de la red neuronal encargada del procesamiento de la expresion facial pasa por tener en cuenta diferentes variables que en mayor o menor grado se han mostrado capaces de modificar la estructura o funcionalidad de las redes neuronales, como el entrenamiento aerobico, la estimulacion magnetica transcraneal, la estimulacion electrica transcraneal y el aprendizaje, sin bien estas variables estarian condicionadas por la edad, el tipo y evolucion del trastorno o el contexto generador, lo que plantearia la necesidad de protocolos de rehabilitacion ajustados y orientados a delimitar el sustrato neuronal del deficit.

  15. [The social brain: neurobiological bases of clinical interest].

    PubMed

    Álvaro-González, Luis C

    2015-11-16

    Introduccion. Las capacidades sociales humanas son evolutivamente tardias y unicas. Permiten una especializacion que mejora la disponibilidad de recursos y facilita la reproduccion. Nuestra complejidad social descansa en circuitos y mecanismos especificos, que analizamos. Desarrollo. A esos efectos, resultan operativos: el conocimiento del otro mediante la empatia, mecanismos especificos que nos dotan de capacidad para detectar defraudadores, factores geneticos y bioquimicos, y el sistema nervioso autonomo. La empatia es el mecanismo basico de la sociabilidad. Reconoce niveles de complejidad (emocional, cognitiva, de atribucion), con diferenciacion anatomica especifica. Lo social va ligado a lo emocional, y esto a lo homeostatico. Asi, dolor fisico y social comparten matriz anatomica y terapias. Somos seres sociales de naturaleza biologica egoista, que ajustamos gracias a una capacidad especial para detectar defraudadores, dominante sobre las de planificacion o abstraccion. La oxitocina es el mediador neuroquimico prosocial esencial. La serotonina y la enzima MAO se consideran con capacidad antisocial, dependiente de la interaccion con ambientes adversos. Finalmente, el sistema vagal mas reciente filogeneticamente y mielinizado, el del nucleo dorsal del vago, es requisito para la interaccion social acogedora y ludica. Conclusiones. La neurobiologia de lo social permite reconocer trastornos de esta conducta en lesiones estructurales (vasculares, de la sustancia blanca, demencias...), alteraciones del neurodesarrollo (autismo), enfermedades psiquiatricas (esquizofrenia) o trastornos de la personalidad. Existen posibilidades de intervencion terapeutica (estimulacion magnetica transcraneal, farmacos) prometedoras. La adicion de factores culturales y ambientales a los neurobiologicos introduce complejidad ecologica, sin restar validez a lo expuesto.

  16. Recognition on space photographs of structural elements of Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, W.

    1971-01-01

    Gemini and Apollo photographs provide illustrations of known structural features of the peninsula and some structures not recognized previously. An apparent transform relationship between strike-slip and normal faulting is illustrated by the overlapping vertical photographs of northern Baja California. The active Agua Blanca right-lateral strike-slip fault trends east-southeastward to end at the north end of the Valle San Felipe and Valle Chico. The uplands of the high Sierra San Pedro Martir are a low-relief surface deformed by young faults, monoclines, and warps, which mostly produce west-facing steps and slopes; the topography is basically structural. The Sierra Cucapas of northeasternmost Baja California and the Colorado River delta of northwesternmost Sonora are broken by northwest-trending strike-slip faults. A strike-slip fault is inferred to trend northward obliquely from near Cabo San Lucas to La Paz, thence offshore until it comes ashore again as the Bahia Concepcion strike-slip fault.

  17. Seismic expression of Late Quaternary Banda submarine canyon and fan offshore northern Baja California

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles obtained throughout the inner California continental borderland offshore northwestern Baja California, Mexico, show the presence of numerous modern submarine canyons and associated fans. One set of these, the Banda submarine canyon/fan, is of relatively recent origin, as demonstrated by onlap of the basal fan sediments against an acoustically transparent, presumably hemipelagic deposit. Late Quaternary sedimentation rates inferred from isotopically dated piston core samples place the age of the postulated hemipelagic unit at approximately 650,000 years ago. The Banda submarine canyon heads within the Bahia Todos Santo and passes through a narrow gorge between Punta Banda and Islas Todos Santos. It is proposed that this submarine canyon and fan system formed entirely during late Quaternary time, following the breach of the Punta Banda ridge during a late Pleistocene high sea level stand. The presence of an ancient, buried channel exiting to the north out of Bahia Todos Santos probably marks the head of an earlier submarine canyon which acted as the conduit of clastic sediments from Valle Maneadero to the deep borderland basins. The now active Banda submarine canyon pirated the supply of terrigenous clastics from this older canyon. The active Agua Blanca fault zone cuts across the head of Banda submarine canyon, suggesting that tectonic movements may have played a role in the development of the Banda submarine canyon and fan system.

  18. Lower Mississippian trilobites from southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three species of trilobites are recognized in the lower Mississippian Caballero and Lake Valley Formations of southern New Mexico. Species exhibit a segregation into shelf and off-shelf faunas, and can be subdivided into three distinct stratigraphic faunas. Species found in the Caballero Formation are similar to those found in the Chouteau Formation of Missouri. A second fauna, comprising species found in the Alamogordo, Nunn, and Tierra Blanca Members of the Lake Valley Formation, is correlated with the Fern Glen and Burlington Formations of Missouri. The third fauna found in the Arcente and Dona Aha Members of the Lake Valley Formation is correlated with the Warsaw and Salem Formations of the United States midcontinent region. Named species from the Kinderhookian Caballero Formation include: Dixiphopyge armata (Vogdes, 1891), Comptonaspis swallowi (Shumard, 1855), Brachymetopus indianwellsensis new species, Ameropiltonia perplexa new species, Griffithidella caballeroensis new species, and Kollarcephalus granatai new genus and new species. Named species from the Lake Valley Formation include: Pudoproetus fernglenensis (Weller, 1909), Breviphillipsia semiteretis Hessler, 1963, Griffithidella doris (Hall 1860), Phillibole planucauda (Brezinski, 1998), Piltonia carlakertisae new species, Australosutura llanoensis Brezinski, 1998, Thigriffides triangulatus new species, Thigriffides? alamogordoensis new species, Namuropyge newmexicoensis new species, Nunnaspis stitti new genus and new species, Hesslerides arcentensis new genus and new species, as well as an unnamed species of Proetides Hessler, 1962, Namuropyge Brezinski, 1988, and Thigriffides Hessler, 1965.

  19. Polyethylene process is ready to barge in and be used by Ipako in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-02

    Ipako S.A.'s new 120,000 ton/yr Unipol low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plant will be built on a barge by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. and towed 14,000 mi to Bahia Blanca, Argent., where the barge will be moored to the shore. Union Carbide Corp. is offering barge-mounted LDPE plants using its Unipol process in 75,000 and 120,000 metric ton/yr sizes. The plants have the same design as land-based plants. The plant being built in Japan measures 300 ft long, 73.8 ft wide, and 175 ft to the top of the flare, and includes a raw materials storage and handling section, an onboard nitrogen plant, a purification system, fresh- and salt-water cooling systems, an enclosed personnel area, laboratory and process control facilities, a power distribution center, and an emergency power-generating plant. With construction in the shipyard, the plant can be completed in less time than would be required on site. When the plant starts operation, probably by the end of 1982, Ipako will become the largest LDPE producer in Argentina. Other companies, including Davy Offshore, have been promoting the idea of offshore plants.

  20. [Prevalence of silent cerebrovascular lesions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Colla-Machado, Pedro E; Luzzi, Ariel A; Balian, Natalia R; Pigretti, Santiago G; Zurrú-Ganen, M Cristina; Cristiano, Edgardo; Valiensi, Stella M

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) confiere mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, dada su asociacion con otros factores de riesgo vascular. Tanto el SAHOS como otros factores de riesgo vascular se asocian con lesiones cerebrales silentes. Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes en pacientes con SAHOS. Pacientes y metodos. Se evaluo retrospectivamente una cohorte de 137 pacientes con SAHOS, con una edad media de 65 ± 12 años, el 45% mujeres. Las lesiones cerebrales silentes en resonancia magnetica se evaluaron con la escala visual de Fazekas, y se consigno la presencia de infartos corticales, lacunares y microsangrados. Resultados. La prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular fue: hipertension, 64%; dislipidemia, 58%; diabetes, 18%; tabaquismo, 34%; ateromatosis carotidea, 26%; enfermedad coronaria, 13%; y fibrilacion auricular, 4%. El SAHOS fue leve en el 47%, moderado en el 31% y grave en el 22% de los casos. El 91% de los pacientes tenia hiperintensidades periventriculares y el 66% presentaba lesiones en la sustancia blanca subcortical. El valor medio del indice de apnea/hipopnea fue mayor en los pacientes con mayor carga de lesiones, aunque sin significacion estadistica. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con SAHOS presentan una elevada prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes, fundamentalmente con un patron microangiopatico. Posiblemente esto se explique por la asociacion entre el SAHOS, la hipertension arterial y otros factores de riesgo vascular.

  1. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population.

  2. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  3. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  4. Glacial records of global climate: A 1500-year tropical ice core record of climate

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.G.; Davis, M.E.; Mosley-Thompson, E. )

    1994-03-01

    A general discussion is given of climate variability over the last 1500 years as interpreted from two ice cores from the Quelccaya ice cap, Peru. The possible role of climatic variability in prehistory over this period is discussed with emphases on (1) relationships between climate and the rise and decline of coastal and highland cultures; (2) the possible causes of two major dust events recorded in the quelccaya ice cores around AD 920 and AD 600; (3) implications of climatic variation for the occupation and abandonment of the Gran Pajaten area. The remarkable similarity between changes in highland and coastal cultures and changes in accumulation as determined from the Quelccaya ice cores implies a strong connection between human activities and climate in this region of the globe. Two ice cores drilled to bedrock from the 6047 masl col of Huascaran in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru in 1993 offer the potential of an annual to decadal climatic and environmental record which should allow the study of human-climate and human-environmental relationships over 10,000+ years. The 1991 and 1993 evidence from the Quelccaya ice cap indicates that recent and rapid warming is currently underway in the tropical Andes. Thus, many of the unique glacier archives are in imminent danger of being lost forever.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in estuarine cohesive sediments: geochemistry and bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecco, Laura Edith; Gómez, Eduardo Alberto; Botté, Sandra Elizabeth; Marcos, Ángel Omar; Marcovecchio, Jorge Eduardo; Cuadrado, Diana Graciela

    2011-03-01

    The geochemistry, mineralogy, and grain size distribution of several estuarine cohesive sediment samples from potentially human-influenced areas without such an influence were analyzed to determine the natural heavy metal content and evaluate its impact on the Bahía Blanca estuarine environment. The data were compared with different ranges of concentrations for heavy metals in marine sediments established by the NOAA Screening Quick Reference Tables in which values range from background levels to those considered toxic to the marine environment. Our total heavy metal contents were below the established hazardous levels in all the analyzed samples, even though the potentially human-influenced areas (harbors, industry, urban spread) showed the highest total concentration values as well as greater percentages of bioavailable compounds. This would imply a low and not extensive anthropogenic input into the environment. The relatively high proportions in which Cd, Pb, and Cr appear as bioavailable compounds at some sites not influenced by human activity suggest the presence of a natural source for these elements. This could be attributed to the weathering of naturally occurring volcanic minerals, indicating that special care must be taken when monitoring of sediment for anthropogenic activity is carried out within this environment. According to the results obtained, and in order to minimize the environmental impact caused by periodic water injection dredging, relocation of sewage outfalls from vessel mooring areas into open waters is strongly recommended.

  6. New L Chondrites from Antofagasta, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez de Los Rios, E.

    1992-07-01

    Desert regions can be productive meteorite recovery locations because of low humidity, minimal ground cover and, in favorable situations, high prevailing winds to deflate surfaces. For these reasons we have made reconnaissance searches of a particularly arid Atacama Desert tract between Antofagasta and Mejillones, Chile (approx. 23 degrees 15'S, 70 degrees 30'W). One of us (EMR) had previously collected new ordinary chondrites from this same area, which has been named Pampa (a), (b), (c), and (e). The Pampa de Agua Blanca (PAB) chondrite is also apparently from this same area. In our brief 1991 reconnaissance we found additional specimens of (a) and (c). All of these meteorites have been found as multiple stones, necessitating pairing studies. Consequently, we examined our finds (a, b, c, and e), borrowed specimens from the Field Museum (a, b, PAB) and Robert Haag (c), and have performed the first detailed studies of the Pampa meteorites. Here we summarize results of these studies. Shock levels refer to the classification developed by Stoffler et al. (1991). PAMPA (a): This weathered meteorite is represented by several partially fusion-crusted fragments with a combined mass of approximately 380 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section, although some chondrule fragments are present; considerable recrystallization is evident and plagioclase (Ab(sub)80Or5-Ab(sub)83Or(sub)5) is present as clear grains. Diopside and hydroxylapatite are also present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.4% mean deviation-PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (a) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA (b): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with a combined weight of approximately 10 kg. We examined thin sections from four individual stones of (b). A few distinct barred chondrules are evident in thin section, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)74.8 mean, 0.9 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures

  7. Phyllosphere nitrogen relations: reciprocal transfer of nitrogen between epiphyllous liverworts and host plants in the understorey of a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Wolfgang; Pörtl, Katja

    2005-05-01

    Epiphyllous bryophytes on tropical rainforest plants acquire nutrients from throughfall and free-living N2-fixing organisms, but may also depend directly on host leaf leachates. By contrast, after drying events bryophytes lose significant quantities of nutrients through leaching that can be taken up by host leaves. To assess a potential nutritional interdependency, nitrogen fluxes between epiphyllous liverworts and their host leaves (Carludovica drudei, Costus laevis, Dieffenbachia concinna, Pentagonia wendlandii) were quantified by in situ15N-labelling techniques in a lowland rainforest, Piedras Blancas National Park, Costa Rica. Depending on host species, epiphyllous bryophytes met between 1 and 57% of their N demand from host leaf leachates. Externally supplied 15N was taken up both by epiphylls and host leaves, but N from epiphyll leachates accounted for < 2.5% of host leaf N after 14 d. Long-term observations (180 d) demonstrated the highly dynamic nature of phyllosphere N of the investigated tropical rainforest understorey and an intermittent sink capacity of epiphyllous bryophytes.

  8. Comparative Study of Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Color-composition Relation of Roselle Cultivars with Contrasting Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Jara-Palacios, M José; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Gordillo, Belén; Hernanz, Dolores; Paredes-López, Octavio; Vanegas-Espinoza, Pablo E; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    Roselle is a plant that accumulates anthocyanins significantly, hence its importance as food coloring and as a source of antioxidant compounds for human health. This study was aimed to determine phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts, and beverages obtained from native roselle cultivars in Mexico (Negra, Sudan, Rosa and Blanca) with different degrees of pigmentation, and to establish the color-composition relationship. Chromatographic methods were used to determine phenolic compounds: flavanols, flavonols, benzoic, hibiscus and phenolic acids as well as two main anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by ABTS and FRAP assays. Tristimulus colorimetry showed to be a useful technique to determine the color-composition relationship, leading to equations that allowed to predict anthocyanin content of roselle (R > 0.84). Also, a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was developed in order to classify roselle cultivars. The obtained mathematical model could be an important tool to be used in colorimetric characterization of functional compounds used in food processing.

  9. [Evaluation of public drug provision policies for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Argentina: a case study].

    PubMed

    Elorza, María Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina, the provision of drugs for patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus who lack health insurance is carried out through public programs. In the Province of Buenos Aires, the national program Remediar and the provincial program PRODIABA (from the Spanish Programa de Prevención, Diagnóstico y Tratamiento del Paciente Diabético) coexist. This study estimates the percentage of adults in the municipality of Bahia Blanca (Province of Buenos Aires) who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus and lack health insurance, thus satisfying their need for oral antidiabetic treatments within the public sector. It is a quantitative study that assesses the need and demand for public provision. The results indicate that: 1) the greatest percentage of demand is satisfied at the primary health care level; 2) the province of Buenos Aires funds the largest share of the pills, followed by the municipal and the national levels; 3) the local government intervenes to satisfy the demand and 4) the total public provision covers approximately 25% of the overall need in relation to the average consumption. This shows that despite the presence of these public programs, the provision is insufficient and thus requires the intervention of the local government even though economic theory does not recommend the decentralization of drug purchases.

  10. Clones identification and genetic characterization of Garnacha grapevine by means of different PCR-derived marker systems.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Stefano; Costacurta, Angelo; Frare, Enrica; Da Rold, Graziana; Migliaro, Daniele; Morreale, Giacomo; Crespan, Manna; Sotés, Vicente; Calò, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    This study uses PCR-derived marker systems to investigate the extent and distribution of genetic variability of 53 Garnacha accessions coming from Italy, France and Spain. The samples studied include 28 Italian accessions (named Tocai rosso in Vicenza area; Alicante in Sicily and Elba island; Gamay perugino in Perugia province; Cannonau in Sardinia), 19 Spanish accessions of different types (named Garnacha tinta, Garnacha blanca, Garnacha peluda, Garnacha roja, Garnacha erguida, Garnacha roya) and 6 French accessions (named Grenache and Grenache noir). In order to verify the varietal identity of the samples, analyses based on 14 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were performed. The presence of an additional allele at ISV3 locus (151 bp) was found in four Tocai rosso accessions and in a Sardinian Cannonau clone, that are, incidentally, chimeras. In addition to microsatellite analysis, intravarietal variability study was performed using AFLP, SAMPL and M-AFLP molecular markers. AFLPs could discriminate among several Garnacha samples; SAMPLs allowed distinguishing few genotypes on the basis of their geographic origin, whereas M-AFLPs revealed plant-specific markers, differentiating all accessions. Italian samples showed the greatest variability among themselves, especially on the basis of their different provenance, while Spanish samples were the most similar, in spite of their morphological diversity.

  11. A separate phase drag model and a surrogate approximation for simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process

    DOE PAGES

    Padrino-Inciarte, Juan Carlos; Ma, Xia; VanderHeyden, W. Brian; ...

    2016-01-01

    General ensemble phase averaged equations for multiphase flows have been specialized for the simulation of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. In the average momentum equation, fluid-solid and fluid-fluid viscous interactions are represented by separate force terms. This equation has a form similar to that of Darcy’s law for multiphase flow but augmented by the fluid-fluid viscous forces. Models for these fluid-fluid interactions are suggested and implemented into the numerical code CartaBlanca. Numerical results indicate that the model captures the main features of the multiphase flow in the SAGD process, but the detailed features, such as plumes are missed.more » We find that viscous coupling among the fluid phases is important. Advection time scales for the different fluids differ by several orders of magnitude because of vast viscosity differences. Numerically resolving all of these time scales is time consuming. To address this problem, we introduce a steam surrogate approximation to increase the steam advection time scale, while keeping the mass and energy fluxes well approximated. This approximation leads to about a 40-fold speed-up in execution speed of the numerical calculations at the cost of a few percent error in the relevant quantities.« less

  12. Structure-from-Motion Approach for Characterization of Bioerosion Patterns Using UAV Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Genchi, Sibila A.; Vitale, Alejandro J.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Delrieux, Claudio A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the 3D model obtained through Structure-from-Motion (SFM) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, in order to characterize bioerosion patterns (i.e., cavities for roosting and nesting) caused by burrowing parrots on a cliff in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. The combined use of SFM-UAV technology was successfully applied for the 3D point cloud model reconstruction. The local point density, obtained by means of a sphere of radius equal to 0.5 m, reached a mean value of 9749, allowing to build a high-resolution model (0.013 m) for resolving fine spatial details in topography. To test the model, we compared it with another point cloud dataset which was created using a low cost do-it-yourself terrestrial laser scanner; the results showed that our georeferenced model had a good accuracy. In addition, an innovative method for the detection of the bioerosion features was implemented, through the processing of data provided by SFM like color and spatial coordinates (particularly the y coordinate). From the 3D model, we also derived topographic calculations such as slope angle and surface roughness, to get associations between the surface topography and bioerosion features. PMID:25658392

  13. Structure-from-motion approach for characterization of bioerosion patterns using UAV imagery.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Sibila A; Vitale, Alejandro J; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Delrieux, Claudio A

    2015-02-04

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the 3D model obtained through Structure-from-Motion (SFM) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, in order to characterize bioerosion patterns (i.e., cavities for roosting and nesting) caused by burrowing parrots on a cliff in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. The combined use of SFM-UAV technology was successfully applied for the 3D point cloud model reconstruction. The local point density, obtained by means of a sphere of radius equal to 0.5 m, reached a mean value of 9749, allowing to build a high-resolution model (0.013 m) for resolving fine spatial details in topography. To test the model, we compared it with another point cloud dataset which was created using a low cost do-it-yourself terrestrial laser scanner; the results showed that our georeferenced model had a good accuracy. In addition, an innovative method for the detection of the bioerosion features was implemented, through the processing of data provided by SFM like color and spatial coordinates (particularly the y coordinate). From the 3D model, we also derived topographic calculations such as slope angle and surface roughness, to get associations between the surface topography and bioerosion features.

  14. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Cook, Paul J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Rodriguez, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de la Garza, Rodrigo

    2008-10-25

    An integrated field, laboratory, and modeling study of the Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) natural analogue site is being conducted to evaluate processes that control the mobilization and transport of radionuclides from a uranium ore deposit. One component of this study is an evaluation of the potential for radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone (UZ) via a seepage study in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine, excavated 10 m below a mined level surface. Seasonal rainfall on the exposed level surface infiltrates into the fractured rhyolitic ash-flow tuff and seeps into the adit. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage within the Nopal I +00 adit. Monitoring of seepage within the adit between April 2005 and December 2006 indicates that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Within the back adit area, a few zones where large volumes of water have been collected are linked to fast flow path fractures (0-4 h transit times) presumably associated with focused flow. In most locations, however, there is a 1-6 month time lag between major precipitation events and seepage within the adit, with longer residence times observed for the front adit area. Seepage data obtained from this study will be used to provide input to flow and transport models being developed for the Nopal I hydrogeologic system.

  15. Optimisation and validation of analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of antioxidants: application to the analysis of tomato sauces.

    PubMed

    Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Labrador, Agustín; Domínguez, Alba; Peiró, Lluís

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, simultaneous extraction of natural antioxidants (phenols and carotenoids) in complex matrices, such as tomato sauces, is presented. The tomato sauce antioxidant compounds studied were the phenolics hydroxytyrosol, from virgin olive oil, quercetin and its derivatives, from onions, and quercetin-rutinoside as well as the carotenoid, lycopene (cis and trans), from tomatoes. These antioxidant compounds were extracted simultaneously with n-hexane/acetone/ethanol (50/25/25, v/v/v). The phenolics were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and lycopene (cis- and trans-forms) was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After studying the parameters of these methods, they were applied to the analysis of virgin olive oil, fresh onion, tomato concentrate and tomato powder, and commercial five tomato sauces. Subsequently, the results obtained in our laboratory were compared with those from the Gallina Blanca Star Group laboratory.

  16. The use of flaxseed flour during pregnancy and lactation reverses lower birth weight in offspring from diabetic mothers but averts the development during lactation.

    PubMed

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D'Ávila; dos Anjos, Juliana Saraiva; de Almeida, Kátia Calvi Lenzi; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-10-01

    La diabetes es una complicación que ocurre durante la gestación puede influir sustancialmente el desarrollo de las crías durante la vida fetal y postnatal. La linaza es una fuente de ácidos grasos omega-3, que la oferta apropiado durante la gestación y lactancia son determinantes para un adecuados crecimiento y desarrollo perinatal. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos beneficiosos del uso de la harina de linaza durante el embarazo y la lactancia en el desarrollo corporal desde el nacimiento hasta el destete de las crías de madres diabéticas. Métodos: Los doce ratas, de un total de dieciocho fueron inducidas a la diabetes con dieta alta en grasas durante cuatro semanas también recibir una dosis reducida de estreptozotocina. Después de la confirmación de la diabetes (glucosa> 300mg/dL), que fueron apareadas y cuando se confirmó el embarazo, fueron divididos en 3 grupos: grupo de alto contenido de grasa (HFG), grupo de alto contenido de grasa con harina de linaza (HFFFG) y grupo control (GC ), recibiendo la dieta alta en grasas, dieta alta en grasa añadida harina de linaza y dieta control, respectivamente. Fueron alimentados de esta manera durante toda la gestación y la lactancia. El el desarrollo corporal de las crías se midió semanalmente desde el primer día después de su nacimiento hasta el destete. Resultados: En el nacimiento, la masa corporal medio de las crías de madres diabéticas que recibieron sólo la dieta rica en grasas era 23,6% más ligero que la masa corporal de las crías de los no diabéticos madres (p.

  17. Fluctuaciones cuánticas y cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    El objetivo de la charla es repasar 1) los motivos para creer que el Universo pasó por una etapa inflacionaria antes del período dominado por la radiación, durante la cual se habrían formado las fluctuaciones primordiales en la densidad de energía que luego colapsaron para formar estructuras cosmológicas 2) los mecanismos que crearon dichas fluctuaciones a partir de fluctuaciones cuánticas del campo del ``inflaton" durante dicho período y 3) los problemas abiertos en el estudio de modelos inflacionarios, especialmente respecto al inicio y final del mismo.

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet by nursing students of Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro-González, Inmaculada; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Rodríguez-Tadeo, Alejandra; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Marín, Mariano; Doménech-Asensi, Guillermo

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La dieta Mediterránea está reconocida como una de los patrones dietéticos más saludables pero, incluso en los propios países mediterráneos se está produciendo un deterioro y abandonando de la misma. Los hábitos dietéticos quedan establecidos generalmente durante la adolescencia pero durante el periodo universitario los estudiantes pueden sufrir cambios importantes en su estilo de vida. El índice KIDMED está reconocido como una buena herramienta para la evaluación de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea (ADM).

  19. Interagency Training for Comprehensive Operations: Government Partners Perceptions of Exercise Maple Guardian (La Formation Interorganismes aux fins d’Operations Globales: Perceptions des Partenaires Gouvernementaux de l’Exercise Maple Guardian)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    afghans durant l’exercice et quant à la valeur perçue de la formation pour se préparer à collaborer avec les membres de la population afghane durant le...contemporaines a poussé le gouvernement du Canada à adopter progressivement une approche globale face aux opérations, fondée en partie sur une intervention...supporting the creation and sustainment of good governance, are also critical to addressing the scope and depth of the needs of the people of such states

  20. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Measure of damages is the same as in the case of coal. Benson Mining and Smelting Co. v. Alta Mining and Smelting Co. (145 U.S. 428, 36 L. ed. 762; Durant Mining Co. v. Percy Consolidated Mining...

  1. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la información sobre la salinidad superficial de los océanos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer año de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  2. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  3. Ciencia en la Estación Espacial Internacional

    NASA Video Gallery

    Durante más de 10 años, los seres humanos vivieron en la estación espacial las 24 horas, los siete días de la semana Y llevaron a cabo más de 600 experimentos. Fíjate apenas algunos de estos experi...

  4. [Neuropsychological alterations are frequent in rolandic epilepsy and its atypical developments].

    PubMed

    Pesantez-Rios, G; Martinez-Bermejo, A; Pesantez-Cuesta, G

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La epilepsia rolandica o epilepsia benigna de la infancia con puntas centrotemporales se denomina benigna debido a lo favorables que suelen ser sus crisis y a la espontanea normalizacion del electroencefalograma al llegar a la pubertad, aunque se ha demostrado el impacto sobre el desarrollo cognitivo con la presencia de deficits cognitivos heterogeneos, relacionados especialmente con las descargas intercriticas persistentes durante el sueño no REM. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar las redes epileptogenas involucradas en los trastornos neuropsicologicos de esta patologia. Desarrollo. Las evoluciones atipicas tienen en comun una actividad epileptica persistente durante el sueño lento, que desempeña un papel importante en el desarrollo de los deficits neurocognitivos que se asocian a esta patologia. Factores como la edad de inicio de la epilepsia, el inicio de la evolucion atipica, la localizacion de las descargas interictales y la actividad epileptica continua durante el sueño que persista durante mas de dos años pueden provocar cambios en el funcionamiento de las redes neurocognitivas, con los consecuentes deficits en las funciones neuropsicologicas, que incluso pueden resultar irreversibles. Conclusiones. Es necesario un seguimiento cercano tanto clinico como electroencefalografico; ademas, deben realizarse estudios neuropsicologicos formales desde el inicio de la epilepsia benigna de la infancia con puntas centrotemporales y mas en los casos que es evidente una evolucion atipica para detectar y prevenir los deficits neuropsicologicos antes de que se instauren definitivamente.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of tibolone against oxidative stress induced by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Almazán, Rodolfo; Rivas-Arancibia, Selva; Farfán-García, Eunice D; Rodríguez-Martínez, Erika; Guerra-Araiza, Christian

    2014-05-16

    Introduccion. El estres oxidativo aumenta la lipoperoxidacion, produce deficits de memoria y de actividad motora asi como una neurodegeneracion progresiva en el sistema nervioso central. La tibolona es un tratamiento para los sintomas de la menopausia que disminuye los niveles de peroxidacion de lipidos y mejora la memoria y el aprendizaje. Objetivo. Estudiar el efecto de la tibolona sobre la peroxidacion de lipidos, los deficits de memoria y motor en el modelo de estres oxidativo inducido por la exposicion cronica al ozono. Materiales y metodos. Se dividieron aleatoriamente 100 ratas adultas Wistar en 10 grupos: control (C), que recibio aire durante 60 dias; (C + tibolona), aire mas 1 mg/kg de tibolona durante 60 dias; los grupos 3-6, ozono durante 7, 15, 30, y 60 dias; y los grupos 7-10, 1 mg/kg de tibolona durante 7, 15, 30 y 60 dias previo a la exposicion al ozono. Se realizaron pruebas de memoria y motoras y se determino el contenido del 4-hidroxinonenal y de la nitrotirosina por Western blot, asi como la muerte neuronal en el hipocampo. Resultados. La administracion de tibolona disminuyo el contenido de lipidos peroxidados, la oxidacion de proteinas y la muerte neuronal en el hipocampo; mejoro la memoria y previno las alteraciones motoras en los animales expuestos a ozono. Conclusion. Nuestros resultados indican un posible papel neuroprotector de la tibolona como un tratamiento util para prevenir la neurodegeneracion inducida por el estres oxidativo.

  6. Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePlus

    ... la causa del discapacidad intelectual. Algunas de las causas más frecuentes del discapacidad intelectual, como el síndrome ... congénitos e infecciones, ocurren antes del nacimiento. Otras causas ocurren durante el parto o poco después del ...

  7. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Atención médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give ... screening tests are done. This is called an integrated screening test. It's important to keep in mind ...

  8. Acoustic Detection, Behavior, and Habitat Use of Deep-Diving Odontocetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Biologia Marina, Alicante, Sept. 2010. Escanez A., Guerra A., Gonzalez A., Landeira J., Vicente A., Arranz P., Aguilar N., "Cefalopodos...mesopelagicos capturados en las islas de El Hierro u Tenerife durante la campana Zifiocal-I", Sociedad Iberico de Estudios de Biologia Marina, Alicante, Sept

  9. Maritime Factors Affecting Iberian Security,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    afirme/ que para las sovie’ticas una campaiia en gran escala dirigida contra las comunicaciones marftimas del Atlantica Norte durante el perfada inicial...defender sus l ’neas de comunicacion maritima; y cuarta -- y a mi parecer la consideracion mas importante -- las otras tareas que la marina de guerra

  10. [Experience of off-label use of Eltrombopag in the treatment of thrombocytopenia associated with solid tumors].

    PubMed

    García Lagunar, María Henar; Cerezuela Fuentes, Pablo; Martínez Penella, Mónica; Gutiérrez-Meca Maestre, Dolores Paula; García Coronel, María; Martínez Ortiz, María José

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Describir los resultados del uso fuera de indicación de eltrombopag en pacientes con trombocitopenia limitante de tratamiento quimioterápico y tumores sólidos. Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes con tumores sólidos tratados con eltrombopag por trombocitopenia durante el tratamiento con quimioterapia entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2014. Resultados: Seis pacientes, con tumores sólidos y trombocitopenia limitante de tratamiento, recibieron eltrombopag durante el periodo de estudio con una disminución en el retraso de ciclos de quimioterapia (4,83 ± 4,79 ciclos retrasados antes del inicio de eltrombopag vs 2,50 ± 4,32 ciclos durante el tratamiento con eltrombopag, p=0,492) y un aumento en el porcentaje de dosis real administrada (89,29 ± 13,36% vs 91,43 ± 10,69%, p=0,682). Así mismo, se produjo un aumento en el nadir de plaquetas (55,29 ± 16,45x109/L vs 76,14 ± 36,38x109/L, p=0,248) sin requerir en ningún paciente soporte transfusional con plaquetas durante el tratamiento con eltrombopag. Conclusiones: eltrombopag ha resultado ser una alternativa de tratamiento para pacientes con trombocitopenia limitante de tratamiento con quimioterapia, siendo necesarios ensayos clínicos con mayor número de pacientes que confirmen estos resultados.

  11. Implementation of a General Reform Plan in the Army of the Dominican Republic (IMPLEMENTACI N DE UNA REFORMA INTEGRAL EN EL EJ RCITO DE LA REPUBLICA DOMINICANA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    para el desarrollo de tan delicado tema. A los miembros de mi comité en especial al coronel retirado US Army Baldemiro Gonzales por sus sabias......producto de la invasión norteamericana, que eliminaba el ejército y creaba un cuerpo de gendarmería. La segunda reforma durante el desarrollo de la

  12. [Effect of alcohol on electrical organisation in the brain during a visuospatial working memory task and its relationship with the menstrual cycle].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Martin, Araceli; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Ángel; Santana, Gloria; Gumá-Díaz, Emilio

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. El metabolismo del alcohol y el desempeño de muchas funciones cognitivas pueden variar a lo largo del ciclo menstrual. Tanto la ingestion de alcohol como las variaciones hormonales durante el ciclo menstrual se asocian con cambios caracteristicos en la actividad electroencefalografica. Objetivo. Determinar si la actividad electroencefalografica durante una tarea de memoria de trabajo es afectada por el consumo agudo de alcohol, y si dicha actividad varia en funcion del ciclo menstrual. Sujetos y metodos. Muestra de 24 mujeres que ingirieron alcohol o placebo durante las fases folicular y lutea temprana. Se registro el electroencefalograma durante la ejecucion de una tarea de memoria de trabajo visuoespacial. Resultados. Aunque el alcohol no deterioro el rendimiento de la tarea de memoria de trabajo, si produjo en el electroencefalograma una disminucion de la potencia relativa de theta y una menor correlacion frontoparietal derecha en las bandas theta y alfa2. Unicamente las mujeres alcoholizadas en la fase folicular presentaron una mayor potencia relativa de alfa1, que podria indicar menor nivel de alertamiento y atencion. Conclusiones. Estos resultados contribuyen a una mejor comprension de los mecanismos cerebrales que subyacen a los cambios cognitivos con el alcohol y su relacion con el ciclo menstrual.

  13. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  14. Honduran Political Crisis, June 2009-January 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    de expresión,” El Tiempo (Honduras), June 30, 2009. 34 “Honduras suspende derechos constitucionales durante toque queda,” Reuters, July 1, 2009...of four members: former Chilean President Ricardo Lagos (2000-2006) and U.S. Secretary of Labor Hilda Solís, appointed by the OAS; Jorge Reina

  15. Serving Stakeholders at a Small Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrage, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The Southeastern Oklahoma State University Honors Program serves a unique role in a small, rural setting such as Durant, Oklahoma. The honors program has a traditional mission in a university that offers a nontraditional setting and history within the context of higher education. The program thus offers special rewards to its students and to the…

  16. CONTROL OF AROMATIC WASTE AIR STREAMS BY SOIL BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three soils were examined for the ability to degrade hydrocarbon vapors of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene (BTEX). Each of these compounds are major aromatic constituents of gasolines. The soils examined were Rubicon Sand from Traverse City, Michigan, Durant Loam fro...

  17. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    indefinido y al gen para la proteina de la DNA polimerasa en otros virus herpes. Se encontraron tres o cuatro grupos de iniciadores especificos para el virus vacunal y para el 100% (7/7) de los a??slamientos de campo, pero no amplificaron el DNA del virus de hepatitis por cuerpos de inclusi??n de grullas. Se analiz?? la especificidad de un primer juego de iniciadores con moldes del genoma de otros virus herpes aviares, incluyendo el ?!guila dorada, ?!guila de cabeza blanca, lechuza de cuernos grandes, lechuza blanca, halc??n peregrino, palomas, aves psit?!cidas y pollos (virus de laringotraqueitis infecciosa), pero no se produjeron los productos finales. Por lo tanto, esta prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa es altamente especifica para el DNA del virus. Dos grupos de iniciadores fueron capaces de detectar un fragmento de DNA de la cepa vacunal equivalente a cinco copias del genoma. Adem?!s, se determin?? que la proporci??n de la dosis infecciosa en cultivo celular y copias del genoma del virus vacunal de c??lulas de embri??n de pato infectadas era de 10 a 100 respectivamente, haciendo la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa 20 veces m?!s sensible que el cultivo celular para detectar el virus. La velocidad, sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa suministra una herramienta de investigaci??n y de diagn??stico altamente mejorada para el estudio de la epizootiolog?-a del virus.

  18. Integration of satellite radar interferometry into a GLOF early warning system: a pilot study from the Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Cochachin, Alejo

    2015-04-01

    Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF) have killed thousands of people in the Andes of Peru and in many other high-mountain regions of the world. The last years have seen progress in the integrative assessment of related hazards, through combined focus on the glacier lake, its dam properties, and processes in the lake surrounding, including the position and fluctuations of the glacier tongue and potential displacements and thermal conditions of adjacent slopes. Only a transient perspective on these factors allows anticipating potential future developments. For a very limited number of cases worldwide, where GLOF hazards and risks have been recognized, early warning systems (EWS) have been developed and implemented. Lake 513 in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru is one of those. Structural GLOF mitigation measures (tunnels to lower the lake level) have been undertaken in the 1990s and could successfully reduce, but not fully prevent, impacts of a GLOF such as that of April 2010 triggered by a rock/ice avalanche from Mount Hualcán. The EWS was implemented during recent years and disposes of automatic cameras, geophones, river run-off measurements, a meteorological station, and real-time communication with the municipality of Carhuaz and the communities in the catchment. An EWS is by definition limited in its concept and Earth Observation (EO) data offer a promising possibility to complement the assessment of the current hazard. In particular, the monitoring and early detection of slope instabilities in ice, rock and sediments that could impact the lake and trigger a GLOF is still a major challenge. Therefore, the potential of optical and SAR satellite data is currently tested for integration into the EWS within the project S:GLA:MO (Slope stability and Glacier LAke MOnitoring) project, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the GLACIARES project supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. EO data (optical and SAR) are considered

  19. Remote sensing analysis for fault-zones detection in the Central Andean Plateau (Catamarca, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traforti, Anna; Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Carli, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been extensively used to detect the structural framework of investigated areas, which includes lineaments, fault zones and fracture patterns. The identification of these features is fundamental in exploration geology, as it allows the definition of suitable sites for the exploitation of different resources (e.g. ore mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal energy and groundwater). Remote sensing techniques, typically adopted in fault identification, have been applied to assess the geological and structural framework of the Laguna Blanca area (26°35'S-66°49'W). This area represents a sector of the south-central Andes localized in the Argentina region of Catamarca, along the south-eastern margin of the Puna plateau. The study area is characterized by a Precambrian low-grade metamorphic basement intruded by Ordovician granitoids. These rocks are unconformably covered by a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Miocene age, followed by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Upper Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene age. All these units are cut by two systems of major faults, locally characterized by 15-20 m wide damage zones. The detection of main tectonic lineaments in the study area was firstly carried out by classical procedures: image sharpening of Landsat 7 ETM+ images, directional filters applied to ASTER images, medium resolution Digital Elevation Models analysis (SRTM and ASTER GDEM) and hill shades interpretation. In addition, a new approach in fault zone identification, based on multispectral satellite images classification, has been tested in the Laguna Blanca area and in other sectors of south-central Andes. In this perspective, several prominent fault zones affecting basement and granitoid rocks have been sampled. The collected fault gouge samples have been analyzed with a Field-Pro spectrophotometer mounted on a goniometer. We acquired bidirectional reflectance spectra, from 0.35μm to 2.5μm with 1nm spectral sampling, of the sampled fault rocks

  20. Geochronology and Equilibrium Line Altitudes of LLGM through Holocene Glaciations from the Tropical Cordillera Huayhuash, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. R.; Ramage, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Finkel, R. C.; Smith, J. A.; Mark, B. G.; Farber, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Geomorphologic relationships and cosmogenic 10Be ages from the Central Peruvian Andes reveal a rich record of glaciations from at least the late Holocene, Late Glacial, Last Local Glacial Maximum (LLGM), and older more extensive glaciations - dated between 50ka and 440ka in both the Cordillera Blanca, to the north and the Junin Region to the south. The Cordillera Huayhuash (10.3°S, 76.9°W) is located between these two well-studied regions. The spine of the range trends nearly north-south and contains a substantial east-west spur which together can be used to evaluate the spatial variation in paleo-ELAs. The range is thus a key location to study changes in ice extent and equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) between the LLGM and modern periods. Modern glaciers are confined to altitudes >4800 m and the present (1997) ELA is 4800- 5100m. In order to determine the paleo-ice positions of glaciers in different valleys we have developed a new chronology from cosmogenic 10Be ages of moraine boulder and 14C basal bog core ages. Through field mapping of glacial features, analysis of satellite imagery, digital elevation models (DEMs), and geochronology, we have delineated the ice limits associated with the LLGM, Late Glacial, and Late Holocene advances. Ages in the three valleys we have studied cluster at ~29ka, ~13ka, and ~9ka and overall we have identified surfaces with ages that range from 39.9±1.4ka to 0.2ka±0.05ka. Based on these data, we have mapped the extent of the correlative paleo-glaciers in these three drainages and extracted the modern hypsometry for each paleo-glacier from the DEMs. From this data set, we have generated paleo- ELAs using a range of methods: Toe-to-Headwall-Altitude Ratio (THAR), the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR), and Accumulation Area Balance Ratio (AABR). For each of the LLGM, Late Glacial and Holocene stages, we have calculated both: (1) the temperature depression assuming no moisture variations, and (2) the potential relative moisture

  1. Comparison of Glacial Records From 10°S and 11°S in the Peruvian Andes Suggests Similar Forcings but Different Local Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Rodbell, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    Moraine records of glaciation from three sites in the central Peruvian Andes are broadly consistent over the last glacial cycle (since MIS 5). Surface-exposure dating (10Be) of moraines east and west of Lake Junin (11°00'S, 76°00'W, 4082 masl) and 180 km northwest at the Nevado Jeulla Rajo (NJR) massif (10°00'S, 77°16'W) at the southern end of the Cordillera Blanca suggests a link between glacial advances and increased precipitation associated with Heinrich events. On the eastern side of Lake Junin, the most extensive moraines are >150 ka, but end moraines farther upvalley date to the local last glacial maximum (LLGM, 25-30 ka) and a late-glacial stillstand or readvance (14-18 ka). Surface-exposure ages on a moraine and bedrock in the Santuario Nacional Bosque de Piedras de Huayllay (BPH) on the western side of Lake Junin (10°59'S, 76°20'W) are consistent with 10Be ages on younger moraines on the eastern side: ~26 and ~20 ka on two quartz boulders, ~14-15 ka on four ignimbrite boulders, and ~45 ka on bedrock below a trimline in the valley wall. The NJR massif (ca. 5600 masl) hosts a number of small glaciers within a cirque on its southwestern face; large lateral moraines extend onto the Conococha Plain (ca. 4050 masl) from west-facing valleys. Fault scarps on moraines and valley floors on the western side of NJR show the trace of the active, west-dipping Cordillera Blanca Normal Fault (CBNF). At NJR, 10Be ages indicate that the largest lateral moraines were deposited during similar intervals (27-32 ka and 15-18 ka) to the younger moraines in the eastern Junin valleys and BPH. Differences between the Junin/BPH and NJR records are intriguing. NJR lacks the morphologically distinct pre-MIS 5 moraines that are present in valleys east of Lake Junin, although the Conococha Plain adjacent to NJR is underlain by till and outwash that is likely >50 ka, based on 10Be ages of surface cobbles. At NJR, avulsion of two glacial valleys preserved older, smaller pairs of

  2. Influence of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergence on shallow structure, geomorphology, and hazards, Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.; Hartwell, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    We mapped a ~94-km-long portion of the right-lateral Hosgri Fault Zone from Point Sal to Piedras Blancas in offshore central California using high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, marine magnetic data, and multibeam bathymetry. The database includes 121 seismic profiles across the fault zone and is perhaps the most comprehensive reported survey of the shallow structure of an active strike-slip fault. These data document the location, length, and near-surface continuity of multiple fault strands, highlight fault-zone heterogeneity, and demonstrate the importance of fault trend, fault bends, and fault convergences in the development of shallow structure and tectonic geomorphology. The Hosgri Fault Zone is continuous through the study area passing through a broad arc in which fault trend changes from about 338° to 328° from south to north. The southern ~40 km of the fault zone in this area is more extensional, resulting in accommodation space that is filled by deltaic sediments of the Santa Maria River. The central ~24 km of the fault zone is characterized by oblique convergence of the Hosgri Fault Zone with the more northwest-trending Los Osos and Shoreline Faults. Convergence between these faults has resulted in the formation of local restraining and releasing fault bends, transpressive uplifts, and transtensional basins of varying size and morphology. We present a hypothesis that links development of a paired fault bend to indenting and bulging of the Hosgri Fault by a strong crustal block translated to the northwest along the Shoreline Fault. Two diverging Hosgri Fault strands bounding a central uplifted block characterize the northern ~30 km of the Hosgri Fault in this area. The eastern Hosgri strand passes through releasing and restraining bends; the releasing bend is the primary control on development of an elongate, asymmetric, "Lazy Z" sedimentary basin. The western strand of the Hosgri Fault Zone passes through a significant restraining bend and

  3. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  4. Modeling the retention of rumen boluses for the electronic identification of goats.

    PubMed

    Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K

    2011-02-01

    We constructed a regression model to estimate the retention of electronic boluses in goats. With this aim, 2,482 boluses were administered to goats from dairy (Murciano-Granadina, n=1,326; French Alpine, n=381) and meat (Blanca de Rasquera, n=532) breeds. A total of 19 bolus types made of materials (ceramic, plastic tubes filled with concrete or silicone, and ballasts) differing in their specific gravity (SG) were used, thereby obtaining a wide variation in bolus features: diameter (9 to 22 mm), length (37 to 84 mm), weight (5 to 111 g), volume (2.6 to 26 mL), and SG (1.0 to 5.5). Each bolus contained a half-duplex glass encapsulated transponder (32 × 3.8mm) and was administered using adapted balling guns. Murciano-Granadina and Blanca de Rasquera goats also wore 2 visual plastic ear tags: V1 (double flag, 5.1g) and V2 (flag-button, 4.2g). No data on ear tags in French Alpine goats was available. Bolus and ear tag retention [(retained/monitored) × 100] was recorded for at least 1 yr. Dynamic reading efficiency [(dynamic reading/static reading) × 100] was also evaluated from 1,496 bolus readings. No administration incidences or apparent negative behavior or performance effects were observed for any bolus type. Static reading efficiency of retained boluses was 100%, except for the prototypes with metal ballasts, which yielded a 93.3% reading efficiency. Retention of metal-ballasted boluses was confirmed using x-ray equipment. Excluding ballasted boluses, a 99.5% dynamic reading efficiency was obtained. Ear tag losses were 6.5% for V1 and 3.7% for V2, ranging from 3.2 to 7.8% depending on ear tag type and goat breed. Bolus retention varied (0 to 100%) according to their physical features. Obtained data allowed the fitting of a logistic model of bolus retention rate according to bolus volume and weight (R(2) = 0.98); the SG was implicitly considered. Estimated weight and SG to produce medium- (15 mL) and standard-sized (22 mL) boluses for 99.95% retention rate in

  5. [Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome due to mutation of the IFIH1 gene with pontine involvement. A case report].

    PubMed

    Florido-Rodriguez, A; Eiris-Punal, J; Barros-Angueira, F; Toledo-Bravo de Laguna, L; Santana-Artiles, A; Sebastian-Garcia, I; Santana-Rodriguez, A; Cabrera-Lopez, J C

    2016-10-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi-Goutieres es una rara encefalopatia subaguda progresiva de inicio precoz –generalmente en el primer año de vida– caracterizada por retraso psicomotor, microcefalia, alteraciones en la sustancia blanca cerebral, calcificaciones intracraneales, pleocitosis y niveles elevados de interferon alfa en el liquido cefalorraquideo. Asocia un incremento en la expresion de los genes estimulados por interferon en la sangre periferica, hecho conocido como interferon signature. Los niveles de genes estimulados por interferon se han postulado como un buen biomarcador, pues se mantienen elevados en la sangre periferica en el tiempo y son mas sensibles, en comparacion con las determinaciones de interferon alfa y neopterinas en el liquido cefalorraquideo, las cuales descienden a partir del año de vida. Hasta la fecha se han descrito mutaciones en siete genes que sobreestimulan la via del interferon alfa, y el ultimo en descubrirse ha sido el IFIH1 (interferon induced with helicase C domain 1), con un patron de herencia autosomico dominante. Caso clinico. Se presenta el primer caso descrito en la bibliografia hispana debido a mutacion de novo en el gen IFIH1. Se expone el cuadro clinico, los estudios realizados y la revision de los aspectos clinicos, neurorradiologicos y geneticos. Conclusiones. La herencia de las mutaciones descritas para el sindrome de Aicardi-Goutieres era clasicamente autosomica recesiva, pero estos hallazgos muestran que mutaciones autosomicas dominantes en el gen IFIH1 pueden causar la enfermedad. Como hallazgo de neuroimagen no descrito previamente, presenta una lesion de encefalomalacia quistica en la protuberancia.

  6. A New Species of Haplophyllum A. Juss. (Rutaceae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Evidence from Morphological, Karyological and Molecular Analyses

    PubMed Central

    NAVARRO, F. B.; SUÁREZ-SANTIAGO, V. N.; BLANCA, G.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The discovery of a new species, Haplophyllum bastetanum F.B. Navarro, V.N. Suárez-Santiago & Blanca sp. nov., in the south-east of Spain has prompted the comparative study of species of the Iberian Peninsula, and others related, through morphological, cytogenetic, molecular, distributional and ecological characterization. • Methods The morphological study involved a quantitative analysis of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula and a comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics between H. bastetanum and other related species. Mitotic analyses were made with root meristems taken from germinating seeds. Phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA were performed using neighbour-joining (NJ) and maximum-parsimony methods. • Key Results Haplophyllum bastetanum is a diploid species (2n = 18) distinguished primarily for its non-trifoliate glabrous leaves, lanceolate sepals, dark-green petals with a dorsal band of hairs, and a highly hairy ovary with round-apex locules. The other two Iberian species (H. linifolium and H. rosmarinifolium) are tetraploid (2n = 36) and have yellow petals. Both phylogenetic methods generated a well-supported clade grouping H. linifolium with H. rosmarinifolium. In the NJ tree, the H. linifolium–H. rosmarinifolium clade is a sister group to H. bastetanum, while in the parsimony analysis this occurred only when the gaps were coded as a fifth base and the characters were reweighted according to the rescaled consistency index. This latter group is supported by the sequence divergence among taxa. • Conclusions The phylogenies established from DNA sequences together with morphological and cytogenetic analyses support the separation of H. bastetanum as a new species. The results suggest that the change in the number of chromosomes may be the key mechanism of speciation of the genus Haplophyllum in the Iberian Peninsula. An evolutionary scheme for them

  7. Total number of planetary nebulae in different galaxies and the PN distance scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peimbert, M.

    1990-12-01

    RESUMEN A partir de una muestra de quince galaxias se encuentra que la tasa de natalidad de nebulosas planetarias por unidad de luminosidad, , disminuye al aumentar la luminosidad y al aumentar (B - V)0. Se discuten posibles explicaciones para estos resultados. Se estima el valor de para la Galaxia y a partir de el se encuentra que el numero total de nebulosas planetarias en nuestra galaxia con R < 0.64 pc- es de 7200 j 1800. El valor galactico de implica que la mayorfa de las estrellas de masa intermedia pasa por la etapa de nebulosa planetaria. El valor galactico de , la tasa de mortalidad estelar por unidad de luminosidad y la tasa de natalidad de enanas blancas favorecen escalas de distancias largas para nebulosas planetarias, como la de Cudworth (1974) y la de Mallik y Peimbert (1988). ABSTRACT From a sample of fifteen galaxies it is found that the birth rate of PN per unit luminosity, , decreases with increasing luminosity and with increasing (B - V)0 possible reasons for these relationships are discussed. The value for the Galaxy is estimated and, from it, a total number of PN of 7200 # 1800 wid R < 0.64 pc is obtained. The galactic value implies that most of the intermediate mass stars go through the PN stage. The galactic value, the stellar death rate per unit luminosity and the white dwarf birth rate are in favor of long distance scales to PN like those of Cudworth (1974) and Mallik and (1988). Key wonis: NEBULAE.PLANETARY - STARS-EVOLUTION - STARS-SThLIAR STA. S

  8. Local Communities and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Mitigation: Lessons from Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Discourse in recent years among scientists and non-scientists increasingly promotes the involvement of local people in hazard mitigation, including inhabitants of floodplains in valleys below moraine-dammed glacial lakes. Despite advances in understanding human vulnerability to glacial lake outburst floods, there has been much less research on how these vulnerable populations are involved (or ignored) in the actual outburst flood mitigation process. Which groups should be involved? Are they in fact participating? Is that involvement successful? Peru's Cordillera Blanca mountain range provides an ideal site to help answer these questions because its moraine-dammed glacial lakes have produced more than a dozen outburst floods since ~1860. After floods in 1941, 1945, and 1950 killed approximately 6,000, the national government created a state agency, which still exists today, to monitor glacial lakes and prevent future outburst floods. Using this region as a case study to answer the above questions, this paper has three components. First, it provides historical examples of local people's participation in disaster mitigation, but shows that the outcome of such local involvement frequently turned out differently than scientists, engineers, and planners anticipated. Second, it shows the challenges and difficulties of involving local groups. Recent efforts in workshops, aid projects, and government programs show only limited success in community participation in disaster mitigation agendas. Third, the paper suggests that in many cases local indigenous people, as icons of the Andean region but often not the most vulnerable group, are disproportionately victimized and tacitly invited into disaster mitigation discussions. Poor urban residents inhabiting floodplains are often neglected, even though they are the most vulnerable to outburst floods. As other world regions such as the Himalayas increasingly contend with potential glacial lake outburst floods, these lessons from

  9. Biosolids decomposition after surface applications in west Texas.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, W F; Zartman, R E; Sosebee, R E; Wester, D B

    2003-01-01

    In a semiarid environment, climate is a critical factor in the decomposition of surface-applied biosolids. This study examined the effect of 2- to 7-yr exposure times on the composition of single applications of New York, NY biosolids in western Texas. Exposure time effects on organic matter, N, P, S, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn were studied near Sierra Blanca, TX. Due to organic matter decomposition, total organic C decreased from 340 g kg(-1) in fresh biosolids to 180 g kg(-1) in biosolids after 82 mo of exposure, whereas the inorganic ash content of the biosolids increased from 339 to 600 g kg(-1). Total N decreased from 50 to 10 g N kg(-1) and total S decreased from 12 to 6 g S kg(-1). Bicarbonate-available P in the biosolids decreased from 0.9 to 0.2 g kg(-1). Successive H2O extractions yielded soluble P concentrations consistent with dicalcium phosphate (dical) for fresh biosolids and tricalcium phosphate (trical) for biosolids exposed for 59 months or more. Sparingly soluble phosphates, such as dical and trical, potentially yield > 0.5 mg P L(-1) in runoff waters for extended periods after biosolids applications, especially after multiple applications. Selective dissolution of the biosolids indicated that as much as 66 to 78% of P exists as iron phosphates, 16 to 21% as Fe oxides, and 5 to 12% as insoluble Ca phosphates. Chemical analyses of ash samples suggest that Cu and Zn have been lost from biosolids through leaching or runoff and no losses of Pb, Cr, or Hg have occurred since application.

  10. Characterization of probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from an estuarine environment for application in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) farming.

    PubMed

    Sica, María Gabriela; Brugnoni, Lorena Inés; Marucci, Patricia Liliana; Cubitto, María Amelia

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial attachment to fish surfaces and the capacity to compete with pathogens for adhesion sites are essential characteristics in order to select a candidate probiotic for aquaculture. Twelve lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fish and sediments from Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, were examined for in vitro adhesion to rainbow trout mucus, cell surface properties and competitive exclusion against two salmonid pathogens, Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida. In order to assess their survival through the digestive tract, pH and rainbow trout bile tolerance were evaluated. All LAB strains survived for 1.5 h incubation in 10% rainbow trout bile. Most of the strains survived 1.5 h at pH 3.0 and three of them showed a reduction of viable counts lower than 2 logarithms, with respect to control (pH 6.5). Only a few strains showed tolerate pH 2.0. All the strains were able to attach to rainbow trout skin mucus (10(4)-10(6) cells/cm(2)), to glass (10(4)-10(5) cells/cm(2)) and to stainless steel (10(3)-10(4) cells/cm(2)). Sixty percent of LAB strains were capable of competing with and successfully excluding Y. ruckeri and all strains were able to displace it. Against A. salmonicida, 75% of LAB strains competed successfully, 50% were capable of displacing and 60% excluded this pathogen. Our data suggest the potential of these strains as anti-infective agents for use in rainbow trout culture. This study is the first report on the probiotic potential of LAB strains isolated from an estuarine environment from Argentina.

  11. A sublittoral population of Pleurophycus gardneri Setchell and Saunders 1900 (Phaeophyceae: Laminariaceae) in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Reed, Daniel C.; Harrold, Christopher; Bodkin, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Published distributional records for the stipitate kelp Pleurophycus gardneri Setchell and Saunders 1900 (Phaeophyceae: Laminariaceae) indicae a geographic range from Montague Island (59°58’N, 147°22W), Alaska to Fort Bragg (39°27’N, 123°47’W), California (Druehl 1969, 1970; Kjeldsen 1972). P. gardneri is found primarily in rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal locations (Scagel 1967; Nicholson 1976). In California, populations of P. gardneri have been reported only from the lower rocky intertidal near Fort Bragg (Kjeldsen 1972).On 7 and 8 July 1982 and 23 March 1984 we censused stipitate kelps during SCUBS dives at a site 2.3 km south southeast of Pt. Sierra Nevada (35°41’ N, 121°18’W). we counted kelps in 1 x 5-m plots along a 50-m tape laid across the bottom in an arbitrarily predetermined direction from the skiff anchor. We also measured water depth at 1-m intervals along the tape, using a SCUBA depth gauge. On 20 August 1982, we used the same tehniques to sample kelp densities at a site 2.4 km east southeast of Pt. Piedras Blancas (35°39’N, 121°15’W).The most abundant kelps at the Pt. Sierra Nevada ste were Pterygophora californica Ruprect 1852 (Phaeophyceae: Alariaceae) and a species we tentatively identified as P. gardneri (Table 1). Based on specimens we collected on 8 July 1982, our field identification was subsequently confirmed by I. A. Abbot. Voucher specimens were placed in the Gilbert M. Smith Herbarium at Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California.

  12. Environmental occurrence, origin, physical and geochemical properties, and carcinogenic potential of erionite near San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Guerrero, M Adrián; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    Detailed geologic surveys and different microscopic and analytical techniques were conducted near Tierra Blanca de Abajo where lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma (MM) are the primary causes of death. Results show that erionite-K occurs as a diagenetic product in altered Oligocene-Miocene rhyolitic tuffs. The microscopic structure of erionite minerals shows concentrations of individual fibers in the range of 0.14-0.547 μm in diameter and 2.81-50 μm in length, with a few "bundles" about 0.2-2.5 μm wide by 10-50 μm long. Chemical properties of erionite show Si/Al in the range of 3.23-3.58 (at.%) and T Si in the range of 0.76-0.78 (at.%). Potassium is the dominant cation (K > Ca > Mg > Fe). Associated minerals are heulandite, clinoptilolite, quartz, sanidine, anorthite, smectite and opal. This mineral assemblage formed in the lower part of an open catchment, where bicarbonate-rich (T > 30 °C, pH > 8) groundwater discharge conditions prevailed in the past. The physical and chemical characteristics of erionite near San Miguel de Allende are similar to those of erionite from the Cappadocian region of Turkey where erionite is associated with MM. The presence of erionite and the type of respiratory diseases that occur in the village strongly suggest the need for detailed health-based studies in the region. Pliocene-Holocene fine-grain deposits, used in the past for the construction of adobe-houses and exposed in recreational areas, also contain erionite associated with erosion and alluvial transport from the rhyolitic tuffs, potentially affecting more than 13 villages located downstream toward the Allende Dam.

  13. Short Time Scale Evolution of Microbiolites in Rapidly Receding Altiplanic Lakes: Learning How to Recognize Changing Signatures of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Borics, G.; Kiss, A.; Fike, D.; Kovacs, G.; Hock, A.; Kiss, K.; Acs, E.; Sivila, R.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the exploration of high altitude lakes as analogs to Martian paleolakes environment, we are investigating a remarkably large and diverse field of lacustrine stromatolites located at 4,365m in the Bolivian Altiplano (22 deg 47 00 min S and 67 deg 47.00 min W).The field is composed of both early Holocene fossil structures located on paleoshorelines and present-day active cyanobacterial communities on the shore and at the bottom of the current Laguna Blanca and Verde. Its physical environment, broad diversity of morphologies, and their associated spatial heterogeneity, origin, and scale offer a unique opportunity to explore microbiolites in conditions reminiscent of early Earth and Mars. At this altitude and latitude, UV radiation levels are enhanced (40% higher than sea level) and harmful to microorganisms living in shallow waters which provide only minimal protection from UV. Similar conditions prevailed on early Earth when the ozone layer had yet to be formed in the atmosphere. Compared to those studied at sea levels, these stromatolites could yield new insights about the earliest terrestrial forms of life. Moreover, the combination of physical and geological environment of this site is exceptionally analogous to conditions believed to be prevalent on Mars at the end of the Noachian (3.5 Ga ago), allowing to test the potential for forming stromatolites in martian paleolakes and learn how to identify their fossil record remotely. Our overarching goal is to generate new astrobiological information on high-altitude stromatolites as clues to early biospheres with implications for Earth and Mars. Our two central objectives are: (1) characterize the biological, geological, and mineralogical features and significance of this field, and to identify geo-signatures such as morphology, geology, chronostratigraphy, mineralogy and biosignatures, and (2) to facilitate remote-sensing and ground robotic detection capabilities for future astrobiological missions to Mars.

  14. Streamflow response of partially glacierized river basins to glacier recession using a coupled glacio-hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Frans, C. D.; Burns, P. J.; Cuo, L.; Duan, K.; Clarke, G. K.; Nolin, A. W.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the well publicized risk posed by declining glaciers to water supply in partially glacierized high mountain river systems, our ability to accurately predict the sensitivity of the runoff contribution from glaciers in these basins is limited. Modeling the effect of glacier changes on streamflow in such river basins is complicated by limited meteorological and glaciological data, and by the fact that areas subject to glacier retreat often transition to seasonally ephemeral snow cover. To represent these effects accurately, glacier dynamics must be represented explicitly in hydrological models. Here, we describe the integration of the physically based spatially distributed University of British Columbia glacier dynamics model into the widely used Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) in order to investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow dynamics. The integrated model was used to simulate glacier and streamflow dynamics in five test river basins globally where the effects of declining glacier extent on water supply is of concern: the Upper Bow River basin in the Western Canada, the Llanganuco Basin in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, the Zongo glacier basin in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia, the Dongkemadi River Basin in the Tibetan Plateau region and the Astore River basin in the Western Himalayas. We tested the coupled glacio-hydrologic model performance through comparison of predicted variations in glacier extent, snow water equivalent and streamflow discharge, using satellite-derived glacier/snow cover and measured discharge and snow data. Evaluation of our model predictions confirms that representation of glacier cover changes as result of glacier dynamics reduces errors in streamflow simulations in these basins. Subsequently, we evaluate the effects of changing glacier extent on seasonal low flows (to which water supply is most sensitive) in each of the river basins.

  15. Quantifying Sediment Transport in a Premontane Transitional Cloud Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, E. R.; Brumbelow, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying sediment transport is a difficult task in any watershed, and relatively little direct measurement has occurred in tropical, mountainous watersheds. The Howler Monkey Watershed (2.2 hectares) is located in a premontane transitional cloud forest in San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. In June 2012, a V-notch stream-gaging weir was built in the catchment with a 8 ft by 6 ft by 4 ft concrete stilling basin. Sediment captured by the weir was left untouched for an 11 month time period. To collect the contents of the weir, the stream was rerouted and the weir was drained. The stilling basin contents were systematically sampled, and samples were taken to a lab and characterized using sieve and hydrometer tests. The wet volume of the remaining sediment was obtained, and dry mass was estimated. Particle size distribution of samples were obtained from lab tests, with 96% of sediment trapped by the weir being sand or coarser. The efficiency of the weir as a sediment collector was evaluated by comparing particle fall velocities to residence time of water in the weir under baseflow conditions. Under these assumptions, only two to three percent of the total mass of soil transported in the stream is thought to have been suspended in the water and lost over the V-notch. Data were compared to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), a widely accepted method for predicting soil loss in agricultural watersheds. As expected, application of the USLE to a tropical rainforest was problematic with uncertainty in parameters yielding a soil loss estimate varying by a factor of 50. Continued monitoring of sediment transport should yield data for improved methods of soil loss estimation applicable to tropical mountainous forests.

  16. Heavy metals concentrations in zooplankton and suspended particulate matter in a southwestern Atlantic temperate estuary (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Severini, Melisa Daiana; Hoffmeyer, Mónica Susana; Marcovecchio, Jorge Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    The present work includes part of the first studies of metals concentrations in the zooplankton from a heavily industrialized estuary of Argentina, the Bahía Blanca estuary. Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in the zooplankton (macro- and mesozooplankton) and the suspended particulate matter were measured at stations with different degree of pollution. Physicochemical variables and zooplankton composition and abundance were also analyzed. Thus, the aim of the present work was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in these two different fractions, and the possible relation among them due to their importance in the biogeochemical cycles of marine environments. Samplings were carried out during a year, from March 2005 to April 2006, every 2 months, at stations located near chemical and petrochemical industries, stations far from these points and one station in an intermediate location. In the mesozooplankton, the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Pb were 3.63 ± 1.46, 34.46 ± 5.40, and 11.54 ± 3.04 μg g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) respectively, while in the macrozooplankton, 3.20 ± 2.28, 21.86 ± 4.79, and 8.36 ± 1.85 μg g(-1) d.w. On the other hand, particulate Cd, Cu, and Pb presented a mean concentration of 3.33 ± 1.22, 12.75 ± 2.67, and 12.53 ± 3.20 μg g(-1) d.w., respectively. Metals' levels in both the SPM and zooplankton fluctuated throughout the study time and were relatively high in the particulate phase especially for Cu and Pb. Moreover, zooplankton accumulated important concentrations of the three metals. The sources of them are probably the discharges of the industries and domestic sewages located near the estuary.

  17. Toward hydro-social modeling: Merging human variables and the social sciences with climate-glacier runoff models (Santa River, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Mark; Baraer, Michel; Mark, Bryan G.; French, Adam; Bury, Jeffrey; Young, Kenneth R.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    2014-10-01

    Glacier shrinkage caused by climate change is likely to trigger diminished and less consistent stream flow in glacier-fed watersheds worldwide. To understand, model, and adapt to these climate-glacier-water changes, it is vital to integrate the analysis of both water availability (the domain of hydrologists) and water use (the focus for social scientists). Drawn from a case study of the Santa River watershed below Peru’s glaciated Cordillera Blanca mountain range, this paper provides a holistic hydro-social framework that identifies five major human variables critical to hydrological modeling because these forces have profoundly influenced water use over the last 60 years: (1) political agendas and economic development; (2) governance: laws and institutions; (3) technology and engineering; (4) land and resource use; and (5) societal responses. Notable shifts in Santa River water use-including major expansions in hydroelectricity generation, large-scale irrigation projects, and other land and resource-use practices-did not necessarily stem from changing glacier runoff or hydrologic shifts, but rather from these human variables. Ultimately, then, water usage is not predictable based on water availability alone. Glacier runoff conforms to certain expected trends predicted by models of progressively reduced glacier storage. However, societal forces establish the legal, economic, political, cultural, and social drivers that actually shape water usage patterns via human modification of watershed dynamics. This hydro-social framework has widespread implications for hydrological modeling in glaciated watersheds from the Andes and Alps to the Himalaya and Tien Shan, as well as for the development of climate change adaptation plans.

  18. Characterizing changing stream water quality in a glacierized tropical watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, B. G.; Eddy, A. M.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Walsh, E.; Fernandez, A.; Wigmore, O.; Battista, R.; Guittard, A.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru has been causing downstream hydrologic transformations, altering the amount, timing and chemical quality of stream water. Increased demand from multiple water resource users, particularly industrial-scale agricultural irrigation along the desert coast, underscores the need for accurate source attribution and treatment of pollutants. Water quality assessment is challenging given natural geologic controls on water chemistry concentrations, and a lack of consistent historical monitoring. Here we present results from an analytical characterization of spatial and temporal variability in the dissolved loads of major ions, isotopes and select trace metals in the Pacific-draining Santa River and tributaries. Our approach incorporates multi-year synoptic sampling of water chemistry and stream discharge along the river course and at tributary pour points, along with weekly sampling at single point along the upper Santa. Samples were taken predominately during the austral winter months of June, July, and August in 2004 - 2009 and 2011 - 2013 at 20-30 stream localities. Digitized maps of geology, land use and hydrography permit geographic visualization and exploratory GIS-based data analysis. Results indicate that the dominant hydrochemical processes throughout the Santa watershed include silicate weathering, coupled pyrite oxidation with silicate weathering, and to a lesser extent, carbonate weathering. Low pH and high concentrations of sulfate are found in the presence of high-silica granitic and metamorphic surface lithology in some sites proximal to receding glaciers, reflecting an environment that is driven by coupled sulfide-oxidation and silicate dissolution. Numerous sites had elevated concentrations of trace metals (such as As, Cd, and Pb) indicating potential local sources of contamination, some in excess of World Health Organization. Weekly sampling show dilution of certain trace metals during the wet season, and

  19. Moored observations of the current and temperature structure over the continental slope off central California: 1. A basic description of the variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramp, Steven R.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Tisch, Timothy D.; Hicks, Michael R.

    1997-10-01

    Current meter data have been analyzed from seven moorings on the continental slope along the central California coast, from Point Piedras Blancas to Point Reyes. The goal was to examine the subtidal variability in the 100 m to 1000 m depth range, particularly with regard to alongshore propagating events and interactions with eddies and meanders of the California Current offshore. The 2-year time series available off Point Sur were first analyzed in conjunction with the local and remote surface wind stress and coastal synthetic subsurface pressure, and then correlated with shorter coincident current records moored at similar depths to the north and south. The poleward flowing California Undercurrent was the most prominent feature at all the moorings except at one site located well into the Monterey Submarine Canyon. The strongest poleward flows over the slope occurred in 3- to 4-month bursts, not phase locked with the seasons, with vector speeds exceeding 40 cm s-1. South of the canyon, an approximately monthly signal was identified which propagated poleward, upward, and offshore. The behavior of this signal was consistent with that of an internal coastal Kelvin wave generated at the surface by remote wind stress to the south and was likely not of equatorial origin. The wave was apparently scattered by the abrupt topography of the canyon, since its energy persisted to the north of the canyon but with unstable phase. At least three eddy-meander interaction events were observed. These warm, deep (>1000 m), anticyclonic features reversed the flow over the slope to equatorward when they moved onshore and interrupted the flow of the undercurrent. One event forced anomalously strong (>15 cm s-1) onshore flows off Monterey Bay and offshore flows off Point Sur. While quantitative transport estimates could not be made with this sparse data set, it seems apparent that such events play a significant role in the exchange of water properties between the shelf and the deep ocean.

  20. The role of phreatomagmatism in a Plio-Pleistocene high-density scoria cone field: Llancanelo Volcanic Field (Mendoza), Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risso, Corina; Németh, Károly; Combina, Ana María; Nullo, Francisco; Drosina, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Llancanelo Volcanic Field, together with the nearby Payun Matru Field, comprises at least 800 scoria cones and voluminous lava fields that cover an extensive area behind the Andean volcanic arc. Beside the scoria cones in the Llancanelo Field, at least six volcanoes show evidence for explosive eruptions involving magma-water interaction. These are unusual in the context of the semi-arid climate of the eastern Andean ranges. The volcanic structures consist of phreatomagmatic-derived tuff rings and tuff cones of olivine basalt composition. Malacara and Jarilloso tuff cones were produced by fallout of a range of dry to wet tephra. The Malacara cone shows more evidence for a predominance of wet-emplaced units, with a steep slump-slope characterized by many soft-sediment deformation structures, such as: undulating bedding planes, truncated beds and water escape features. The Piedras Blancas and Carapacho tuff rings resulted from explosive eruptions with deeper explosion loci. These cones are hence dominated by lapilli tuff and tuff units, emplaced mainly by wet and/or dry pyroclastic surges. Carapacho is the only centre that appears to have started with phreatomagmatic eruptions, with lowermost tephra being rich in non-volcanic country rocks. The presence of deformed beds with impact sags, slumping textures, asymmetrical ripples, dunes, cross- and planar lamination, syn-volcanic faulting and accretionary lapilli beds indicate an eruption scenario dominated by excessive water in the transportational and depositional regime. This subordinate phreatomagmatism in the Llancanelo Volcanic Field suggests presence of ground and/or shallow surface water during some of the eruptions. Each of the tuff rings and cones are underlain by thick, fractured multiple older lava units. These broken basalts are inferred to be the horizons where rising magma interacted with groundwater. The strong palagonitization at each of the phreatomagmatic cones formed hard beds

  1. Morphological change of skin fibroblasts induced by UV Irradiation is involved in photoaging.

    PubMed

    Yamaba, Hiroyuki; Haba, Manami; Kunita, Mayumi; Sakaida, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Youichi; Nakata, Satoru

    2016-08-01

    Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) are typically flattened or extensible shaped and play a critical role in the metabolism of extracellular matrix components. As the properties of fibroblasts in the dermis are considered to be influenced by their morphology, we investigated the morphological changes induced in fibroblasts by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as the relationship between these changes and collagen metabolism. In this study, we showed that UVA exposure induced morphological changes and reduced collagen contents in HDFs. These morphological changes were accompanied a reduction in actin filaments and upregulation of the actin filament polymerization inhibitor, capping protein muscle Z-line ɑ1 (CAPZA1). External actin filament growth inhibitors also affected the shape of HDFs and reduced collagen levels. These results suggest that UVA exposure may inhibit the polymerization of actin filaments and induce morphological changes in skin fibroblasts. These morphological changes in fibroblasts may accelerate reductions in collagen synthesis. This mechanism may be one of the processes responsible for collagen reductions observed in photoaged skin. When natural materials that suppress these morphological changes in HDFs were evaluated, we found that an extract of Lilium 'Casa Blanca' (LCB) suppressed UVA-induced alterations in the shape of HDFs, which are typically followed by inhibition of collagen reduction. An analysis of the active compounds in LCB extract led to the identification of regaloside I, which had a structure of phenylpropanoid glycerol glucoside, as the active compound inhibiting the upregulation of CAPZA1. Therefore, inhibition of UVA-induced morphological changes in HDFs is considered to be promising way for the suppression of collagen reduction in photoaging.

  2. Influence of semen collection method on sperm cryoresistance in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Soler, A J; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Fernández-Santos, M R; Montoro, V; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2016-04-01

    Semen collection for cryopreservation is a key step for small ruminant conservation programs. While in these species semen is mainly collected via artificial vagina (AV), electroejaculation (EE) provides a viable alternative for untrained males. Herein we investigated the effect of semen collection method on post-thaw sperm quality by comparing two small ruminant species, sheep and goats. Semen from Blanca-Celtibérica bucks and Manchega rams was collected by AV and EE on the same day and cryopreserved using a standard protocol. At thawing, sperm motion parameters were evaluated by CASA, whereas membrane stability (YO-PRO-1), sperm viability (propidium iodide, PI) and mitochondrial activity (Mitotracker Deep Red) were analyzed using flow cytometry. The semen collection method negatively affected post-thaw sperm quality in bucks but not in rams. Thus, in bucks, post-thaw sperm motility was higher for samples collected by AV as compared to those obtained via EE. Similarly, post-thaw sperm parameters evaluated by flow cytometry were worse for buck samples collected by EE than those collected by AV in the same species, or than ram samples regardless of collection method. These results suggest that ovine and caprine spermatozoa have a different response to the cryopreservation process depending upon the semen collection method used. We hypothesize that the EE procedure may lead to changes in the composition of the ejaculate in bucks that would make spermatozoa more susceptible to the cryopreservation process, whereas this procedure would have had no effect on ram spermatozoa. This assumption requires further investigation.

  3. The neutron channeling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials.

  4. Impact of Retreating Glaciers in an Intermontane Andean Watershed: Hydrochemical Analysis From the Callejon de Huaylas, Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, B. G.; McKenzie, J. M.; Welch, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Callejon de Huaylas, Perú, is a well-populated 5000 km2 watershed of the upper Rio Santa river draining the glacierized Cordillera Blanca. This tropical intermontane region features rich agricultural diversity and valuable natural resources, but currently receding glaciers are causing concerns for future water supply. A major question concerns the relative contribution of glacier meltwater to the regional stream discharge-from first order basins to the whole watershed. In July, 2004, we collected 37 water samples from streams, springs and precipitation over a 2000 m vertical range within the watershed and analyzed them for major dissolved ions and isotopic (\\delta18O) composition. The water chemistry is used to establish the extent of variability in the surface waters, and to identify different hydrologic end-member components. \\delta18O values for the waters range from -4.29\\permil to -5.28\\permil. There is a consistent trend towards lighter isotopes with greater percentage of glacier coverage in tributary stream catchments of the Rio Santa, with some exceptions due to evaporative enrichment in lakes. Samples taken along transects of these glacierized tributary streams become more isotopically enriched with lower elevation and greater distance from the glaciers. However, waters from the Rio Santa become less enriched with lower elevation. We hypothesize that the distribution of glacier mass in the mountain range causes a greater volume of glacial meltwater to join the Rio Santa at lower elevations. The water generally has a Ca-Mg-HCO3 chemical signal. Samples along transects of tributary valleys show an increase in TDS and the Na:Mg concentration ratio with decreasing elevation. We see geochemical evidence for a small groundwater source in the tributaries and the Rio Santa. We propose that distinct chemical signatures of source water end-members may provide a means of quantifying the volumetric contribution of glacier meltwater over time.

  5. Glacier loss and emerging hydrologic vulnerabilities in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, B. G.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baraer, M.; Lagos, P.; Lautz, L.; Carey, M.; Bury, J.; Crumley, R.; Wigmore, O.; Somers, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating glacier recession in the tropical Andes is transforming downstream hydrology, while increasing demands for water by end-users (even beyond the watershed limits) is complicating the assessment of vulnerability. Future scenarios of hydro-climatic vulnerability require a better understanding of coupled hydrologic and human systems, involving both multiscale process studies and more robust models of glacier-climate interactions. We synthesize research in two proglacial valleys of glacierized mountain ranges in different regions of Peru that are both in proximity to growing water usage from urban sectors, agriculture, hydroelectric generation, and mining. In both the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca and the Shullcas River watershed below Hyuatapallana Mountain in Junin, glaciers have receded over 25% since the 1980s. Historical runoff and glacier data, combined with glacier-climate modeling, show a long-term decrease in discharge resulting from a net loss of stored water. We find evidence that this altered hydrology is transforming proglacial wetland ecology and water quality, even while water resource use has intensified. Beyond glaciers, our results show that over 60% of the dry season base flow in each watershed is groundwater sourced from heterogeneous aquifers. Municipal water supply in Huancayo already relies on 18 groundwater wells. Perceptions of water availability and actual water use practices remain relatively divorced from the actual water resources provided from each mountain range. Critical changes in glacier volume and water supply are not perceived or acknowledged consistently amongst different water users, nor reflected in water management decisions. In order to identify, understand, model, and adapt to climate-glacier-water changes, it is vital to integrate the analysis of water availability and groundwater processes (the domain of hydrologists) with that of water use (the focus for social scientists). Attention must be

  6. [Clinico-radiological profile of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in the childhood population. A retrospective analysis of a series of 20 patients in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Tomás-Vila, Miguel; Menor, Francisco; Otero-Reigada, M Carmen; Pérez-Tamarit, Amparo; Téllez de Meneses, Montserrat; Pitarch-Castellanos, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Introduccion. La encefalomielitis aguda diseminada (EAD) es un trastorno inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central mediado inmunologicamente y de patogenia desconocida. Puede presentarse en cualquier edad, pero es mucho mas frecuente en niños. La EAD no tiene marcador biologico especifico y el diagnostico se basa en hallazgos clinicos y neurorradiologicos. Objetivo. Mejorar el conocimiento del perfil clinicorradiologico de esta enfermedad. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo con inclusion de pacientes menores de 14 años ingresados en un hospital terciario en los ultimos 15 años con el diagnostico de EAD. Se revisaron antecedentes, signos clinicos de presentacion, datos analiticos en sangre/liquido cefalorraquideo y la semiologia radiologica. En 16 casos se realizo un seguimiento medio de 25 meses. Resultados. Se revisaron 20 pacientes, un 70% niños, con una edad media de 4,4 años. El 40% tuvo un episodio febril previo. El 85% presento fiebre o vomitos, y el 70%, afectacion del estado de consciencia. Predominaron los deficits motores (45%), las convulsiones (35%) y la afectacion de pares craneales (30%). Tres niños presentaron una evolucion recidivante, y otros tres, secuelas motoras. Los estudios de resonancia magnetica mostraron lesiones hiperintensas en secuencias T2, con patron de realce escaso o nulo, que predominaron en los talamos (70%), la medula (67%) y la sustancia blanca subcortical (50%). En dos pacientes se diagnostico EAD hemorragica. Conclusiones. La EAD representa una entidad con importante afectacion general y repercusion neurologica, que muestra un potencial secuelar considerable. Los datos clinicoanaliticos y la resonancia magnetica cerebral y medular son relevantes para el diagnostico inicial y seguimiento de pacientes con EAD.

  7. [Nutritional characterization of produced fish for human consumption in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Perea, Aide; Gómez, Elieth; Mayorga, Yamile; Triana, Cora Yohanna

    2008-03-01

    This research involves the nutritional characterization of the most commonly cultivated fish in the region. The species under study were: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), tilapia roja (Oreocliromis sp), cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma faciatum). A sea fish, coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), was used as reference because it is the imported species most used in the region, and it also contains n-3 fatty acids. For each fish sample moisture, ash, protein content, total fat, minerals (iron, calcium and phosphorous) and a fatty acid profile were determined. Results show a total protein content in between 16.4 and 22.6 g/100 g fillet for fresh water fish. Total fat amounts for trout are the highest (8.1 g/100 g fillet), while catfish has the lowest fat content (0.4 g/100 g fillet). Trout was found to be the most important source of n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) and phosphorous, with values ranging from 0.25% to 0.52%, and 250 to 346 mg/100 g fillet, respectively. Catfish and trout exhibited the highest iron content, with values ranging from 3 to 6mg/100 g fillet. Salmon, on the other hand, showed a high n-3 fatty acid content of 1.16% to 2.25%, when compared to fresh water fish. Calcium content is low in all species under scrutiny. Fresh water fish, other than trout, show no significant amount of n-3 fatty acids. However, all of them are a good source of protein. The obtained results allowed to determine the profile of oily acids of produced fish for human consumption in the region, demonstrating that the trout is the species with major quantity of oily acids n-3 specially DHA and of the minerals the phosphorus. Other species (kinds) catfish, bocachico, tilapia and cachama, are not a source of oily acids n-3, but they are an important source of protein.

  8. Uranium minerals from the San Marcos District, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Cortés, Manuel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Torres-Moye, Enrique; Esparza-Ponce, Hilda; Montero-Cabrera, María Elena

    2010-05-01

    The mineralogy of the two uranium deposits (Victorino and San Marcos I) of Sierra San Marcos, located 30 km northwest of Chihuahua City, Mexico, was studied by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry. At the San Marcos I deposit, uranophane Ca(UO2)2Si2O7·6(H2O) (the dominant mineral at both deposits) and metatyuyamunite Ca(UO2)(V2O8)·3(H2O) were observed. Uranophane, uraninite (UO2+x), masuyite Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)·3(H2O), and becquerelite Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 ·(8H2O) are present at the Victorino deposit. Field observations, coupled with analytical data, suggest the following sequence of mineralization: (1) deposition of uraninite, (2) alteration of uraninite to masuyite, (3) deposition of uranophane, (4) micro-fracturing, (5) calcite deposition in the micro-fractures, and (6) formation of becquerelite. The investigated deposits were formed by high-to low-temperature hydrothermal activity during post-orogenic evolution of Sierra San Marcos. The secondary mineralization occurred through a combination of hydrothermal and supergene alteration events. Becquerelite was formed in situ by reaction of uraninite with geothermal carbonated solutions, which led to almost complete dissolution of the precursor uraninite. The Victorino deposit represents the second known occurrence of becquerelite in Mexico, the other being the uranium deposits at Peña Blanca in Chihuahua State.

  9. Eutetrarhynchid trypanorhynchs (Cestoda) from elasmobranchs off Argentina, including the description of Dollfusiella taminii sp. n. and Parachristianella damiani sp. n., and amended description of Dollfusiella vooremi (São Clemente et Gomes, 1989).

    PubMed

    Menoret, Adriana; Ivanov, Verónica A

    2014-10-01

    During a parasitological survey of teleosts and elasmobranchs in the Argentine Sea, 3 species of eutetrarhynchids were collected from the batoids Myliobatis goodei Garman and Psammobatis bergi Marini, and the shark Mustelus schmitti Springer. The specimens collected from Mu. schmitti were identified as Dollfusiela vooremi (Sπo Clemente et Gomes, 1989), whereas the specimens from My. goodei and Ps. bergi resulted in new species of Dollfusiella Campbell et Beveridge, 1994 and Parachristianella Dollfus, 1946, respectively. Dollfusiella taminii sp. n. from Ps. bergi is characterised by a distinct basal armature with basal swelling and a heteroacanthous homeomorphous metabasal armature with 7-9 falcate hooks per principal row. Parachristianella damiani sp. n. from My. goodei lacks a distinct basal armature, having 2-3 initial rows of uncinate hooks, a heteroacanthous heteromorphous metabasal armature with the first principal row of small hooks, followed by rows with 10-14 large hooks. This is the first record of Parachristianella in the southwestern Atlantic. The amended description of D. vooremi includes the detailed description of the tentacular armature, including SEM micrographs of all tentacular surfaces. This species is characterised by a basal armature consisting of rows of uncinate and falcate hooks, a basal swelling and a metabasal armature with billhooks on the antibothrial surface and uncinate hooks on the bothrial surface. The scolex peduncle of D. vooremi is covered with enlarged spinitriches. This species is restricted to carcharhiniform sharks, since the report of D. vooremi in Sympterygia bonapartii Müller et Henle off Bahia Blanca (Argentina) is dubious.

  10. Effects of crab halophytic plant interactions on creek growth in a S.W. Atlantic salt marsh: A Cellular Automata model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Darío R.; Escapa, Mauricio; Ferramola, Félix E.; Maraschín, Silvio D.; Pierini, Jorge O.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Delrieux, Claudio

    2006-09-01

    The Bahía Blanca Estuary (38° 50' S, and 62° 30' W) presents salt marshes where interactions between the local flora ( Sarcocornia perennis) and fauna ( Chasmagnathus granulatus) generate some kind of salt pans that alter the normal water circulation and condition its flow and course towards tidal creeks. The crab-vegetation dynamics in the salt marsh presents variations that cannot be quantified in a reasonable period of time. The interaction between S. perennis plant and C. granulatus crab is based on simple laws, but its result is a complex biological mechanism that causes an erosive process on the salt marsh and favors the formation of tidal creeks. To study it, a Cellular Automata model is proposed, based on the laws deduced from the observation of these phenomena in the field, and then verified with measurable data within macroscale time units. Therefore, the objective of this article is to model how the interaction between C. granulatus and S. perennis modifies the landscape of the salt marsh and influences the path of tidal creeks. The model copies the basic laws that rule the problem based on purely biological factors. The Cellular Automata model proved capable of reproducing the effects of the interaction between plants and crabs in the salt marsh. A study of the water drainage of the basins showed that this interaction does indeed modify the development of tidal creeks. Model dynamics would likewise follow different laws, which would provide a different formula for the probability of patch dilation. The patch shape can be obtained changing the pattern that dilates.

  11. [Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Contribution of two new cases to a recently reported entity].

    PubMed

    Tomás-Vila, Miguel; Menor, Francisco; Ley-Martos, Myriam; Jumillas-Luján, M José; Marco-Hernández, Ana V; Barbero, Pedro

    2014-02-16

    Introduccion. La hipomielinizacion con atrofia de ganglios basales y de cerebelo (H-ABC) es una rara entidad descrita recientemente. Se presentan dos nuevos casos pertenecientes a una misma familia. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: niño de 17 meses con retraso grave en todas las areas, ausencia de lenguaje y de contacto visual. En la exploracion destacaba una microcefalia con tetraparesia espastica. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral se apreciaba atrofia cerebelosa de predominio vermiano con perdida de volumen de ambos nucleos del putamen y la cabeza del caudado, y patron de hipomielinizacion de la sustancia blanca. En la electromiografia se objetivo un patron de polineuropatia cronica de predominio motor. Presento un descenso de los valores de acido homovalinico y de acido 5-hidroxindolacetico. El tratamiento con levodopa/carbidopa no fue efectivo. Caso 2: niña de 11 meses, hermana del caso anterior. Presentaba un retraso grave en todas las areas y en la exploracion clinica se detecto una microcefalia con tetraparesia espastica. La resonancia magnetica cerebral mostro hallazgos superponibles a los del hermano, con hipomielinizacion, atrofia cerebelosa y afectacion putaminal y de ambos caudados; en la electromiografia, hallazgos compatibles con polineuropatia motora de caracter desmielinizante. Presento un descenso de los valores de acido homovalinico y acido 5-hidroxindolacetico en el liquido cefalorraquideo. El tratamiento con levodopa/carbidopa resulto ineficaz. Conclusiones. Estos dos nuevos casos ayudan a caracterizar mejor esta entidad y refuerzan la hipotesis del origen genetico del sindrome, dado que se trata de dos casos pertenecientes a una misma familia.

  12. First Results of the Expedition to the Highest Lake on Earth: Studying a Martian Paleolake in Bolivia and the Survival Strategies Developed by Living Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; McKay, C. P.; Friedmann, I.; Diaz, D. Chong; Demergasso, C.; Kisse, K.; Grigorszky, I.; Friedmann, R. Ocampo; Murbach, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 16th and November 9th 2002, the first NASA Ames DDF Licancabur multidisciplinary expedition initiated the investigation of the biology and environment for life in the highest lake on Earth located at the summit of the Licancabur volcano (6017 m/20,056 ft) at the boundary of Chile and Bolivia. The low oxygen, low atmospheric pressure, high-UV radiation, average temperature, volcano-tectonic and hydrothermal environment make the site a close analog to Martian paleolakes 3.5 billion years ago. The overall goal of the project is to understand through a series of high altitude scientific expeditions what strategies life is using to defend itself against killer-level UV radiation and environmental extreme conditions at this altitude. Several other lakes are located at 4300 m at the foot of the Licancabur volcano (hereafter named laguna Blanca and Laguna Verde). They were also investigated using identical experiments and methods as for the summit lake in order to compare the results and better understand the evolution of survival strategies at transitioning elevations. The lagunas are geothermally heated and many springs provide water at various temperatures. Sources of heat are also suspected for the summit lake as its surface water temperature was measured during the successful ascent at +6 C in a -9 C ambient crater environment (with a wind chill factor of -25 C with a wind blowing almost constantly). Results of this project are expected to provide critical keys to help searching and identifying potential sites for life (extant/extinct) on Mars and developing instruments, experiments and technologies for future missions.

  13. New records of sabellids and serpulids (Polychaeta: Sabellidae, Serpulidae) from the Tropical Eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bastida-Zavala, J Rolando; Buelna, Alondra Sofía Rodríguez; DE León-González, Jesús Angel; Camacho-Cruz, Karla Andrea; Carmona, Isabel

    2016-11-07

    Sabellids and serpulids are two well represented families in the polychaete fauna of the Tropical Eastern Pacific, with 31 and 34 species respectively; however, most records come from the Gulf of California or the western coast of Baja California Peninsula. Only a few records are from localities in the large expanse of the central and southern Mexican Pacific. Thus, sabellids and serpulids were collected from several shallow water habitats along the coast of Mexican Pacific, such as coastal lagoons, coral reefs, rocky shores and from man-made structures as marinas, piers and ships of several harbors; additionally, specimens from national collections were revised. More than 8,400 specimens of sabellids and serpulids from the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas, and some specimens from Panamá and Perú were examined. In the present work we record new localities of four sabellids and 24 serpulids. One sabellid, Branchiomma bairdi, is an exotic/invasive species in Oaxaca, Sinaloa and Baja California Sur, while four species of serpulids are exotic and/or cryptogenic species: Ficopomatus uschakovi, Hydroides dirampha, H. elegans and H. sanctaecrucis. Additionally, the geographical range has been extended for five species: the sabellids Pseudobranchiomma punctata from Oahu, Hawaii to La Paz Bay, and Parasabella pallida from California to Puerto Escondido, Baja California Sur; and for three serpulids, Hydroides inermis from the Galápagos Islands to Agua Blanca, Oaxaca, H. gairacensis from Panamá to Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, and H. panamensis from Panamá to Huatulco, Oaxaca and Faro de Bucerías, Michoacán. Hydroides cf. amri, previously recorded as H. brachyacantha from Oahu, Hawaii, is more similar to H. amri from Australia. The number of sabellids recorded for the Tropical Eastern Pacific increased to 33, the serpulid species to 35.

  14. Mansonella ozzardi in Neotropical region of Argentina: Prevalence through time (1986-2010).

    PubMed

    Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A; Dantur Juri, María J; Zaidenberg, Mario O

    2016-01-01

    Human filariasis caused by Mansonella ozzardi is a parasitic infection of a controversial pathology and poorly studied in Argentina. The aim of this study was not only to obtain data of the prevalence of M. ozzardi in Northwestern Argentina through comparison of infection rates in relation to sex and age group determining the range of distribution of mansonelliasis in the region but also to investigate the prevalence of the cases over time. Through field work carried between 1986 and 2010 by technicians of the National Ministry of Health, aiming to detect active cases of malaria in the Northwestern Argentina, blood samples were taken for smear and thick blood. 417 blood samples were examined, 381 of them (91.4%) were positive for M. ozzardi. The highest prevalence was found in Salta province (92.3%) mainly affecting the male sex (92.6%) and the age groups comprised between 48-57 years (97.0%) and ≥ 68 (90.7%). The paired t-test and Spearman coefficients showed significant differences in prevalence according to sex (t=2.677; p=0.015), and according infection rates in males and females/age (r=0.994; p=0.001; r=0.994, p=0.001, respectively). The prevalence over time showed a general pattern with the highest cases in 1986, decreasing later during the following years. Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, exhibited a pattern of prevalence according to the general trend but Salvador Mazza and Tartagal, which are also localities close to the border with Bolivia, showed peaks of cases up to 2010. These results provide relevant information about M. ozzardi in Argentina, demonstrating not only its presence and endemicity after almost 100 years from its discovery in the country, but also its wide range of distribution in the region.

  15. Health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in Peru.

    PubMed

    Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Wheeler, Jane Collins; Rosadio, Raúl; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Arnaiz-Seco, Ignacio; Hoces, Domingo; Castillo, Hugo; Veliz, Álvaro; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2014-04-01

    To determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in Peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic South American camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten Andean communities at the Salinas y Aguada Blanca reserve, province of Arequipa, southern Peru. Samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (FMD), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), brucellosis, bluetongue disease (BT), paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. Serological results showed that 1.9% (4/207) of vicuñas, 18.6% (106/571) of alpacas, and 23.3% (10/43) of llamas were positive to one or more Leptospira serovars. One percent of vicuñas (2/207) and 2.4% of domestic camelids (15/614) had Neospora caninum antibodies tested by ELISA, but only two vicuñas and two alpacas were confirmed by Western blot. Epidemiological evaluation found an association of leptospirosis to sex and age (p < 0.001), with female subjects older than 2.5 years at higher risk of infection. Interestingly, antibodies against Leptospira serovars were only found in captive vicuñas. This is the first study where health status of free-ranging and captive vicuñas has been compared. Results indicate minimal to nil presence of FMD, BVD, BHV-1, brucellosis, BT, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis allied to health disorders in our sample. The detection of seropositive animals against Leptospira, however, unveils the likely significance of leptospirosis in wild and domestic South American camelids, the impact of mixed husbandry over vicuña population and the risk to human health.

  16. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    PubMed

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable.

  17. Geological and geochemical reconnaissance in the central Santander Massif, Departments of Santander and Norte de Santander, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James George

    1976-01-01

    The central Santander Massif is composed of Precambrian Bucaramanga Gneiss and pre-Devonian Silgara Formation intruded by Mesozoic quartz diorite, quartz monzonite, and alaskite and Cretaceous or younger porphyry. Triassic (Bocas Formation), Jurassic (Jordan and Giron Formations).and Cretaceous (Tambor, Rosa Blanca, Paja, Tablazo, Simiti, La Luna, and Umir Formations) sedimentary rocks overlie the metamorphic rocks and are younger than most of the intrusions. A geological and geochemical reconnaissance of part of the central Santander Massif included the Vetas and California gold districts. At Vetas the gold is generally in brecciated aphanitic quartz and phyllonite. Dark-gray material in the ore may be graphite. The ore veins follow steep west-northwest- and north-northeast-striking fracture zones. No new gold deposits were found. Additional geochemical studies should concentrate on western Loma Pozo del Rey and on improvement of the gold extraction process. At California the gold is in pyritiferous quartz veins and quartz breccia. Ore containing black sooty material (graphite?) is highly radioactive. Some of the mineralization is post-Lower Cretaceous. Soil samples indicate that gold deposits lie under the thick blanket of soil on the ridges above the zone of mining. Three principal gold targets are outlined by gold and associated minerals in pan concentrates. The close relation of gold and copper anomalies suggests that copper may be useful as a pathfinder for gold elsewhere in the region. Based on occurrences of gold or high concentrations of pyrite or chalcopyrite in pan concentrates and on analytical data, eight potential gold targets are outlined in the central massif. Reconnaissance of the surrounding region is warranted.

  18. ngs_backbone: a pipeline for read cleaning, mapping and SNP calling using Next Generation Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The possibilities offered by next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are revolutionizing biotechnological laboratories. Moreover, the combination of NGS sequencing and affordable high-throughput genotyping technologies is facilitating the rapid discovery and use of SNPs in non-model species. However, this abundance of sequences and polymorphisms creates new software needs. To fulfill these needs, we have developed a powerful, yet easy-to-use application. Results The ngs_backbone software is a parallel pipeline capable of analyzing Sanger, 454, Illumina and SOLiD (Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection) sequence reads. Its main supported analyses are: read cleaning, transcriptome assembly and annotation, read mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling and selection. In order to build a truly useful tool, the software development was paired with a laboratory experiment. All public tomato Sanger EST reads plus 14.2 million Illumina reads were employed to test the tool and predict polymorphism in tomato. The cleaned reads were mapped to the SGN tomato transcriptome obtaining a coverage of 4.2 for Sanger and 8.5 for Illumina. 23,360 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were predicted. A total of 76 SNVs were experimentally validated, and 85% were found to be real. Conclusions ngs_backbone is a new software package capable of analyzing sequences produced by NGS technologies and predicting SNVs with great accuracy. In our tomato example, we created a highly polymorphic collection of SNVs that will be a useful resource for tomato researchers and breeders. The software developed along with its documentation is freely available under the AGPL license and can be downloaded from http://bioinf.comav.upv.es/ngs_backbone/ or http://github.com/JoseBlanca/franklin. PMID:21635747

  19. [Adverse events during diagnostic and therapeutic pediatric cardiac catheterization].

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Arámbula, Armando; Gutiérrez-Cobian, Lorenzo; Villatoro-Fernández, Jorge Luis; Pacheco-López, Sandra Livier; Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de eventos adversos durante la realización de cateterismo cardíaco tanto diagnóstico, como terapéutico pediátrico. Métodos: se revisaron los expedientes de pacientes sometidos a cateterismo cardiaco durante el periodo del 1 de Mayo al 31 de Octubre de 2014, para determinar la frecuencia de eventos adversos presentados en las primeras 24 horas posteriores al procedimiento. Resultados: durante el periodo de seis meses se realizaron 143 procedimientos, de los cuales cumplieron criterios de inclusión 126, según el tipo de procedimiento se dividieron en: diagnósticos 68 (54%) y terapéuticos 58 (46%). Se presentó algún evento adverso en 16 pacientes (13% de los procedimientos), 11.7% durante cateterismo diagnóstico y 14% durante el procedimiento terapéutico. Se clasificaron como: serios 7 (5.5%), que ponen en peligro la vida 5 (3.9%) y como catastróficos 1 (0.79%). Los factores que se asociaron con el desarrollo de algún evento adverso fueron: edad menor de un año (OR = 5.45), ingreso a sala de hemodinamia no programado (OR = 1.2), y manejo con inotrópico (OR = 7). Conclusiones: el cateterismo cardiaco realizado en nuestra unidad es un procedimiento seguro, con un porcentaje de eventos adversos similar a lo reportado a nivel mundial. Es primordial efectuar una valoración adecuada e integral del paciente antes del ingreso a sala, considerando la estratificación según las categorías de riesgo, así como el estado de gravedad del niño.

  20. Crustal contributions to arc magmatism in the Andes of Central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Moorbath, S.

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen andesite-dacite stratovolcanoes on the volcanic front of a single segment of the Andean arc show along-arc changes in isotopic and elemental ratios that demonstrate large crustal contributions to magma genesis. All 15 centers lie 90 km above the Benioff zone and 280??20 km from the trench axis. Rate and geometry of subduction and composition and age of subducted sediments and seafloor are nearly constant along the segment. Nonetheless, from S to N along the volcanic front (at 57.5% SiO2) K2O rises from 1.1 to 2.4 wt %, Ba from 300 to 600 ppm, and Ce from 25 to 50 ppm, whereas FeO*/MgO declines from >2.5 to 1.4. Ce/Yb and Hf/Lu triple northward, in part reflecting suppression of HREE enrichment by deep-crustal garnet. Rb, Cs, Th, and U contents all rise markedly from S to N, but Rb/Cs values double northward - opposite to prediction were the regional alkali enrichment controlled by sediment subduction. K/Rb drops steeply and scatters greatly within many (biotite-free) andesitic suites. Wide diversity in Zr/Hf, Zr/Rb, Ba/Ta, and Ba/La within and among neighboring suites (which lack zircon and alkali feldspar) largely reflects local variability of intracrustal (not slab or mantle) contributions. Pb-isotope data define a limited range that straddles the Stacey-Kramers line, is bracketed by values of local basement rocks, in part plots above the field of Nazca plate sediment, and shows no indication of a steep (mantle+sedimentary) Pb mixing trend. 87Sr/86Sr values rise northward from 0.7036 to 0.7057, and 143Nd/144Nd values drop from 0.5129 to 0.5125. A northward climb in basal elevation of volcanic-front edifices from 1350 m to 4500 m elevation coincides with a Bougueranomaly gradient from -95 to -295 mgal, interpreted to indicate thickening of the crust from 30-35 km to 50-60 km. Complementary to the thickening crust, the mantle wedge beneath the front thins northward from about 60 km to 30-40 km (as slab depth is constant). The thick northern crust contains