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Sample records for batiments gdf suez

  1. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  2. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  3. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc... Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies,...

  4. Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, K.I. )

    1988-08-01

    The Gulf of Suez is an intracratonic rift basin which originated in the early Miocene on the once-continuous Arabo-African plate. The Precambrian crystalline basement is overlain by a platform cover of Early Cambrian to Eocene age. There is no evidence of tectonic precursors to the Miocene breakup. Marine transgressions, for example during the Carboniferous and Cretaceous, followed wide embayments caused by long-wavelength oscillations trending northwest-southeast on the North African craton. This article discusses the geologic history of the Gulf.

  5. ASTER Suez Canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five

  6. Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, United Arab Republic (Egypt), Mediterranean Sea, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 13th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 126 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 19 hours and 42 minutes.

  7. GDF v2.0, an enhanced version of GDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Gavrilis, Dimitris; Dermatas, Evangelos

    2007-12-01

    An improved version of the function estimation program GDF is presented. The main enhancements of the new version include: multi-output function estimation, capability of defining custom functions in the grammar and selection of the error function. The new version has been evaluated on a series of classification and regression datasets, that are widely used for the evaluation of such methods. It is compared to two known neural networks and outperforms them in 5 (out of 10) datasets. Program summaryTitle of program: GDF v2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADXC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 98 147 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 040 684 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: GNU C++ Computer: The program is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD RAM: 200000 bytes Classification: 4.9 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The technique of function estimation tries to discover from a series of input data a functional form that best describes them. This can be performed with the use of parametric models, whose parameters can adapt according to the input data. Solution method: Functional forms are being created by genetic programming which are approximations for the symbolic regression problem. Reasons for new version: The GDF package was extended in order to be more flexible and user customizable than the old package. The user can extend the package by defining his own error functions and he can extend the grammar of the package by adding new functions to the function repertoire. Also, the new version can perform function estimation of multi

  8. Distinct and cooperative roles of mammalian Vg1 homologs GDF1 and GDF3 during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Olov; Bertolino, Philippe; Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2007-11-15

    Vg1, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily of ligands, has been implicated in the induction of mesoderm, formation of primitive streak, and left-right patterning in Xenopus and chick embryos. In mice, GDF1 and GDF3 - two TGF-beta superfamily ligands that share high sequence identity with Vg1 - have been shown to independently mimic distinct aspects of Vg1's functions. However, the extent to which the developmental processes controlled by GDF1 and GDF3 and the underlying signaling mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved remains unclear. Here we show that phylogenetic and genomic analyses indicate that Gdf1 is the true Vg1 ortholog in mammals. In addition, and similar to GDF1, we find that GDF3 signaling can be mediated by the type I receptor ALK4, type II receptors ActRIIA and ActRIIB, and the co-receptor Cripto to activate Smad-dependent reporter genes. When expressed in heterologous cells, the native forms of either GDF1 or GDF3 were incapable of inducing downstream signaling. This could be circumvented by using chimeric constructs carrying heterologous prodomains, or by co-expression with the Furin pro-protein convertase, indicating poor processing of the native GDF1 and GDF3 precursors. Unexpectedly, co-expression with Nodal - another TGF-beta superfamily ligand involved in mesoderm formation - could also expose the activities of native GDF1 and GDF3, suggesting a potentially novel mode of cooperation between these ligands. Functional complementarity between GDF1 and GDF3 during embryonic development was investigated by analyzing genetic interactions between their corresponding genes. This analysis showed that Gdf1(-/-);Gdf3(-/-) compound mutants are more severely affected than either Gdf1(-/-) or Gdf3(-/-) single mutants, with defects in the formation of anterior visceral endoderm and mesoderm that recapitulate Vg1 loss of function, suggesting that GDF1 and GDF3 together represent the functional mammalian homologs of Vg1.

  9. The versatility and paradox of GDF 11.

    PubMed

    Jamaiyar, A; Wan, W; Janota, D M; Enrick, M K; Chilian, W M; Yin, L

    2017-02-14

    In addition to its roles in embryonic development, Growth and Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF 11) has recently drawn much interest about its roles in other processes, such as aging. GDF 11 has been shown to play pivotal roles in the rescue of the proliferative and regenerative capabilities of skeletal muscle, neural stem cells and cardiomyocytes. We would be remiss not to point that some controversy exists regarding the role of GDF 11 in biological processes and whether it will serve as a therapeutic agent. The latest studies have shown that the level of circulating GDF 11 correlates with the outcomes of patients with cardiovascular diseases, cancer and uremia. Based on these studies, GDF 11 is a promising candidate to serve as a novel biomarker of diseases. This brief review gives a detailed and concise view of the regulation and functions of GDF 11 and its roles in development, neurogenesis and erythropoiesis as well as the prospect of using this protein as an indicator of cardiac health and aging.

  10. GDF15 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    GDF15, also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1, or MIC1, is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. The bone morphogenetic proteins regulate tissue differentiation and maintenance. GDF15 is a secreted protein that is highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney. Bone morphogenetic protein precursor molecules are cleaved at a dibasic site to release C-terminal domains with 7 conserved cysteines in the mature protein.

  11. GDF15 promotes EMT and metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Wang, Jingyu; Kong, Jianlu; Tang, Jinlong; Wu, Yihua; Xu, Enping; Zhang, Honghe; Lai, Maode

    2016-01-05

    Metastasis is the major cause of cancer deaths, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered to be a fundamental event in cancer metastasis. However, the role of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis and EMT remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that GDF15 promoted CRC cell metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the EMT process was enhanced by GDF15 through binding to TGF-β receptor to activate Smad2 and Smad3 pathways. Clinical data showed GDF15 level in tumor tissues, and the serum was significantly increased, in which high GDF15 level correlated with a reduced overall survival in CRC. Thus, GDF15 may promote colorectal cancer metastasis through activating EMT. Promisingly, GDF15 could be considered as a novel prognostic marker for CRC in the clinic.

  12. Control of glioma cell migration and invasiveness by GDF-15.

    PubMed

    Codó, Paula; Weller, Michael; Kaulich, Kerstin; Schraivogel, Daniel; Silginer, Manuela; Reifenberger, Guido; Meister, Gunter; Roth, Patrick

    2016-02-16

    Growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-15 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of proteins. GDF-15 levels are increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients. Using a TCGA database interrogation, we demonstrate that high GDF-15 expression levels are associated with poor survival of glioblastoma patients. To elucidate the role of GDF-15 in glioblastoma in detail, we confirmed that glioma cells express GDF-15 mRNA and protein in vitro. To allow for a detailed functional characterization, GDF-15 expression was silenced using RNA interference in LNT-229 and LN-308 glioma cells. Depletion of GDF-15 had no effect on cell viability. In contrast, GDF-15-deficient cells displayed reduced migration and invasion, in the absence of changes in Smad2 or Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Conversely, exogenous GDF-15 stimulated migration and invasiveness. Large-scale expression profiling revealed that GDF-15 gene silencing resulted in minor changes in the miRNA profile whereas several genes, including members of the plasminogen activator/inhibitor complex, were deregulated at the mRNA level. One of the newly identified genes induced by GDF-15 gene silencing was the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E nexin group 1 (serpine1) which is induced by TGF-β and known to inhibit migration and invasiveness. However, serpine1 down-regulation alone did not mediate GDF-15-induced promotion of migration and invasiveness. Our findings highlight the complex contributions of GDF-15 to the invasive phenotype of glioma cells and suggest anti-GDF-15 approaches as a promising therapeutic strategy.

  13. Control of glioma cell migration and invasiveness by GDF-15

    PubMed Central

    Codó, Paula; Weller, Michael; Kaulich, Kerstin; Schraivogel, Daniel; Silginer, Manuela; Reifenberger, Guido; Meister, Gunter; Roth, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-15 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of proteins. GDF-15 levels are increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients. Using a TCGA database interrogation, we demonstrate that high GDF-15 expression levels are associated with poor survival of glioblastoma patients. To elucidate the role of GDF-15 in glioblastoma in detail, we confirmed that glioma cells express GDF-15 mRNA and protein in vitro. To allow for a detailed functional characterization, GDF-15 expression was silenced using RNA interference in LNT-229 and LN-308 glioma cells. Depletion of GDF-15 had no effect on cell viability. In contrast, GDF-15-deficient cells displayed reduced migration and invasion, in the absence of changes in Smad2 or Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Conversely, exogenous GDF-15 stimulated migration and invasiveness. Large-scale expression profiling revealed that GDF-15 gene silencing resulted in minor changes in the miRNA profile whereas several genes, including members of the plasminogen activator/inhibitor complex, were deregulated at the mRNA level. One of the newly identified genes induced by GDF-15 gene silencing was the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E nexin group 1 (serpine1) which is induced by TGF-β and known to inhibit migration and invasiveness. However, serpine1 down-regulation alone did not mediate GDF-15-induced promotion of migration and invasiveness. Our findings highlight the complex contributions of GDF-15 to the invasive phenotype of glioma cells and suggest anti-GDF-15 approaches as a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:26741507

  14. Adlai Stevenson and the Suez Crisis of 1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Leo W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This study examines Adlai Stevenson's response to the Suez crisis, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the struggle between the nationalism emerging in Third World countries and the imperialism fading in Europe. It also looks at Stevenson's stance toward Israel and his relations with American Zionists during the 1956 presidential campaign. (AM)

  15. GDF11 decreases bone mass by stimulating osteoclastogenesis and inhibiting osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiqing; Zhou, Liyan; Zhou, Chenchen; Zhang, Shiwen; Jing, Junjun; Xie, Liang; Sun, Ningyuan; Duan, Xiaobo; Jing, Wei; Liang, Xing; Zhao, Hu; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming; Yuan, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an age-related disease that affects millions of people. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a secreted member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Deletion of Gdf11 has been shown to result in a skeletal anterior–posterior patterning disorder. Here we show a role for GDF11 in bone remodelling. GDF11 treatment leads to bone loss in both young and aged mice. GDF11 inhibits osteoblast differentiation and also stimulates RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through Smad2/3 and c-Fos-dependent induction of Nfatc1. Injection of GDF11 impairs bone regeneration in mice and blocking GDF11 function prevents oestrogen-deficiency-induced bone loss and ameliorates age-related osteoporosis. Our data demonstrate that GDF11 is a previously unrecognized regulator of bone remodelling and suggest that GDF11 is a potential target for treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27653144

  16. Foxg1 promotes olfactory neurogenesis by antagonizing Gdf11

    PubMed Central

    Kawauchi, Shimako; Kim, Joon; Santos, Rosaysela; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Lander, Arthur D.; Calof, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Foxg1, a winged-helix transcription factor, promotes the development of anterior neural structures; in mice lacking Foxg1, development of the cerebral hemispheres and olfactory epithelium (OE) is severely reduced. It has been suggested that Foxg1 acts by positively regulating the expression of growth factors, such as Fgf8, which support neurogenesis. However, Foxg1 also binds Smad transcriptional complexes, allowing it to negatively regulate the effects of TGFβ family ligands. Here, we provide evidence that this latter effect explains much of the ability of Foxg1 to drive neurogenesis in the OE. We show that Foxg1 is expressed in developing OE at the same time as the gene encoding growth differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11), a TGFβ family member that mediates negative-feedback control of OE neurogenesis. Mutations in Gdf11 rescue, to a considerable degree, the major defects in Foxg1-/- OE, including the early, severe loss of neural precursors and olfactory receptor neurons, and the subsequent collapse of both neurogenesis and nasal cavity formation. Rescue is gene-dosage dependent, with loss of even one allele of Gdf11 restoring substantial neurogenesis. Notably, we find no evidence for a disruption of Fgf8 expression in Foxg1-/- OE. However, we do observe both a failure of expression of follistatin (Fst), which encodes a secreted Gdf11 antagonist normally expressed in and around OE, and an increase in the expression of Gdf11 itself within the remaining OE in these mutants. Fst expression is rescued in Foxg1-/-;Gdf11-/- and Foxg1-/-;Gdf11+/- mice. These data suggest that the influence of Foxg1 on Gdf11-mediated negative feedback of neurogenesis may be both direct and indirect. In addition, defects in development of the cerebral hemispheres in Foxg1-/- mice are not rescued by mutations in Gdf11, nor is Gdf11 expressed at high levels within these structures. Thus, the pro-neurogenic effects of Foxg1 are likely to be mediated through different signaling

  17. Mites (acari) infesting commensal rats in Suez Canal zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.

  18. Geology of the Warda discovery, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, J.N.; Greet, M.J.; Collings, B.P.; Davis, C.B.; Miller, M.H. )

    1991-08-01

    British Gas, as operator for its partners, Yukong Ltd., and Union Pacific Petroleum Suez Ltd., recently discovered the Warda field in the Gulf of Suez in November 1990. Discovery well Hb78-2, located 4 km off the mouth of the Wadi Araba on the west side of the north-central Gulf of Suez, reached a total depth of 8,400 ft in Nubia clastics. Oil was tested in the Hb78-2 from five separate clastic intervals at a cumulative flow rate of approximately 7,000 BOPD of 20-24{degree} API with no water. Currently, an appraisal well program is underway to extend the limits of the field. This significant new-field discovery is located in a part of the Suez basin that previously considered to have limited oil potential. Geophysical assessment of the structure used exploration 3-D seismic coverage and concurrently acquired potential-fields datasets. The Warda structure at Kareen-Rudeis levels is a broad four-way closure, trending northwest-southeast, which drapes over older pre-Miocene tilted fault blocks. The Warda structure lies downthrown to a major Clysmic shoulder fault and is bounded on the northeast by another Clysmic down-to-the-basin normal fault. Cross faulting is noted at the deeper levels, and particularly influences the rift boundary faults. According to burial-history modeling, oil generation occurred within 4-5 million years after the Eocene-Senonian carbonate source rocks achieved onset of oil generation at a birthline of 10,000-11,000 ft subsea. The Cretaceous-Carboniferous Nubia sandstones apparently have acted as a conduit for oil migration from the adjacent Lagia hydrocarbon kitchen a few kilometers to the northeast.

  19. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured...

  20. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured...

  1. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured...

  2. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured...

  3. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured...

  4. [Inhibiting GDF-8 expression by retrovirus-based RNAi stably].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaowu; Yang, Zhuo; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Changmei

    2008-02-01

    We cloned human U6 promoter from pAVU6 + 27 vector into pXSN to transcripe small RNA. Meanwhile, a shRNA targeting GDF-8 was cloned down-stream of the hU6 promoter to construct recombinant vector. Then the packing cell GP-293 was co-transfected the recombinant with pVSV-G to gernarate virus particle. Resistant C2C12 cell pools were screened using G418. Levels of mRNA and protein of GDF-8 were tested by Real-Time PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed using MTT and FACS. The expression of GDF-8 was dramatically decreased by the retrovirus-based system in C2C12 cells. Cells proliferated effectively after integrating the recombinant. The cells in G0/G1 phase decreased by 13.7%, while cells in S phase increased by 14.9%. In conclusion, the retrovirus-based RNAi could be used to stably silence GDF-8. It can be a powerful tool in curing muscle atrophy.

  5. GDF 15 as an anti-apoptotic, diagnostic and prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schiegnitz, E; Kämmerer, P W; Koch, F P; Krüger, M; Berres, M; Al-Nawas, B

    2012-07-01

    Growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF 15) is involved in tumor pathogenesis and its expression is increased in many types of cancers. Functional effects of GDF 15 on oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic characteristics of GDF 15 in OSCC cell lines in vitro and to analyze serum GDF 15 concentrations as a diagnostic and prognostic tumor marker for OSCC in vivo. Caspase activity was assessed in OSCC cell lines with the Caspase-Glo 3/7 system. Serum GDF 15 concentrations from 64 patients with histopathological proven OSCC and from 30 healthy volunteers were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 21 patients, serum GDF 15 was also analyzed postoperatively. In vitro, treatment of OSCC cell lines with GDF 15 reduced Caspase 3/7 activity significantly (p<0.05). In vivo, serum GDF 15 concentrations of the OSCC patients in all stages of OSCC were significantly higher than those of the healthy subjects (p<0.0001). After surgery, GDF 15 concentrations declined significantly from 1545±774pg/ml preoperative to 953±438pg/ml postoperative (p=0.003). The median survival time of OSCC patients with GDF 15 levels below 875pg/ml was significantly higher than of OSCC patients with GDF 15 levels above or equal 875pg/ml (p=0.031). Determination of receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) showed a respective area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.943. The anti-apoptotic effect of GDF 15 in OSCC cell lines was shown in vitro. In vivo, significant elevated serum GDF 15 levels with prognostic value in OSCC-patients were seen for the first time. The results indicate that GDF15 may be used as a potential marker for diagnosis and prognosis of this entity.

  6. Roles of GASP-1 and GDF-11 in Dental and Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Se-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is a TGF-β family member that plays important regulatory roles in development of multiple tissues which include axial skeletal patterning, palatal closure, and tooth formation. Proteins that have been identified as GDF-11 inhibitors include GDF-associated serum protein-1 (GASP-1) and GASP-2. Recently, we found that mice genetically engineered to lack both Gasp1 and Gdf11 have an increased frequency of cleft palate. The goal of this study was to investigate the roles of GDF-11 and its inhibitors, GASP-1 and GASP-2, during dental and craniofacial development and growth. Methods Mouse genetic studies were used in this study. Homozygous knockout mice for Gasp1 (Gasp1−/−) and Gasp2 (Gasp2−/−) were viable and fertile, but Gdf11 homozygous knockout (Gdf11−/−) mice died within 24 hours after birth. The effect of either Gasp1 or Gasp2 deletion in Gdf11−/− mice during embryogenesis was evaluated in Gasp1−/−;Gdf11−/− and Gasp2−/−;Gdf11−/− mouse embryos at 18.5 days post-coitum (E18.5). For the analysis of adult tissues, we used Gasp1−/−;Gdf11+/− and Gasp2−/−;Gdf11+/− mice to evaluate the potential haploinsufficiency of Gdf11 in Gasp1−/− and Gasp2−/− mice. Results Although Gasp2 expression decreased after E10.5, Gasp1 expression was readily detected in various ectodermal tissues at E17.5, including hair follicles, epithelium in nasal cavity, retina, and developing tooth buds. Interestingly, Gasp1−/−;Gdf11−/− mice had abnormal formation of lower incisors: tooth buds for lower incisors were under-developed or missing. Although Gdf11+/− mice were viable and had mild transformations of the axial skeleton, no specific defects in the craniofacial development have been observed in Gdf11+/− mice. However, loss of Gasp1 in Gdf11+/− mice occasionally resulted in small and abnormally shaped auricles. Conclusions These findings suggest that both GASP-1 and GDF-11 play

  7. Graben infilling in Gulf of Suez and Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Burollet, P.F.

    1986-05-01

    During the last 4 years, the French research group Genegass has completed geological and geophysical studies in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez. Neogene infilling of the basin is related with basement quality and volume of clastic supply, and inherited structural features are important to the development of Miocene rifting. The Neogene series may be divided into four major groups (Listed A-D), each limited by unconformities that seem to reflect the major stages of rifting. (A) The lowermost formations begin with a conglomerate and are followed by a variegated unit of sand and clay. In the Gulf of Suez, especially on the eastern bank, these formations are marine. Along the Red Sea, tilted blocks may be capped by stromatolites, and the valleys between them are the site of shale and evaporite sedimentation (lower Miocene). (B) The main extension phase results in an invasion of marine shales. The lower zones contain coarse clastics, and the high zones contain reefs and bioclastic limestone (late Burdigalian to early Serravallian). (C) The middle to late Miocene corresponds to a regional basinward tilting. Stromatolites coat the slopes, and conglomerate fans are found in the lower zones. Evaporite sedimentation dominates; anhydrite is found on the borders, and in the basin, thick halite is overlain by a clastic series. Basement shoulders are uplifted. (D) During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, the central part of the graben showed an important subsidence, and salt tectonism was active with diapirs and collapses.

  8. Biochemistry and Biology of GDF11 and Myostatin: Similarities, Differences, and Questions for Future Investigation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan G; Poggioli, Tommaso; Katsimpardi, Lida; Buchanan, Sean M; Oh, Juhyun; Wattrus, Sam; Heidecker, Bettina; Fong, Yick W; Rubin, Lee L; Ganz, Peter; Thompson, Thomas B; Wagers, Amy J; Lee, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin (or GDF8) are closely related members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and are often perceived to serve similar or overlapping roles. Yet, despite commonalities in protein sequence, receptor utilization and signaling, accumulating evidence suggests that these 2 ligands can have distinct functions in many situations. GDF11 is essential for mammalian development and has been suggested to regulate aging of multiple tissues, whereas myostatin is a well-described negative regulator of postnatal skeletal and cardiac muscle mass and modulates metabolic processes. In this review, we discuss the biochemical regulation of GDF11 and myostatin and their functions in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. We also highlight recent clinical findings with respect to a potential role for GDF11 and/or myostatin in humans with heart disease. Finally, we address key outstanding questions related to GDF11 and myostatin dynamics and signaling during development, growth, and aging.

  9. Evaluation of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) levels in dogs with chronic mitral valve insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung-Taek; Suh, Sang-Il; Moon, Hyeongsun; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) regulates cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Circulating GDF11 levels have recently been reported to be significantly lower in aging mice and restoration of GDF11 reversed age-related cardiac hypertrophy in old mice. Here, we evaluated the potential of serum levels of GDF11 as a circulating biomarker in dogs at different stages of heart failure, due to chronic mitral valve insufficiency (CMVI). We found no significant differences in serum GDF11 levels between dogs at different stages of CMVI-associated heart failure. Furthermore, the circulating levels of GDF11 did not correlate with age, body weight, echocardiographic variables, and the severity of CMVI-induced heart failure in dogs.

  10. Biogenic Films at the Mouth of the Suez Canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery used the sunglint off the surface of the Mediterranean Sea to reveal biogenic films on the ocean surface. ('Biogenic film' refers to a thin layer of biologically-produced film resting on the surface. Click for more details.) The films dampen surface capillary waves, creating brighter and darker reflections, which, in turn, trace the complex surface water movements along the coast. The sunglint also highlights coastal features (jetties, submerged coastal areas) near the Port of Suez. Image STS105-331-18, taken in August 2001, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  11. Miocene platform-margin reefs, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    James, N.P.; Rosen, B.; Coniglio, M.

    1988-02-01

    Jebel Abu Shaar is a completely dolomitized carbonate platform atop a crystalline basement horst on the western side of the Gulf of Suez. Margins of the platform, where not removed by synsedimentary faulting, are formed by well-developed coral reefs. The massive reef carbonates consistently illustrate two stages of growth: a basal paucispecific unit of branching coral bafflestone, mostly Stylophora and a thicker upper unit of diverse coral framestone, dominated by faviids. A deep-water, slope-parallel biostrome of ahermatypic corals, dominated by Dendrophyllia and containing numerous Balanophyllia and Madracis, is present 10 km north of Abu Shaar. Corals are well cemented by numerous rinds of marine cement which is overlain by geopetal internal sediment containing planktonic foraminifers and pteropods.

  12. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of myostatin/GDF11 in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhaoying; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Xianzong; He, Shulin; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2013-05-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. In vertebrates, MSTN is known to negatively regulate skeletal muscle growth, and GDF11 is found to inhibit neurogenesis. In invertebrates, only one ortholog of vertebrate MSTN and GDF11 (MSTN/GDF11) existed. Little attention has been paid on its role to date. In this study, the cDNA that encodes a 422-amino-acid MSTN/GDF11 protein (LvMSTN/GDF11) was characterized from a crustacean species, the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Sequence analysis revealed that the overall protein sequence and specific functional sites of LvMSTN/GDF11 were highly conserved with those in other crustacean species. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique demonstrated its tissue-specific, larval developmental stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression pattern, respectively. After in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone (20E), LvMSTN/GDF11 transcripts were declined in the abdominal (A) and pleopod (P1) muscles, increased in the pereiopod (P2) muscle, and not affected in the thoracic (T) muscle. The observed expression profiles suggest multiple functions of LvMSTN/GDF11 in L. vannamei and its role differs during the larval development and natural molt cycle. The different responses of LvMSTN/GDF11 to acute increases of 20E in the A, P1, P2 and T muscles may indicate that LvMSTN/GDF11 is transcriptionally regulated via ecdysteroids to coincide with its specific roles in the former three muscles, while its role may be independent of 20E regulation in the T muscle.

  13. GDF11 improves tubular regeneration after acute kidney injury in elderly mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Qinggang; Liu, Dong; Huang, Qi; Cai, Guangyan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-01-01

    The GDF11 expression pattern and its effect on organ regeneration after acute injury in the elderly population are highly controversial topics. In our study, GDF11/8 expression increased after kidney ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), and the relatively lower level of GDF11/8 in the kidneys of aged mice was associated with a loss of proliferative capacity and a decline in renal repair, compared to young mice. In vivo, GDF11 supplementation in aged mice increased vimentin and Pax2 expression in the kidneys as well as the percentage of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive proximal tubular epithelial cells. GDF11 improved the renal repair, recovery of renal function, and survival of elderly mice at 72 h after IRI. Moreover, the addition of recombinant GDF11 to primary renal epithelial cells increased proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation by upregulating the ERK1/2 pathway in vitro. Our study indicates that GDF11/8 in the kidney decreases with age and that GDF11 can increase tubular cell dedifferentiation and proliferation as well as improve tubular regeneration after acute kidney injury (AKI) in old mice. PMID:27703192

  14. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) is a potential marker of radiation response and radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling-Tóth, Boglárka; Kis, Enikő; Benedek, Anett; Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza; Hegyesi, Hargita

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the importance of GDF-15 (secreted cytokine belonging to the TGF-β superfamily) in low and high dose radiation-induced cellular responses. A telomerase immortalized human fibroblast cell line (F11hT) was used in the experiments. A lentiviral system encoding small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) was used to establish GDF-15 silenced cells. Secreted GDF-15 levels were measured in culture medium by ELISA. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The experiments demonstrated that in irradiated human fibroblasts GDF-15 expression increased with dose starting from 100mGy. Elevated GDF-15 expression was not detected in bystander cells. The potential role of GDF-15 in radiation response was investigated by silencing GDF-15 in immortalized human fibroblasts with five different shRNA encoded in lentiviral vectors. Cell lines with considerably reduced GDF-15 levels presented increased radiation sensitivity, while a cell line with elevated GDF-15 was more radiation resistant than wild type cells. We have investigated how the reduced GDF-15 levels alter the response of several known radiation inducible genes. In F11hT-shGDF-15 cells the basal expression level of CDKN1A was unaltered relative to F11hT cells, while GADD45A and TGF-β1 mRNA levels were slightly higher, and TP53INP1 was considerably reduced. The radiation-induced expression of TP53INP1 was lower in the silenced than in wild type fibroblast cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that radiation-induced early G2/M arrest was abrogated in GDF-15 silenced cells. Moreover, radiation-induced bystander effect was less pronounced in GDF-15 silenced fibroblasts. In conclusion, the results suggest that GDF-15 works as a radiation inducible radiation resistance increasing factor in normal human fibroblast cells, acts by regulating the radiation-induced transcription of several genes and might serve as a radiation-induced early biomarker in exposed cells.

  15. Combined use of bFGF and GDF-5 enhances the healing of medial collateral ligament injury

    SciTech Connect

    Saiga, Kenta; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Yoshida, Aki; Masuda, Shin; Takihira, Shota; Abe, Nobuhiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} bFGF/GDF-5 treatment increases cellular proliferation and migration of MCL fibroblasts. {yields} bFGF/GDF-5 hydrogels stimulate the healing of MCL injury in vivo. {yields} bFGF/GDF-5 hydrogels stimulate Col1a1 expression and type I collagen synthesis. {yields} Combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 enhances MCL healing. -- Abstract: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-5 stimulate the healing of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury. However, the effect of isolated and combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 remains still unclear. We investigated cellular proliferation and migration responding to bFGF/GDF-5 using rabbit MCL fibroblasts. Rabbit MCL injury was treated by bFGF and/or GDF-5 with peptide hydrogels. Gene expression and deposition of collagens in healing tissues were evaluated. bFGF/GDF-5 treatment additively enhanced cell proliferation and migration. bFGF/GDF-5 hydrogels stimulated Col1a1 expression without increasing Col3a1 expression. Combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 stimulated type I collagen deposition and the reorganization of fiber alignment, and induced better morphology of fibroblasts in healing MCLs. Our study indicates that combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 might enhance MCL healing by increasing proliferation and migration of MCL fibroblasts, and by regulating collagen synthesis and connective fiber alignment.

  16. GDF-15 Is Elevated in Children with Mitochondrial Diseases and Is Induced by Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Raquel; Yubero, Delia; Villarroya, Joan; Henares, Desiree; Jou, Cristina; Rodríguez, Maria Angeles; Ramos, Federico; Nascimento, Andrés; Ortez, Carlos Ignacio; Campistol, Jaume; Perez-Dueñas, Belen; O'Callaghan, Mar; Pineda, Mercedes; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Oferil, Jaume Colomer; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Emperador, Sonia; Meznaric, Marija; Campderros, Laura; Kalko, Susana G.; Villarroya, Francesc; Artuch, Rafael; Jimenez-Mallebrera, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously described increased levels of growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in skeletal muscle and serum of patients with mitochondrial diseases. Here we evaluated GDF-15 as a biomarker for mitochondrial diseases affecting children and compared it to fibroblast-growth factor 21 (FGF-21). To investigate the mechanism of GDF-15 induction in these pathologies we measured its expression and secretion in response to mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods We analysed 59 serum samples from 48 children with mitochondrial disease, 19 samples from children with other neuromuscular diseases and 33 samples from aged-matched healthy children. GDF-15 and FGF-21 circulating levels were determined by ELISA. Results Our results showed that in children with mitochondrial diseases GDF-15 levels were on average increased by 11-fold (mean 4046pg/ml, 1492 SEM) relative to healthy (350, 21) and myopathic (350, 32) controls. The area under the curve for the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for GDF-15 was 0.82 indicating that it has a good discriminatory power. The overall sensitivity and specificity of GDF-15 for a cut-off value of 550pg/mL was 67.8% (54.4%-79.4%) and 92.3% (81.5%-97.9%), respectively. We found that elevated levels of GDF-15 and or FGF-21 correctly identified a larger proportion of patients than elevated levels of GDF-15 or FGF-21 alone. GDF-15, as well as FGF-21, mRNA expression and protein secretion, were significantly induced after treatment of myotubes with oligomycin and that levels of expression of both factors significantly correlated. Conclusions Our data indicate that GDF-15 is a valuable serum quantitative biomarker for the diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases in children and that measurement of both GDF-15 and FGF-21 improves the disease detection ability of either factor separately. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that GDF-15 is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to mitochondrial dysfunction and that its levels

  17. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) - a promising anti-ageing factor - is highly concentrated in platelets.

    PubMed

    Bueno, J L; Ynigo, M; de Miguel, C; Gonzalo-Daganzo, R M; Richart, A; Vilches, C; Regidor, C; García-Marco, J A; Flores-Ballester, E; Cabrera, J R

    2016-11-01

    Recent research suggests that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) could reverse age-related diseases and that its blood concentration decreases with age. This poses plasma from young donors as a therapeutic GDF11 source to treat age-related diseases. In addition, the tissue source of circulating GDF11 remains unknown. We analysed GDF11 levels in paired samples of serum, plasma and platelet lysate (PL) from 23 volunteers. Plasma and PL were collected by plateletpheresis. Here, we show that GDF11 is highly concentrated in platelets and that the circulating levels reported in previous studies could be biased as a result of serum sample manipulation.

  18. Miocene platform-margin reefs, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.P.; Rosen, B.; Coniglio, M.

    1988-01-01

    Jebel Abu Shaar is a completely dolomitized carbonate platform atop a crystalline basement horst on the western side of the Gulf of Suez. Margins of the platform, where not removed by synsedimentary faulting, are formed by well-developed coral reefs. The massive reef carbonates consistently illustrate two stages of growth: a basal paucispecific unit of branching coral bafflestone, mostly Stylophora and a thicker upper unit of diverse coral framestone, dominated by faviids. In the upper unit, the reef crest is massive columnar Porites and less common Caulastrea framestone. The back-reef is a framestone of diverse faviids, mainly Montastrea Favites, and Tarbellastrea, and interbedded reef-flat rhodolite rudstones. The back-reef and reef-flat facies grade onshelf into Stylophora bafflestone biostromers and faviid bioherms. The reef front is a shallow to intermediate depth zone of numerous and diverse faviids, dominated by Montastrea and Acanthastrea framestones, bioclastic sands, and hardgrounds. Deeper zones are mostly small Acanthastrea mounds or rhodolite/bivalve rudstones with scattered faviids and Acanthastrea. Synsedimentary lithification, internal sedimentationm, and bioerosion prevail throughout. A deep-water, slope-parallel biostrome of ahermatypic corals, dominated by Dendrophyllia and containing numerous Balanophyllia and Madracis, is present 10 km north of Abu Shaar. Corals are well cemented by numerous rinds of marine cement which is overlain by geopetal internal sediment containing planktonic foraminifers and pteropods.

  19. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  20. GDF10 Is a Signal for Axonal Sprouting and Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Nie, EH; Yin, Y; Benowitz, LI; Tung, S; Vinters, HV; Bahjat, FR; Stenzel-Poore, MP; Kawaguchi, R; Coppola, G; Carmichael, ST

    2016-01-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and Differentiation Factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mouse, non-human primate and human. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGFβRI/II signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain and loss of function studies, GDF10 produces axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocks axonal sprouting and reduces recovery. RNA-seq from peri-infarct cortical neurons indicates that GDF10 downregulates PTEN and upregulates PI3 kinase signaling and induces specific axonal guidance molecules. Unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome shows that it is not related to neurodevelopment but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  1. GDF 15 - A Novel Biomarker in the Offing for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    George, Melvin; Jena, Amrita; Srivatsan, Varsha; Muthukumar, Rajaram; Dhandapani, VE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are being explored in heart failure. GDF-15 belongs to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) cytokine family that is highly up regulated in inflammatory conditions. We undertook this systematic review to summarize the current evidence on the utility of GDF-15 as a biomarker in heart failure. Design and Methods: Multiple electronic databases for studies that reported the association between GDF- 15 and heart failure were searched using different electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Science Direct, Springer Link, Scopus, Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar using pre-defined inclusion- exclusion criteria. Results: Twenty one original studies were identified that included data from 20,920 study participants. GDF 15 was found to be a strong prognosticator of all-cause mortality in heart failure patients. Several studies found the benefit of using GDF-15 as a component of a multi-biomarker strategy in prognosticating patients with heart failure. Conclusion: More studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular pathways involving GDF-15 and to see how knowledge about GDF-15 can be used to make therapeutic decisions in the clinic. PMID:26750722

  2. Regulation of GDF-11 and myostatin activity by GASP-1 and GASP-2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Se-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) and growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) are highly related TGF-β family members that have distinct biological functions. MSTN is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle and acts to limit muscle growth. GDF-11 is expressed more widely and plays multiple roles, including regulating axial skeletal patterning during development. Several MSTN and GDF-11 binding proteins have been identified, including GDF-associated serum protein-1 (GASP-1) and GASP-2, which are capable of inhibiting the activities of these ligands. Here, we show that GASP-1 and GASP-2 act by blocking the initial signaling event (namely, the binding of the ligand to the type II receptor). Moreover, we show that mice lacking Gasp1 and Gasp2 have phenotypes consistent with overactivity of MSTN and GDF-11. Specifically, we show that Gasp2−/− mice have posteriorly directed transformations of the axial skeleton, which contrast with the anteriorly directed transformations seen in Gdf11−/− mice. We also show that both Gasp1−/− and Gasp2−/− mice have reductions in muscle weights, a shift in fiber type from fast glycolytic type IIb fibers to fast oxidative type IIa fibers, and impaired muscle regeneration ability, which are the reverse of what are seen in Mstn−/− mice. All of these findings suggest that both GASP-1 and GASP-2 are important modulators of GDF-11 and MSTN activity in vivo. PMID:24019467

  3. GDF11 administration does not extend lifespan in a mouse model of premature aging

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Rodríguez, Sandra; Rodríguez, Francisco; Folgueras, Alicia R.

    2016-01-01

    GDF11 has recently emerged as a powerful anti-aging candidate, found in young blood, capable of rejuvenating a number of aged tissues, such as heart, skeletal muscle and brain. However, recent reports have shown contradictory data questioning its capacity to reverse age-related tissue dysfunction. The availability of a mouse model of accelerated aging, which shares most of the features occurring in physiological aging, gives us an excellent opportunity to test in vivo therapies aimed at extending lifespan both in pathological and normal aging. On this basis, we wondered whether the proposed anti-aging functions of GDF11 would have an overall effect on longevity. We first confirmed the existence of a reduction in GDF11/8 levels in our mouse model of accelerated aging compared with wild-type littermates. However, we show herein that GDF11 daily administration does not extend lifespan of premature-aged mice. PMID:27507054

  4. Adenovirus-mediated GDF-5 promotes the extracellular matrix expression in degenerative nucleus pulposus cells*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xu-wei; Liu, Kang; Chen, Zhu; Zhao, Ming; Han, Xiao-wei; Bai, Yi-guang; Feng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To construct a recombinant adenovirus vector-carrying human growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) gene, investigate the biological effects of adenovirus-mediated GDF-5 (Ad-GDF-5) on extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in human degenerative disc nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, and explore a candidate gene therapy method for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Methods: Human NP cells of a degenerative disc were isolated, cultured, and infected with Ad-GDF-5 using the AdEasy-1 adenovirus vector system. On Days 3, 7, 14, and 21, the contents of the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and hydroxyproline (Hyp), synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen II, gene expression of collagen II and aggrecan, and NP cell proliferation were assessed. Results: The adenovirus was an effective vehicle for gene delivery with prolonged expression of GDF-5. Biochemical analysis revealed increased sGAG and Hyp contents in human NP cells infected by Ad-GDF-5 whereas there was no conspicuous change in basal medium (BM) or Ad-green fluorescent protein (GFP) groups. Only cells in the Ad-GDF-5 group promoted the production of ECM, as demonstrated by the secretion of proteoglycan and up-regulation of collagen II and aggrecan at both protein and mRNA levels. The NP cell proliferation was significantly promoted. Conclusions: The data suggest that Ad-GDF-5 gene therapy is a potential treatment for IDD, which restores the functions of degenerative intervertebral disc through enhancing the ECM production of human NP cells. PMID:26739524

  5. Altered hypertrophic chondrocyte kinetics in GDF-5 deficient murine tibial growth plates.

    PubMed

    Mikic, B; Clark, R T; Battaglia, T C; Gaschen, V; Hunziker, E B

    2004-05-01

    The growth/differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subgroup of the bone morphogenetic proteins best known for their role in joint formation and chondrogenesis. Mice deficient in one of these signaling proteins, GDF-5, exhibit numerous skeletal abnormalities, including shortened limb bones. The primary aim of this study was determine whether GDF-5 deficiency would alter the growth rate in growth plates from the long bones in mice and, if so, how this is achieved. Stereologic and cell kinetic parameters in proximal tibial growth plates from 5-week-old female GDF-5 -/- mice and control littermates were examined. GDF-5 deficiency resulted in a statistically significant reduction in growth rate (-14%, p=0.03). The effect of genotype on growth rate was associated with an altered hypertrophic phase duration, with hypertrophic cells from GDF-5 deficient mice exhibiting a significantly longer phase duration compared to control littermates (+25%, p=0.006). These data suggest that one way in which GDF-5 might modulate the rate of endochondral bone growth could be by affecting the duration of the hypertrophic phase in growth plate chondrocytes.

  6. Thermochronological investigation of the timing of rifting and rift segmentation in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, W.; Stockli, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Tertiary Gulf of Suez rift system is one of the best-studied continental rift systems and has inspired many fundamental geodynamic models for continental rifting. However, our limited knowledge of how extensional strain is spatially and temporally distributed has made it difficult to adequately evaluate models for the dynamic evolution of this rift. A critical aspect of constraining the evolution of rifting and rift segmentation in the Gulf of Suez involves acquiring reliable geochronological constraints on extensional faulting. This study has commenced a systematic investigation of the timing and spatial distribution of rifting, lateral rift segmentation, and rift localization within the Gulf of Suez, Egypt, employing apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. (U-Th)/He thermochronometric analysis of sample transects from exhumed fault blocks within the rift integrated with structural data will allow us to directly determine the timing, distribution, and magnitude of extension. The onset of major rifting (~24-19 Ma) in the Gulf of Suez was marked by the development of crustal domino-style tilt blocks and syn-rift deposition of the late Oligocene non-marine Abu Zenima Fm and non-marine to restricted marine Nukhul Fm. Development of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform cut off the rift from the Red Sea rift at an early extensional stage. Apatite (AHe) and zircon (ZHe) (U- Th)/He data were collected from basement and pre-rift sedimentary sample transects from the central and southern Sinai Peninsula portion and the Gebel El Zeit area in the southern Gulf of Suez as well as from basement samples from selected drill cores off Gebel El Zeit. Preliminary data exhibit partially reset ages trending as old as ~70 Ma (AHe) and ~450 Ma (ZHe) from shallower structural levels (Proterozoic basement and Phanerozoic cover sequence). Structurally deeper samples yield abundant AHe ages of ~22-24 Ma, indicative of rapid cooling and exhumation during the early Miocene. More

  7. Nodal·Gdf1 Heterodimers with Bound Prodomains Enable Serum-independent Nodal Signaling and Endoderm Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fuerer, Christophe; Nostro, M. Cristina; Constam, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    The TGFβ family member Nodal is central to control pluripotent stem cell fate, but its use as a stem cell differentiation factor is limited by low specific activity. During development, Nodal depends on growth and differentiation factor (Gdf)-1 and on the shared co-receptor Cryptic to specify visceral left-right axis asymmetry. We therefore asked whether the functionality of Nodal can be augmented by Gdf1. Because Nodal and Gdf1 coimmunoprecipitate each other, they were predicted to form heterodimers, possibly to facilitate diffusion or to increase the affinity for signaling receptors. Here, we report that Gdf1 suppresses an unexpected dependence of Nodal on serum proteins and that it is critically required for non-autonomous signaling in cells expressing Cryptic. Nodal, Gdf1, and their cleaved propeptides copurified as a heterodimeric low molecular weight complex that stimulated Activin receptor (Acvr) signaling far more potently than Nodal alone. Although heterodimerization with Gdf1 did not increase binding of Nodal to Fc fusions of co-receptors or Acvr extracellular domains, it was essential for soluble Acvr2 to inhibit Nodal signaling. This implies that Gdf1 potentiates Nodal activity by stabilizing a low molecular weight fraction that is susceptible to neutralization by soluble Acvr2. Finally, in differentiating human ES cells, endodermal markers were more efficiently induced by Nodal·Gdf1 than by Nodal, suggesting that Nodal·Gdf1 is an attractive new reagent to direct stem cell differentiation. PMID:24798330

  8. GDF: A tool for function estimation through grammatical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Gavrilis, Dimitris; Dermatas, Evangelos

    2006-04-01

    This article introduces a tool for data fitting that is based on genetic programming and especially on the grammatical evolution technique. The user needs to input a series of points and the accompanied dimensionality n and the tool will produce via the genetic programming paradigm a function f:R→R which is an approximate solution to the symbolic regression problem. The tool is entirely written in ANSI C++ and it can be installed in any UNIX system. Program summaryTitle of program: GDF Catalogue identifier:ADXC Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXC Computer for which the program is designed and others on which is has been tested:The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina and University of Patras, Greece Programming language used:GNU-C++ Memory required to execute with typical data:200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 33 469 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5704 Distribution format: tar.gz Solution method: Functional forms are being created by genetic programming which are approximations for the symbolic regression problem.

  9. The effect of a bioactive collagen membrane releasing PDGF or GDF-5 on bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Seiichi; Haku, Ken; Yamanaka, Takuto; Dai, Jisen; Takayama, Tadahiro; Shohara, Ryutaro; Tachi, Keita; Ishioka, Mika; Hanatani, Shigeru; Karunagaran, Sanjay; Wada, Keisuke; Moursi, Amr M

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative procedures using barrier membrane technology are presently well established in periodontal/endodontic surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the subsequent effects of the released platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) from collagen membranes (CMs) on bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were conducted using MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts cultured with or without factors. Cell viability, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone marker gene expression were then measured. In vivo studies were conducted by placing CMs with low or high dose PDGF or GDF-5 in rat mandibular defects. At 4 weeks after surgery new bone formation was measured using μCT and histological analysis. The results of in vitro studies showed that CM/GDF-5 significantly increased ALP and cell proliferation activities without cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells when compared to CM/PDGF or CM alone. Gene expression analysis revealed that Runx2 and Osteocalcin were significantly increased in CM/GDF-5 compared to CM/PDGF or control. Quantitative and qualitative μCT and histological analysis for new bone formation revealed that although CM/PDGF significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to CM alone or control, CM/GDF-5 significantly accelerated bone regeneration to an even greater extent than CM/PDGF. The results also showed that GDF-5 induced new bone formation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that this strategy, using a CM carrying GDF-5, might lead to an improvement in the current clinical treatment of bone defects for periodontal and implant therapy.

  10. Molecular cloning of porcine growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) cDNA and its role in early folliculogenesis: direct ovarian injection of GDF-9 gene fragments promotes early folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takashi; Miyahayashi, Yasunori; Yokoo, Masaki; Hoshino, Yumi; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei

    2004-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is a growth factor secreted by oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. To investigate the ovarian function of GDF-9 in pigs, we first cloned porcine GDF-9 complementary DNA (cDNA), and then injected its gene fragments into the ovary in gilts. Porcine GDF-9 has open reading frame (ORF) homologies of 81.4%, 84.6%, 84.2%, 72.7% and 72.6% with its human, bovine, ovine, rat and mouse counterparts respectively. Regarding the deduced amino-acid sequence of the mature protein, the corresponding homologies reach 92.1%, 97.8%, 97.0%, 89.6% and 88.1% respectively. To investigate the role of GDF-9 in early folliculogenesis, the ovaries of 2-month-old prepubertal gilts were injected with GDF-9 gene fragments. The injection of porcine GDF-9 gene fragments resulted in an increase in the number of primary, secondary and tertiary follicles, concomitant with a decrease in the number of primordial follicles. These results indicated that exogenous GDF-9 can promote early folliculogenesis in the porcine ovary, and that a technique for direct ovarian injection of GFD-9 gene fragments may contribute to a novel therapy for prevention and treatment of infertility associated with ovarian dysfunction.

  11. Controle sismique d'un batiment en acier de 1 etage par amortisseurs elastomeres et contreventements en Chevron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Olivier

    Actuellement, le principe de dimensionnement a la capacite est fortement utilise dans le domaine du genie parasismique. De maniere simplifiee, cette methode de dimensionnement consiste a dissiper l'energie injectee a une structure lors d'une secousse sismique par la deformation inelastique d'un element structural sacrificiel. Cette methode de dimensionne-ment permet d'obtenir des structures economiques, car cette dissipation d'energie permet de reduire substantiellement les efforts qui se retrouvent a l'interieur de la structure. Or, la consequence de ce dimensionnement est la presence de degats importants a la structure qui suivent a la secousse sismique. Ces degats peuvent engendrer des couts superieurs aux couts d'erection de la structure. Bien entendu, sachant que les secousses sismiques d'importances sont des phenomenes rares, l'ingenieur est pret a accepter ce risque afin de diminuer les couts initiaux de construction. Malgre que cette methode ait permis d'obtenir des constructions economiques et securitaires, il serait interessant de developper un systeme qui permettrait d'obtenir des performances de controle des efforts sismiques comparables a un systeme dimensionne selon un principe de dimensionnement a la capacite sans les consequences negatives de ces systemes. En utilisant les principes d'isolation a la base, il a ete possible de developper un systeme de reprise des forces sismiques (SRFS). qui permet d'obtenir un controle des efforts sismiques concurrentiels tout en gardant une structure completement elastique. Ce systeme consiste u inserer un materiel elastomere entre l'assemblage de la poutre et des contreventements a l'interieur d'un cadre contrevente conventionnel. Cette insertion permet de diminuer substantiellement la rigidite laterale du batiment, ce qui a pour consequence d'augmenter la valeur de la periode fondamentale du batiment dans lequel ces cadres sont inseres. Ce phenomene est appele le saut de periode. Ce saut de periode permet de

  12. Ascidian introductions through the Suez Canal: The case study of an Indo-Pacific species.

    PubMed

    Rius, Marc; Shenkar, Noa

    2012-10-01

    Although marine biological invasions via the Suez Canal have been extensively documented, little is known about the introduction of non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea), a group containing particularly aggressive invasive species. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the introduction of the ascidian Herdmania momus into the Mediterranean Sea. We reviewed its taxonomy and global distribution, and analyzed how genetic variation is partitioned between sides of the Suez Canal. The taxonomic revision showed that H. momus currently has a wide Indo-Pacific distribution. Genetic data indicated two well-differentiated colonization histories across the eastern Mediterranean. Our findings suggest that the range expansion of H. momus has been greatly facilitated by the combined effect of human-mediated transport and the species' ability to adapt to different environments. The integrative approach presented here is critical to attain a holistic understanding of marine biological invasions, especially when studying groups with a poorly resolved taxonomy.

  13. A study of Salmonella typhi isolated in Suez Canal area. Biotyping, phage typing and colicinogenic property.

    PubMed

    Shoeb, S; Khalifa, I; el Daly, O; Heiba, A; Farmer, J; Brenner, F; el Batawi, Y

    1989-01-01

    In this work a total of 82 strains of Salmonella typhi were isolated from Egyptian patients diagnosed as quiry enteric fever. These cases were from Ismalia, Suez and port Said Areas. The strains fell in 16 phage types. Phage types N, 40, E1, and degraded Vi were the commonest phage type in Ismailia, while phage types degraded Vi and C1 were the commonest in Port Said. Phage types Di-N, degraded Vi, A and C1 were the commonest in Suez. Chemotyping of Salmonella typhi showed that the majority of the strains belonged to chemotype I (82%), and the rest belonged to chemotype II (18%). Colicin production was negative and all the strains were susceptible to the currently used antibiotics.

  14. Mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Saito, Kan; Maruya, Yuriko; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Aya; Fukumoto, Emiko; Ishikawa, Momoko; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Miyazaki, Kanako; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ge, Lihong; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate hard tissue formation, including bone and tooth. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a known BMP, is expressed in cartilage and regulates chondrogenesis, and mutations have been shown to cause osteoarthritis. Notably, GDF5 is also expressed in periodontal ligament tissue; however, its role during tooth development is unclear. Here, we used cell culture and in vivo analyses to determine the role of GDF5 during tooth development. GDF5 and its associated BMP receptors are expressed at the protein and mRNA levels during postnatal tooth development, particularly at a stage associated with enamel formation. Furthermore, whereas BMP2 was observed to induce evidently the differentiation of enamel-forming ameloblasts, excess GDF5 induce mildly this differentiation. A mouse model harbouring a mutation in GDF5 (W408R) showed enhanced enamel formation in both the incisors and molars, but not in the tooth roots. Overexpression of the W408R GDF5 mutant protein was shown to induce BMP2-mediated mRNA expression of enamel matrix proteins and downstream phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. These results suggest that mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-signalling. PMID:27030100

  15. Risk assessment during transport of radioactive materials through the Suez Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabek, M. G.; El-Shinawy, R. M. K.; Gomaa, M.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper a study for risk assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials, during the period 1986-1992, through the Suez Canal of Egypt is given. The code RADTRAN-IV was used for this study. The results of the code, for a normal case, show that the transportation of low activity materials such as uranium (U 3O 8) represent the main items that contribute significantly to the collective dose within the Suez Canal area (Port-Said, Ismailia and Suez). The values of the annual collective dose due to transportation of all radionuclide materials was found to be at a maximum in Suez town and is equal to 5.04 × 10 -8 Man-Sv for the whole populations. If we only consider the workder at the harbour (estimated to be 50 persons), the value of the annual collective dose is about 3.33 × 10 -4 Man-Sv. These values are less than the exemption value of 1 Man-Sv recommended by the IAEA. For the accident case, the following pathways are considered by the code: ground-shine, direct inhalation, inhalation of resuspended material and cloud-shine. The total values of the estimated risks for each radionuclide material are presented in table form and, in addition, health effects (genetic effects, GE, and latent cancer fatality), LCF) are discussed. The calculated values of the radiological risks are very low for the three towns, showing that no radiation-induced early deaths are to be expected.

  16. Association of GDF1 rs4808863 with fetal congenital heart defects: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Qingqing; Wang, Li; Li, Xiaofei; Ma, Yuqing; Yao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common fetal defects and the most important cause of child mortality and morbidity. Objective To investigate the association between growth/differentiation factor 1 (GDF1) polymorphisms and fetal CHDs, by evaluating the association of GDF1 rs4808863 with fetal CHDs. Design A case–control study. Setting Beijing, China. Participants We selected 124 fetuses with a CHD and a normal karyotype and normal array-based comparative genomic hybridisation analysis and compared them with 124 normal fetuses matched for gestational age and sex. Fetuses with a CHD, from 20 to 32 weeks of gestation were included. Fetuses with any chromosomal abnormalities, and fetuses from multiple pregnancies and those carried by pregnant women with chronic diseases, were excluded from this research. DNA extraction and genotyping were carried out for all cases to investigate the genotype distributions of GDF1 rs4808863. Results A significant difference was noted for the CT phenotype of GDF1 rs4808863 between the controls and the fetuses with CHDs using homozygote and heterozygote comparisons. The minor allele (T allele) of GDF1 rs4808863 was associated with an increased risk of CHD (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference between controls and fetuses with CHDs was noted in a comparison with the mutation genotype CT+TT and wild-type genotype CC (p<0.05) using dominant modal analysis. After stratification analysis, the CT phenotype, the minor allele (T allele) and the mutation genotype CT+TT of the rs4808863 polymorphism were associated with atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) and left–right laterality defects (p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that the GDF1 rs4808863 polymorphism contributes to an increased risk of fetal CHDs, especially the subtypes of AVSD, LVOTO and left–right laterality defects. PMID:26656983

  17. Expression of the osteoarthritis-associated gene GDF5 is modulated epigenetically by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Louise N; Bui, Catherine; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth G; Young, David A; Loughlin, John

    2011-09-01

    GDF5 is involved in synovial joint development, maintenance and repair, and the rs143383 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 5'UTR of GDF5 is associated, at the genome-wide significance level, with osteoarthritis susceptibility, and with other musculoskeletal phenotypes including height, congenital hip dysplasia and Achilles tendinopathy. There is a significant reduction in the expression of the disease-associated T allele relative to the C allele in synovial joint tissues, an effect influenced by a second SNP (rs143384, C/T) also within the 5'UTR. The differential allelic expression (DAE) imbalance of the C and T alleles of rs143383 varies intra- and inter-individually, suggesting that DAE may be modulated epigenetically. The C alleles of both SNPs form CpG dinucleotides that are potentially amenable to regulation by methylation. Here, we have examined whether DNA methylation regulates GDF5 expression and the allelic imbalance caused by rs143383. We observed methylation of the GDF5 promoter and 5'UTR in cell lines and joint tissues, with demethylation correlating with increased GDF5 expression. The CpG sites created by the C alleles at rs143383 and rs143384 were variably methylated, and treatment of a heterozygous cell line with a demethylating agent further increased the allelic expression imbalance between the C and T alleles. This demonstrates that the genetic effect of the rs143383 SNP on GDF5 expression is modulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The variability in DAE of rs143383 is therefore partly accounted for by differences in DNA methylation that could influence the penetrance of this allele in susceptibility to common musculoskeletal diseases.

  18. MAP3K11/GDF15 axis is a critical driver of cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Julie; Liu, Qing; Nicoletti, Richard; Feng, Bin; Krieger, Brian; Mazsa, Elizabeth; Siddiquee, Zakir; Wang, Ruoji; Huang, Lucia; Shen, Luhua; Lin, Jie; Vigano, Antonio; Chiu, M. Isabel; Weng, Zhigang; Winston, William; Weiler, Solly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer associated cachexia affects the majority of cancer patients during the course of the disease and thought to be directly responsible for about a quarter of all cancer deaths. Current evidence suggests that a pro‐inflammatory state may be associated with this syndrome although the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of cachexia are poorly understood. The purpose of this work was the identification of key drivers of cancer cachexia that could provide a potential point of intervention for the treatment and/or prevention of this syndrome. Methods Genetically engineered and xenograft tumour models were used to dissect the molecular mechanisms driving cancer cachexia. Cytokine profiling from the plasma of cachectic and non‐cachectic cancer patients and mouse models was utilized to correlate circulating cytokine levels with the cachexia phenotype. Results Utilizing engineered tumour models we identified MAP3K11/GDF15 pathway activation as a potent inducer of cancer cachexia. Increased expression and high circulating levels of GDF15 acted as a key mediator of this process. In animal models, tumour‐produced GDF15 was sufficient to trigger the cachexia phenotype. Elevated GDF15 circulating levels correlated with the onset and progression of cachexia in animal models and in patients with cancer. Inhibition of GDF15 biological activity with a specific antibody reversed body weight loss and restored muscle and fat tissue mass in several cachectic animal models regardless of their complex secreted cytokine profile. Conclusions The combination of correlative observations, gain of function, and loss of function experiments validated GDF15 as a key driver of cancer cachexia and as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and/or prevention of this syndrome. PMID:27239403

  19. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Johnen, Heiko; Kuffner, Tamara; Manadhar, Rakesh; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Lee-Ng, Ka Ki Michelle; Zhang, Hong Ping; Wu, Liyun; Marquis, Christopher Peter; Jiang, Lele; Husaini, Yasmin; Lin, Shu; Herzog, Herbert; Brown, David A; Sainsbury, Amanda; Breit, Samuel N

    2013-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/-)) weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/-) mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/-) mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  20. Small molecules dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 inhibit myostatin/GDF8 signaling and promote functional myoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Horbelt, Daniel; Boergermann, Jan H; Chaikuad, Apirat; Alfano, Ivan; Williams, Eleanor; Lukonin, Ilya; Timmel, Tobias; Bullock, Alex N; Knaus, Petra

    2015-02-06

    GDF8, or myostatin, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily of secreted polypeptide growth factors. GDF8 is a potent negative regulator of myogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. We found that GDF8 signaling was inhibited by the small molecule ATP competitive inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189. These compounds were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of BMP signaling by binding to the BMP type I receptors ALK1/2/3/6. We present the crystal structure of the type II receptor ActRIIA with dorsomorphin and demonstrate that dorsomorphin or LDN-193189 target GDF8 induced Smad2/3 signaling and repression of myogenic transcription factors. As a result, both inhibitors rescued myogenesis in myoblasts treated with GDF8. As revealed by quantitative live cell microscopy, treatment with dorsomorphin or LDN-193189 promoted the contractile activity of myotubular networks in vitro. We therefore suggest these inhibitors as suitable tools to promote functional myogenesis.

  1. Synrift sedimentation in the Gulf of Suez rift controlled by eustatic sea level variations

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.K.; Schamel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Laterally persistent stratigraphic variations in the southern Gulf of Suez rift indicate that eustatic variations in sea level predominate over local tectonic effects in controlling Neogene basin-fill sedimentation. Low sea level allows extensive erosion of tilt-block crests and rift shoulders, sending clastic aprons into the intervening subbasins and allowing evaporite deposition. High sea level minimizes clastic input, allowing marls and shales to build up off structure and reefs to form on and around tilt blocks. Thus variations in sediment character indicate relative sea level. Early rifting events in the upper Oligocene are marked by deposition of continental red beds. Overlying lowest Miocene clastics and evaporites are cut by a lower Burdigalian unconformity, indicating a minor transgression in the Aquitanian. Above a disconformity, laterally varying clastics and evaporites suggest regression followed by intermittent shallow-water conditions. A higher unconformity is overlain by thick cyclic evaporites representing periodic flooding and drying of the rift, a result of sea level remaining close to the height of the Suez sill to the north. A major Messinian unconformity cuts the section, indicating major regression, and is overlain by largely clastic sediments of both continental and marine affinities, showing rapid sea level fluctuations. Regional synrift sedimentation has been controlled more by eustatic sea level change, modified by the Suez sill to the north, than by tectonic movements within the rift.

  2. Evaluation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic species of Suez Gulf water along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nabila A; Ahmed, Omayma E; Doheim, Mamdouh M

    2014-02-01

    The Egyptian Red Sea environment especially along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries (Suez) is severely contaminated with organic compounds, as well as overfishing. This may be well contributory to recent serious declines in fish stocks. Fish embryos are also particularly vulnerable to oil exposure, even at extremely low concentrations of less than one part per billion. Consequently, even traces of oil pollution at levels often considered safe for wildlife can cause severe damage to fish. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in ten fish species of aquatic species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples were measured in order to use them as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollutants in the studied region. The total content of these16 PAHs ranged from 399.616 up to 67,631.779 ng/g wet weight. The data show that these values are considered to be alarmingly high enough to cause lethal toxicity effect by accumulation. All studied aquatic species samples are characterized by relatively high concentrations of the six-membered ring PAHs. The origin of PAHs in the collected samples is either petrogenic, biogenic, or mixed petrogenic and biogenic.

  3. GDF15/MIC1 and MMP9 Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Parkinson’s Disease and Lewy Body Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Alice; Brockmann, Kathrin; Marquetand, Justus; Wurster, Isabel; Rattay, Tim W.; Roncoroni, Lorenzo; Schaeffer, Eva; Lerche, Stefanie; Apel, Anja; Deuschle, Christian; Berg, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Based on animal and ex-vivo experiments, Growth/Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF15, also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1, MIC1), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), a member of the matrix metalloprotease family may be potential markers for Lewy body disorders, i.e. Parkinson’s disease with (PDD) and without dementia (PDND) and Lewy body dementia (DLB). GDF15 has a prominent role in development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and repair, whereas MMP9 degrades, as a proteolytic enzyme, components of the extracellular matrix. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid GDF15 and MMP9 levels of 59 PDND, 17 PDD and 23 DLB patients, as well as of 95 controls were determined, and associated with demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters. Our analysis confirmed the already described association of GDF15 levels with age and gender. Corrected GDF15 levels were significantly higher in PDD than in PDND patients, and intermediate in DLB patients. Within Lewy body disorders, GDF15 levels correlated positively with age at onset of Parkinsonism and dementia, Hoehn & Yahr stage and cerebrospinal fluid t-Tau and p-Tau levels, and negatively with the Mini Mental State Examination. Remarkably, it does not relevantly correlate with disease duration. MMP9 was not relevantly associated with any of these parameters. Cerebrospinal GDF15, but not MMP9, may be a potential marker of and in Lewy body disorders. PMID:26938614

  4. GDF15/MIC1 and MMP9 Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Parkinson's Disease and Lewy Body Dementia.

    PubMed

    Maetzler, Walter; Deleersnijder, Willy; Hanssens, Valérie; Bernard, Alice; Brockmann, Kathrin; Marquetand, Justus; Wurster, Isabel; Rattay, Tim W; Roncoroni, Lorenzo; Schaeffer, Eva; Lerche, Stefanie; Apel, Anja; Deuschle, Christian; Berg, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Based on animal and ex-vivo experiments, Growth/Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF15, also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1, MIC1), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), a member of the matrix metalloprotease family may be potential markers for Lewy body disorders, i.e. Parkinson's disease with (PDD) and without dementia (PDND) and Lewy body dementia (DLB). GDF15 has a prominent role in development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and repair, whereas MMP9 degrades, as a proteolytic enzyme, components of the extracellular matrix. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid GDF15 and MMP9 levels of 59 PDND, 17 PDD and 23 DLB patients, as well as of 95 controls were determined, and associated with demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters. Our analysis confirmed the already described association of GDF15 levels with age and gender. Corrected GDF15 levels were significantly higher in PDD than in PDND patients, and intermediate in DLB patients. Within Lewy body disorders, GDF15 levels correlated positively with age at onset of Parkinsonism and dementia, Hoehn & Yahr stage and cerebrospinal fluid t-Tau and p-Tau levels, and negatively with the Mini Mental State Examination. Remarkably, it does not relevantly correlate with disease duration. MMP9 was not relevantly associated with any of these parameters. Cerebrospinal GDF15, but not MMP9, may be a potential marker of and in Lewy body disorders.

  5. Growth and differentiation factor 10 (Gdf10) is involved in Bergmann glial cell development under Shh regulation.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, Nora; Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Puelles, Eduardo; Martinez, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    Growth differentiation factor 10 (Gdf10), also known as Bmp3b, is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß superfamily. Gdf10 is expressed in Bergmann glial cells, which was investigated by single-cell transcriptional profiling (Koirala and Corfas, (2010) PLoS ONE 5: e9198). Here we provide a detailed characterization of Gdf10 expression from E14, the stage at which Gdf10 is expressed for the first time in the cerebellum, until P28. We detected Gdf10 expression in both germinal zones: in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the 4th ventricle as well as in the rhombic lip (RL). The VZ has been postulated to give rise to GABAergic neurons and glial cells, whereas the RL gives rise to glutamatergic neurons. Thus, it was very surprising to discover a gene that is expressed exclusively in glial cells and is not restricted to an expression in the VZ, but is also present in the RL. At postnatal stages Gdf10 was distributed equally in Bergmann glial cells of the cerebellum. Furthermore, we found Gdf10 to be regulated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is secreted by Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. In the conditional Shh mutants, glial cells showed a reduced expression of Gdf10, whereas the expression of Nestin and Vimentin was unchanged. Thus, we show for the first time, that Gdf10, expressed in Bergmann glial cells, is affected by the loss of Shh as early as E18.5, suggesting a regulation of glial development by Shh.

  6. October field: The latest giant under development in Egypt's Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Lelek, J.J.; Abdine, A.S. )

    1990-09-01

    October field, the third largest oil field in Egypt, produced 378 MMBO from its discovery in 1977 until January 1990. It is the northernmost giant oil field in the Gulf of Suez Rift basin. Twenty wells from five platforms in approximately 190 ft (58 m) of water currently drain over 3,238 ha. Recent successful field extensions demonstrate the viability of continuing exploration in this oil-rich area. This structurally trapped field is a complex of rotated fault blocks typical of rift basins worldwide. A northwest-trending normal fault with an approximate throw of 1,220 m has trapped an 335-m oil column on the upthrown eastern side. On the upthrown side, the Carboniferous through Oligocene prerift section dips gently to the northeast and is unconformably overlain by generally flat Miocene to Holocene clastics, carbonates, and evaporites. Severe multiple problems result from thick Miocene evaporites hampering seismic definition of the highly productive prerift section. These same evaporites serve as the ultimate seal in October field and throughout the Gulf of Suez. Although four layers are productive, approximately 95% of field reserves are within Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous massive Nubia Sandstones. The remaining reserves are in more stratified Upper Cretaceous sandstones, basal Miocene rift-fill Nukhul Formation clastics, and a Lower Miocene clastic in the upper Rudeis Formation. Several distinct reservoir accumulations exist, with the deepest and most significant original oil-water contact at {minus}10,670 ft subsea. October field oil gravities range from 14 to 34{degree} API, with an initial solution GOR of 134 to 474 SCF/STB. The hydrocarbon source for all October field oil as well as most Gulf of Suez oil is believed to be the Campanian Brown Limestone Member of the Sudr Formation. Average reservoir parameters for the Nubia Formation are 16% porosity, 236 md permeability, 137 m net pay thickness, and 5,506 psi original reservoir pressure.

  7. Depositional setting and hydrocarbon source potential of the Miocene Gulf of Suez syn-rift evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.; Arthur, M.A.; Quinn, J.S.; Whelan, J.K.; Katz, B.J. )

    1988-08-01

    The Red Sea rift basin and its northern continuation, the Gulf of Suez, has experienced continuous deposition of marine evaporites throughout much of its development from the early Miocene to the Pliocene resulting in the accumulation of up to 5 km of evaporite strata in the rift. In this paper, the geologic history of these evaporites are discussed, along with their petroleum source rock potential. The authors hypothesize that rapid deposition of organic matter occurred during episodic storms and freshening events in which a less saline surface layer developed.

  8. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013.

  9. Current motion and short-term deformations in the Suez Sinai area from GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riguzzi, Federica; Pietrantonio, Grazia; Piersanti, Antonio; Mahmoud, Salah M.

    2006-07-01

    We analyze observations from eight GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2005 on a network of 13 sites in the Suez-Sinai area, where separation between the African and the Arabian plates takes place. This is the key area to understand if and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played by seismic and geodetic (long-term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion, in terms of ITRF00 velocities, matches the African plate motion defined by the NNR-NUVEL-1A model. The horizontal principal strain rate axes estimated separately in the Gulf of Suez area and in the northern Sinai vary from compression across the Gulf (-2.2 ± 1.2) × 10 -8 year -1 to NE extension (1.0 ± 1.5) × 10 -8 year -1 in the North, showing the presence of two distinct domains, so that in our opinion Sinai cannot be considered simply a unique rigid block. The analysis of GPS baseline length variations shows short-term deformations across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of more than 1 cm in 8 years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we work under the hypothesis that a contribute may be expected by post-seismic relaxation effects. Under this hypothesis, we compare the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occurred in the area, testing two different viscoelastic models. Our results show that the detected short-term deformations are better modeled for viscosity values of 10 18 Pa s in the lower crust and 10 20 Pa s in the asthenosphere. However, since the modeled post-seismic effect results modest and a certain amount of the detected deformation is not accounted for, we think that an improved modeling should take into account the lateral heterogeneities of crust and upper mantle structures.

  10. Growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) was localized in the female as well as male germ cells in a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost fish, ricefield eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Wu, Yangsheng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Taixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily. As an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 plays key roles in regulating follicle development. In the present study, we identified a gdf9 homologue from the ovary of ricefield eel, and analyzed its expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Ricefield eel Gdf9 showed high homologies with those of other teleosts, especially perciformes fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ricefield eel gdf9 was expressed exclusively in the ovary and testis. The mRNA levels of gdf9 in the ovary were increased significantly at the pre-vitellogenic (PV) stage and then decreased significantly along with vitellogenesis. During the natural sex change, expression of ricefield eel gdf9 was peaked at the intersexual stages. The immunoreactivity for Gdf9 was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of the oocytes in the ovary, particularly the oocytes at early stages, but not in the oogonia. Interestingly, strong immunoreactive signals were also detected in the degenerating oocytes in the intersexual gonad. Furthermore, the Gdf9 immunoreactivity was demonstrated for the first time to be localized in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes of ricefield eel, a teleost fish. Taken together, the results of present study suggested that Gdf9 may play important roles in the folliculogenesis as well as spermatogenesis in ricefield eels.

  11. GDF-15 enhances intracellular Ca2+ by increasing Cav1.3 expression in rat cerebellar granule neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun-Mei; Wang, Chang-Ying; Hu, Changlong; Fang, Yan-Jia; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2016-01-01

    GDF-15 (growth/differentiation factor 15) is a novel member of the TGF (transforming growth factor)-β superfamily that has critical roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We reported previously that GDF-15 increased delayed rectifier outward K+ currents and Kv2.1 α subunit expression through TβRII (TGF-β receptor II) to activate Src kinase and Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling in rat CGNs (cerebellar granule neurons). In the present study, we found that treatment of CGNs with GDF-15 for 24 h increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to membrane depolarization, as determined by Ca2+ imaging. Whole-cell current recordings indicated that GDF-15 increased the inward Ca2+ current (ICa) without altering steady-state activation of Ca2+ channels. Treatment with nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type Ca2+ channels, abrogated GDF-15-induced increases in [Ca2+]i and ICa. The GDF-15-induced increase in ICa was mediated via up-regulation of the Cav1.3 α subunit, which was attenuated by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) pathways and by pharmacological inhibition of Src-mediated TβRII phosphorylation. Given that Cav1.3 is not only a channel for Ca2+ influx, but also a transcriptional regulator, our data confirm that GDF-15 induces protein expression via TβRII and activation of a non-Smad pathway, and provide novel insight into the mechanism of GDF-15 function in neurons. PMID:27114559

  12. Heads, Shoulders, Elbows, Knees, and Toes: Modular Gdf5 Enhancers Control Different Joints in the Vertebrate Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Schoor, Michael; Mortlock, Doug P.; Reddi, A. Hari; Kingsley, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Synovial joints are crucial for support and locomotion in vertebrates, and are the frequent site of serious skeletal defects and degenerative diseases in humans. Growth and differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) is one of the earliest markers of joint formation, is required for normal joint development in both mice and humans, and has been genetically linked to risk of common osteoarthritis in Eurasian populations. Here, we systematically survey the mouse Gdf5 gene for regulatory elements controlling expression in synovial joints. We identify separate regions of the locus that control expression in axial tissues, in proximal versus distal joints in the limbs, and in remarkably specific sub-sets of composite joints like the elbow. Predicted transcription factor binding sites within Gdf5 regulatory enhancers are required for expression in particular joints. The multiple enhancers that control Gdf5 expression in different joints are distributed over a hundred kilobases of DNA, including regions both upstream and downstream of Gdf5 coding exons. Functional rescue tests in mice confirm that the large flanking regions are required to restore normal joint formation and patterning. Orthologs of these enhancers are located throughout the large genomic region previously associated with common osteoarthritis risk in humans. The large array of modular enhancers for Gdf5 provide a new foundation for studying the spatial specificity of joint patterning in vertebrates, as well as new candidates for regulatory regions that may also influence osteoarthritis risk in human populations. PMID:27902701

  13. [The corvette "Nordstjernen's" voyage to the opening of the Suez Canal--naval medicine in 1869].

    PubMed

    Ongre, Aksel; Pettersen, Jan Sommerfelt; Munch, Johan Storm

    2002-06-30

    When the Norwegian corvette Nordstjernen was in the North Sea bound for Port Said to be present at the opening of the Suez Canal on 17 November 1869, an officer suffered a rupture of m. triceps brachii when he was drawn into the machinery during a storm. He was put ashore in Harwich; four days after the injury he was hospitalized in Colchester. The voyage was eventful in other ways too. Another officer died from typhoid fever in Ismailia. On the Swedish frigate Vanadis, also present at the opening of the Suez Canal, one of the doctors died from lung infection and was buried in Smyrna; a twelve-feet high column of white marble was taken from the ruins of Aesculap's temple and put on his grave. Denmark was represented by the frigate Sjaelland. During a storm in the North Sea, one seaman fell down on the deck from the foresail yard and suffered contusions and a fracture of the left clavicle. These cases illustrate challenges that faced our ancestors. The accident happened when the ship was in the Netherlands sector of the North Sea as we know it today. Today the Coast Guard could have arranged transport by helicopter and hospitalized the patient in about two hours.

  14. Relationship between sediment morphology and oil pollution along the Suez Canal beaches, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, M.A.K.; Shimy, T.M.; Mostafa, Y.M.

    1996-10-01

    In this study, marine surface sediments are collected from nine locations along the Suez Canal in order to investigate the relationship between the morphology of sands in the studied beaches and pollution by oil. Basically, the studied samples were analyzed by three techniques: grains-size analysis, microscopic examination, and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. This study concluded that medium sand is the major class represented in the studied marine sediments. Pollution in these sand grains increases in the irregular grains more so than in the more rounded grains. Also, deep surface points, pitting, and fissures are considered to be good sites to precipitate oil contamination. Also, the presence of iron oxides may be taken as evidence for tanker ballast washings. The heavy fraction (zircon) shows more contamination than the light fraction (quartz) in these samples. Finally, GC profiles have shown two types of samples: one typical of weathered or highly weathered crude oil patterns and the other for samples with very highly weathered profiles. The relationship obtained between morphology studies and both oil content and GC chromatogram profiles indicates that all of the studied locations are suffering from pollution of oil that is spilled while shipping petroleum through the Suez Canal.

  15. Oil prospect of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt - a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elzarka, M.H.; Mostafa, A.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Four groups of rocks, having more than 0.5% of organic carbon are defined within the subsurface section of Rahmi area, Gulf of Suez. The deduced types of indigenous kerogen are: algal-amorphous, inertinite-woody, and herbaceous. The algal-amorphous kerogen of Rudeis/Nukhul Formations (Lower Miocene), Eocene and pre-Eocene rocks is recognized as being oil prone, that is having high capacity for generating oil. The application of hydrocarbon liquid window concept shows that the LOM values fall within the range from 8.6 to 10.8, and the thermal alteration index for the different units is not extended into oil generation window, where it ranges from immature (Kareem Formation-Lower Miocene), to moderately mature (Paleocene), to the beginning of the thermal phase of oil generation (Senonian). The vitrinite reflectance values indicate a low level of thermal maturity. The formational temperatures increase towards the depocentral part of the basin and eastwards to the present Gulf of Suez. The thermal maturity index increases towards ancient stratigraphic units. The study of organic richness, quality and maturity revealed that, where the Nukhul, Eocene and Senonian rocks are buried deeper in the study area, would have been excellent source rocks for oil.

  16. Surface expression of an accommodation zone within the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffield, Dana Q.; Schamel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The Gebel Gharamul region in the western Gulf of Suez offers an excellent outcrop example of the structural geometries associated with an accommodation zone termination. The surface expression of the accommodation zone is dominated by a basement promontory, which protrudes from the rift shoulder and underlies the junction of oblique ramps from two adjacent half-grabens, both of which face the Gulf of Suez. The southern half-graben represents the breakaway fault of the southwest-dipping tilt-block domain, and the northern half-graben represents the collapse of the upper plate above the northeast-dipping tilt-block domain. Basement and Nubian rocks in the hanging walls above the opposing low-angle detachments on either side of the accommodation zone are broken by gulf-parallel synthetic normal faults and orthogonal transfer faults, which act as block terminations and incrementally accommodate the large-scale rotation and displacement between adjacent blocks. The prerift and synrift stratigraphic succession is draped over this fault template, resulting in a complex and variable distribution of structures, the product of an inhomogeneous stratigraphic succession within an accommodation zone.

  17. Subsurface structural mapping of Gebel El-Zeit area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt using aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2005-08-01

    The Gebel El-Zeit area is located on the western coast of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The areas in/and around the Gulf of Suez are generally important due to their hydrocarbon resources. In this study, we have applied gradient interpretation techniques (Euler deconvolution and analytic signal) to the aeromagnetic data of the Gebel El-Zeit area. The main objective of this study is to identify and delineate the possible subsurface structure of the area that may assist in locating new hydrocarbon prospects. Results of Euler method suggested that, on the eastern and western parts of the area, the basement could be observed on the ground (~50 m over the ground) and became more deeper on the central part to reach depth of 5 km (from the ground level). Results from the analytic signal method indicated that, the depth to the basement has an average value of 156 m on the eastern side and 758 m on the western side. Generally, the area is characterized by a graben structure bounded by major faults striking in the NW-SE direction.

  18. Structural evolution of the southern transfer zone of the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Allah, Ali M. A.; Abdel Aal, Mohamed H.; El-Said, Mohamed M.; Abd El-Naby, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    We present a detailed study about the initiation and reactivations of Zeit-El Tor transfer zone, south Gulf of Suez rift, and its structural setting and tectonic evolution with respect to the Cretaceous-Cenozoic tectonic movements in North Egyptian margin. NE trending zone of opposed-dipping faults (22 km wide) has transferred the NE and SW rotations of the sub-basins in central and south Gulf of Suez rift, respectively. The evolution of this zone started by reactivation of the NE oriented late Neoproterozoic fractures that controlled the occurrence of Dokhan Volcanics in the rift shoulders. Later, the Syrian Arc contraction reactivated these fractures by a sinistral transpression during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene time. N64°E extension of the Oligo-Miocene rift reactivated the NE fractures by a sinistral transtension. During this rifting, the NE trending faults forming the transfer zone were more active than the rift-bounding faults; the Upper Cretaceous reverse faults in the blocks lying between these NE trending faults were rotated; and drape-related reverse faults and the positive flower structures were formed. Tectonic inversion from contraction to extension controlled the distribution and thickness of the Upper Cretaceous-Miocene rocks.

  19. BMP15 and GDF9 Gene Mutations in Premature Ovarian Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravindra; Alwani, Madhuri; Kosta, Susmit; Kaur, Ravjyot; Agarwal, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is an ovarian defect characterized by the premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40, representing one major cause of female infertility. Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) have been shown to be associated with POF. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from 52 idiopathic premature ovarian failure patients and 100 normal control individuals. Exons of BMP15 and GDF9 gene were amplified using PCR method and subjected to directed sequencing. Variants were identified by comparing the sequences obtained with normal sequences from NCBI database. Results: Four BMP15 gene variants were identified in 6 patients in heterozygous condition. Out of these 4 variants, 3 variants namely, c.165A>T (p.Glu55Asp), c.538 G>T (p.Aln180 Ser) and c. 510_512 delT were novel variants. In silico analysis using SIFT, Provean and Polyphen 2 score predicted the non-deleterious effect of c.165A>T and c.538 G>T variant. 788insTCT variant was identified in 3 patients. No variant was identified in GDF9 gene in any patients and controls. Conclusion: Although the variant has been identified in BMP15 gene but it may not be associated with the premature ovarian failure.

  20. Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 blocks norepinephrine-induced myocardial hypertrophy via a novel pathway involving inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-ye; Nie, Ying; Wang, Fang-fang; Bai, Yan; Lv, Zhi-zhen; Zhang, You-yi; Li, Zi-jian; Gao, Wei

    2014-04-04

    Accumulating evidence suggests that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is associated with the severity and prognosis of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of GDF-15 on the regulation of cardiac remodeling is still poorly understood. In this present study, we demonstrate that GDF-15 blocks norepinephrine (NE)-induced myocardial hypertrophy through a novel pathway involving inhibition of EGFR transactivation. Both in vivo and in vitro assay indicate that NE was able to stimulate the synthesis of GDF-15. The up-regulation of GDF-15 feedback inhibits NE-induced myocardial hypertrophy, including quantitation of [(3)H]leucine incorporation, protein/DNA ratio, cell surface area, and ANP mRNA level. Further research shows that GDF-15 could inhibit the phosphorylation of EGF receptor and downstream kinases (AKT and ERK1/2) induced by NE. Clinical research also shows that serum GDF-15 levels in hypertensive patients were significant higher than in healthy volunteers and were positively correlated with the thickness of the posterior wall of the left ventricle, interventricular septum, and left ventricular mass, as well as the serum level of norepinephrine. In conclusion, NE induces myocardial hypertrophy and up-regulates GDF-15, and this up-regulation of GDF-15 negatively regulates NE-induced myocardial hypertrophy by inhibiting EGF receptor transactivation following NE stimulation.

  1. Penetrating evaporites - new information from old seismic data in Suez Rift, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S.K.; Gawarecki, S.L.; Schamel, S.

    1987-05-01

    Structures in the prerift sediments, Gulf of Suez, are of primary interest for petroleum exploration. However, the overlying thick blanket of Miocene synrift evaporites severely limits resolution of deep structures in seismic reflection lines. A technique for maximizing accuracy of prerift maps and sections is illustrated by examples from the south-central Gulf of Suez. Preliminary structural maps of prerift units are generated from limited well data, good seismically derived maps of the base evaporite, and fragmentary deep seismic data. Through rigorous application of conventional cross section balancing techniques and geometric rules for listric normal fault-block rotation, trial cross sections are constructed. Construction of trial cross sections relies heavily on the following information from seismic lines: (1) thickness variations of synrift fill; (2) sequence boundaries representing unconformities over buried tilt blocks; (3) dip domains faintly visible beneath Miocene evaporites; and (4) faulting in Miocene sediments in response to deeper normal faults. The integration of well data allows control of seismic interpretation and of depth to prerift rocks. The sections are refined through iteration and are then used in conjunction with areal balancing methods to correct the structure maps. The subsequent serialization of balanced sections results in an internally consistent, geometrically constrained, three-dimensional picture of the basin which best fits all the available data. Important information on prerift structures which results from this technique includes location of normal faults and the magnitude of their throw, attitude of deep tilt blocks, and location of tilt-block terminations. Using this methodology, old prospects can be refined and new plays and prospects generated. These can then be tested by local detailed seismic work or by the drill.

  2. In vivo functions of the proprotein convertase PC5/6 during mouse development: Gdf11 is a likely substrate

    PubMed Central

    Essalmani, Rachid; Zaid, Ahmed; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chamberland, Ann; Pasquato, Antonella; Seidah, Nabil G.; Prat, Annik

    2008-01-01

    The proprotein convertase PC5/6 cleaves protein precursors after basic amino acids and is essential for implantation in CD1/129/Sv/C57BL/6 mixed-background mice. Conditional inactivation of Pcsk5 in the epiblast but not in the extraembryonic tissue bypassed early embryonic lethality but resulted in death at birth. PC5/6-deficient embryos exhibited Gdf11-related phenotypes such as altered anteroposterior patterning with extra vertebrae and lack of tail and kidney agenesis. They also exhibited Gdf11-independent phenotypes, such as a smaller size, multiple hemorrhages, collapsed alveoli, and retarded ossification. In situ hybridization revealed overlapping PC5/6 and Gdf11 mRNA expression patterns. In vitro and ex vivo analyses showed that the selectivity of PC5/6 for Gdf11 essentially resides in the presence of a P1′ Asn in the RSRR↓N cleavage motif. This work identifies Gdf11 as a likely in vivo specific substrate of PC5/6 and opens the way to the identification of other key substrates of this convertase. PMID:18378898

  3. Small Molecules Dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 Inhibit Myostatin/GDF8 Signaling and Promote Functional Myoblast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Horbelt, Daniel; Boergermann, Jan H.; Chaikuad, Apirat; Alfano, Ivan; Williams, Eleanor; Lukonin, Ilya; Timmel, Tobias; Bullock, Alex N.; Knaus, Petra

    2015-01-01

    GDF8, or myostatin, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily of secreted polypeptide growth factors. GDF8 is a potent negative regulator of myogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. We found that GDF8 signaling was inhibited by the small molecule ATP competitive inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189. These compounds were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of BMP signaling by binding to the BMP type I receptors ALK1/2/3/6. We present the crystal structure of the type II receptor ActRIIA with dorsomorphin and demonstrate that dorsomorphin or LDN-193189 target GDF8 induced Smad2/3 signaling and repression of myogenic transcription factors. As a result, both inhibitors rescued myogenesis in myoblasts treated with GDF8. As revealed by quantitative live cell microscopy, treatment with dorsomorphin or LDN-193189 promoted the contractile activity of myotubular networks in vitro. We therefore suggest these inhibitors as suitable tools to promote functional myogenesis. PMID:25368322

  4. A General Approach for Identifying Distant Regulatory Elements Applied to the Gdf6 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Mortlock, Douglas P.; Guenther, Catherine; Kingsley, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Regulatory sequences in higher genomes can map large distances from gene coding regions, and cannot yet be identified by simple inspection of primary DNA sequence information. Here we describe an efficient method of surveying large genomic regions for gene regulatory information, and subdividing complex sets of distant regulatory elements into smaller intervals for detailed study. The mouse Gdf6 gene is expressed in a number of distinct embryonic locations that are involved in the patterning of skeletal and soft tissues. To identify sequences responsible for Gdf6 regulation, we first isolated a series of overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that extend varying distances upstream and downstream of the gene. A LacZ reporter cassette was integrated into the Gdf6 transcription unit of each BAC using homologous recombination in bacteria. Each modified BAC was injected into fertilized mouse eggs, and founder transgenic embryos were analyzed for LacZ expression mid-gestation. The overlapping segments defined by the BAC clones revealed five separate regulatory regions that drive LacZ expression in 11 distinct anatomical locations. To further localize sequences that control expression in developing skeletal joints, we created a series of BAC constructs with precise deletions across a putative joint-control region. This approach further narrowed the critical control region to an area containing several stretches of sequence that are highly conserved between mice and humans. A distant 2.9-kilobase fragment containing the highly conserved regions is able to direct very specific expression of a minimal promoter/LacZ reporter in proximal limb joints. These results demonstrate that even distant, complex regulatory sequences can be identified using a combination of BAC scanning, BAC deletion, and comparative sequencing approaches. PMID:12915490

  5. First Behavioural Characterisation of a Knockout Mouse Model for the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Superfamily Cytokine, MIC-1/GDF15

    PubMed Central

    Low, Jac Kee; Ambikairajah, Ananthan; Shang, Kani; Brown, David A.; Tsai, Vicky W. W.; Breit, Samuel N.; Karl, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating. Mic-1 KO mice exhibited a task-dependent increase in locomotion and exploration and reduced anxiety-related behaviours across tests. Spatial working memory and social behaviours were not affected by Mic-1/Gdf15 deficiency. Interestingly, knockout mice formed an increased association with the conditioned stimulus in fear conditioning testing and also displayed significantly improved prepulse inhibition. Overall sex effects were evident for social behaviours, fear conditioning, and sensorimotor gating. This is the first study defining the role of Mic-1/Gdf15 in a number of behavioural domains. Whether the observed impact is based on direct actions of Mic-1/Gdf15 deficiency on the CNS or whether the behavioural effects are mediated by indirect actions on e.g. other neurotransmitter systems must be clarified in future studies. PMID:28081177

  6. Reproductive biology of the Suez Canal spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834: Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae).

    PubMed

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Ibrahim, Nesreen K; Al-Misned, Fahad A

    2015-11-01

    A reproductive biology study of the spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) was conducted in the Suez Canal from July 2012 to June 2013. The annual sex ratio (Male:Female) of S. aspera was female biased with values of 1:1.25. Out of the four ovarian development stages of this crab, two stages were observed in the Suez Canal throughout the whole year. The ovigerous crab's carapace width varied from 28 to 52 mm. This crab species can spawn during most of the year in the canal water, with a peak during late spring and early winter. The fecundity of ovigerous females ranged between 2349 and 13600 eggs with a mean of 5494 ± 1486 eggs. Female crabs that reached sexual maturity exhibited a minimum carapace width varying between 22 and 46 mm, and fifty percentage of all ovigerous females showed a carapace width of 36 mm.

  7. Energy transfer and tunable multicolor emission and paramagnetic properties of GdF3:Dy(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphors.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hongxia; Sheng, Ye; Xu, Chengyi; Dai, Yunzhi; Xie, Xiaoming; Zou, Haifeng

    2016-07-20

    A series of Dy(3+), Tb(3+), Eu(3+) singly or doubly or triply doped GdF3 phosphors were synthesized by a glutamic acid assisted one-step hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results show that the synthesized samples are all pure GdF3. The obtained samples have a peanut-like morphology with a diameter of about 270 nm and a length of about 600 nm. Under UV excitation, GdF3:Dy(3+), GdF3:Tb(3+) and GdF3:Eu(3+) samples exhibit strong blue, green and red emissions, respectively. By adjusting their relative doping concentrations in the GdF3 host, the different color hues of green and red light are obtained by co-doped Dy(3+), Tb(3+) and Tb(3+), Eu(3+) ions in the GdF3 host, respectively. Besides, there exist two energy transfer pairs in the GdF3 host: (1) Dy(3+) → Tb(3+) and (2) Tb(3+) → Eu(3+). More significantly, in the Dy(3+), Tb(3+), and Eu(3+) tri-doped GdF3 phosphors, white light can also be achieved upon excitation of UV light by adjusting the doping concentration of Eu(3+). In addition, the obtained samples also exhibit paramagnetic properties at room temperature (300 K) and low temperature (2 K). It is obvious that multifunctional Dy(3+), Tb(3+), Eu(3+) tri-doped GdF3 materials including tunable multicolors and intrinsic paramagnetic properties may have potential applications in the field of full-color displays.

  8. Effective RNA-silencing strategy of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 gene and its effects on the growth in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Momani, Jalal; Kim, Young Mog; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Baek, Hae-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), also known as GDF8, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays an important role in muscle growth, development, and differentiation. Recently, Lv-MSTN/GDF11, the primitive isoform of MSTN and GDF11, was identified from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The major production site for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 is in the heart, not the tail muscle, which differs from MSTNs in mammals. Among the three injected RNAs, long dsRNA was the most effective for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown and transcripts of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 decreased in both the heart (88.85%) and skeletal muscles (43.36%) 72h after injection of 10pmol of long dsRNA. We also found that higher doses of dsRNA did not lead to greater decreases in Lv-MSTN/GDF11 transcripts for amounts between 1pmol and 100pmol. Injection of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 dsRNA did not affect the upregulation of the skeletal actin gene (Lv-ACTINSK) in the tail muscle, but the expression of cytoplasmic and cardiac actins were upregulated in both the heart and tail muscle. Over the course of 8weeks of dsRNA injection, considerably higher mortality (~71%) was seen in the dsRNA-injected group compared to the control group (40%). Surviving shrimp in the dsRNA injected group had a lower growth rate due to the adverse effects of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown. Lv-MSTN/GDF11 appears to be involved in muscular or neuronal development, but not in doubling muscle fibers, as is the case with mammalian MSTN.

  9. Controls on erosional retreat of the uplifted rift flanks at the Gulf of Suez and northern Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steckler, Michael S.; Omar, Gomaa I.

    1994-01-01

    The Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea rigts are currently bordered by large asymmetric uplifts that are undergoing erosion. We find that the amount and timing of erosion vary systematically along the strike of the margin and have been controlled by variations in the perift stratigraphy. The perfit strata are compsoed of cliff-forming Eocene-Cretaceous carbonates overlaying the easily eroded Cretaceous-Cambrian 'Nubian' sandstone. This lithologic succession promotes scarp retreat of the sedimentary section, follwed by dissection of the underlying basement. The perift section thins from over 2000 m at the northern end of the rift to less htan 400 m at its junction with the Red Sea. Thus, at the northern part of the Gulf of Suez, the Nubian sandstone is minimally exposed, and the carbonates form a scarp at the rift border fault. Farther south, undercuttin of hte carbonates by erosion of the sandstion has resulted in scarp retreat. The escarpment cuts diagonally away from the border fault andis over 100 km inland from the border fault at the southernmost Gulf of Suez. The amount of retreat varies inversely with the sediment thickness. Exposure and erosion of basement are initiated by the retreate of the escarpment, and the depth of erosion, as indicated by fission track ages, increases with distance from the escarpment. These observations are explained by a model in which erosion along the Gulf of Suez is initiated as rift flank uplift becomes sufficiently large ot expose the friable sandstones. Undercutting the escarpment and exhumation of basement has been propagating northward and westward for at least 20 m.y. The average rate of scarp retreat has been 6 km/m.y. and the along-strike propagation of the erosion has been 12 km/m.y. The diachronous erosion of the rift flanks at the Gulf of Suez highlights the importance of distinguishing between the timing of uplift and of erosion. Both thermochronometric and stratigraphic data primarily indicate the timing of erosion, which

  10. Polymorphism identification in BMP15 and GDF9 genes and their association with egg production in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, H Y; Liang, Z; Li, S F; Li, C M; Zhao, Z H; Wang, Q B

    2015-01-01

    1. Mutations in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are significantly associated with reproductive performance in mammals and the objective of the present study was to identify polymorphic sites and elucidate the association between genotypes in BMP15 and GDF9 and egg production. 2. Polymorphisms in BMP15 exon1 and GDF9 exon2 were detected by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Three SNPs were detected in each of BMP15 (A111G, C231T and C34T) and GDF9 (G593A, T824C and C896T). C34T leads to the substitution of Leu by Phe, which was predicted to affect protein function. 3. Results of the association analysis indicated that C34T had an effect on total egg production at 300 d of age (EN) and age at first laying (AFE). G593A affected EN and both C231T and C896T influenced AFE. The TGC1TGC1 diplotype in BMP15 had the highest EN. 4. In conclusion, EN may be significantly improved by marker-assisted selection of the BMP15 genotypes in maternal lines of Shaobo hens.

  11. ZrO₂ surface chemically coated with hyaluronic acid hydrogel loading GDF-5 for osteogenesis in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min Soo; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jung Bok; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Ho; Kwon, Kung-Rock; Bang, Jae Beum; Bae, Hojae; Kwon, Il Keun

    2013-01-30

    The objective of this study was to modify zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)) with photo-cured hyaluronic acid hydrogel (pcHAgel), and to subsequently evaluate the bone regeneration potential of the modified ZrO(2). In the present study, HA grafted onto a ZrO(2) substrate was investigated for its biocompatibility and other properties. We describe the positive influences of ZrO(2) surface-modified with pcHAgel (Zr-3) containing two different loads of growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) to aid new bone formation as compared to the same amount of BMP-2 (Zr-4-7). We characterized the Zr-3 for their surface morphology and chemical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the pcHAgel was successfully grafted onto the ZrO(2) surface. The sustained release of GDF-5 and BMP-2 were observed to occur in the Zr-4-7. In vitro cell tests showed a higher level of MG63 cell proliferation and differentiation on Zr-4-7 than on Zr-3. The Zr-3 is a good biomaterial to deliver osteogenic differentiation factors such as BMP-2 and GDF-5, and GDF-5 can be useful as an effective alternative to aid new bone formation as compared to BMP-2.

  12. Controllable synthesis and upconversion emission of ultrasmall lanthanide-doped Sr2GdF7 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Lijun; Ren, Guozhong; Mao, Yifu; He, Jin; Su, Rui

    2015-11-01

    The effect of rare-earth ions content on the phase structure, crystal size and morphology of SrF2-GdF3 system were studied under solvothermal conditions. By tuning the molar ratio of reactants, tetragonal phase Sr2GdF7 nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via solvothermal method using oleic acid as capping ligands. The effects of reaction conditions on the phase structure, crystal size, morphology, and upconversion (UC) emission properties of the products were investigated. The results reveal that apropos Gd3+ ions content (0.30-0.45 mmol) is favorable to the formation of pure phase Sr2GdF7 NCs with more uniform size distribution. The average crystalline size of the products can be controlled less than 10 nm. The energy transfer UC mechanisms for the fluorescent intensity were also investigated. Following Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions doping, the Sr2GdF7 NCs show intense green, yellow, and white-color UC emission under the excitation of a 980 nm laser, and the doping concentration of lanthanide ions was optimized, which makes the NCs show maximum intensities under the excitation of a 980 nm laser.

  13. Crystal structure analysis reveals a spring-loaded latch as molecular mechanism for GDF-5–type I receptor specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Nickel, Joachim; Seher, Axel; Sebald, Walter; Müller, Thomas D

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) signalling, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is strongly linked to skeletal malformation. GDF-5-mediated signal transduction involves both BMP type I receptors, BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB. However, mutations in either GDF-5 or BMPR-IB lead to similar phenotypes, indicating that in chondrogenesis GDF-5 signalling seems to be exclusively mediated through BMPR-IB. Here, we present structural insights into the GDF-5:BMPR-IB complex revealing how binding specificity for BMPR-IB is generated on a molecular level. In BMPR-IB, a loop within the ligand-binding epitope functions similar to a latch allowing high-affinity binding of GDF-5. In BMPR-IA, this latch is in a closed conformation leading to steric repulsion. The new structural data now provide also a molecular basis of how phenotypically relevant missense mutations in GDF-5 might impair receptor binding and activation. PMID:19229295

  14. Physico-chemical conditions for plankton in Lake Timsah, a saline lake on the Suez Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Serehy, H. A. H.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1992-02-01

    Lake Timsah receives high salinity water from the Suez Canal, mainly from the south, and freshwater from a Nile canal and other sources, producing a salinity stratification with surface salinities of 20-40‰ and over 40‰ in deeper water. Water temperature at a depth of 50-70 cm fell to below 20 °C in winter and rose to above 30 °C in summer; oxygen concentration at the same depth ranged between 6-10 mg l -1 and the pH was 8·1-8·3, and at mid-day this water was supersaturated with oxygen through 6-8 months of the year. The main chemical nutrients reached their highest levels in winter (December-February) and their lowest levels in summer (May-August), silicate varying between 1-7 μ M, phosphate between 0·1 and 0·8 μ M and nitrate between 4-10 μ M; nitrite varied in a more complex manner, usually between 0·25 and 0·4 μ M. The atomic ratio of N/P was generally well above the Redfield ratio level, except for a few months in midwinter. These nutrient concentrations are high in comparison with those of unpolluted seas of the region, but are typical of the more eutrophic coastal waters in most parts of the world.

  15. Miocene salt structures as exploration indicators in the offshore B-Trend, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Saoudi, A.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The B-Trend is a structural horst block extending in a northwest-southeast direction for about 40 km in the southern offshore area of the Gulf of Suez. It contains six individual sub-structures (six oil fields) oriented along strike and dipping toward the southwest. Subsurface geologic data from 60 wells together with the available seismic data in the area were integrated to explain the development of salt structures along this belt and their influence on oil exploration. These salt structures are restricted to the Belayim and South Gharib formations of middle and upper Miocene age, respectively. Moreover, they are arranged as linear features along the trend. Thickening in the Belayim salt is due in some cases to injection and in others to deposition. The apexes of the Belayim injected salt bodies are located down-dip from the crest of the underlying structures and are shifted westward from the apexes of the overlying larger South Gharib salt bulges. The highset corner of the pre-Miocene structures is located to the east of the injected Belayim salt pillows. Thick Belayim salt of depositional origin usually exists on the downthrown side of the leading edge fault to the east. The thickness ratios between the different members of the Belayim Formation help to differentiate between the injected and deposited salt bodies. These ratios can be used to orient well tracks to the optimum structural target while drilling.

  16. Tectonic and structural setting of the northeastern central Gulf of Suez area using aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Nakhla, Adel Mokhles

    2016-03-01

    Cumulative qualitative and quantitative analysis of the filtered regional and residual magnetic components of the northeastern central area of the Gulf of Suez, as well as images of the second vertical derivatives of the reduced to the northern magnetic pole map of the total magnetic intensity field images, supplemented with the available geologic information, enabled the precise delineation of the detailed structural configuration of the basement complex, which consequently illustrated the structural deformational pattern of the overlying sedimentary succession. The basement tectonic map reflects a series of N-S to NNW-SSE oriented belts of high and low basement structures. These structures are interrupted by a set of NE-SW crossing diagonal faults having varying throws and creating promising blocks for exploration. An often remarkable correlation between the reduced to the magnetic pole map and the basement relief map is noted, in particular the outline of various oil fields. A larger number of the tilted fault blocks and basement culminations have been outlined and numerous interesting exploration prospects are indicated, which appear to warrant further follow up investigation.

  17. A phase IIa randomized controlled pilot study evaluating the safety and clinical outcomes following the use of rhGDF-5/β-TCP in regenerative periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Péter; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Molnár, Bálint; Szendröi-Kiss, Dóra; Szilágyi, Emese; Rosta, Péter; Horváth, Attila; Capsius, Björn; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Sculean, Anton

    2012-08-01

    To present the safety profile, the early healing phase and the clinical outcomes at 24 weeks following treatment of human intrabony defects with open flap debridement (OFD) alone or with OFD and rhGDF-5 adsorbed onto a particulate β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) carrier. Twenty chronic periodontitis patients, each with at least one tooth exhibiting a probing depth ≥6 mm and an associated intrabony defect ≥4 mm entered the study. Ten subjects (one defect/patient) were randomized to receive OFD alone (control) and ten subjects OFD combined with rhGDF-5/β-TCP. Blood samples were collected at screening, and at weeks 2 and 24 to evaluate routine hematology and clinical chemistry, rhGDF-5 plasma levels, and antirhGDF-5 antibody formation. Plaque and gingival indices, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and radiographs were recorded pre- and 24 weeks postsurgery. Comparable safety profiles were found in the two treatment groups. Neither antirhGDF-5 antibody formation nor relevant rhGDF-5 plasma levels were detected in any patient. At 6 months, treatment with OFD + rhGDF-5/β-TCP resulted in higher but statistically not significant PD reduction (3.7 ± 1.2 vs. 3.1 ± 1.8 mm; p = 0.26) and CAL gain (3.2 ± 1.7 vs. 1.7 ± 2.2 mm; p = 0.14) compared to OFD alone. In the tested concentration, the use of rhGDF-5/β-TCP appeared to be safe and the material possesses a sound biological rationale. Thus, further adequately powered, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted to confirm the clinical relevance of this new approach in regenerative periodontal therapy. rhGDF-5/β-TCP may represent a promising new techology in regenerative periodontal therapy.

  18. Digital outcrop characterisation and fracture modelling for a GDF in a crystalline basement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, William S.; Hodgetts, David; Smith, Nicholas T.

    2013-04-01

    Plans to dispose of the UK's legacy nuclear waste in a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) depend heavily on the geological suitability of the host bedrock. Characterising the geology at the proposed depth of the GDF (500 m to 1 km) is a major challenge facing the industry. Clastic surface outcrop analogues are used in the hydrocarbon industry to characterise potential reservoirs that do not outcrop at the surface. The same approach has, to our knowledge, never been applied to crystalline rocks: one of the proposed settings for a GDF. This project utilises terrestrial lidar scanning to create 3D Digital Outcrop Models (DOM's) of geological exposures which form part of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) exposed in several localities around the Lake District of the UK. The BVG is a laterally extensive, highly heterogeneous 6 km thick unit, comprising mainly igneous rocks with associated sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The rocks, which have a complex tectonic history, were formed by explosive caldera-type eruptions in the Late Ordovician (Caradoc) period, and include lavas, ignimbrites, sills and dykes. Using the lidar data collected with a Riegl LMS-Z420i terrestrial laser scanner, a DOM has been constructed and the fracture distributions mapped using a combination of manual and automated approaches. The resulting fracture data are analysed to give statistical information on fracture dimension, distribution and spacing. Stochastically generated Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN's) have then been modelled from these fractures statistical data. Uncertainties in the data include biases due to exposure orientation and extent, resolution of lidar data and whether fractures are open or closed at depth (which may be estimated from the current stress regime). Multiple realisations of the DFN are generated to help take into account uncertainty in the fracture-derived statistics. The DFN is then used to calculate porosity and permeability values for the fracture network

  19. Evaluation of local site effect in the western side of the Suez Canal area by applying H/V and MASW techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Hassoup, Awad; Helal, A. M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The soft sediments are one of the most important factors responsible for the amplification of the seismic ground motion in an area of study. Three components, single-station microtremor measurements were performed at 61 sites along the Suez Canal to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil and corresponding H/V amplitude ratios by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. We have applied the investigations of the shear wave velocity for supplementing the existing seismic microzonation of the Suez Canal. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) tests were done along the Suez Canal in the three cities, Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said using 24 channels digital engineering seismograph with 4.5 Hz geophones from September 2014 to January 2015 to get the shear wave velocity VS30. The SeisImager/SW software was used for analyzing the data, and 1D-shear wave velocity model have achieved for each site. The HVSR curves show that the fundamental frequency values are ranging from 0.57 to 1.08 Hz, and H/V amplitude ratios are ranging from 4.05 to 6.46. The average values of VS30 are (548, 301), (241, 319), (194, 110, 238) for Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said respectively. The average of shear wave velocity up to 30 m depth is estimated and used for site classification based on the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification. The majority of the sites was classified as Class D (stiff soil) except one site at Port Said city is classified as Class E (soft soils), and another site in the Suez city is classified as Class C (hard rock).

  20. Loss of GDF10/BMP3b as a prognostic marker collaborates with TGFBR3 to enhance chemotherapy resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chieh-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Fan, Chi-Chen; Lo, Yu-Kang; Tzen, Chi-Yuan; Wu, Li-Wha; Fang, Wei-Yu; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chang, I-Shou; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Chang, Jang-Yang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen

    2016-05-01

    Growth differentiation factor-10 (GDF10), commonly referred as BMP3b, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF10/BMP3b has been considered as a tumor suppressor, however, little is known about the molecular mechanism of its roles in tumor suppression in oral cancer. Clinical significance of GDF10 downregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was evaluated using three independent cohorts of OSCC patients. The molecular mechanisms of GDF10 in the suppression of cell survival, cell migration/invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated by using oral cancer cell lines. The present study shows that GDF10 is downregulated during oral carcinogenesis, and GDF10 expression is also an independent risk factor for overall survival of OSCC patients. Overexpression of GDF10 attenuates cell proliferation, transformation, migration/invasion, and EMT. GDF10-inhibited EMT is mediated by ERK signaling but not by typical TGF-β signaling. In addition, overexpression of GDF10 promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis and sensitizes the response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and camptothecin (CPT). Intriguingly, the expression of GDF10 is induced by type III TGF-β receptor (TGFBR3) through TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling. Our findings suggest that TGFBR3 is an upstream activator of GDF10 expression and they share the same signaling to inhibit EMT and migration/invasion. These results support that GDF10 acts as a hinge to collaborate with TGFBR3 in the transition of EMT-MET program. Taken together, we illustrated the clinical significance and the molecular mechanisms of tumor-suppressive GDF10 in OSCC.

  1. Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publication output, Suez Canal University, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah; Mansour, Nadia M.; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The completion of a thesis is a significant requirement for both a Master's and a doctorate degree in general practice/family medicine (GP/FM). A postgraduate thesis is a well-planned, time-intensive activity carried out over several years. The quality of the theses can be judged by the proportion of published papers. Objective: This study aimed to describe Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publications between 1982 and 2014. Materials and Methods: GP/FM degree theses were reviewed at the Faculty of Medicine and central Suez Canal libraries. Several characteristics were extracted from each thesis relating to the main researcher, supervisors, themes, and study methods according to predefined criteria. Publications from the theses were described. Results: Over 33 years, 208 theses were completed by 173 GP/FM researchers. The majority of the theses were for Master's degrees (84.1%). Regarding the study design, most of the degree theses were cross-sectional studies (76.9%). The adult population was targeted in 33.7% of research theses. Nonprobability sampling was used in 51%. Rural communities were the setting of research in 43.8%, and primary health center (PHC)-based studies in 59.1%. The “Patient” category exceeded the other categories (28.4%). Publication from theses started in the second decade of research production. Of the degree theses, 21.6% original articles were published. Only 13.3% of articles from theses were published in PubMed-indexed journals. The researcher was first author in 62.2% of published articles. Conclusion: The production of GP/FM theses and their publications are going to increase. Continuous assessment and planning for GP/FM studies are recommended. PMID:25949959

  2. Syn-rift carbonate depositional patterns: Miocene, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Suez rift, initiated in the Miocene, consists of asymmetric fault blocks, separated by transfer zones. Syn-rift Miocene carbonates developed on highs; the intricate relations are illustrated at Gebel Gharamul and Esh El Mellaha. Gebel Gharamul is a rollover, cut by antithetic faults, located on a transfer zone. Small coralgal rimmed shelves initially developed over the eroded footwall nick of an early western antithetic. Steepening depositional dips reflect increasing graben subsidence. Subsequently, the main easterly antithetic regionally lowered the rollover, promoting stacked coral rimmed shelf sequences with increasing dip filling the graben, with the back reef onlapping the main rollover crest. Simultaneously, a low-angle flexure (2/sup 0/-3/sup 0/) developed along the northern rollover margin. Low-angle (5/sup 0/) biostromal rimmed shelves, exhibiting sigmoidal clinoforms rapidly accreted laterally, as reflected in flat-based sequences. Depositional pattern eventually merged over the rollover to produce laterally complex rimmed shelf sequences. Esh El Mellaha is a footwall to a major extensional fault. In a southerly extensional cusp (20 km), the fault throw decreases from kilometers to flexural (2-3/sup 0/) displacement. Coralgal rimmed shelves and escarpment fringing reefs mantle the footwall. Initial, thick, and most laterally extensive sequences develop over the flexure. Accretion is primarily subvertical, reflecting continuous flexural subsidence. Where the fault cusp has less than a 30/sup 0/ inclination, carbonate sequences exhibiting oblique and oblique sigmoid clinoforms (40/sup 0/) prograded over and heeled the fault during periods of fault inactivity. With a fault plane inclination over 40/sup 0/, slope progradation was precluded and thin vertically accreting escarpment sequences developed.

  3. Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Mohamed A.; Emara, Ahmed M.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals in water ranged between 3.37-4.78, 18.83-21.46, 2.75-3.17, 0.22-0.27, 0.99-1.21, 2.69-3.65, 3.75-4.56 μg L - 1 and 23.82-32.78 mg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The corresponding concentration values in the sediments were 8.65-12.16, 51.78-58.06, 36.52-42.15, 3.23-3.98, 9.03-12.75, 34.31-49.63, 3.28-4.56 and 64.20-70.22 μg g - 1 for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe, respectively. The highest accumulated metals were Fe, Zn and Mn in both P. caerulea and B. barbatus, while the lowest one was Cd. The accumulation of metals was more pronounced in P. caerulea than B. barbatus. The highest concentrations of all metals in water, sediments and mollusca were recorded at Adabiya harbour north of the Gulf, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at Gabal El-Zeit and Hurghada. Land based activities and ships awaiting berth are the main source of metal pollution in the northern part of the Gulf.

  4. GDF15 contributes to radioresistance and cancer stemness of head and neck cancer by regulating cellular reactive oxygen species via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Lu, Ya-Ching; Li, Yi-Chen; Chiang, Chang-Hsu; You, Guo-Rung; Chen, Hsin-Ying; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an integral part for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is a major cause leads to treatment failure. GDF15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is hypothesized to participate in various types of homeostasis. However, the potential role of this molecule in regulation of radiosensitivity remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. These results were achieved by the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further showed that GDF15 facilitated the conversion of cancer stemness, as assessed by the promotion of CD44+ and ALDH1+ cell populations and spheroid cell formation. At molecular level, GDF15 conferred to these cellular functions was through phosphorylated SMAD1 proteins to elite downstream signaling molecules. These cellular results were further confirmed in a tumor xenograft mouse study. Taken together, our results demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance and cancer stemness by regulating cellular ROS levels via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway. GDF15 may serve as a prediction marker of radioresistance and a therapeutic target for the development of radio-sensitizing agents for the treatment of refractory HNC. PMID:27903972

  5. GDF15 contributes to radioresistance and cancer stemness of head and neck cancer by regulating cellular reactive oxygen species via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Liang; Chang, Joseph T; Lee, Li-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Lu, Ya-Ching; Li, Yi-Chen; Chiang, Chang-Hsu; You, Guo-Rung; Chen, Hsin-Ying; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2017-01-03

    Radiotherapy is an integral part for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is a major cause leads to treatment failure. GDF15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is hypothesized to participate in various types of homeostasis. However, the potential role of this molecule in regulation of radiosensitivity remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. These results were achieved by the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further showed that GDF15 facilitated the conversion of cancer stemness, as assessed by the promotion of CD44+ and ALDH1+ cell populations and spheroid cell formation. At molecular level, GDF15 conferred to these cellular functions was through phosphorylated SMAD1 proteins to elite downstream signaling molecules. These cellular results were further confirmed in a tumor xenograft mouse study. Taken together, our results demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance and cancer stemness by regulating cellular ROS levels via a SMAD-associated signaling pathway. GDF15 may serve as a prediction marker of radioresistance and a therapeutic target for the development of radio-sensitizing agents for the treatment of refractory HNC.

  6. Reconstitution of TGFBR2-Mediated Signaling Causes Upregulation of GDF-15 in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Fricke, Fabia; Warnken, Uwe; Schnölzer, Martina; Kopitz, Jürgen; Gebert, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although inactivating frameshift mutations in the Transforming growth factor beta receptor type 2 (TGFBR2) gene are considered as drivers of microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal tumorigenesis, consequential alterations of the downstream target proteome are not resolved completely. Applying a click-it chemistry protein labeling approach combined with mass spectrometry in a MSI colorectal cancer model cell line, we identified 21 de novo synthesized proteins differentially expressed upon reconstituted TGFBR2 expression. One candidate gene, the TGF-ß family member Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), exhibited TGFBR2-dependent transcriptional upregulation causing increased intracellular and extracellular protein levels. As a new TGFBR2 target gene it may provide a link between the TGF-ß branch and the BMP/GDF branch of SMAD-mediated signaling.

  7. Reproductive biology of the Suez Canal spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834: Crustacea: Brachyura: Majidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Serehy, Hamed A.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A.; Ibrahim, Nesreen K.; Al-Misned, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    A reproductive biology study of the spider crab Schizophrys aspera (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) was conducted in the Suez Canal from July 2012 to June 2013. The annual sex ratio (Male:Female) of S. aspera was female biased with values of 1:1.25. Out of the four ovarian development stages of this crab, two stages were observed in the Suez Canal throughout the whole year. The ovigerous crab’s carapace width varied from 28 to 52 mm. This crab species can spawn during most of the year in the canal water, with a peak during late spring and early winter. The fecundity of ovigerous females ranged between 2349 and 13600 eggs with a mean of 5494 ± 1486 eggs. Female crabs that reached sexual maturity exhibited a minimum carapace width varying between 22 and 46 mm, and fifty percentage of all ovigerous females showed a carapace width of 36 mm. PMID:26587008

  8. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Kh A; Seddeek, M K; Elnimr, T; Sharshar, T; Badran, H M

    2011-06-01

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of ²²⁶Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The ²²⁶Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg⁻¹ for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg⁻¹ for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l⁻¹ for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, ²²⁶Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ∼14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the ²³²Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while ¹³⁷Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place.

  9. Recurrent missense mutation of GDF5 (p.R438L) causes proximal symphalangism in a British family

    PubMed Central

    Leonidou, Andreas; Irving, Melita; Holden, Simon; Katchburian, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Proximal symphalangism (SYM1B) (OMIM 615298) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder affecting joint fusion. It is characterized by variable fusions of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the hands, typically of the ring and little finger, with the thumb typically being spared. SYM1 is frequently associated with coalition of tarsal bones and conductive hearing loss. Molecular studies have identified two possible genetic aetiologies for this syndrome, NOG and GDF5. We herein present a British caucasian family with SYM1B caused by a mutation of the GDF5 gene. A mother and her three children presented to the orthopaedic outpatient department predominantly for feet related problems. All patients had multiple tarsal coalitions and hand involvement in the form of either brachydactyly or symphalangism of the proximal and middle phalanx of the little fingers. Genetic testing in the eldest child and his mother identified a heterozygous missense mutation in GDF5 c.1313G>T (p.R438L), thereby establishing SYM1B as the cause of the orthopaedic problems in this family. There were no mutations identified in the NOG gene. This report highlights the importance of thorough history taking, including a three generation family history, and detailed clinical examination of children with fixed planovalgus feet and other family members to detect rare skeletal dysplasia conditions causing pain and deformity, and provides details of the spectrum of problems associated with SYM1B. PMID:28032038

  10. Dipole allowed transitions in GdF: A four-component relativistic general open-shell configuration interaction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi; Tatewaki, Hiroshi; Saue, Trond

    2008-12-01

    A four-component relativistic study of electronic transitions in the gadolinium monofluoride molecule (GdF) is presented. The electronic spectra of GdF have been investigated with a general open-shell configuration interaction method, where active electrons are distributed among molecular spinors mainly consisting of the Gd 4f, 5d, and 6s atomic spinors. The near-degeneracy effects of these spinors on the molecular electronic structure are considered by the valence full-CI-like approach. By the magnitudes of calculated transition dipole moments, the candidates for the observable transitions were selected. The present result is complementary to our previous study based on multireference configuration interaction singles and doubles calculations, which identified the electronic excited states of GdF by comparing the calculated excitation energies and angular momenta with those given by the laser spectroscopy. The spectra of the excited states less than 3.0 eV have been refined with the help of the calculated transition probabilities. The transitions between the excited states are newly analyzed and a rearrangement is proposed.

  11. Association of GDF5, SMAD3 and RUNX2 polymorphisms with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis in female Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J-L; Meng, J-H; Gan, Y-H; Zhou, C-Y; Ma, X-C

    2015-07-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) is a complex disease and has a strong genetic component in its pathogenesis. Experimental evidence suggests the involvement of biological pathway in the disease. This case-control study was designed to investigate whether five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GDF5, SMAD3, RUNX2, TGFβ1 and CHST11, respectively, are associated with TMJOA in female Han Chinese patients. A total of 240 participants were evaluated comprising 114 female patients diagnosed with TMJOA based on Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and 126 healthy female controls. The SNPs of the five genes in the genomic DNA were examined by sequencing, and their allelic, genotypic and carriage rate frequency distributions, as well as the triple combination of the risk genotypes, were analysed using the logistic regression model. The SNP in GDF5 or SMAD3 showed significant association with TMJOA, a relatively weak association was observed in RUNX2. In the triple combinational analysis, the risk of TMJOA grew 5·09 times in the patients with five or six risk alleles (P < 0·01). This is the first study to evaluate the association of GDF5, SMAD3, RUNX2, TGFβ1 and CHST11 with TMJOA in female Han Chinese. Our study suggests that the SNPs of genes related to TGFβ family might contribute to the risk of TMJOA.

  12. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  13. GC estimation of organic hydrocarbons that threaten shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zawrah, M F; Ebiad, M A; Rashad, A M; El-Sayed, E; Snousy, Moustafa Gamal; Tantawy, M A

    2014-11-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination is one of the important environmental problems at petroleum-related sites, which causes critical environmental and health defects. Severe petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from coastal refinery plant was detected in a shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer is bordered by Gulf in the Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The overall objective of this investigation is to estimate the organic hydrocarbons in shallow sandy aquifers, released from continuous major point-source of pollution over a long period of time (91 years ago). This oil refinery contamination resulted mainly in the improper disposal of hydrocarbons and produced water releases caused by equipment failures, vandalism, and accidents that caused direct groundwater pollution or discharge into the gulf. In order to determine the fate of hydrocarbons, detailed field investigations were made to provide intensive deep profile information. Eight composite randomly sediment samples from a test plot were selected for demonstration. The tested plot was 50 m long × 50 m wide × 70 cm deep. Sediment samples were collected using an American auger around the point 29° 57' 33″ N and 32° 30' 40″ E in 2012 and covered an area of 2,500 m(2) which represents nearly 1/15 of total plant area (the total area of the plant is approximately 3.250 km(2)). The detected total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were 2.44, 2.62, 4.54, 4.78, 2.83, 3.22, 2.56, and 3.13 wt%, respectively. TPH was calculated by differences in weight and subjected to gas chromatography (GC). Hydrocarbons were analyzed on Hewlett-Packard (HP-7890 plus) gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). The percentage of paraffine of the investigated TPH samples was 7.33, 7.24, 7.58, 8.25, 10.25, 9.89, 14.77, and 17.53 wt%, respectively.

  14. Bone architecture and disc degeneration in the lumbar spine of mice lacking GDF-8 (myostatin).

    PubMed

    Hamrick, Mark W; Pennington, Catherine; Byron, Craig D

    2003-11-01

    GDF-8, also known as myostatin, is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted growth and differentiation factors that is expressed in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and myostatin null mice show a doubling of muscle mass compared to normal mice. We describe here morphology of the lumbar spine in myostatin knockout (Mstn(-/-)) mice using histological and densitometric techniques. The Mstn(-/-) mice examined in this study weigh approximately 10% more than controls (p<0.001) but the iliopsoas muscle is over 50% larger in the knockout mice than in wild-type mice (p<0.001). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) data from the fifth lumbar vertebra show that mice lacking myostatin have approximately 50% greater trabecular bone mineral density (p=0.001) and significantly greater cortical bone mineral content than normal mice. Toluidine blue staining of the intervertebral disc between L4-L5 reveals loss of proteoglycan staining in the hyaline end plates and inner annulus fibrosus of the knockout mice. Loss of cartilage staining in the caudal end plate of L4 is due to ossification of the end plate in the myostatin-deficient animals. Results from this study suggest that increased muscle mass in mice lacking myostatin is associated with increased bone mass as well as degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc.

  15. gdf6a Is Required for Cone Photoreceptor Subtype Differentiation and for the Actions of tbx2b in Determining Rod Versus Cone Photoreceptor Fate

    PubMed Central

    DuVal, Michèle G.; Oel, A. Phillip; Allison, W. Ted

    2014-01-01

    Functional vision restoration is within reach via stem cell therapy, but one of the largest obstacles is the derivation of colour-sensitive cone photoreceptors that are required for high-acuity daytime vision. To enhance progress made using nocturnal murine models, we instead utilize cone-rich zebrafish and herein investigate relationships between gdf6a and tbx2b in cone photoreceptor development. Growth/differentiation factor 6a (gdf6a), a bone morphogenetic protein family ligand, is an emerging factor in photoreceptor degenerative diseases. The T-box transcription factor tbx2b is required to specify UV cone photoreceptor fate instead of rod photoreceptor fate. Interactions between these factors in cone development would be unanticipated, considering the discrete phenotypes in their respective mutants. However, gdf6a positively modulates the abundance of tbx2b transcript during early eye morphogenesis, and we extended this conclusion to later stages of retinal development comprising the times when photoreceptors differentiate. Despite this, gdf6a−/− larvae possess a normal relative number of UV cones and instead present with a low abundance of blue cone photoreceptors, approximately half that of siblings (p<0.001), supporting a differential role for gdf6a amongst the spectral subtypes of cone photoreceptors. Further, gdf6a−/− larvae from breeding of compound heterozygous gdf6a+/−;tbx2b+/− mutants exhibit the recessive lots-of-rods phenotype (which also shows a paucity of UV cones) at significantly elevated rates (44% or 48% for each of two tbx2b alleles, χ2 p≤0.007 for each compared to expected Mendelian 25%). Thus the gdf6a−/− background sensitizes fish such that the recessive lots-of-rods phenotype can appear in heterozygous tbx2b+/− fish. Overall, this work establishes a novel link between tbx2b and gdf6a in determining photoreceptor fates, defining the nexus of an intricate pathway influencing the abundance of cone spectral subtypes and

  16. Antagonism between Gdf6a and retinoic acid pathways controls timing of retinal neurogenesis and growth of the eye in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Leonardo E; Lamb, Dayna B; Horner, Wilson; Wierzbicki, Claudia; Tafessu, Amanuel; Williams, Audrey M; Gestri, Gaia; Krasnow, Anna M; Vleeshouwer-Neumann, Terra S; Givens, McKenzie; Young, Rodrigo M; Lawrence, Lisa M; Stickney, Heather L; Hawkins, Thomas A; Schwarz, Quenten P; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Wilson, Stephen W; Cerveny, Kara L

    2016-04-01

    Maintaining neurogenesis in growing tissues requires a tight balance between progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. In the zebrafish retina, neuronal differentiation proceeds in two stages with embryonic retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) of the central retina accounting for the first rounds of differentiation, and stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) being responsible for late neurogenesis and growth of the eye. In this study, we analyse two mutants with small eyes that display defects during both early and late phases of retinal neurogenesis. These mutants carry lesions in gdf6a, a gene encoding a BMP family member previously implicated in dorsoventral patterning of the eye. We show that gdf6a mutant eyes exhibit expanded retinoic acid (RA) signalling and demonstrate that exogenous activation of this pathway in wild-type eyes inhibits retinal growth, generating small eyes with a reduced CMZ and fewer proliferating progenitors, similar to gdf6a mutants. We provide evidence that RA regulates the timing of RPC differentiation by promoting cell cycle exit. Furthermore, reducing RA signalling in gdf6a mutants re-establishes appropriate timing of embryonic retinal neurogenesis and restores putative stem and progenitor cell populations in the CMZ. Together, our results support a model in which dorsally expressed gdf6a limits RA pathway activity to control the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the growing eye.

  17. Structural interpretation of seismic data of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area, Northern Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Nakhla, Adel Mokhles

    2016-12-01

    The 2D and 3D seismic data are interpreted to evaluate the subsurface geologic structures in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri area that occupy the northern central part of the Gulf of Suez. The 2D seismic data are used for determination of the structural configurations and the tectonic features which is analyzed through the study of interpretation with the available geologic data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting tops (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations) are represented. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area is an asymmetrical NW-SE trending anticlinal feature dissected by a set of NW-SE fault system (clysmic). Added, the Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where the area is of NE dip and affected by severe faulting through varying stratigraphic levels.

  18. Rift-related active fault-system and a direction of maximum horizontal stress in the Cairo-Suez district, northeastern Egypt: A new approach from EMR-Technique and Cerescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes

    2016-09-01

    An active fault system has been detected along the Cairo-Suez district in northeastern Egypt, applying the EMR-Technique using Cerescope. The E-W (old Mediterranean) and NW-SE (Red Sea-Gulf of Suez) fault-trends are estimated to have ongoing activity. Horizontal EMR-measurements indicate a NW to NNW orientation as a maximum horizontal stress direction (σ1), whereas an E-W orientation to has a secondary tendency. A simplified stress map for the Cairo-Suez district is constructed from the horizontal stress data measured at about 20 locations within the district. The mapped stresses will contribute to the stress data of the Cairo-Suez region on the world stress map (WSM). The present study results indicate rejuvenation of the inherited Mesozoic E-W oriented and Oligocene-Miocene rift-related NW-SE oriented faults. The transfer of rift-related deformation from Red Sea-Gulf of Suez region, which is currently undergoing an extensional stress regime in NE to NNE direction, would explain a seismotectonic activity of the Cairo-Suez district. These results are consistent with a present day NNW oriented compressional stresses attributed to a convergence between the African and Eurasian plates.

  19. Surface Modification of Titanium with BMP-2/GDF-5 by a Heparin Linker and Its Efficacy as a Dental Implant

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Hyeok; Moon, Sang Woong; Lee, Deok-Won

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we prepared human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2)/human growth and differentiation factor-5 (hGDF-5)-coated titanium (Ti) disc and screw types for controlled release of the growth factors (GFs). The two growth factors were coated onto Ti with a smooth surface using their specific interaction with heparin, because they have heparin binding sites in their molecular structures. Efficacy of the two growth factor-coated Ti for enhancement of bone formation and osseointegration was compared to pristine Ti, and hBMP-2- and hGDF-5-coated Ti in vivo. The surface chemical composition, surface morphology, and wettability characteristics of the metal samples were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurement, respectively. The initial burst of hBMP-2, hGDF-5, and their combination, occurred within one day of the release study, resulting in 12.5%, 4.5%, and 13.5%/3.2%, and then there was a sustained, even release of these two growth factors from the coated metal for 30 days. In vitro tests revealed that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the two growth factor-coated Ti had a higher proliferation rate and a higher activity for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which led to a larger amount of calcium deposition and larger expressions of type I collagen (COL 1), ALP, and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNAs. In vivo animal tests using ten white New Zealand rabbits showed that the two growth factor-coated Ti enhanced bone formation and osseointegration at the interface between the implants and host bone. In addition, histological evaluation showed that bone remodeling, including bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, actively occurred between the two growth factor-coated Ti and host bone. Consequently, it is suggested that Ti surface modification with the combination of hBMP-2 and hGDF-5 for the two growth factor-coated Ti implants can improve the clinical properties of implants for

  20. GDF-15 secreted from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells delivered through the cerebrospinal fluid promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic activity in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Dahm; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Jung Won; Kim, Ju-Yeon; Kyung, Jae Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Jeong Su; Shim, Sang Mi; Na, Duk Lyul; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook

    2015-10-15

    Our previous studies demonstrated that transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the hippocampus of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and enhanced cognitive function through paracrine action. Due to the limited life span of hUCB-MSCs after their transplantation, the extension of hUCB-MSC efficacy was essential for AD treatment. In this study, we show that repeated cisterna magna injections of hUCB-MSCs activated endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis and significantly reduced Aβ42 levels. To identify the paracrine factors released from the hUCB-MSCs that stimulated endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, we cocultured adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) with hUCB-MSCs and analyzed the cocultured media with cytokine arrays. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) levels were significantly increased in the media. GDF-15 suppression in hUCB-MSCs with GDF-15 small interfering RNA reduced the proliferation of NSCs in cocultures. Conversely, recombinant GDF-15 treatment in both in vitro and in vivo enhanced hippocampal NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Repeated administration of hUBC-MSCs markedly promoted the expression of synaptic vesicle markers, including synaptophysin, which are downregulated in patients with AD. In addition, in vitro synaptic activity through GDF-15 was promoted. Taken together, these results indicated that repeated cisterna magna administration of hUCB-MSCs enhanced endogenous adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic activity through a paracrine factor of GDF-15, suggesting a possible role of hUCB-MSCs in future treatment strategies for AD.

  1. Controls on the development and evolution of transfer zones: the influence of basement structure and sedimentary thickness in the Suez rift and Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Adel R.

    1997-06-01

    Detailed field mapping of the northern part of the Gebel Um Hammad-Gebel Duwi area on the western margin of the Red Sea indicates oppositely dipping rift blocks separated by a 60-km long, WNW-ESE-oriented, reactivated pre-rift fault of Late Precambrian age parallel to the Najd fault system of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. This fault forms the Sudmain transfer zone between the oppositely tilted half-grabens in the northwestern Red Sea region and is associated by a SE-plunging syncline. This pre-rift fault was reactivated by dextral transtension during the Late Oligocene rift opening. Compared to the transfer zones of the Suez rift, the Sudmain transfer zone is narrower. The Gebel Sufr El Dara transfer zone (between the southern and central half-grabens of the Suez rift) is 20 km wide and is also controlled by pre-rift faults oriented ENE-WSW. The latter were reactivated by left-lateral slip during the rift opening. On the other hand, the Gharandal transfer zone (northern part of the Suez rift) is 40-60 km wide and is not affected by the pre-rift faults in the Precambrian basement, perhaps owing to the large thickness of pre-rift sedimentary rocks in this area. The location of the Gharandal transfer zone was controlled by a NE-SW-oriented 'Syrian arc' fold. This study suggests that the northward increase in the width of transfer zones as well as the northward decrease in the length of half-grabens in the Suez-northern Red Sea rift system are related to the corresponding increase in the thickness of pre-rift Phanerozoic sedimentary section from about 400 m in the south to about 1800 m in the north.

  2. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.

    PubMed

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5 kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like β propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the

  3. Modulation of stress related protein genes in the bass (Epinephelus guaza) caught from the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Khalil, Wagdy K B

    2013-10-01

    Impact of chemical pollution on expression of stress protein genes in the bass Epinephelus guaga collected from several locations including Suez Oil Production Port (Floating port), Atakah Fishing Port, Adabiya Port and Tawfik Port in Suez Governorate, Egypt, was investigated. In the current study, levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and fish samples collected from Suez Gulf were assessed. In addition, gills and liver tissues of caught bass fish were used to address the interaction between pollution status and the expression of stress-related genes (Hsp70a, Hsp70b, Hsp47, MT and CYP1A). Our analysis demonstrated that levels of PAHs in Floating and Tawfik ports were higher than those found in the Atakah Fishing Port and the Adabiya Port. In addition, MDA and PC contents were significantly higher in gills and liver tissues collected from Floating and Tawfik ports than those collected from Adabiya and Atakah ports. In correlation to the above results, all fish collected from the Floating and Tawfik ports presented a significant increase in Hsp-, MT- and CYP1A-mRNAs. On the other hand, fish samples collected from the Atakah Fishing and Adabiya ports showed no induction of the stress-related genes transcription in such tissues. In conclusion, the current research demonstrates that remarkable increase in PAH contaminants levels in Floating and Tawfik ports are correlated with the levels stress protein-related genes transcription in E. guaga gills and liver tissues.

  4. Granulosa cell tumor mutant FOXL2C134W suppresses GDF-9 and activin A-induced follistatin transcription in primary granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Kirsten J.; Nonis, David; Hoang, Yvonne D.; Shimasaki, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    A single somatic FOXL2 mutation (FOXL2C134W) was identified in almost all granulosa cell tumor (GCT) patients. In the pituitary, FOXL2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate activin stimulation of follistatin transcription. We explored whether a similar regulation occurs in the ovary, and whether FOXL2C134W has altered activity. We show that in primary granulosa cells, GDF-9 and activin increase Smad3-mediated follistatin transcription. In contrast to findings in the pituitary, FOXL2 negatively regulates GDF-9 and activin-stimulated follistatin transcription in the ovary. Knockdown of endogenous FOXL2 confirmed this inhibitory role. FOXL2C134W displayed enhanced inhibitory activity, completely ablating GDF-9 and activin-induced follistatin transcription. GDF-9 and activin activity was lost when either the smad binding element or the forkhead binding element were mutated, indicating that both sites are required for Smad3 actions. This study highlights that FOXL2 negatively regulates follistatin expression within the ovary, and that the pathogenesis of FOXL2C134W may involve an altered interaction with Smad3. PMID:23567549

  5. A New Subtype of Multiple Synostoses Syndrome Is Caused by a Mutation in GDF6 That Decreases Its Sensitivity to Noggin and Enhances Its Potency as a BMP Signal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Yu, Tingting; Wang, Zhigang; Ohte, Satoshi; Yao, Ru-en; Zheng, Zhaojing; Geng, Juan; Cai, Haiqing; Ge, Yihua; Li, Yuchan; Xu, Yunlan; Zhang, Qinghua; Gusella, James F; Fu, Qihua; Pregizer, Steven; Rosen, Vicki; Shen, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) are secreted signaling molecules within the BMP family that have critical roles in joint morphogenesis during skeletal development in mice and humans. Using genetic data obtained from a six-generation Chinese family, we identified a missense variant in GDF6 (NP_001001557.1; p.Y444N) that fully segregates with a novel autosomal dominant synostoses (SYNS) phenotype, which we designate as SYNS4. Affected individuals display bilateral wrist and ankle deformities at birth and progressive conductive deafness after age 40 years. We find that the Y444N variant affects a highly conserved residue of GDF6 in a region critical for binding of GDF6 to its receptor(s) and to the BMP antagonist NOG, and show that this mutant GDF6 is a more potent stimulator of the canonical BMP signaling pathway compared with wild-type GDF6. Further, we determine that the enhanced BMP activity exhibited by mutant GDF6 is attributable to resistance to NOG-mediated antagonism. Collectively, our findings indicate that increased BMP signaling owing to a GDF6 gain-of-function mutation is responsible for loss of joint formation and profound functional impairment in patients with SYNS4. More broadly, our study highlights the delicate balance of BMP signaling required for proper joint morphogenesis and reinforces the critical role of BMP signaling in skeletal development. PMID:26643732

  6. Large-Scale Analysis of Association Between GDF5 and FRZB Variants and Osteoarthritis of the Hip, Knee, and Hand

    PubMed Central

    Evangelou, Evangelos; Chapman, Kay; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Karassa, Fotini B.; Loughlin, John; Carr, Andrew; Doherty, Michael; Doherty, Sally; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Hauksson, Valdimar B.; Hofman, Albert; Hart, Deborah J.; Ikegawa, Shiro; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Jiang, Qing; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Jonsson, Helgi; Kerkhof, Hanneke J. M.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lane, Nancy E.; Li, Jia; Lories, Rik J.; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Näkki, Annu; Nevitt, Michael C.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Julio; Shi, Dongquan; Slagboom, P. Eline; Stefansson, Kari; Tsezou, Aspasia; Wallis, Gillian A.; Watson, Christopher M.; Spector, Tim D.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Valdes, Ana M.; Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective GDF5 and FRZB have been proposed as genetic loci conferring susceptibility to osteoarthritis (OA); however, the results of several studies investigating the association of OA with the rs143383 polymorphism of the GDF5 gene or the rs7775 and rs288326 polymorphisms of the FRZB gene have been conflicting or inconclusive. To examine these associations, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis of individual-level data. Methods Fourteen teams contributed data on polymorphisms and knee, hip, and hand OA. For rs143383, the total number of cases and controls, respectively, was 5,789 and 7,850 for hip OA, 5,085 and 8,135 for knee OA, and 4,040 and 4,792 for hand OA. For rs7775, the respective sample sizes were 4,352 and 10,843 for hip OA, 3,545 and 6,085 for knee OA, and 4,010 and 5,151 for hand OA, and for rs288326, they were 4,346 and 8,034 for hip OA, 3,595 and 6,106 for knee OA, and 3,982 and 5,152 for hand OA. For each individual study, sex-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each OA phenotype that had been investigated. The ORs for each phenotype were synthesized using both fixed-effects and random-effects models for allele-based effects, and also for haplotype effects for FRZB. Results A significant random-effects summary OR for knee OA was demonstrated for rs143383 (1.15 [95% confidence interval 1.09–1.22]) (P = 9.4 × 10−7), with no significant between-study heterogeneity. Estimates of effect sizes for hip and hand OA were similar, but a large between-study heterogeneity was observed, and statistical significance was borderline (for OA of the hip [P = 0.016]) or absent (for OA of the hand [P = 0.19]). Analyses for FRZB polymorphisms and haplotypes did not reveal any statistically significant signals, except for a borderline association of rs288326 with hip OA (P = 0.019). Conclusion Evidence of an association between the GDF5 rs143383 polymorphism and OA is substantially strong, but the genetic effects are consistent across different

  7. Regulation of α5 and αV Integrin Expression by GDF-5 and BMP-7 in Chondrocyte Differentiation and Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Aguirre-Sánchez, Hilda I; Abarca-Buis, René F; Kouri, Juan B; Velasquillo, Cristina; Ibarra, Clemente

    2015-01-01

    The Integrin β1 family is the major receptors of the Extracellular matrix (ECM), and the synthesis and degradation balance of ECM is seriously disrupted during Osteoarthritis (OA). In this scenario, integrins modify their pattern expression and regulate chondrocyte differentiation in the articular cartilage. Members of the Transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β) Superfamily, such as Growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf-5) and Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp-7), play a key role in joint formation and could regulate the integrin expression during chondrocyte differentiation and osteoarthritis progression in an experimental OA rat model. Decrease of α5 integrin expression in articular cartilage was related with chondrocyte dedifferentiation during OA progression, while increase of α1, α2, and α3 integrin expression was related with fibrous areas in articular cartilage during OA. Hypertrophic chondrocytes expressed αV integrin and was increased in the articular cartilage of rats with OA. Integrin expression during chondrocyte differentiation was also analyzed in a micromass culture system of mouse embryo mesenchymal cells, micromass cultures was treated with Gdf-5 or Bmp-7 for 4 and 6 days, respectively. Gdf-5 induced the expression of the α5 sub-unit, while Bmp-7 induced the expression of the αV sub-unit. This suggests a switch in signaling for prehypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation towards hypertrophy, where Gdf-5 could maintain the articular chondrocyte phenotype and Bmp-7 would induce hypertrophy. Decrease of Ihh expression during late stages of OA in rat model suggest that the ossification in OA rat knees and endochondral ossification could be activated by Bmp-7 and αV integrin in absence of Ihh. Thus, chondrocyte phenotype in articular cartilage is similar to prehypetrophic chondrocyte in growth plate, and is preserved due to the presence of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), Gdf-5 and α5 integrin to maintain articular cartilage and prevent hypertrophy.

  8. Regulation of α5 and αV Integrin Expression by GDF-5 and BMP-7 in Chondrocyte Differentiation and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Aguirre-Sánchez, Hilda I.; Abarca-Buis, René F.; Kouri, Juan B.; Velasquillo, Cristina; Ibarra, Clemente

    2015-01-01

    The Integrin β1 family is the major receptors of the Extracellular matrix (ECM), and the synthesis and degradation balance of ECM is seriously disrupted during Osteoarthritis (OA). In this scenario, integrins modify their pattern expression and regulate chondrocyte differen-tiation in the articular cartilage. Members of the Transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β) Su-perfamily, such as Growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf-5) and Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp-7), play a key role in joint formation and could regulate the integrin expression during chondrocyte differentiation and osteoarthritis progression in an experimental OA rat model. Decrease of α5 integrin expression in articular cartilage was related with chondrocyte dedif-ferentiation during OA progression, while increase of α1, α2, and α3 integrin expression was related with fibrous areas in articular cartilage during OA. Hypertrophic chondrocytes expressedαV integrin and was increased in the articular cartilage of rats with OA. Integrin expression during chondrocyte differentiation was also analyzed in a micromass culture system of mouse embryo mesenchymal cells, micromass cultures was treated with Gdf-5 or Bmp-7 for 4 and 6 days, respectively. Gdf-5 induced the expression of theα5 sub-unit, while Bmp-7 induced the expression of the αV sub-unit. This suggests a switch in signaling for prehypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation towards hypertrophy, where Gdf-5 could maintain the articular chondrocyte phenotype and Bmp-7 would induce hypertrophy. Decrease of Ihh expression during late stages of OA in rat model suggest that the ossification in OA rat knees and endochondral ossification could be activated by Bmp-7 and αV integrin in absence of Ihh. Thus, chondrocyte phenotype in articular cartilage is similar to prehypetrophic chondrocyte in growth plate, and is preserved due to the presence of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), Gdf-5 and α5 integrin to maintain articular cartilage and prevent hy

  9. Extension-related buttress-like folds, the western side of the Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Sharib, A. S. A. A.; Abdel-Fattah, M. M.; Salama, Y. F.; Abdel-Gawad, G. I.

    2017-02-01

    The wedge-shaped St. Paul block, western side of the Gulf of Suez rift, exposes Late Cretaceous beds that are folded into transverse folds. The block is bounded from the east and west by east- and southeast-dipping rift-related normal faults, respectively. This study reveals that the transverse folds are extension-related, and formed due to the buttress-like effect that was created during the movement along the rift-related normal faults. The more competent Eocene hanging-wall block of the N-S-striking fault buttressed against the moving less competent Cretaceous hanging-wall block of the NE-SW-striking fault. A localized zone of shortening developed between the two fault trends causing the intervening wedge-shaped block to be crumpled and folded into a series of kilometer-scale, gentle SSE-plunging folds. The buttressing, within block internal localized strain caused by the zigzag geometry of the NE-SW-striking fault, and the effect of the minor cross fault explain the SSE-to-ESE plunges of the mesoscopic folds. This study turns the attention to the buttress-like effect as one of the mechanisms of extension-related folds during rifting.

  10. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

    2001-02-01

    The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

  11. Definition of soil characteristics and ground response at the northwestern part of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, M. E. Mohamed; Deif, A.; El-Hadidy, S.; Moustafa Sayed, S. R.; El Werr, A.

    2008-12-01

    The area of interest represents the industrial part of Ain El-Sokhna new port, located in the northwestern part of the seismically active Gulf of Suez zone. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the site characteristics of the area of interest in terms of the fundamental frequency and the corresponding peak amplitude using noise measurements. The microtremor measurements were performed at 44 sites distributed over the study area in order to calculate the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio. The standard spectral ratio (SSR) is used in addition to the numerical modelling of horizontal shear (SH) waves in soil at selected sites in order to have a comparison with the H/V spectral ratio. The required 1D soil models for the numerical modelling of SH-waves were derived from 220 P-wave shallow seismic refraction profiles in addition to 30 SH-wave profiles. Maps of the fundamental frequency (f0) and its corresponding H/V peak amplitude (A0) were provided, and a range of site conditions in the area were shown. The amplification factor results derived from the SSR technique are very similar to those derived from the H/V spectral ratio. In most cases, the H/V spectral ratio proved to be suitable for calculating the fundamental resonance. Results were found to be compatible with the surface geology of the area of interest.

  12. Evolution of Miocene footwall-derived coarse-grained deltas, Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Implications for exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Gawthorpe, R.L. ); Hurst, J.M.; Sladen, C.P. )

    1990-07-01

    The Miocene Abu Alaqa Group, exposed on the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez, contains a series of coarse-grained delta deposits located in the hanging wall of the northwest-trending East Margin fault zone. Seven major fan sequences have been identified. The first three fan sequences are aggradational and cover an area of less than 2 km{sup 2}. The sequences are dominated by pebble/boulder conglomerates, with predominantly sigmoidal, high-angle clinoforms (between 15 and 25{degree}) as much as 150 m high. These fan sequences represent talus cones and fan deltas, which were probably deposited during activity on the fault zone and are situated at transfer segments. The other four fan sequences are predominantly progradational, consisting of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic braid deltas with local reefs. They are less than 30 m high, have low-angle clinoforms (< 15{degree}), and cover an area as large as 30 km{sup 2}. These fan sequences were deposited during a phase of tectonic quiescence when sedimentary and eustatic mechanisms determined sand-body geometry. These fan deltas and braid deltas may form hydrocarbon traps in the subsurface and create localized reservoirs. The rapid facies change into basinal fines creates an excellent lateral stratigraphic seal, but vertical and lateral seals across the fault zone generally are not well developed. 8 figs.

  13. Reservoir zonation based on statistical analyses: A case study of the Nubian sandstone, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

    2016-12-01

    Both reservoir engineers and petrophysicists have been concerned about dividing a reservoir into zones for engineering and petrophysics purposes. Through decades, several techniques and approaches were introduced. Out of them, statistical reservoir zonation, stratigraphic modified Lorenz (SML) plot and the principal component and clustering analyses techniques were chosen to apply on the Nubian sandstone reservoir of Palaeozoic - Lower Cretaceous age, Gulf of Suez, Egypt, by using five adjacent wells. The studied reservoir consists mainly of sandstone with some intercalation of shale layers with varying thickness from one well to another. The permeability ranged from less than 1 md to more than 1000 md. The statistical reservoir zonation technique, depending on core permeability, indicated that the cored interval of the studied reservoir can be divided into two zones. Using reservoir properties such as porosity, bulk density, acoustic impedance and interval transit time indicated also two zones with an obvious variation in separation depth and zones continuity. The stratigraphic modified Lorenz (SML) plot indicated the presence of more than 9 flow units in the cored interval as well as a high degree of microscopic heterogeneity. On the other hand, principal component and cluster analyses, depending on well logging data (gamma ray, sonic, density and neutron), indicated that the whole reservoir can be divided at least into four electrofacies having a noticeable variation in reservoir quality, as correlated with the measured permeability. Furthermore, continuity or discontinuity of the reservoir zones can be determined using this analysis.

  14. Research Publications in Medical Journals (1992-2013) by Family Medicine Authors - Suez Canal University-Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed A.; Ismail, Mosleh A.; Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research in family medicine (FM) provides an important contribution to its discipline. Family medicine research can contribute to many areas of primary care, ranging from the early diagnosis to equitable health care. Publication productivity is important in academic settings as a marker for career advancement. Objective: To describe the publications by family medicine researcher authors between 1992 and 2013. Materials and Methods: All full text, original articles published by family medicine researcher; author with affiliation to the Suez Canal University were collected using the internet and hand search. The journals that published for family medicine researcher authors were identified. Author characteristics were described. The trend of publications was described. All articles were analyzed for their characteristics, including the themes and study designs according to predefined criteria. Results: Along 22 years, 149 research articles were published by 48 family medicine authors in 39 medical journals. The largest category in publications was related to Family physician/Health service (FP-HS, n = 52 articles), followed by ‘Patient’ category (n = 42). All the studies were quantitative; the largest group was represented by cross-sectional studies (76.5%). Conclusions: The publication productivity by family medicine researchers are going to be increased. FP-HS and patient topics were mostly addressed in publications. Cross-sectional studies exceeded any other designs. There is need to put more emphasis on intervention studies. Continuous assessment and improvement of FM research production and publication is recommended. PMID:25657945

  15. Molecular characterisation of growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15) and their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Halm, S; Ibañez, A J; Tyler, C R; Prat, F

    2008-09-10

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), have crucial roles in primary follicle growth in mammals. To initiate investigations into their significance in teleost oogenesis, we set out to clone and characterise the cDNAs of gdf9 and bmp15 and analysed their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax). Sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 cDNAs were 2200 and 2049 bp long, coding for 438 and 459 amino acids (aas), respectively, and were most similar to zebrafish gdf9 and bmp15 (64.4 and 56.1%, respectively). By Northern analysis, sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts were detected in the ovary only of the tissues analysed and their sizes were 2.2 and 2.1 kb, respectively. Dot-blot analysis revealed high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 expression in the ovary during primary oocyte growth and previtellogenesis (July to October), with a significant decline at the onset of vitellogenesis (November) and remaining low until the beginning of new oocyte growth (April/May). There was a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.939) between gdf9 and bmp15 gene expression in individual samples. The high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts in the ovary, especially during the previtellogenic growth period suggest an important role for these factors in early primary oocyte growth in the European sea bass.

  16. Oil pollution in the Red Sea — Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a coral area, Gulf of Suez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Brian

    The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

  17. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Rudies sandstone (Lower Miocene), Warda Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2012-05-01

    The Lower Miocene Rudies sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southeastern part, Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their provenance and diagenesis and their impact in reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Warda field, representing the Lower and Middle Rudies, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rudies sandstones have an average framework composition of Q85F7.2R7.8, and 83% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Middle Rudies sandstones are only slightly more quartzose with an average framework composition of Q90F7R3 and 86% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. Rudies sandstones are mostly quartz arenite with subordinate subarkose and sublithic arenites and their bulk-rock geochemistry support the petrographic results. The modal analysis data of studied samples suggest influence of granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks. The geochemical data interpretation on the basis of discriminate function diagrams reveal the source material was deposited on a passive margin. Textural attributes possibly suggest long-distance transport of grains from the source region and indicates a cratonic or a recycled source. Tectonic setting of Rudies Formation reveals that the lower Rudies sandstones are typically rift sandstone and their deposition constrained the beginning of the faulting, while the middle Rudies sandstones were transported from the far along the rift. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and carbonate dissolution greatly enhance the petrophysical properties of many sandstone samples.

  18. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2013-09-01

    The Middle Miocene Kareem sandstones are important oil reservoirs in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Suez basin, Egypt. However, their diagenesis and provenance and their impact on reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Zeit Bay Oil Field, and the East Zeit Oil Field represent the Lower Kareem (Rahmi Member) and the Upper Kareem (Shagar Member), were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower Rahmi sandstones have an average framework composition of Q95F3.4R1.6, and 90% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. By contrast, the Upper Shagar sandstones are only slightly less quartzose with an average framework composition of Q76F21R3 and 82% of the quartz grains are monocrystalline. The Kareem sandstones are mostly quartzarenite with subordinate subarkose and arkose. Petrographical and geochemical data of sandstones indicate that they were derived from granitic and metamorphic terrains as the main source rock with a subordinate quartzose recycled sedimentary rocks and deposited in a passive continental margin of a syn rift basin. The sandstones of the Kareem Formation show upward decrease in maturity. Petrographic study revealed that dolomite is the dominant cement and generally occurs as fine to medium rhombs pore occluding phase and locally as a grain replacive phase. Authigenic quartz occurs as small euhedral crystals, locally as large pyramidal crystals in the primary pores. Authigenic anhydrites typically occur as poikilotopic rhombs or elongate laths infilling pores but also as vein filling cement. The kaolinite is a by-product of feldspar leaching in the presence of acidic fluid produced during the maturation of organic matter in the adjacent Miocene rocks. Diagenetic features include compaction; dolomite, silica and anhydrite cementation with minor iron-oxide, illite, kaolinite and pyrite cements; dissolution of feldspars, rock fragments. Silica dissolution, grain replacement and

  19. Facies and geologic history of an exposed Miocene rift-margin carbonate platform: Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    James, N.P.; Coniglio, M.; Aissaoui, D.M.; Purser, B.H.

    1988-05-01

    Abu Shaar is a small exhumed carbonate platform of lower to middle Miocene age on a horst of Precambrian crystalline rock along the western side of the Gulf of Suez. The reef-rimmed complex is entirely dolomite but with exquisitely preserved primary and diagenetic microfabrics. Similar platforms, some of which contain hydrocarbons, are buried beneath evaporites in the Gulf. The platform developed in three stages, defined as local members of the Rudeis Formation. The first stage records deposition during progressive marine onlap as aprons of mixed terrigenous-carbonate sediments evolved into a wide reef-rimmed platform. Synsedimentary platform-margin collapse subsequently removed the most seaward portions of the reefs along the eastern Gulf-facing margin. These truncation surfaces were then covered by a second phase of reef growth and deposition of fore-reef carbonates. The third and final stage, deposited following a sea level drop and subaerial exposure, is a series of well-bedded peritidal carbonates that become progressively more evaporitic upward. Fore-reef facies are again truncated by synsedimentary slope failure. Former evaporites are now recorded as collapse breccias, contorted bedding, black chert nodules, and evaporite molds. Porosity is mainly secondary as vugs and molds and is highest in platform interior facies. These more porous sediments contained more aragonitic components originally and were less affected by submarine cementation. In contrast, the higher degree of synsedimentary lithification of platform-margin reef and fore-reef sediments is comparable with what is commonly observed in modern reef-dominated platform margins. 15 figures, 1 tables.

  20. Analysis of the similar epicenter earthquakes on 22 January 2013 and 01 June 2013, Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, Mostafa; Barth, Andreas; Ali, Sherif M.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-09-01

    On 22 January 2013 an earthquake with local magnitude ML 4.1 occurred in the central part of the Gulf of Suez. Six months later on 1 June 2013 another earthquake with local magnitude ML 5.1 took place at the same epicenter and different depths. These two perceptible events were recorded and localized by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) and additional networks in the region. The purpose of this study is to determine focal mechanisms and source parameters of both earthquakes to analyze their tectonic relation. We determine the focal mechanisms by applying moment tensor inversion and first motion analysis of P- and S-waves. Both sources reveal oblique focal mechanisms with normal faulting and strike-slip components on differently oriented faults. The source mechanism of the larger event on 1 June in combination with the location of aftershock sequence indicates a left-lateral slip on N-S striking fault structure in 21 km depth that is in conformity with the NE-SW extensional Shmin (orientation of minimum horizontal compressional stress) and the local fault pattern. On the other hand, the smaller earthquake on 22 January with a shallower hypocenter in 16 km depth seems to have happened on a NE-SW striking fault plane sub-parallel to Shmin. Thus, here an energy release on a transfer fault connecting dominant rift-parallel structures might have resulted in a stress transfer, triggering the later ML 5.1 earthquake. Following Brune's model and using displacement spectra, we calculate the dynamic source parameters for the two events. The estimated source parameters for the 22 January 2013 and 1 June 2013 earthquakes are fault length (470 and 830 m), stress drop (1.40 and 2.13 MPa), and seismic moment (5.47E+21 and 6.30E+22 dyn cm) corresponding to moment magnitudes of MW 3.8 and 4.6, respectively.

  1. Anorexia-cachexia and obesity treatment may be two sides of the same coin: role of the TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15.

    PubMed

    Tsai, V W W; Lin, S; Brown, D A; Salis, A; Breit, S N

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia-cachexia associated with cancer and other diseases is a common and often fatal condition representing a large area of unmet medical need. It occurs most commonly in advanced cancer and is probably a consequence of molecules released by tumour cells, or tumour-associated interstitial or immune cells. These may then act directly on muscle to cause atrophy and/or may cause anorexia, which then leads to loss of both fat and lean mass. Although the aetiological triggers for this syndrome are not well characterized, recent data suggest that MIC-1/GDF15, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily cytokine produced in large amounts by cancer cells and as a part of other disease processes, may be an important trigger. This cytokine acts on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem to cause anorexia leading to loss of lean and fat mass and eventually cachexia. In animal studies, the circulating concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15 required to cause this syndrome are similar to those seen in patients with advanced cancer, and at least some epidemiological studies support an association between MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels and measures of nutrition. This article will discuss its mechanisms of central appetite regulation, and the available data linking this action to anorexia-cachexia syndromes that suggest it is a potential target for therapy of cancer anorexia-cachexia and conversely may also be useful for the treatment of severe obesity.

  2. Ror2 signaling is required for local upregulation of GDF6 and activation of BMP signaling at the neural plate border.

    PubMed

    Schille, Carolin; Bayerlová, Michaela; Bleckmann, Annalen; Schambony, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 is a major Wnt receptor that activates β-catenin-independent signaling and plays a conserved role in the regulation of convergent extension movements and planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Mutations in the ROR2 gene cause recessive Robinow syndrome in humans, a short-limbed dwarfism associated with craniofacial malformations. Here, we show that Ror2 is required for local upregulation of gdf6 at the neural plate border in Xenopus embryos. Ror2 morphant embryos fail to upregulate neural plate border genes and show defects in the induction of neural crest cell fate. These embryos lack the spatially restricted activation of BMP signaling at the neural plate border at early neurula stages, which is required for neural crest induction. Ror2-dependent planar cell polarity signaling is required in the dorsolateral marginal zone during gastrulation indirectly to upregulate the BMP ligand Gdf6 at the neural plate border and Gdf6 is sufficient to rescue neural plate border specification in Ror2 morphant embryos. Thereby, Ror2 links Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling to BMP signaling in neural plate border specification and neural crest induction.

  3. Study on up-conversion emissions of Yb 3+/Tm 3+ co-doped GdF 3 and NaGdF 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunyan; Qin, Weiping; Zhang, Jisen

    2010-02-01

    The Yb 3+/Tm 3+ co-doped GdF 3 and NaGdF 4 samples were synthesized through a combination method of a co-precipitation and an argon atmosphere annealing procedures. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the Yb 3+/Tm 3+ co-doped GdF 3 sample crystallized well and was orthorhombic phase, and the Yb 3+/Tm 3+ co-doped NaGdF 4 sample was hexagonal phase. With a 980-nm semiconductor continuous wave laser diode as the excitation source, the up-conversion emission spectra of the two samples in the wavelength range of 240-510 nm were recorded. In the up-conversion emissions of the samples, Yb 3+ transferred energies to Tm 3+ resulting in their ultraviolet, violet, and blue up-conversion emissions. And, Tm 3+ simultaneously transferred energies to Gd 3+, which finally resulted in ultraviolet up-conversion emissions of Gd 3+. The study on the excitation power dependence of up-conversion fluorescence intensity indicated that there were multi-photon (three-, four-, five-, and six-) processes in the up-conversion emissions of the samples. And the up-conversion emissions of Gd 3+ and Tm 3+ in the Yb 3+/Tm 3+ co-doped GdF 3 and NaGdF 4 samples were compared studied, too.

  4. Sedimentology of rift climax deep water systems; Lower Rudeis Formation, Hammam Faraun Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppard, Christopher W.; Gawthorpe, Rob L.

    2006-09-01

    In most marine rift basins, subsidence outpaces sedimentation during rift climax times. Typically this results in sediment-starved hangingwall depocentres dominated by deep-marine mudstones, with subordinate local development of coarser clastics in the immediate hangingwall derived from restricted catchments on the immediate footwall scarp. To highlight the spatial variability of rift climax facies and the controls upon them, we have investigated the detailed three-dimensional geometry and facies relationships of the extremely well exposed Miocene, rift climax Lower Rudeis Formation in the immediate hangingwall to the Thal Fault Zone, Suez Rift, Egypt. Detailed sedimentological analyses allows the Lower Rudeis Formation to be divided into two contemporaneous depositional systems, (1) a laterally continuous slope system comprising, hangingwall restricted (< 250 m wide) slope apron, slope slumps, fault scarp degradation complex and laterally extensive lower slope-to-basinal siltstones, and (2) a localized submarine fan complex up to 1 km wide and extending at least 2 km basinward of the fault zone. Interpretation of individual facies, facies relationships and their spatial variability indicate that deposition in the immediate hangingwall to the Thal Fault occurred via a range of submarine concentrated density flows, surge-like turbidity flows, mass wasting and hemipelagic processes. Major controls on the spatial variability and stratigraphic architecture of the depositional systems identified reflect the influence of the steep footwall physiography, accommodation and drainage evolution associated with the growth of the Thal Fault. The under-filled nature of the hangingwall depocentre combined with the steep footwall gradient result in a steep fault-controlled basin margin characterised by either slope bypass or erosion, with limited coastal plain or shelf area. Sediment supply to the slope apron deposits is controlled in part by the evolution and size of small

  5. Preparation and optimization of ceramic neutron image plates based on BaFBr : Eu2+ and GdF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, R.; Zimmermann, J.; Schlapp, M.; Hesse, S.; von Seggern, H.

    2005-09-01

    Commercially available neutron image plates (NIPs) consist of a mixture of a powdered x-ray storage phosphor and a neutron converter, both embedded in an organic binder supported on a polymer sheet. The initiation of the storage mechanism in the phosphor is caused by conversion electrons generated in the neutron converter due to neutron absorption and activation and its subsequent decay. The organic binder phase just provides mechanical stability to the NIP but reduces its efficiency through two effects: first by the absorption of low energy electrons and second by introducing an inactive volume fraction to the layer. Avoiding the organic fraction, for example by preparing a ceramic NIP without binder, could increase the efficiency and spatial resolution without a loss in mechanical stability. In the following, two processes for preparation of ceramic NIPs are reported, both delivering ceramic NIPs consisting solely of GdF3, as the neutron converter and BaFBr : Eu2+, as the storage phosphor. The correlation between the sintering parameters and volume fraction of the neutron converter is investigated with respect to high efficiency and high spatial resolution. The generally observed antidromic behaviour between these two quantities was observed in this study also.

  6. Frequent sequence variation in the human myostatin (GDF8) gene as a marker for analysis of muscle-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, R E; Conte, V; Lawrence, E C; Roth, S M; Hagberg, J M; Hurley, B F

    1999-12-01

    Myostatin is a recently identified member of the transforming growth factor-beta family of regulatory factors, also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8). The nucleotide sequence of human myostatin was determined in 40 individuals. The invariant promoter contains a consensus MyoD binding site, and the coding sequence contains five missense substitutions in conserved amino acid residues (A55T, K153R, E164K, P198A, and I225T). Two of these, A55T in exon 1 and K153R in exon 2, are polymorphic in the general population with significantly different allele frequencies in Caucasians and African Americans (P < 0.001). Neither of the common polymorphisms had a significant impact on muscle mass response to strength training in either Caucasians or African Americans, although skewed allele frequencies preclude detection of small effects. These allelic variants provide markers for examining association between the myostatin gene and interindividual variation in muscle mass and differences in loss of muscle mass with aging.

  7. Late Quaternary reorientation of stress field and extension direction in the southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Evidence from uplifted coral terraces, mesoscopic fault arrays, and borehold breakouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, William; Taviani, Marco

    1996-08-01

    Uplifted Pleistocene coral terraces and modern earthquakes show that several large normal faults are presently active in the southern Gulf of Suez rift basin. The footwall of one of these faults is exposed at Gebel el Zeit, where terraces at elevations of +10-18 and +42 m have been radiometrically dated as 125 ka and 426 ka, respectively. After correcting for eustatic sea-level changes, this results in net tectonic uplift rates of about 0.1 m/kyr. Published interpretations and our own observations indicate that the average extension direction during the Miocene to Pliocene synrift history was 055°. Analysis of borehole breakouts and published earthquake fault plane solutions, however, suggests that the present-day stress field in the southern Gulf has a 010°-020° Shmin orientation. Detailed structural observations show that a change in extension direction occurred in the late Pleistocene, with rotation of the stress field beginning prior to formation of the 125 ka terraces but after formation of older Pleistocene terraces whose ages are less tightly constrained. Using a horizontal slip direction of 015° and our observed net footwall uplift rate, we calculate a separation velocity between Sinai and Africa of 0.8-1.2 m/kyr. The proposed Pleistocene change in extension direction in the Gulf of Suez corresponds closely with the post-500 ka change in extension direction documented in the Kenyan rift system and a similar change in extension direction recorded in the central Red Sea. These regional similarities in tectonic history suggest that the underlying causes of these events may be a plate-scale phenomenon affecting the entire Afro-Arabian rift system, rather than local changes in the Quaternary stress field.

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Egyptian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivers grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hassan; Mekki, Laila E; Hussein, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes.

  9. Characterization of an acromesomelic dysplasia, Grebe type case: novel mutation affecting the recognition motif at the processing site of GDF5.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garcia, Monica; Garcia-Canto, Eva; Fenollar-Cortes, Maria; Aytes, Antonio Perez; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José

    2016-09-01

    Acromesomelic dysplasia, Grebe type is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe dwarfism with marked micromelia and deformation of the upper and lower limbs, with a proximodistal gradient of severity. CDMP1 gene mutations have been associated with Grebe syndrome, Hunter-Thompson syndrome, Du Pan syndrome and brachydactyly type C. The proband is a 4-year-old boy, born of consanguineous Pakistani parents. Radiographic imaging revealed features typical of Grebe syndrome: severe shortening of the forearms with an acromesomelic pattern following a proximodistal gradient, with distal parts more severely affected than medial parts; hypoplastic hands, with the phalangeal zone more affected than the metacarpal zone; and severe hypoplastic tibial/femoral zones in both limbs. After molecular analyses, the p.Arg377Trp variant in a homozygous pattern was identified in the CDMP1 gene in the affected child. In silico and structural analyses predicted the p.Arg377Trp amino acid change to be pathogenic. Of the 34 mutations described in the CDMP1 gene, four different missense mutations have been associated with Grebe syndrome. The CDMP1 gene encodes growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), which plays a role in regulation of limb patterning, joint formation and distal bone growth. Homozygous mutations in the mature domain of GDF5 result in severe limb malformations such as the Grebe type or the Hunter-Thompson type of acromesomelic chondrodysplasia. The p.Arg377Trp mutation is located within the recognition motif at the processing site of GDF5 where the sequence RRKRR changes to WRKRR. The genotype-phenotype correlation allowed not only confirmation of the clinical diagnosis but also appropriate genetic counselling to be offered to this family.

  10. The influence of surface coatings of dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) and growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) on the stability of titanium implants in vivo.

    PubMed

    Simank, Hans-Georg; Stuber, Marco; Frahm, Ronny; Helbig, Lars; van Lenthe, Harry; Müller, Ralph

    2006-07-01

    Mechanical stability of implants is usually tested by pull out or push out tests which destroy the interface between the implant and bone. Pull out tests do not ideally reflect the clinical situation. In contrast, applying submaximal load leads to more physiologic micro-displacement between implant and bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new non-destructive mechanical testing device on different modifications of titanium implants. In 18 rabbits we investigated the influence of a dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) coating, or of a growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) coating, or a combination of both on the stability of titanium implants. The stability of implant was assessed by a non-destructive micro-measurement. In the same specimens the interface was investigated by micro-CT and histological evaluation. Surface modifications had a positive effect on the implant stability regarding displacement (p=0.001). Mechanical stability correlated with the quality of peri-implant tissue. Micro-displacement correlated negatively with the bone formation around the implants in histomorphometric evaluation (p=0.02). Amount of peri-prosthetic soft tissue showed a positive correlation with micro-displacement (p=0.01). Our findings indicate the positive effect of DCPD and GDF-5 coatings on stability of titanium implants. Results demonstrate the non-destructive testing to be an effective method to evaluate mechanical stability of implants.

  11. Polymorphisms Near TBX5 and GDF7 Are Associated With Increased Risk for Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Palles, Claire; Chegwidden, Laura; Li, Xinzhong; Findlay, John M.; Farnham, Garry; Castro Giner, Francesc; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Kovac, Michal; Adams, Claire L.; Prenen, Hans; Briggs, Sarah; Harrison, Rebecca; Sanders, Scott; MacDonald, David; Haigh, Chris; Tucker, Art; Love, Sharon; Nanji, Manoj; deCaestecker, John; Ferry, David; Rathbone, Barrie; Hapeshi, Julie; Barr, Hugh; Moayyedi, Paul; Watson, Peter; Zietek, Barbara; Maroo, Neera; Gay, Laura; Underwood, Tim; Boulter, Lisa; McMurtry, Hugh; Monk, David; Patel, Praful; Ragunath, Krish; Al Dulaimi, David; Murray, Iain; Koss, Konrad; Veitch, Andrew; Trudgill, Nigel; Nwokolo, Chuka; Rembacken, Bjorn; Atherfold, Paul; Green, Elaine; Ang, Yeng; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Chow, Wu; Paterson, Stuart; Kadri, Sudarshan; Beales, Ian; Grimley, Charles; Mullins, Paul; Beckett, Conrad; Farrant, Mark; Dixon, Andrew; Kelly, Sean; Johnson, Matthew; Wajed, Shahjehan; Dhar, Anjan; Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Onstad, Lynn; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Bird, Nigel C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Reid, Brian J.; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Geoffrey; Romero, Yvonne; Bernstein, Leslie; Wu, Anna H.; Casson, Alan G.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Whiteman, David C.; Risch, Harvey A.; Levine, David M.; Vaughan, Tom L.; Verhaar, Auke P.; van den Brande, Jan; Toxopeus, Eelke L.; Spaander, Manon C.; Wijnhoven, Bas P.L.; van der Laan, Luc J.W.; Krishnadath, Kausilia; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia; McManus, Ross; Reynolds, John V.; O’Sullivan, Jacintha; MacMathuna, Padraic; McGarrigle, Sarah A.; Kelleher, Dermot; Vermeire, Severine; Cleynen, Isabelle; Bisschops, Raf; Tomlinson, Ian; Jankowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1. Subsequently, the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) identified risk loci for BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma near CRTC1 and BARX1, and within 100 kb of FOXP1. We aimed to identify further SNPs that increased BE risk and to validate previously reported associations. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify variants associated with BE and further analyzed promising variants identified by BEACON by genotyping 10,158 patients with BE and 21,062 controls. Results We identified 2 SNPs not previously associated with BE: rs3072 (2p24.1; odds ratio [OR] = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09–1.18; P = 1.8 × 10−11) and rs2701108 (12q24.21; OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86–0.93; P = 7.5 × 10−9). The closest protein-coding genes were respectively GDF7 (rs3072), which encodes a ligand in the bone morphogenetic protein pathway, and TBX5 (rs2701108), which encodes a transcription factor that regulates esophageal and cardiac development. Our data also supported in BE cases 3 risk SNPs identified by BEACON (rs2687201, rs11789015, and rs10423674). Meta-analysis of all data identified another SNP associated with BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma: rs3784262, within ALDH1A2 (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87–0.93; P = 3.72 × 10−9). Conclusions We identified 2 loci associated with risk of BE and provided data to support a further locus. The genes we found to be associated with risk for BE encode transcription factors involved in thoracic, diaphragmatic, and esophageal development or proteins involved in the inflammatory response. PMID:25447851

  12. Mutations in the genes for oocyte-derived growth factors GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with both increased ovulation rate and sterility in Cambridge and Belclare sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, James P; Gregan, Scott M; Mulsant, Philippe; Mullen, Michael; Davis, George H; Powell, Richard; Galloway, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Belclare and Cambridge are prolific sheep breeds, the origins of which involved selecting ewes with exceptionally high litter size records from commercial flocks. The variation in ovulation rate in both breeds is consistent with segregation of a gene (or genes) with a large effect on this trait. Sterile ewes, due to a failure of normal ovarian follicle development, occur in both breeds. New naturally occurring mutations in genes for the oocyte-derived growth factors growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are described. These mutations are associated with increased ovulation rate in heterozygous carriers and sterility in homozygous carriers in both breeds. This is the first time that a mutation in the gene for GDF9 has been found that causes increased ovulation rate and infertility in a manner similar to inactivating mutations in BMP15, and shows that GDF9 is essential for normal folliculogenesis in sheep. Furthermore, it is shown, for the first time in any species, that individuals with mutations in both GDF9 and BMP15 have a greater ovulation rate than sheep with either of the mutations separately.

  13. Aqaba-Levant transform-related faults in the Gulf of Suez rift: The Durba-Araba fault, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Abdelmaksoud, Ashraf S.

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Suez rift is dominated by NNW- to NW-striking “Clysmic” faults trending parallel to the rift. In addition there are NNE- and WNW-striking (oblique) faults that trend at an angle to the rift. The Durba-Araba fault (DAF) in southwestern Sinai represents one of several NNE-striking faults. It separates the Durba fault block on its NW from the Araba fault block on its SE. Detailed (1:20,000 scale) field mapping and structural studies of the DAF and the onshore area to the east of Belayim Bay (eastern margin of the central Gulf of Suez rift), indicate that the exposed part of the DAF extends for 7.5 km NNE from the mouth of Wadi Araba, at which point it bends and splays into three N- to NNW striking faults, forming a horse tail structure. The fault shows 4 km of pure sinistral strike-slip displacement. Northerly plunging fault propagation folds in the Phanerozoic rocks adjacent to the DAF accommodated the sinistral displacement. These folds are cut and displaced by the splay faults. Near its northern end, the middle splay fault affects the Pliocene El Qa'a Formation. At Gebel Qabeliat a group of en echelon left-stepping NNE- to N-striking faults overlaps the DAF generating a pull-apart (rhomb) graben, in which Pliocene and Quaternary sediments are downthrown against the Upper Miocene rocks. Kinematic indicators on most of these faults show major sinistral strike-slip movement. Palaeostress analysis of slip striae indicates sub-horizontal ENE to NNE extension, comparable to the present day stress regime. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the NNE- to N-striking oblique faults are younger than the NW-striking Clysmic faults. These faults are probably presently active since they affect Pliocene and Quaternary sediments. It is proposed that these faults are related to the Aqaba-Levant transform that has been active since the Middle Miocene.

  14. 77 FR 60978 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Limited Partnership, IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc., Hopewell Cogeneration Ltd Partnership, Hot Spring Power Company, LLC, Northeastern Power Company, Syracuse Energy Corporation, Northeast Energy Associates, A Limited Partnership, North Jersey Energy Associates, A Limited Partnership,...

  15. Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

    2014-07-01

    Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

  16. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  17. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for UK radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbow, Steven J.; Rivett, Michael O.; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W.; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J.; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-01

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material - PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  18. Statistical methods and errors in family medicine articles between 2010 and 2014-Suez Canal University, Egypt: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah

    2016-01-01

    Background: With limited statistical knowledge of most physicians it is not uncommon to find statistical errors in research articles. Objectives: To determine the statistical methods and to assess the statistical errors in family medicine (FM) research articles that were published between 2010 and 2014. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All 66 FM research articles that were published over 5 years by FM authors with affiliation to Suez Canal University were screened by the researcher between May and August 2015. Types and frequencies of statistical methods were reviewed in all 66 FM articles. All 60 articles with identified inferential statistics were examined for statistical errors and deficiencies. A comprehensive 58-item checklist based on statistical guidelines was used to evaluate the statistical quality of FM articles. Results: Inferential methods were recorded in 62/66 (93.9%) of FM articles. Advanced analyses were used in 29/66 (43.9%). Contingency tables 38/66 (57.6%), regression (logistic, linear) 26/66 (39.4%), and t-test 17/66 (25.8%) were the most commonly used inferential tests. Within 60 FM articles with identified inferential statistics, no prior sample size 19/60 (31.7%), application of wrong statistical tests 17/60 (28.3%), incomplete documentation of statistics 59/60 (98.3%), reporting P value without test statistics 32/60 (53.3%), no reporting confidence interval with effect size measures 12/60 (20.0%), use of mean (standard deviation) to describe ordinal/nonnormal data 8/60 (13.3%), and errors related to interpretation were mainly for conclusions without support by the study data 5/60 (8.3%). Conclusion: Inferential statistics were used in the majority of FM articles. Data analysis and reporting statistics are areas for improvement in FM research articles. PMID:27453839

  19. Geometry and architecture of faults in a syn-rift normal fault array: The Nukhul half-graben, Suez rift, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul; Gawthorpe, Rob L.; Hodgetts, David; Rarity, Franklin; Sharp, Ian R.

    2009-08-01

    The geometry and architecture of a well exposed syn-rift normal fault array in the Suez rift is examined. At pre-rift level, the Nukhul fault consists of a single zone of intense deformation up to 10 m wide, with a significant monocline in the hanging wall and much more limited folding in the footwall. At syn-rift level, the fault zone is characterised by a single discrete fault zone less than 2 m wide, with damage zone faults up to approximately 200 m into the hanging wall, and with no significant monocline developed. The evolution of the fault from a buried structure with associated fault-propagation folding, to a surface-breaking structure with associated surface faulting, has led to enhanced bedding-parallel slip at lower levels that is absent at higher levels. Strain is enhanced at breached relay ramps and bends inherited from pre-existing structures that were reactivated during rifting. Damage zone faults observed within the pre-rift show ramp-flat geometries associated with contrast in competency of the layers cut and commonly contain zones of scaly shale or clay smear. Damage zone faults within the syn-rift are commonly very straight, and may be discrete fault planes with no visible fault rock at the scale of observation, or contain relatively thin and simple zones of scaly shale or gouge. The geometric and architectural evolution of the fault array is interpreted to be the result of (i) the evolution from distributed trishear deformation during upward propagation of buried fault tips to surface faulting after faults breach the surface; (ii) differences in deformation response between lithified pre-rift units that display high competence contrasts during deformation, and unlithified syn-rift units that display low competence contrasts during deformation, and; (iii) the history of segmentation, growth and linkage of the faults that make up the fault array. This has important implications for fluid flow in fault zones.

  20. The involvement of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and aggrecan in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Enescu, Anca Stefania; Mărgăritescu, C L; Crăiţoiu, Monica Mihaela; Enescu, Aurelia; Crăiţoiu, Ştefania

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland tumor with annual incidence of 2-3.5/100 000 in population. The histogenesis of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma is still unclear. One concept sustains the existence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) process in pleomorphic adenomas by which neoplastic epithelial cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells and leading to tissue heterogeneity from this salivary gland neoplasia. Here we investigate by immunohistochemistry the expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and aggrecan in 15 cases of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. We found that both markers were present in normal salivary gland, mainly in the cells that line striated and intercalated ducts suggesting their involvement in the morphogenesis of this duct system. A constant positive reactivity for both markers was recorded in transition regions from tubular proliferative units to myxoid areas suggesting the involvement of an EMT process during the tumorigenesis of such salivary gland neoplasia. Also, both markers may be implicated in the transdifferentiation of neoplastic myoepithelial cells from the myxoid zones to lacuna cells of adjacent chondroid areas completing the morphology of this salivary gland tumor.

  1. The Maternal Maverick/GDF15-like TGF-β Ligand Panda Directs Dorsal-Ventral Axis Formation by Restricting Nodal Expression in the Sea Urchin Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Haillot, Emmanuel; Molina, Maria Dolores; Lapraz, François; Lepage, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Specification of the dorsal-ventral axis in the highly regulative sea urchin embryo critically relies on the zygotic expression of nodal, but whether maternal factors provide the initial spatial cue to orient this axis is not known. Although redox gradients have been proposed to entrain the dorsal-ventral axis by acting upstream of nodal, manipulating the activity of redox gradients only has modest consequences, suggesting that other factors are responsible for orienting nodal expression and defining the dorsal-ventral axis. Here we uncover the function of Panda, a maternally provided transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) ligand that requires the activin receptor-like kinases (Alk) Alk3/6 and Alk1/2 receptors to break the radial symmetry of the embryo and orient the dorsal-ventral axis by restricting nodal expression. We found that the double inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors Alk3/6 and Alk1/2 causes a phenotype dramatically more severe than the BMP2/4 loss-of-function phenotype, leading to extreme ventralization of the embryo through massive ectopic expression of nodal, suggesting that an unidentified signal acting through BMP type I receptors cooperates with BMP2/4 to restrict nodal expression. We identified this ligand as the product of maternal Panda mRNA. Double inactivation of panda and bmp2/4 led to extreme ventralization, mimicking the phenotype caused by inactivation of the two BMP receptors. Inhibition of maternal panda mRNA translation disrupted the early spatial restriction of nodal, leading to persistent massive ectopic expression of nodal on the dorsal side despite the presence of Lefty. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Panda is not a prototypical BMP ligand but a member of a subfamily of TGF-β distantly related to Inhibins, Lefty, and TGF-β that includes Maverick from Drosophila and GDF15 from vertebrates. Indeed, overexpression of Panda does not appear to directly or strongly activate phosphoSmad1

  2. The Maternal Maverick/GDF15-like TGF-β Ligand Panda Directs Dorsal-Ventral Axis Formation by Restricting Nodal Expression in the Sea Urchin Embryo.

    PubMed

    Haillot, Emmanuel; Molina, Maria Dolores; Lapraz, François; Lepage, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Specification of the dorsal-ventral axis in the highly regulative sea urchin embryo critically relies on the zygotic expression of nodal, but whether maternal factors provide the initial spatial cue to orient this axis is not known. Although redox gradients have been proposed to entrain the dorsal-ventral axis by acting upstream of nodal, manipulating the activity of redox gradients only has modest consequences, suggesting that other factors are responsible for orienting nodal expression and defining the dorsal-ventral axis. Here we uncover the function of Panda, a maternally provided transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) ligand that requires the activin receptor-like kinases (Alk) Alk3/6 and Alk1/2 receptors to break the radial symmetry of the embryo and orient the dorsal-ventral axis by restricting nodal expression. We found that the double inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors Alk3/6 and Alk1/2 causes a phenotype dramatically more severe than the BMP2/4 loss-of-function phenotype, leading to extreme ventralization of the embryo through massive ectopic expression of nodal, suggesting that an unidentified signal acting through BMP type I receptors cooperates with BMP2/4 to restrict nodal expression. We identified this ligand as the product of maternal Panda mRNA. Double inactivation of panda and bmp2/4 led to extreme ventralization, mimicking the phenotype caused by inactivation of the two BMP receptors. Inhibition of maternal panda mRNA translation disrupted the early spatial restriction of nodal, leading to persistent massive ectopic expression of nodal on the dorsal side despite the presence of Lefty. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Panda is not a prototypical BMP ligand but a member of a subfamily of TGF-β distantly related to Inhibins, Lefty, and TGF-β that includes Maverick from Drosophila and GDF15 from vertebrates. Indeed, overexpression of Panda does not appear to directly or strongly activate phosphoSmad1

  3. Sub-10 nm Sr2LuF7:Yb/Er@Sr2GdF7@SrF2 Up-Conversion Nanocrystals for Up-Conversion Luminescence-Magnetic Resonance-Computed Tomography Trimodal Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cailing; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Ying; Li, Chunguang; Liu, Xiaomin; Huang, He; Liang, Chen; Lou, Yue; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2017-02-22

    Herein, sub-10 nm core-shell nanocrystals (NCs), which select Sr2LuF7:Yb/Er as core, Sr2GdF7 as middle shell, and SrF2 as an outermost shell, were synthesized by a seed-mediated growth process. The NCs possess good crystallinity, morphology, and up-conversion luminescent properties. After modification by polyethylenimine branched (PEI), in vitro cell up-conversion imaging with low autofluorescence was realized. Due to the presence of Gd(3+) ions, in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was also achieved with these designed NCs. More significantly, these special core-shell NCs exhibited high contrast in in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging because of their good X-ray absorption ability. These results indicate that the core-shell up-conversion NCs can serve as promising contrast agents for up-conversion luminescence-MR-CT trimodal bioimaging.

  4. Two new Myxidium species (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) infecting the gallbladder of African flying fish, Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier, Caesio suevicus from the Red Sea, Egypt: a morphological and morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

    2009-08-01

    Myxidium maamouni sp. n. and Myxidium aydai sp. n. were described from the gallbladder of the African flying fish Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier Caesio suevicus, respectively. Fishes were collected from the Red Sea at Al-Quseir, Egypt. M. maamouni have irregular to mostly rounded polysporous plasmodia with diameter of 27 microm. Spores were sigmoid or S-shaped and sometimes spindle-shaped in the frontal view with smooth valves. They measured 13.5 x 8.0 x 8.2 microm in size. Their polar capsules were equal pyriform and measured 7.0 x 3.2 microm in size with nine to 12 coils. Spores of M. aydai were spindle-shaped in the frontal view with thin smooth valves. They measured 23.0 x 5.6 x 5.5 microm in size. Their polar capsules were pyriform and measured 7.2 x 3.4 microm in size with eight to nine coils.

  5. Volcano-sedimentary characteristics in the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez District, Egypt: Example of dynamics and fluidization over sedimentary and volcaniclastic beds by emplacement of syn-volcanic basaltic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Abdel Motelib, A.; Hammed, M. S.; El Manawi, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the Neogene lava-sediment mingling from the Abu Treifiya Basin, Cairo-Suez district, Egypt. The lava-sediment interactions as peperites have been identified for the first time at the study area and can be used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The identification of peperite reflects contemporaneous time relationship between volcanism and sedimentation and this finding is of primary importance to address the evolutional reconstruction of the Abu Treifiya Basin. Characterization of the facies architecture and textural framework of peperites was carried out through detailed description and interpretation of their outcrops. The peperites and sedimentary rocks are up to 350 m thick and form a distinct stratigraphic framework of diverse lithology that is widespread over several kilometers at the study area. Lateral and vertical facies of the peperites vary from sediment intercalated with the extrusive/intrusive basaltic rocks forming peperitic breccias to lava-sediment contacts at a large to small scales, respectively. Peperites encompass five main facies types ascribed to: (i) carbonate sediments-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (ii) lava flow-hosted blocky peperites, (iii) volcaniclastics-hosted fluidal and blocky peperites, (iv) sandstone/siltstone rocks-hosted blocky peperites, and (iv) debris-flows-hosted blocky peperites. Soft sediment deformation structures, vesiculated sediments, sediments filled-vesicles, and fractures in lava flows indicate that lava flows mingled with unconsolidated wet sediments. All the peperites in this study could be described as blocky or fluidal, but mixtures of different clast shapes occur regardless of the host sediment. The presence of fluidal and blocky juvenile clasts elucidates different eruptive styles, reflecting a ductile and brittle fragmentation. The gradual variation from fluidal to blocky peperite texture, producing the vertical grading is affected by influencing factors, e.g., the viscosity, magma

  6. 76 FR 77222 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Corporation, FirstLight Power Resources Management, L,GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc., Green Mountain Power..., Goshen Phase II, LLC, Long Island Solar Farm LLC, Rolling Thunder I Power Partners, LLC, Watson... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  7. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean... turret loading (STL) buoys and accompanying systems that are part of GDF Suez Energy's Neptune Deepwater... of a final regulatory action, which will be proposed in a separate rulemaking docket titled:...

  8. 77 FR 273 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Generation Limited Partnership, Hot Spring Power Company, LLC,GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc., IPA Trading, LLC, Choctaw Gas Generation, LLC, FirstLight Power Resources Management, L, ANP Funding I, LLC..., Brookfield Energy Marketing US LLC, Brookfield Power Piney & Deep Creek LLC, Brookfield Renewable...

  9. Suez Canal Clearance Operation, Task Force 65

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    and remove the four wrecks from the central region of the canal; DREDGE 23, Tug MONGUED, Dredge KASSER and a Concrete Caisson. All salvage operations...feet BUCKET DREDGE NO. 23 72.00 1600 tons 191 feet TUG MONGUED 81.50 1200 tons 165 feet DIPPER DREDGE KASSER 81.50 1200 tons 125 feet CONCRETE CAISSON...MONGUED, DREDGE KASSER , and DREDGE 23 to wet dump in the Great Bitter Lake. Heavy crane THOR arrived in Port Said after transit from Hamburg, Germany

  10. Investigation of Prolific Sheep from UK and Ireland for Evidence on Origin of the Mutations in BMP15 (FecXG, FecXB) and GDF9 (FecGH) in Belclare and Cambridge Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael P.; Hanrahan, James P.; Howard, Dawn J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecXG and FecXB) and the third (FecGH) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecXB, has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Lleyn breeds. The development of both composites also involved major contributions from exceptionally prolific ewes screened from flocks in Ireland (Belclare) and Britain (Cambridge) during the 1960s. The objective of the current study was to establish the likely origin of the mutations (FecXG, FecXB and FecGH) through analysis of DNA from Finnish Landrace and Lleyn sheep, and Galway and Texel breeds which contributed to the development of the Belclare breed. Ewes with exceptionally high prolificacy (hyper-prolific ewes) in current flocks on Irish farms were identified to simulate the screening of ewes from Irish flocks in the 1960s. DNA was obtained from: prolific ewes in extant flocks of Lleyn sheep (n = 44) on the Lleyn peninsula in Wales; hyper-prolific ewes (n = 41); prolific Galway (n = 41) ewes; Finnish Landrace (n = 124) and Texel (n = 19) ewes. The FecXG mutation was identified in Lleyn but not in Finnish Landrace, Galway or Texel sheep; FecXB was only found among the hyper-prolific ewes. The FecGH mutation was identified in the sample of Lleyn sheep. It was concluded from these findings that the Lleyn breed was the most likely source of the FecXG and FecGH mutations in Belclare and Cambridge sheep and that the FecXB mutation came from the High Fertility line that was developed using prolific ewes selected from commercial flocks in Ireland in the 1960′s and subsequently used in the genesis of the Belclare. PMID:23301039

  11. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-01-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consist of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of later Proterozoic age. The main granitic luton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian sheild. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alternation/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers.

  12. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-02-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consists of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of late Proterozoic age. The main granitic pluton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian shield. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alteration/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers. A model has been constructed to illustrate the changes in the primary rock texture and structure with sequential diagenetic processes, taking into consideration the fracture distribution and their opening affinities as related to their depths.

  13. Interaction between acari ectoparasites and rodents in Suez Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Younis, T A; Fayad, M E; el Hariry, M A; Morsy, T A

    1995-08-01

    From the medical point of view, the relation between man and rodents comes in the priority. Some rodent populations are wild but others are commensal and live in close association with man. They steal his food and conveying many zoonotic diseases. Their arthropod ectoparasites play an important role in conveying or transmitting these zoonotic diseases. Several disorders and diseases of man are tick borne relapsing fever, Rocky mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and many others. Besides numerous species of mites occasionally infest man. They transmit several diseases as Rickettsia tsutsugamushi fever, epidemic haemorrhagic fever, and they cause severe allergic reaction. The results obtained are summarized in the following (1) Six species and subspecies of rodents were detected. In a descending order of abundance, they were (a) Rattus norvegicus, (b) Rattus rattus alexandrinus (c) Rattus rattus frugivorous (d) Acomys cahirinus (e) Gerbillus gerbillus asyutensis (f) Mus m. praetextus. (2) The most common rodent was R. norvegicus and the least common was M. musculus. (3) The collected ticks and mites were 2 genera of tick larvae; Rhipicephalus species and Hyalomma species. The collected mites were Ornithonyssus bacoti and Laelaps nuttali. (4) Most of the tick larvae were collected from wild rodents; Gerbillus g. asyutensis. (5) Most of the mites were collected from commensal rodents particularly R. norvegicus. Descriptive morphology and illustrations were given to the collected rodents and their acari ectoparasites.

  14. Eisenhower and Suez: An Appraisal of Presidential Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    the position was still in the 15 Dwight D. Eisenhower Diary, May 14, 1953, Ann Whitman File, Eisenhower Library. See also Robert H. Ferrell ed., The...Wilson’s background and shortcomings, see p. 48. 18 As quoted in Ferrell , The Eisenhower Diaries. p. 237. 20 all of what embarrassment his remarks...Egyptian nationalism and Communism vanished. 23 R. H. Ferrell , ed., The Eisenhower Diaries (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1981) pp. 318-319. 24 Ibid., p

  15. The 1956 Suez Crisis and the United Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-17

    crossroad since 1945. By 2003, Iraq had violated seventeen UN resolutions, had expelled UN weapons inspectors, and had funded suicide bombings in Israel...Sierra Leone in 1996 and 1997. When these enablers of coercive order left, gangs of armed, drugged-addicted teenagers ravaged the city for two years...allies was that world opinion favored Egypt as a “victim of imperialist bullies .” Selwyn Lloyd wrote that Dwight Eisenhower “had twice let us down and

  16. Stockage thermique saisonnier par puits geothermiques pour batiments residentiels equipes de panneaux photovoltaiques-thermiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brischoux, Pauline

    The energy efficiency of a ground-source heat pump system with solar heat injection from photovoltaic-thermal panels is evaluated. The system provides heat to a single-family house located in Montreal. Unlike conventional GSHP systems, the borehole, or boreholes, is equipped with two independent fluid circuits. Thus, it is possible to inject heat from the solar panels and extract energy with the heat pump simultaneously. First, the system is analyzed with a single borehole using numerical simulations within the TRNSYS environment. Results show that the heat injection in the borehole increases the efficiency of the system and limits the reduction in performance caused by unbalanced ground loads. However, part of the heat injected during the summer is lost by thermal diffusion to the ground surrounding the borehole and a single borehole is not appropriate for seasonal thermal energy storage. A study of the same system is performed after replacing the single borehole by a borefield consisting of 15 shallow boreholes. This analysis points out the technical feasibility of seasonal borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems for residential applications. Such a system reaches a higher energy efficiency than the system including a single borehole with solar charging but requires a large storage volume. The last part of this thesis presents a preliminary study of an ice storage system. The results are compared to the BTES in terms of energy efficiency and needed configuration. The system with BTES requires a large storage volume but achieves a high overall energy efficiency. The ice storage system involves a much smaller storage volume but does not seem to be able to reach an energy efficiency similar to the BTES, the heat pump inlet temperature being limited by the low storage temperature. However, the overall energy efficiency of this system is similar to conventional GSHP systems, i.e. without solar charging.

  17. Sedimentation and early rift development in the northwest Red Sea and Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Purser, B.H.; Orszag-Sperber, F.; Plaziat, J.C. )

    1988-08-01

    Late Oligocene and early Miocene strike-slip and vertical displacement created a system of structural depressions and highs which strongly influenced the localization of continental, protorift sediments. Alluvial fans prograded along grabens, generally oriented obliquely to the rift axis. These initial sediments, together with underlying prerift basement, were subsequently deformed, the resulting system of structural highs and lows influencing the mineralogy and geometry of the succeeding lower Miocene marine sediments. Lows oriented obliquely with respect to the rift axis continued to function as depocenters for siliciclastic marine-fan sedimentation. Other half-grabens oriented parallel to the axis trapped detritals, permitting carbonate sedimentation along the seaward side of the adjacent blocks. Carbonates accumulated as reefs concentrated along the margins of small structural platforms and as spectacular talus deposits on nearby flanks. These slope deposits prograded at variable rates which depend on both the angle and its orientation with respect to the onshore paleocurrent direction. The relationship between tectonic blocks and contemporaneous sedimentation, relatively intimate during the early phases, gradually becomes more remote as the carbonate slopes prograde asymmetrically with respect to the initial structural axes.

  18. Petrophysical and petrographic evaluation of Sidri Member of Belayim Formation, Badri field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudeif, A. M.; Attia, M. M.; Radwan, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    Presence of sandstone streaks in Sidri Member within Belayim Formation that lies between two productive zones; Kareem Formation and Hammam Faraun Member, was the main reason to perform this study. It may represent a good hydrocarbon reservoir and will be added to the Egyptian oil production in some wells of Badri field. This Member has high resistivity signature on Electric-logs responses which attracted the attention to investigate its occurrence in the field, to delineate its distribution all-over the area, to evaluate the petrographic and petrophysical characteristics and to evaluate its productivity. Petrographic and petrophysical analyses of these sand zones were undertaken using thin section samples. The electric logs and subsurface geologic data was used to evaluate the main reservoir characteristics of the Sidri sandstone such as lithology, cementation, shale volume, porosity (Φ), effective porosity (Φ eff), estimated permeability (K), fluid saturation, fluid type and Net pay thickness. This study revealed that, Sidri sandstone facies was classified into two mainly sandy facies; blocky sandy facies which located at the northern part of the field and streaky sandy facies at the southern area of the field. These two facies are separated by shaley facies. Some wells were studied to represent the two sandy facies in Sidri Member and these sand intervals have not been tested yet. These sands consist of quartz grains with grey and pink feldspars as accessory minerals, with siliceous and calcareous cementation, with good porosity. Petrophysical evaluation of this sand unit indicated that it is hydrocarbon bearing formation in three wells and water bearing one in other wells. Electrical logs analysis (Resistivity, Density-Neutron, Sonic and Gamma-Ray) revealed that The volume of shale in this sandstone, the effective porosity, the water saturation, the estimated permeability, the hydrocarbon saturation, and the net-pay thickness are varying from 9 to 13%, 19%-22%, 26%-34%, 200 and 600 mD, 66 and 74%, 20-35 feet respectively. The fluid types are oil, gas and water.

  19. Provenance of Gebel El-Zeit sandstones, gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wahab, Antar A.

    1992-01-01

    The Paleozoic elastic succession at Gebel Zeit chiefly consists of fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite, locally containing well-rounded quartz pebbles. The marine Araba Formation (Early Cambrian) was deposited during transgression over a Precambrian granite. The overlying Naqus Formation (Late Cambrian) is fluvial, except for the uppermost few meters. Paleocurrent data for the Araba and Naqus formations indicate derivation from the north-northeast and south-southwest respectively. Quartz typology, other morphologic features of quartz, and mineral inclusions in quartz, as well as the study of heavy minerals were used to determine the provenance of the sandstones. Quartz typology successfully identified a granitic source for the Araba Formation. A combination of parameters indicates that the Naqus Formation was derived chiefly from a metamorphic terrain. Two ratios, polycrystalline/monocrystalline quartz and undulose/non-undulose quartz, successfully distinguish sandstones of the Araba Formation from those of the Naqus Formation. These values are 0.14 and 0.25 for Araba sandstones and 0.26 and 0.46 for Naqus sandstones, respectively. These differences either reflect different source rocks, or have resulted from selective abrasion loss of polycrystalline quartz in the rigorous surf zone during the marine transgression that deposited the Araba Formation.

  20. Diagenesis of diagenetic quartzarenites, Gebel El-Zeit area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Wahab, A.A.; McBridge, E.F. )

    1990-05-01

    At the northern corner of El Zeit Range, 370 m of sandstone overlie Precambrian granite and underlie Cretaceous marine strata. The sandstones include the marine Lower Cambrian Araba Formation and the overlying dominantly fluvial Upper Cambrian( ) Naqus Formation The framework composition of both sandstones is almost entirely quartz with trace amounts of muscovite, K-feldspar, and heavy minerals. Up to 18% oversize pores, some filled with younger cements, attest to extensive dissolution loss of detrital grains. Because the final mineralogical maturation of these quartzarenites was through diagenesis, they are diagenetic quartzarenite. During burial diagenesis, the introduction of 5% quartz cement (unhomogeneously distributed) was followed by locally pore-occluding calcite cement. The sands were then compacted sufficiently to develop slightly sutured quartz grain contacts. These events were followed by extensive dissolution loss of carbonate cement, detrital feldspars, micas, and heavy minerals; by the formation of local patches of kaolinite (average = 6%); and by the formation of extensive iron-oxide cement, including specular hematite. These features suggest extensive invasion of meteoric water and exposure to oxidizing conditions. The time of this event can only be dated as post-Cambrian( ) and pre-Cenomanian. Some outcrop samples contain pore-occluding gypsum cement or mixtures of gypsum and halite cement. Sr{sup 87}/Sr{sup 86} ratios of four samples of gypsum cement have two modes equal to 0.7079 and 0.7085. These values are those of Miocene and slightly younger seawater. They suggest that evaporites were leached by modern meteoric water from nearby exposed Miocene and younger marine evaporite-bearing strata, transported in surface and groundwater to the topographically low terrain where the Cambrian sandstones crop out, and were precipitated by evaporation of surface water.

  1. Strong motion simulation at Abu Zenima city, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Amin Esmail

    2013-06-01

    Earthquake hazard assessments are an important task for the design of earthquake resistant structures and insurance industry. Such assessments get more importance when the site of interest is located near an active earthquake zone. Such situation is present for the location of Abu Zenima city. The city is characterized by the presence of industrial and Maritime platform in addition to other Oil production facilities. These industrial facilities motivated the present work. The simulated earthquake ground motion time histories are conducted using stochastic technique. The magnitude used for simulation is obtained using both probabilistic and deterministic approaches. An analysis using both approaches shows that moderate earthquakes in the vicinity of the site could have the largest effects on the area. Thus an earthquake of magnitude 4.5 at a distance of 21 km is chosen as design earthquake. The simulated ground motions are presented in terms of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time histories. In addition the response spectra are also presented that may be used for engineering purposes.

  2. Revolution in Egypt and the Potential for a New Suez Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    the long term. Egypt and the U.S. also participate in joint exercises fostering interoperability. Bright Star is a biannual, multinational training... energy of Arab armies is devoted to the task of regime preservation that it detracts gravely from their war-fighting capacity. He cites the defeats... Appliances ." National Public Radio. February 4, 2011. http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2011/02/10/133501837/why-egypts- military-cares-about-home

  3. Kinematics of the Suez-Sinai area from combined GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrantonio, G.; Devoti, R.; Mahmoud, S.; Riguzzi, F.

    2016-12-01

    A combined GPS velocity solution covering a wide area from Egypt to Middle East allowed us to infer the current rates across the main, already well known, tectonic features. We have estimated 126 velocities from time series of 90 permanent and 36 non permanent GPS sites located in Africa (Egypt), Eurasia and Arabia plates in the time span 1996-2015, the largest available for the Egyptian sites. We have combined our velocity solution in a least-squares sense with two other recent velocity solutions of networks located around the eastern Mediterranean, obtaining a final IGb08 velocity field of about 450 sites. Then, we have estimated the IGb08 Euler poles of Africa, Sinai and Arabia, analyzing the kinematics of the Sinai area, particular velocity profiles, and estimating the 2D strain rate field. We show that it is possible to reliably model the rigid motion of Sinai block only including some GPS sites located south of the Carmel Fault. The estimated relative motion with respect to Africa is of the order of 2-3 mm/yr, however there is a clear mismatch between the modeled and the observed velocities in the southern Sinai sites. We have also assessed the NNE left shear motion along the Dead Sea Transform Fault, estimating a relative motion between Arabia and Africa of about 6 mm/yr in the direction of the Red Sea opening.

  4. Simulation d'un systeme de stockage saisonnier de glace pour la climatisation d'un batiment commercial ou institutionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Raul Alberto

    The principal goal of this study was to evaluate, using numerical simulation, the feasibility of an air conditioning system, supported by a seasonal ice storage system, installed in a commercial or institutional building. In this regard, the effects of changing several elements around the design of two possible scenarios were modeled in TRNSYS using Matlab® as a programming tool. In the first scenario, the air demanded inside the building passes directly through the ice storage system. In a second scenario, a closed loop pipe full of glycol transports the heat between the ice reservoir and an air cooling coil. First of all, the literature review shows some studies and earlier relevant applications, as well as different solving methods for moving boundary problems in a biphasic medium (waterice). Next, the heat load profile for a typical institutional building in Montreal is determined as a reference point using EE4 and three different methods of solving the boundary motion problem are compared for both, ice training and ice melting. Subsequently, the design parameters are presented for each scenario. This is followed by a description of the programming codes in Matlab® and the components that have been implemented in TRNSYS. Finally, the results involving the heat exchanged and the waterice boundary movements, among others, are collected for one year and for three years. The simulations of both scenarios have also included the experimental variation of some parameters such as the construction area for the ice reservoir, the duration of the ice melting period and other related physical variables. A final analysis of results was followed by an economic study, which considered the changes in initial investment and the potential energy savings for each scenario, compared with a traditional air conditioning unit. This showed that, although research is still needed on many improvements in the design of scenarios and whether its application is limited by several macroeconomic factors, a seasonal ice storage system is an appealing option in energy efficiency terms and it could potentially be, technically and ecologically, a good way to obtain energy savings.

  5. L'influence des batiments et de l'inclinaison des forages sur le dimensionnement des systemes geothermiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordanengo, Maude

    In new constructions, it often happens that Ground-Loop Heat Exchangers (GLHE) are positioned beneath the building foundation rather than outside. This can be due to a lack of space, for example in urban zones, or a simple choice of conception. At present, the available analytical models do not account for the thermal interaction between the building and the ground. This simplification means that we consider the geothermal system to be located outside of the building, what might bring errors for the sizing of the system. The thermal disturbance created by the building increases the average temperature of the ground beneath it. Our assumption is the following: when the geothermal system is operating in dominant heating mode, the effect of heat transferred from the building will be positive; it will be negative when operating in the dominant cooling mode. The proposed approach is based on the superposition principle in space. It is necessary to begin with a finite element model (FEM) of a building into the ground and by applying the heat equation we quantify the heat transfer of a 3D building into the ground. Afterward, the building thermal model is superposed with the analytical answer of a GLHE. We assume the temperature variations obtained from two models can be added everywhere. It is interesting to observe that factors such as the size of the building, the presence of insulation between the slab and the GLHE, the climate and the inclination of the boreholes interfere with the ground temperature. This works aim at testing the approach on synthetic cases, but also by means of real data. The building model is in steady state, whereas the ground analytical response is in transient state. This study demonstrates that the effect of the building can be favourable or unfavourable according to the heat load profile to the ground. If it is unbalanced in cooling, the effect is negative whereas if the heat loads to the ground are dominant in heating, it' effect is positive. When there is unbalanced loads in cooling, the temperature of the fluid entering the heat pump (EWT) increases in time and aims to reach the superior limit of the heat pump. The addition of the heat generated by the building in that case will increase EWT and will induce a loss of autonomy of the system. However, when the heat loads to the ground are heating dominant, the temperature of the fluid entering the heat pump follows the inverse tendency and decreases in time. The lower limit of the heat pump can be reached. Because the effect of the building is increasing the EWT, it is worthwhile for the autonomy of the system. If the EWT does not reach both limits of the heat pump, the system can be oversized and useless costs would be involved. The length of boreholes is an important factor on the quantity of additional heat which can be gained. For the same dimension of building, the shorter the borehole, the more the effect of the building is important. For 50 meter boreholes positioned beneath the building, we can gain 1.3°C on the average ground temperature in the center of the building. In the tested synthetic cases, the arrangement of boreholes beneath the building allows a 12% maximum additional rise of autonomy in a heating dominant system. The second factor considered in this study is the inclination of the boreholes. The comparison of the performances between vertical or slightly tilted boreholes reveals a beneficial effect of the inclination of borehole as well in heating dominant mode that in cooling dominant mode. The decrease of the interactions between boreholes explains this result. The gains of performance are of the order of those obtained by the building in heating dominant mode. The combination of both strategies leads to a 25% maximum rise of autonomy for short borehole (50 m) slightly tilted. However, in cooling dominant mode, the inclination of boreholes remains beneficial while the effect of the building is disadvantageous to the performance of the system. The net effect of both factors varies according to the characteristics of the load profile. In Quebec, as heating mode is usually dominant, we can assume that the inclination of borehole as well as the effect of the building are worthwhile to be considered in the sizing of GLHE.

  6. Building Maintenance Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'entretien des batiments. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for building maintenance mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  7. A GDI/GDF-like system for sorting and shuttling ciliary proteins.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Shehab

    2016-08-03

    Post/co-translational modifications by the addition of lipids take place in a vast number of proteins. Rab and Rho are small G proteins which are prenylated and targeted to membranes in complex with solubilizing factors called guanosine dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). The release of Rab and Rho at the correct destination from their cognate GDI has been proposed to be mediated through GDI displacement factors. However this mechanism is yet to be established and it has been shown that loading of Rab proteins with GTP at the destination can be sufficient for their correct targeting. PDE6D shares structural homology with Rho GDI and solubilises several prenylated proteins and mediate their targeting to different destinations including cilia. In a paper published by Fansa et al, the authors propose that sorting of cargo is dependent on the differential release by bona fide GDFs, Arl2 and Arl3, and the localization of the active Arl3GTP in cilia.

  8. Integrated petrophysical and lithofacies studies of lower-middle Miocene reservoirs in Belayim marine oil field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Ali, El-Khadragy; Emad El Din Abd Elrazik, Eysa; Shebl Azam, Salah; Ahmed Hassan, Saleh

    2016-05-01

    The reservoir parameters (total gross thickness, shale volume, total porosity, effective porosity, water saturation, bulk pore volume, net pay thickness and oil in place indicator) of Kareem and Belayim formations are studied through nine wells and mapped to show the aerial distribution of these parameters. Interpretation of these maps showed that, the best locations of hydrocarbon accumulation in Belayim marine oil field are middle part, northeast and the south west directions for Kareem formation and southwest and northeast directions for Belayim formation. The petrophysical results of Belayim formation were presented in the form of 3D slicing models to exhibit the variation of these parameters in the different directions. Cross plots of Kareem formation were done using neutron, density and sonic logs which is directly influenced by the matrix composition. By using two or three porosity logs reading we determined the porosity and evaluated the matrix characteristics of Kareem formation as it is considered as a good reservoir for oil and gas and mainly composed of sand stone. Finally, facies maps for Kareem and Belayim formations which established using composite logs indicate that, the environment of deposition of Kareem formation was deep marine in the middle and northern parts and shallow in the southern parts of the study area, meanwhile in Belayim formation the environment of deposition was in lagoonal through the deposition of Baba and Feiran members and shallow to deep during the sedimentation of Sidri and Hammam Faraun members.

  9. Sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental studies on the clastic sequence of Gebel El-Zeit area, gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wahab, Antar; Allam, A.; Kholief, M.; Salem, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present work deals with the sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Palaeozoic clastic sequence (Cambrian?) of the Gebel El-Zeit area. The sandstones which build up the major part of this sequence are fine to coarse grained moderately to well sorted, mostly of unimodal patterns, strongly fine skewed to near symmetrical and vary from meso- to very lepto-kurtic. The grain-size parameters and their bivariate relations do not give an exact environment of deposition nevertheless, most of them have a fluviatile origin. So, the application of some of the bivariate relations to ancient sediments, which microscopically show mild or no cementation, is still valid if coupled with other parameters, such as sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent analysis and other confirmed data. The palaeocurrent analysis indicates that these sandstones came from two completely different sources. A marine transgression from the north northeast produced the Araba Formation, whereas the Naqus Formation has been interpreted as fluvial. The source is situated to the south southwest. The streams were probably very erratic and intermittent.

  10. Studies on rodents role as reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis with specical reference to their ectoparasites in Suez Governorate.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Nahla M; El-Naggar, Mostafa H; Darwish, Ahmed B; Soliman, Belal A; El-Sawaf, Bahira M

    2006-04-01

    The distribution of rodents was studied in three different habitats. Seven rodent species were identified: Rattus norvegicus, R. alexandrinus, R. frugivorous, Mus musculus, Acomys russatus, Meriones sacramenti and Gerbillus pyramidum. The species distribution varied with the habitat type. The highest density of rodents was in July and August and the lowest one was in January. However, some species were collected all the year round. The rodents were investigated for the endo- and ecto-parasites. No Leishmania parasites were found. The ectoparasites were: Xenopsylla cheopis, Leptopsylla segnis and Ctenocephalides felis, Polyplax spinulos, Hyalomma dromedarii (nymph) and Echinolaelaps echidninus and Hemolaelaps glassgowi. Ecto-parasites were on rodents all year-round in domestic habitat and peridomestic habitats. In wild one, ecto-parasites activity was from March to December. The rodents' role as reservoir for L. major was experimentally studied. Rodents inoculated with L. major together with hamster and BALB-c mice developed cutaneous lesions. The active lesions, the rodents' ecological habitats and the presence of insect-vector may pave the way to an epidemic zoonotic leishmaniasis role.

  11. Success in Opposite Direction: Strategic Culture and the French Experience in Indochina, the Suez, and Algeria, 1945-1962

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    document and textual analysis of written records.65 Additionally, John Stuart Mill’s “Method of Differences” has some relevance to this study. Mill ...Research," Perspectives in Clinical Research 4, no. 3 (2013): 192. 66 John Stuart Mill , A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, Being a...Reappraisal, edited by S. Ilan Troen and Moshe Shemesh, xiv, 395 p. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1990. 55 Mill , John Stuart . A System of

  12. Methodologie d'evaluation de la demande de chaleur des groupes de batiments dans le cadre d'une etude de faisabilite du chauffage urbain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirion-Blais, Olivier

    In the context of energy efficiency improvements to pulp and paper mills, process modifications allow to free low quality steam. This kind of low pressure and temperature steam is often found to be in excess in mills. New opportunities to use this energy could be created by gathering plants along with local communities and other enterprises into eco-industrial clusters. Following this proposition, district heating is an interesting technology that could be developed. It consists in supplying buildings with steam or hot water from one or more central heating plants through a series of canalization, generally underground. The supplied energy is used mostly for space heating but it can also be used with appliances specially designed for this purpose. Under certain conditions, this type of heating is cheaper and more environmentally friendly for several reasons including the facts that one central boiler plant is more efficient and has lower pollutant emissions due to better combustion control. Moreover, it can be adapted to multiple fuels that are locally available such as biomass around some pulp and paper mills. However, to insure that the savings occur, the heat demand must be sufficiently high and concentrated. Therefore, detailed feasibility studies shall be conducted to justify significant investments. Such studies require a lot of time not to mention that they necessitate a lot of data which can be difficult to obtain. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology that can assess the feasibility of district heating quickly and using easily accessible data. It was mainly designed to determine the heat consumption, which is especially critical as to decide whether or not to implement this technology. The focus is primarily directed on residential buildings, but another methodology is also developed to take into account the commercial and institutional buildings demand. An analysis of the sources of data revealed a certain redundancy among them. Therefore, four different computation procedures were developed to obtain the heat consumption of residential buildings: • C1, the first procedure, is the most time consuming one. It is also the one that uses the most specific information from the case: aerial photographs, census data (building year of construction and type (single family detached, single family attached, apartments or mobile homes)) and punctual on-site verification from the target area. National estimates of thermal requirements values are also used. • C2, the second procedure, is less specific than C1, but is much less time consuming to achieve. The local data sources used are: aerial photographs and census data from the case. While the national ones are: estimates of the building heating surfaces and thermal requirements. • C3 and C4, are the easiest procedures. Those two are very similar. The specific data used in these cases are census data from the locations under study. National data used for C3 are building surface estimates and thermal requirements values while C4 only uses thermal requirement values which are slightly different from those of C3. A further analysis revealed later that these two calculations yielded the same results. Therefore, since C3 is slightly more complicated to implement, it was removed from further analysis. Using three procedures thus ensures the stability of the methodology when the three results are the same order of magnitude. An average of the three results gives a good estimation of the consumption. The methodology was then applied to four study cases. One of them has already been the subject of a detailed district heating assessment feasibility study. It is used to validate the results obtained with the new methodology. The three other cases are rather used to test different conditions (number, density, type and year of construction of buildings). The validation results showed that the methodology can determine the heat consumption to about 20% of the baseline value. It also determines the total heating surface to about 5%. The three other study cases, A, B and C, have confirmed that possibility of applying the methodology in various conditions. Case A showed lower gaps between the four procedures when the rate of single family houses is lower. Since this rate is high in the validation case, better results can be expected for cases where the number of single family houses is low, such as in case A. In case B, the global results showed a particularly low gap between the four procedures with a maximum of 5%. However, an analysis of individual dissemination areas showed higher positive and negative gaps, which, when they are summed, compensate for the individual errors. The bigger errors in this case are explained by the fact that the apartments in this city are larger than the national average. Case C presented an additional challenge since no aerial photo was available. It has nevertheless been possible to realize two calculation procedures, C3 and C4, which provided a broad approximation of the consumption. For the commercial sector, a similar methodology to that of the residential sector is developed. However, the lack of global data has prescribed the individual processing of every building. This approach is also justified by the fact that commercial and institutional buildings are less numerous and have higher consumption. Due to the extended duration of this type of approach, only the validation and case Aare realized. The first one confirmed the better results than the ones from the residential sector with a gap of 7% compared to the consumption baseline. The results from case A showed the areas where the heat consumption is higher. Furthermore, it showed that the commercial and institutional demand accounts for 10% to 40% of the total heat demand. The integration of the results obtained into a district heating feasibility study is then discussed. A joint analysis of the residential and the commercial and institutional sectors showed the importance of considering each building's heat consumption for the planning of a district heating network. The profitability of the study cases is considered in relation to the thermal thresholds suggested in the literature.

  13. Controle sismique d'un batiment en acier de 3 etages a l'echelle 1/3 par amortisseurs elastomeres et contreventements en chevron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauron, Olivier

    This study develops an innovative configuration of seismic natural rubber dampers for multistory low- and medium-rise steel braced frames. The dampers are directly integrated in an horizontal position in the seismic force resisting system of the structure. They are connected in a series with typical chevron brace systems. This control system provides not only additional structural damping to the structure but also a period shift, acting in the same way as a base isolation system. First, the fiber reinforced natural rubber used in the application was tested. It exhibited strong non linear dependance of its equivalent viscoelastic properties related to the shear strain. Then, a 1/3-scale 3-story chevron braced steel frame with and without dampers was considered. The structure was build and placed on the shaking table of the University of Sherbrooke Structures Laboratory. Numerical studies show that the efficiency of the control system reduces strongly the seismic induced forces of the undamped structure without any amplification of displacement or drift. Obtained seismic response reduction levels represent significant safety and economical benefits for the proposed application. Finally, the control system viability is experimentally demonstrated by shaking table tests at different reduced seismic intensities. Non linear behavior of the structure due to non linear behavior of the damping material is highlighted, and the dependance of seismic control performances is shown to be related to seismic intensities. Results allow an extrapolation of the experimental control peformances tending to the numerical results at higher intensities. Key-words : chevron braces, damper, multistory building, natural rubber, seismic control, shaking table.

  14. The Diverse Roles of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Activated Gene (NAG-1/GDF15) in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingya; Baek, Seung Joon; Eling, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) activated gene-1, NAG-1, is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily that plays a complex but poorly understood role in several human diseases including cancer. NAG-1 expression is substantially increased during cancer development and progression especially in gastrointestinal, prostate, pancreatic, colorectal, breast, melanoma, and glioblastoma brain tumors. Aberrant increases in the serum levels of secreted NAG-1 correlate with poor prognosis and patient survival rates in some cancers. In contrast, the expression of NAG-1 is up-regulated by several tumor suppressor pathways including p53, GSK-3β, and EGR-1. NAG-1 expression is also induced by many drugs and dietary compounds which are documented to prevent the development and progression of cancer in mouse models. Studies with transgenic mice expressing human NAG-1 demonstrated that the expression of NAG-1 inhibits the development of intestinal tumors and prostate tumors in animal models. Laboratory and clinical evidence suggest that NAG-1, like other TGF-β family members, may have different or pleiotropic functions in the early and late stages of carcinogenesis. Upon understanding the molecular mechanism and function of NAG-1 during carcinogenesis, NAG-1 may serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer and a therapeutic target for the inhibition and treatment of cancer development and progression. PMID:23220538

  15. 24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) European Agreement Union Technical Committee—June 88—UEAtc Directives for the Assessment of External... Technique Du Batiment (CSTB), 84 Avenue Jesu Jaures, B.P. 02-77421 Marne-LA-Valee Cedex 2, Paris, France....

  16. Problemes et methodes de la lexicographie quebecoise (Problems and Methods of Quebec Lexicography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Monique C., Ed.; Francoeur, Aline, Ed.

    Papers on lexicographic research in Quebec (Canada) include: "Indications semantiques dans les dictionnaires bilingues" ("Semantic Indications in Bilingual Dictionaries) (Johanne Blais, Roda P. Roberts); "Definitions predictionnairiques de 'maison, batiment, et pavillon'" ("Pre-dictionary definitions of 'house,…

  17. The Federal Public Works Infrastructure Strategy Program - Federal Works Infrastructure R&D: A New Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    broader context, especially in view of the changing global environment. This more expansive view includes the traditional components and incorporates the...the Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment ( CSTB ), the Laboratorie Central des Ponts et Chaussees (LCPC), and the Centre Experimental de...Recherches et d’Etudes du Batiment et Travaux Publics (CEBTP). Focus of French research was defined by the CSTB in 1989, as follows: • Improvement in the

  18. Large eddy simulation of unsteady wind farm behavior using advanced actuator disk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, Maud; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    The present project aims at improving the level of fidelity of unsteady wind farm scale simulations through an effort on the representation and the modeling of the rotors. The chosen tool for the simulations is a Fourth Order Finite Difference code, developed at Universite catholique de Louvain; this solver implements Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The wind turbines are modeled as advanced actuator disks: these disks are coupled with the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM method) and also take into account the turbine dynamics and controller. A special effort is made here to reproduce the specific wake behaviors. Wake decay and expansion are indeed initially governed by vortex instabilities. This is an information that cannot be obtained from the BEM calculations. We thus aim at achieving this by matching the large scales of the actuator disk flow to high fidelity wake simulations produced using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method. It is obtained by adding a controlled excitation at the disk. We apply this tool to the investigation of atmospheric turbulence effects on the power production and on the wake behavior at a wind farm level. A turbulent velocity field is then used as inflow boundary condition for the simulations. We gratefully acknowledge the support of GDF Suez for the fellowship of Mrs Maud Moens.

  19. Depositional framework and sequence stratigraphic aspects of the Coniacian Santonian mixed siliciclastic/carbonate Matulla sediments in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Azabi, M. H.; El-Araby, A.

    2007-04-01

    Superb outcrops of mixed siliciclastic/carbonate rocks mark the Coniacian-Santonian Matulla Formation exposed in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks, west central Sinai. They are built up of various lithofacies that reflect minor fluctuations in relative sea-level from lower intertidal to slightly deep subtidal settings. Relying on the facies characteristics and stratal geometries, the siliciclastic rocks are divided into seven depositional facies, including beach foreshore laminated sands, upper shoreface cross-bedded sandstone, lower shoreface massive bioturbated and wave-rippled sandstones, shallow subtidal siltstone and deep subtidal shale/claystone. The carbonate rocks comprise lower intertidal lime-mudstone, floatstone and dolostone, shallow subtidal skeletal shoal of oyster rudstone/bioclastic grainstone, and shoal margin packstone. Oolitic grain-ironstone and ferribands are partially intervened the facies types. Deposition has taken place under varied conditions of restricted, partly open marine circulation, low to high wave energy and normal to raised salinity during alternating periods of abundant and ceased clastic supply. The facies types are arranged into asymmetric upward-shallowing cycles that record multiple small-scale transgressive-regressive events. Lime-mudstone and sandstone normally terminate the regressive events. Four sequence boundaries marking regional relative sea-level falls divide the Matulla Formation into three stratigraphic units. These boundaries are Turonian/Coniacian, intra-Coniacian, Coniacian/Santonian and Santonian/Campanian. They do not fit with those sequence boundaries proposed in Haq et al.'s global eustatic curves (1988) except for the sea-level fall associated with the intra-Coniacian boundary. Other sequence boundaries have resulted from regional tectonic impact of the Syrian Arc Fold System that has been initiated in north Egypt during the Latest Turonian-Coniacian. These boundaries enclose three well-defined 3rd order depositional sequences; their enclosing shallowing-upward cycles (i.e. parasequences) record the 4th order relative sea-level fluctuations. 34 and 20 parasequence sets, in the order of a few meters to tens of meters thick, mark the Matulla sequences in Nezzazat and Ekma blocks respectively. Each sequence shows an initial phase of rapid sea-level rise with retrogradational sets, followed by lowering sea-level and progradation/aggradation of the parasequence sets. The transgressive deposits display predominance of deep subtidal lagoonal facies, while highstand deposits show an increase in siliciclastic and carbonate facies with the progressive decrease of lagoonal facies. The sedimentary patterns and environments suggest that the regional, partly eustatic sea-level (i.e. intra-Coniacian) changes controlled the overall architecture of the sequence distribution, whereas changes in the clastic input controlled the variations in facies associations within each depositional sequence.

  20. Use of remote sensing techniques and aeromagnetic data to study episodic oil seep discharges along the Gulf of Suez in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2013-07-15

    Four successive oil discharges were observed during the last 2 years following the recording of the earthquake events. Oil slicks were clearly observed in the thermal band of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper images acquired during the discharge events. Lineaments were extracted from the ETM+ image data and SRTM (DEM). The seismic activity is conformable in time and spatially related to active major faults and structural lineaments. The concerned site was subjected to a numerous earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 3 to 5.4 Mb. Aeromagnetic field data analyses indicated the existence of deep major faults crossing the Gebel El-Zeit and the Mellaha basins (oil reservoirs). The magnetic field survey showed major distinctive fault striking NE-SW at 7000 m depth. Occurrence of these faults at great depth enables the crude oil to migrate upward and appear at the surfaces as oil seeps onshore and as offshore slicks in the Gemsa-Hurghada coastal zone.

  1. Four new species of Ceratomyxa Thelohan 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae) infecting the gallbladder of some Red Sea fishes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, F; Ali, M A; Al Quraishy, S; Al Rasheid, K; Al Farraj, S; Abdel-Baki, A S; Bashtar, A-R

    2008-08-01

    Four new Ceratomyxa species were described from the gallbladder of four Red Sea fishes at Suez and Hurghada, Egypt. These species are Ceratomyxa bassoni sp. n. from Plectorhinchus gaterinus (Forsskal 1775) at Suez and Hurghada, Ceratomyxa entzerothi sp. n. from Valamugil seheli (Forsskal 1775) at Suez and Hurghada, Ceratomyxa swaisi sp. n. from Saurida undosquamis (Richardson 1848) at Suez only and Ceratomyxa hurghadensis sp. n. from Fistularia commersonii Ruppell 1838 at Hurghada only. Their taxonomic affinities to other species are discussed.

  2. 78 FR 15802 - United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act; Re-Designation of Qualifying Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...-designated Al Minya, Alexandria, Beni Suief, Central Delta, Greater Cairo, and Suez Canal zones in Egypt... Alexandria zone, the Suez Canal zone, the Central Delta zone, the Beni Suief zone and the Al Minya zone, as... zone, the Beni Suief zone, the Central Delta zone, the Greater Cairo zone, and the Suez Canal zone,...

  3. CLEAN - Large-Scale CO2 Storage for Enhanced Gas Recovery in a depleted German Gasfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Förster, A.; Grossmann, J.; Meyer, R.; Pilz, P.; Reinicke, K.; Schaefer, D.; Tesmer, M.; Wendel, H.

    2011-12-01

    The project CLEAN was a German research and development (R&D) alliance of 16 partners from science and industry that conducted research from July 2008 until June 2011 on Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) with regard to Europe's second largest onshore gas field. The gas field is located in the Altmark (Germany) and is owned by GDF SUEZ E&P Deutschland GmbH. Activities focused on the Altensalzwedel sub-field, having the size of 14 sq.km. The Altensalzwedel sub-field is a structurally and hydraulically closed block, bound by faults. Subsurface data are available from 12 existing wells drilled into the Rotliegend reservoir, which is at >3000 m depth. About 30 wells from an area of 30 sq.km, surrounding the Altensalzwedel block, provided additional data for the generation of an integrated earth model. Fluviatile silt- and sandstones from Upper Rotliegend built the reservoir at depth. The caprock above the reservoir consists of massive Zechstein formations with significant deposits of evaporites. These salt layers with an average thickness of several hundred meters represent a natural seal of the reservoir. At present the reservoir temperature is about 125 °C and reservoir pressures decreased from initially 425 bar to pressures between 30 bar and 50 bar, due to the former gas production from the field. For the substructure of Altensalzwedel it is assessed that the natural gas reservoir is depleted by 90 %. Within the 3 years project following results, developments, methods and concepts were achieved and will be presented: (1) well bore conditions, (2) risk base monitoring schemes to detect possible technical leakage at well bores, (3) strategies to avoid and mitigate technical leakage, (4) permanent geological sealing of well bores, (5) quality of the reservoir facies and mineral-pore-interface and related fluid-rock reactions, (6) chemical alteration of fluid and rock from laboratory experiments, (7) models and simulations of coupled processes, (8) data management system, (9

  4. Impact of Thermal Stresses on Wellbore Integrity during CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Walsh, S.; Morris, J.; Carroll, S.; Hao, Y.; Iyer, J.; Torsater, M.; Gawel, K.; Todorovic, J.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal stresses caused by injection of cold CO2 into warmer storage reservoirs could create leakage pathways out of the storage reservoir. Although few studies have been conducted to investigate the well bore integrity subjected to thermal cycling during CO2injection, a systematic investigation on thermally induced expansion and contraction affecting the debonding and cracking of the well barrier materials has not yet been performed. In this work, we have analyzed the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the well barrier materials undergoing repeated thermal cycling using a multiscale, multiphysics platform named GEOS. More specifically, we model the modes of failure during thermal cycling to assess the temperature range for minimal impact on well integrity. A finite element solver was used for the geomechanics and a finite volume solver was used for the thermal diffusion. Results of the initiation and propagation of fractures due to temperature variations in the cement sheath are presented. Preliminary results suggest that radial fracture develops as the cement is heated while debonding occurs in the casing-cement and cement-rock interfaces during the cooling period. The effects of different confinement conditions based on in-situ stresses were also analyzed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work has been produced with support from the BIGCCS Centre, performed under the Norwegian research program Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) and the KPN project "Ensuring well integrity during CO2 injection". The authors acknowledge the following partners for their contributions: Gassco, Shell, Statoil, TOTAL, GDF SUEZ and the Research Council of Norway (193816/S60 and 23389).

  5. Growth differentiation factor-15: a p53- and demethylation-upregulating gene represses cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Li-Chuan; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Lee, Tzu-Yi; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), a member of the TGF-β superfamily, affects tumor biology of certain cancers, but remains poorly understood in bladder cancer cells. This study determined the expression, regulation, function, and potential downstream target genes of GDF15 in bladder carcinoma cells. The transitional papilloma carcionoma cells (RT4) expressed higher levels of GDF15 as compared with the bladder carcinoma cells (HT1376 and T24). Treatments of recombinant human GDF15 (rhGDF15) reduced the proliferations of HT1376 and T24 cells. Expression of GDF15 was upregulated via DNA demethylation and p53. The cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis were reduced in ectopic overexpression of GDF15, while enhanced in GDF15 knockdown. The expressions of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN) and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes (NDRG1, NDRG2, and NDRG3) were upregulated by GDF15 overexpressions and rhGDF15 treatments in bladder carcinoma cells. GDF15 knockdown induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and F-actin polarization in HT1376 cells. Our results suggest that enhanced expressions of MASPIN and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes and the modulation of EMT may account for the inhibitory functions of GDF15 in the cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells. The GDF15 should be considered as a tumor suppressor in human bladder carcinoma cells. PMID:26249737

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Klippel-Feil syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... produced from the MEOX1 gene, called homeobox protein MOX-1, regulates the process that begins separating vertebrae ... lead to a complete lack of homeobox protein MOX-1. Although the GDF6, GDF3, and homeobox protein ...

  7. Uncovering the Role of BMP Signaling in Melanocyte Development and Melanoma Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    involved. Using genomic studies and cross-species comparisons, we identified the BMP factor GDF6 as a gene that may cooperate with mutant BRAF to...promote melanoma. The aims of this grant are to determine if GDF6 does in fact cooperate with mutant BRAF and uncover the mechanisms by which GDF6 acts...in melanomas and normal melanocytes. Toward these aims, we have used our zebrafish model to demonstrate cooperativity between GDF6 and mutant BRAF

  8. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Absent 220053_at GDF-3 Absent ɚ 207145at MSTN myostatin = GDF-8 Absent Absent Up 221314_at GDF-9 Present no change ɚ 221576_at PLAB = prostate...Res 1991;51:4716-20. 1998;102:2106-14. 40. Ling MT, Wang X, Ouyang XS, et al. Id-I expression promotes cell survival through 26. Miyazono K, Suzuki H

  9. A Surprise Out of Zion? Case Studies in Israel’s Decisions on Whether to Alert the United States to Preemptive and Preventive Strikes, from Suez to the Syrian Nuclear Reactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Dayan, one of the cabinet’s most for- midable military figures, grumbled about the time-wasting prospect of “ banging on the doors” of the United...Israel’s national security imperatives to recall that small powers do not invariably seek out the big picture. An Israeli prime minister will

  10. Has the Strategic Value of Greece Changed both in a Regional and Global Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Sicily-Tunis, Otranto and Turkey as well as the Suez Canal, still remain the vulnerable points in the - terranean. e. The strategic importance of the...sensitive Mediterranean positions (i.e. the Straits in Sicily-Tunis, Otranto and Turkey and the Suez Canal)- this influence is increased as far as the...afforded before vulnerable and sensitive areas to NAT3 in- terests i.e. Straits of Sicily-Italy, straits of Otranto , straits of Elispontos, and the Suez

  11. X-ray CT analyses, models and numerical simulations: a comparison with petrophysical analyses in an experimental CO2 study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Steven; Pudlo, Dieter; Enzmann, Frieder; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Ganzer, Leonhard; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    An essential part of the collaborative research project H2STORE (hydrogen to store), which is funded by the German government, was a comparison of various analytical methods for characterizing reservoir sandstones from different stratigraphic units. In this context Permian, Triassic and Tertiary reservoir sandstones were analysed. Rock core materials, provided by RWE Gasspeicher GmbH (Dortmund, Germany), GDF Suez E&P Deutschland GmbH (Lingen, Germany), E.ON Gas Storage GmbH (Essen, Germany) and RAG Rohöl-Aufsuchungs Aktiengesellschaft (Vienna, Austria), were processed by different laboratory techniques; thin sections were prepared, rock fragments were crushed and cubes of 1 cm edge length and plugs 3 to 5 cm in length with a diameter of about 2.5 cm were sawn from macroscopic homogeneous cores. With this prepared sample material, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with image analyses, specific surface area measurements (after Brunauer, Emmet and Teller, 1938; BET), He-porosity and N2-permeability measurements and high-resolution microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), which were used for numerical simulations, were applied. All these methods were practised on most of the same sample material, before and on selected Permian sandstones also after static CO2 experiments under reservoir conditions. A major concern in comparing the results of these methods is an appraisal of the reliability of the given porosity, permeability and mineral-specific reactive (inner) surface area data. The CO2 experiments modified the petrophysical as well as the mineralogical/geochemical rock properties. These changes are detectable by all applied analytical methods. Nevertheless, a major outcome of the high-resolution μ-CT analyses and following numerical data simulations was that quite similar data sets and data interpretations were maintained by the different petrophysical standard methods. Moreover, the μ-CT analyses are not only time saving, but also

  12. Observing the Arctic Ocean under melting ice - the UNDER-ICE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagen, Hanne; Ullgren, Jenny; Geyer, Florian; Bergh, Jon; Hamre, Torill; Sandven, Stein; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Falck, Eva; Gammelsrød, Tor; Worcester, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean is gradually diminishing in area and thickness. The variability of the ice cover is determined by heat exchange with both the atmosphere and the ocean. A cold water layer with a strong salinity gradient insulates the sea ice from below, preventing direct contact with the underlying warm Atlantic water. Changes in water column stratification might therefore lead to faster erosion of the ice. As the ice recedes, larger areas of surface water are open to wind mixing; the effect this might have on the water column structure is not yet clear. The heat content in the Arctic strongly depends on heat transport from other oceans. The Fram Strait is a crucial pathway for the exchange between the Arctic and the Atlantic Ocean. Two processes of importance for the Arctic heat and freshwater budget and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation take place here: poleward heat transport by the West Spitzbergen Current and freshwater export by the East Greenland Current. A new project, Arctic Ocean under Melting Ice (UNDER-ICE), aims to improve our understanding of the ocean circulation, water mass distribution, fluxes, and mixing processes, sea ice processes, and net community primary production in ice-covered areas and the marginal ice zone in the Fram Strait and northward towards the Gakkel Ridge. The interdisciplinary project brings together ocean acoustics, physical oceanography, marine biology, and sea ice research. A new programme of observations, integrated with satellite data and state-of-the-art numerical models, will be started in order to improve the estimates of heat, mass, and freshwater transport between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. On this poster we present the UNDER-ICE project, funded by the Research Council of Norway and GDF Suez E&P Norge AS for the years 2014-2017, and place it in context of the legacy of earlier projects in the area, such as ACOBAR. A mooring array for acoustic tomography combined with

  13. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    the quantification of those microorganisms as well as the determination of microbial activity was not yet possible. Microbial monitoring methods have to be further developed to study microbial activities under these extreme conditions to access their influence on the EGR technique and on enhancing the long term safety of the process by fixation of carbon dioxide by precipitation of carbonates. We would like to thank GDF SUEZ for providing the data for the Rotliegend reservoir, sample material and enabling sampling campaigns. The CLEAN project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the frame of the Geotechnologien Program.

  14. 78 FR 21364 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ..., South Asia, Middle East (including the Persian Gulf region), Spain, Italy, Egypt, Panama, Jamaica, and Canada, on the one hand, and U.S. East Coast ports via the Panama and Suez canals, on the other hand, as... Working Agreement Asia to USEC and PNW-Suez/PNW & Panama Loops. Parties: A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S and...

  15. How Can the U.S. Military Avoid Another 9/15?: An Analysis of the Inability of U.S. Military Leaders to Provide an Adequate Strategy for Responding to the 9/11 Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Military support for the evacuation of U.S. citizens and non-combatants Cambodia 11-Apr-75 13-Apr-75 I 171 Nimbus Stream Military counter-mine...operations in Mediterranean Egypt Jul-75 Oct-75 I 172 Nimbus Star / Nimbus Moon Military counter-mine operations in the Suez Canal Suez Canal May-74

  16. Regenerative Medicine for Battlefield Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    fgf10, fgf2, fgf23, fgf3, fgf7, follistatin, fst, gdf11, gdf5, and gdf8 Transcription factors – vdr, fosb, osterix , fosl1, p53, foxf1, pax1, gata4...myf5, nanog, oct4, osterix , p53, pax6, and pax7 MetaCoreTM from GeneGO Inc. (5) was used for the pathway and network analysis. The protein lists

  17. The role of growth differentiation factor 15 in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Miura, Yasuo; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Iwasa, Masaki; Yao, Hisayuki; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Haga, Hironori; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Maekawa, Taira; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Elevated serum concentrations of this cytokine have been reported in patients with various malignancies. To assess the potential roles of GDF15 in hematologic malignancies, we measured its serum levels in patients with these diseases. We found that serum GDF15 levels were elevated in almost all these patients, particularly in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Immunohistochemical staining of bone marrow (BM) specimens revealed that GDF15 was strongly expressed by megakaryocytes, which may be sources of increased serum GDF15 in PMF patients. Therefore, we further assessed the contribution of GDF15 to the pathogenesis of PMF. Recombinant human (rh) GDF15 enhanced the growth of human BM mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), and it enhanced the potential of these cells to support human hematopoietic progenitor cell growth in a co-culture system. rhGDF15 enhanced the growth of human primary fibroblasts, but it did not affect their expression of profibrotic genes. rhGDF15 induced osteoblastic differentiation of BM-MSCs in vitro, and pretreatment of BM-MSCs with rGDF15 enhanced the induction of bone formation in a xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that serum levels of GDF15 in PMF are elevated, that megakaryocytes are sources of this cytokine in BM, and that GDF15 may modulate the pathogenesis of PMF by enhancing proliferation and promoting osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. PMID:26276681

  18. Growth differentiation factor 15 in anaemia of chronic disease, iron deficiency anaemia and mixed type anaemia.

    PubMed

    Theurl, Igor; Finkenstedt, Armin; Schroll, Andrea; Nairz, Manfred; Sonnweber, Thomas; Bellmann-Weiler, Rosa; Theurl, Milan; Seifert, Markus; Wroblewski, Victor J; Murphy, Anthony T; Witcher, Derrick; Zoller, Heinz; Weiss, Günter

    2010-02-01

    Recently, the iron and erythropoiesis-controlled growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has been shown to inhibit the expression of hepcidin in beta-thalassaemia patients, thereby increasing iron absorption despite iron overload. To access the diagnostic and pathogenic impact of GDF15 in inflammatory anaemia the association of GDF15 expression with serum iron parameters and hepcidin was studied in patients suffering from iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) and ACD subjects with true iron deficiency (ACD/IDA). GDF15 was significantly increased in both ACD and ACD/IDA, but not in IDA subjects as compared to controls. In contrast, hepcidin levels were significantly lower in IDA and ACD/IDA subjects than in ACD patients. IDA and ACD/IDA, but not ACD, showed an association between GDF15 and soluble transferrin receptor, an indicator of iron requirement for erythropoiesis. However, GDF15 did not correlate to hepcidin in either patient group. While GDF15 levels were linked to the needs for erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis in IDA, the immunity-driven increase of GDF15 may not primarily affect iron homeostasis and hepcidin expression. This indicates that other ACD-related factors may overcome the regulatory effects of GDF15 on hepcidin expression during inflammation.

  19. Molecular characterization of growth differentiation factor 9 and its spatio-temporal expression pattern in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Chen, Aqin; Yang, Zhigang; Wei, Hua; Leng, Xiangjun

    2012-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily with a key role in regulating follicle development. In this study, the GDF9 full-length genomic DNA and cDNA were isolated and characterized from the gibel carp ovary using rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and LD-PCR. The full-length genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of GDF9 are 3979 and 2044 bp which code 428 amino acid residues with a specific RKKR protease cleavage site of TGF-β superfamily. Sequence analysis showed that gibel carp was similar to zebrafish and other fish species. Spatio-temporal expression analysis using real-time quantitative PCR revealed that GDF9 mRNA was largely expressed in ovary and testis. GDF9 is mainly present at stage I follicles indicating its important role in early follicles development. The same result was obtained in immunohistochemistry localization of GDF9 protein. Within the follicle, the follicle layer cells were barely expressed whereas GDF9 mRNA was mostly expressed in the oocytes. Supplemented with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in isolated follicles, the expression of GDF9 mRNA was increased firstly and then decreased. The results of this study indicated that GDF9 gene played a role in fish during development of follicles, especially in the early stage follicles.

  20. A comparison of current serum biomarkers as diagnostic indicators of mitochondrial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ryan L.; Liang, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To directly compare the diagnostic utility of growth differentiation factor–15 (GDF-15) with our previous fibroblast growth factor–21 (FGF-21) findings in the same adult mitochondrial disease cohort. Methods: Serum GDF-15 levels were measured using a quantitative ELISA. Statistical analyses of GDF-15 data were compared with our published FGF-21 findings. Results: Median serum GDF-15 concentrations were elevated in patients with mitochondrial disease and differed between all experimental groups, mirroring group results for FGF-21. There was a difference between patients diagnosed by muscle biopsy and genetic diagnosis, suggesting that serum GDF-15 measurement may be more broadly specific for mitochondrial disease than for muscle manifesting mitochondrial disease, in contrast to FGF-21. GDF-15 showed a markedly higher diagnostic odds ratio when compared with FGF-21 (75.3 vs 45.7), was a better predictor of disease based on diagnostic sensitivity (77.8% vs 68.5%), and outperformed FGF-21 on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve 94.1% vs 91.1%). Combining both biomarkers did not improve the area under the curve remarkably over GDF-15 alone. GDF-15 was the best predictor of mitochondrial disease (p < 0.002) following multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: GDF-15 outperforms FGF-21 as an indicator of mitochondrial diseases. Our data suggest that GDF-15 is generally indicative of inherited mitochondrial disease regardless of clinical phenotype, whereas FGF-21 seems to be more indicative of mitochondrial disease when muscle manifestations are present. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that serum GDF-15 accurately distinguishes patients with mitochondrial diseases from those without them. PMID:27164684

  1. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  2. The trajectory prediction of spacecraft by grey method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiyue; Zhang, Zili; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-08-01

    The real-time and high-precision trajectory prediction of a moving object is a core technology in the field of aerospace engineering. The real-time monitoring and tracking technology are also significant guarantees of aerospace equipment. A dynamic trajectory prediction method called grey dynamic filter (GDF) which combines the dynamic measurement theory and grey system theory is proposed. GDF can use coordinates of the current period to extrapolate coordinates of the following period. At meantime, GDF can also keep the instantaneity of measured coordinates by the metabolism model. In this paper the optimal model length of GDF is firstly selected to improve the prediction accuracy. Then the simulation for uniformly accelerated motion and variably accelerated motion is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the mean composite position error of GDF prediction is one-fifth to that of Kalman filter (KF). By using a spacecraft landing experiment, the prediction accuracy of GDF is compared with the KF method and the primitive grey method (GM). The results show that the motion trajectory of spacecraft predicted by GDF is much closer to actual trajectory than the other two methods. The mean composite position error calculated by GDF is one-eighth to KF and one-fifth to GM respectively.

  3. Growth differentiation factor 8 suppresses cell proliferation by up-regulating CTGF expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Pan, Hui-Hui; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhu, Yi-Min; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-02-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that plays a critical role in the development of ovarian follicles. Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is mainly, but not exclusively, expressed in the mammalian musculoskeletal system and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GDF8 and CTGF on the regulation of cell proliferation in human granulosa cells and to examine its underlying molecular determinants. Using dual inhibition approaches (inhibitors and small interfering RNAs), we have demonstrated that GDF8 induces the up-regulation of CTGF expression through the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)4/5-mediated SMAD2/3-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, the increase in CTGF expression contributes to the GDF8-induced suppressive effect on granulosa cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that GDF8 and CTGF may play critical roles in the regulation of proliferative events in human granulosa cells.

  4. Growth differentiation factor-9 stimulates progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells via a prostaglandin E2/EP2 receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Elvin, J A; Yan, C; Matzuk, M M

    2000-08-29

    Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), an oocyte-secreted member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, progesterone receptor, cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2; Ptgs2), and the EP2 prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor (EP2; Ptgerep2) are required for fertility in female but not male mice. To define the interrelationship of these factors, we used a preovulatory granulosa cell culture system in which we added recombinant GDF-9, prostaglandins, prostaglandin receptor agonists, or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. GDF-9 stimulated Cox2 mRNA within 2 h, and PGE(2) within 6 h; however, progesterone was not increased until 12 h after addition of GDF-9. This suggested that Cox2 is a direct downstream target of GDF-9 but that progesterone synthesis required an intermediate. To determine whether prostaglandin synthesis was required for progesterone production, we analyzed the effects of PGE(2) and cyclooxygenase inhibitors on this process. PGE(2) can stimulate progesterone synthesis by itself, although less effectively than GDF-9 (3-fold vs. 6-fold increase over 24 h, respectively). Furthermore, indomethacin or NS-398, inhibitors of Cox2, block basal and GDF-9-stimulated progesterone synthesis. However, addition of PGE(2) to cultures containing both GDF-9 and NS-398 overrides the NS-398 block in progesterone synthesis. To further define the PGE(2)-dependent pathway, we show that butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, stimulates progesterone synthesis and overrides the NS-398 block. In addition, GDF-9 stimulates EP2 mRNA synthesis by a prostaglandin- and progesterone-independent pathway. Thus, GDF-9 induces an EP2 signal transduction pathway which appears to be required for progesterone synthesis in cumulus granulosa cells. These studies further demonstrate the importance of oocyte-somatic cell interactions in female reproduction.

  5. Identification of Follistatin-Like 1 by Expression Cloning as an Activator of the Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Gene and a Prognostic Biomarker in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Christian; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Kempf, Tibor; Korf-Klingebiel, Mortimer; Fiedler, Beate; Sharma, Sarita; Katus, Hugo A.; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Shimano, Masayuki; Walsh, Kenneth; Wollert, Kai C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-responsive cytokine and biomarker that is produced after myocardial infarction and that is related to prognosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We hypothesized that secreted proteins that activate GDF15 production may represent new ACS biomarkers. METHODS We expressed clones from an infarcted mouse heart cDNA library in COS1 cells and assayed for activation of a luciferase reporter gene controlled by a 642-bp fragment of the mouse growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) gene promoter. We measured the circulating concentrations of follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) and GDF15 in 1369 patients with ACS. RESULTS One cDNA clone that activated the GDF15 promoter–luciferase reporter encoded the secreted protein FSTL1. Treatment with FSTL1 activated GDF15 production in cultured cardiomyocytes. Transgenic production of FSTL1 stimulated GDF15 production in the murine heart, whereas cardiomyocyte-selective deletion of FSTL1 decreased production of GDF15 in cardiomyocytes, indicating that FSTL1 is sufficient and required for GDF15 production. In ACS, FSTL1 emerged as the strongest independent correlate of GDF15 (partial R2 = 0.26). A total of 106 patients died of a cardiovascular cause during a median follow-up of 252 days. Patients with an FSTL1 concentration in the top quartile had a 3.7-fold higher risk of cardiovascular death compared with patients in the first 3 quartiles (P < 0.001). FSTL1 remained associated with cardiovascular death after adjustment for clinical, angiographic, and biochemical variables. CONCLUSIONS Our study is the first to use expression cloning for biomarker discovery upstream of a gene of interest and to identify FSTL1 as an independent prognostic biomarker in ACS. PMID:22675198

  6. Growth Differentiation Factor-8 Decreases StAR Expression Through ALK5-Mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Luteinized Human Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Yu, Yiping; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-12-01

    Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) has been recently shown to be expressed in human granulosa cells, and the mature form of GDF-8 protein can be detected in the follicular fluid. However, the biological function and significance of this growth factor in the human ovary remains to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF-8 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and the potential mechanisms of action in luteinized human granulosa cells. We demonstrated that treatment with GDF-8 did not affect the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, whereas it significantly down-regulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effect of GDF-8 on StAR expression was abolished by the inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with GDF-8 activated both Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 5 reversed the effects of GDF-8 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation and StAR expression. The inhibition of Smad3 or ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the GDF-8-induced down-regulation of StAR and production of progesterone. Interestingly, the concentrations of GDF-8 were negatively correlated with those of progesterone in human follicular fluid. These results indicate a novel autocrine function of GDF-8 to down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in luteinized human granulosa cells, most likely through activin receptor-like kinase 5-mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that granulosa cells might play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone production to prevent premature luteinization during the final stage of folliculogenesis.

  7. A Building-Resolved Wind Field Library for Vancouver: Facilitating CBRN Emergency Response for the 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    dans d’autres environnements urbains composes de differents reseaux de rues et configurations de ba,timents). vi DRDC Suffield TM 2010-088 Table of...and 123° 14’ 53" W). The internal coordinate system used in urbanSTREAM is shown in Figure 1(a) , where the southwest corner of the modelling region...chosen in this case to be A ref = 36 1.124 m. Hence, in this internal coordinate system, the 4 DRDC Suffield TM 2010-088 N t (:t) Modf’l dom :tin N

  8. Nuclear factor-κB is a common upstream signal for growth differentiation factor-5 expression in brown adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • GDF5 expression is up-regulated by IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate in brown pre-adipocytes. • NF-κB stimulates promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. • Recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter is facilitated in BAT from ob/ob mice. • An NF-κB inhibitor prevents upregulation of GDF5 expression in brown pre-adipocytes. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that genetic and acquired obesity similarly led to drastic upregulation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), rather than white adipose tissue, of expression of both mRNA and corresponding protein for the bone morphogenic protein/growth differentiation factor (GDF) member GDF5 capable of promoting brown adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated expression profiles of GDF5 in cultured murine brown pre-adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are all shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Both interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were effective in up-regulating GDF5 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, while similar upregulation was seen in cells exposed to the saturated FFA palmitate, but not to the unsaturated FFA oleate. In silico analysis revealed existence of the putative nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding site in the 5′-flanking region of mouse GDF5, whereas introduction of NF-κB subunits drastically facilitated both promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed significant facilitation of the recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter in lysed extracts of BAT from leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice. Upregulation o GDF5 expression was invariably inhibited by an NF-κB inhibitor in cultured brown pre-adipocytes exposed to IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate. These results suggest that obesity leads to upregulation of GDF5 expression responsible for the promotion of brown adipogenesis through a mechanism

  9. One year continuous soil gas monitoring above an EGR test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furche, Markus; Schlömer, Stefan; Faber, Eckhard; Dumke, Ingolf

    2010-05-01

    information about hardware configurations at the stations, maintenance carried out and special events which might have influenced the results. An interactive database application has been developed to allow versatile graphical output and statistical processing of the collected time series. On a large scale CO2 concentrations show natural seasonal variations with higher values during summer (July to September) and lower values during winter. This behaviour is expected and mainly caused by temperature dependent activities of bacterial CO2 production. Absolute concentrations however vary extremely between different locations. While several stations show more than 10% CO2 during summer, others stay below 0.1% at the same time. The conclusion is that individual baselines at all sites for a sufficient time without CO2 sequestration are necessary. The CLEAN project is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the special program Geotechnologien. We would like to thank GDF SUEZ E&P Deutschland GmbH for supporting our field work at the well sites.

  10. Characterization of the deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, D.; Alawi, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Kock, D.; Krüger, M.; Wuerdemann, H.; Shaheed, M.

    2010-12-01

    ., Adicdovorax sp., Ralstonia sp., Pseudomonas sp.), thiosulfate-oxidising bacteria (Diaphorobacter sp.) and biocorrosive thermophilic microorganisms, which have not previously been cultivated. Furthermore, several uncultivated microorganisms were found, that were similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that the quantification of those microorganisms as well as the determination of microbial activity was not yet possible. Microbial monitoring methods have to be further developed to study microbial activities under these extreme conditions to access their influence on the EGR technique and on enhancing the long term safety of the process by fixation of carbon dioxide by precipitation of carbonates. We thank GDF SUEZ for providing the data for the Rotliegend reservoir, sample material and supporting sampling campaigns. The CLEAN project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the framework of the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN Program.

  11. Characterization of CO2-induced (?) bleaching phenomena in German red bed sediments by combined geochemical and evolved gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilse, Ulrike; Goepel, Andreas; Pudlo, Dieter; Heide, Klaus; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    We investigated varied coloured Buntsandstein and Rotliegend sandstones in Central Germany (Thuringian Vorderrhön, Altmark) by thermogravimetric/pyrolytic (DEGAS- directly coupled evolved gas analysis) and geochemical (ICP-MS/OES) means to evaluate geochemical/mineralogical characteristics of red bed rocks and their presumably altered, bleached modifications. Commonly bleaching of primary red bed sediments is regarded as a result of fluid-rock reactions by the participation of CO2. This study is performed in the framework of the special research program 'GEOTECHNOLOGIEN' (funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research - BMBF) and is part of two BMBF sponsored projects - 'COMICOR', an analogue study on potential effects of CO2-bearing fluids on Buntsandstein and Rotliegend deposits in Hesse and Thuringia and 'CLEAN', an enhanced gas recovery (EGR) pilot project in cooperation with GDF SUEZ E&P Deutschland GmbH. The intention of CLEAN is to evaluate the feasibility of EGR techniques and the suitability of depleted natural gas reservoirs for potential industrial CO2 sequestration projects. According to rock colour variations two slices of handspecimens (M49, A1) were split into 12 and 15 equally sized samples for analytical work. The medium grained Lower Buntsandstein sample M49 from Thuringia is of fluvial origin and partially bleached with transitions from red (unbleached) to light colours (bleached). Bulk rock geochemistry of red bed and bleached subsamples of M49 are almost similar, including rare earth element (REE) content. Only the content of iron and related metals is depleted in bleached samples compared to the red bed types. All PAAS normalized pattern of M49 show positive Eu and slightly negative Ce anomalies, most likely caused by the presence of apatite and illite in the rocks. The degassing behavior observed by DEGAS of M49 subsamples is mainly controlled by the breakdown of sheet silicates, hydroxides and hydrates, as well as of carbonates and

  12. Growth differentiation factor 9 of Megalobrama amblycephala: molecular characterization and expression analysis during the development of early embryos and growing ovaries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Xiao; Wei, Xin Lan; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Li Ping; Wang, Wei Min; Li, Jun Yan; Wang, Huan Ling

    2014-02-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factorβ superfamily and plays an essential role during follicle maturation in mammals. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of gdf9 was obtained from Megalobrama amblycephala. The cDNA sequence is 2,061 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,287 bp encoding 428 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared identities of about 42-86 % with the homologues of other vertebrates. During the early development of embryos, the gdf9 mRNA was detected in zygote with significantly high level and declined sharply by 47 and 87 % at 4 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and 6 hpf and even to an undetectable level through advancing stages. Expression analysis based on quantitative real-time PCR revealed that gdf9 mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary, but much lower levels were also found in some nonovarian tissues. Within the follicle, gdf9 mRNA was localized both in the oocytes and the follicle layer cells by in situ hybridization. During the ovarian cycle, gdf9 mRNA significantly decreased after the previtellogenic stage and became to increase again after the fully grown stage. The results imply that Gdf9 may play critical physiological functions in M. amblycephala early embryonic development and reproduction.

  13. Diabetes mellitus related biomarker: The predictive role of growth-differentiation factor-15.

    PubMed

    Berezin, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress-responsive cytokine, which belongs to super family of the transforming growth factor beta. GDF-15 is widely presented in the various cells (macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts), tissues (adipose tissue, vessels, tissues of central and peripheral nervous system) and organs (heart, brain, liver, placenta) and it plays an important role in the regulation of the inflammatory response, growth and cell differentiation. Elevated GDF-15 was found in patients with established CV diseases including hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, ischemic and none ischemic-induced cardiomyopathies, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, as well as stroke, type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM), chronic kidney disease, infection, liver cirrhosis, malignancy. Therefore, aging, smoking, and various environmental factors, i.e. chemical pollutants are other risk factors that might increase serum GDF-15 level. Although GDF-15 has been reported to be involved in energy homoeostasis and weight loss, to have anti-inflammatory properties, and to predict CV diseases and CV events in general or established CV disease population, there is no large of body of evidence regarding predictive role of elevated GDF-15 in T2DM subjects. The mini review is clarified the role of GDF-15 in T2DM subjects.

  14. Erythropoiesis-driven regulation of hepcidin in human red cell disorders is better reflected through concentrations of soluble transferrin receptor rather than growth differentiation factor 15.

    PubMed

    Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Lanaro, Carolina; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda; de Albuquerque, Dulcinéia Martins; de Mello, Mariana Rezende Bandeira; Pallis, Flávia Rubia; Bezerra, Marcos André Cavalcanti; Hatzlhofer, Betania Lucena Domingues; Olbina, Gordana; Saad, Sara Terezinha Olalla; da Silva Araújo, Aderson; Westerman, Mark; Costa, Fernando Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a bone marrow-derived cytokine whose ability to suppress iron regulator hepcidin in vitro and increased concentrations found in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis (IE)suggest that hepcidin deficiency mediated by GDF-15 may be the pathophysiological explanation for nontransfusional iron overload. We aimed to compare GDF-15 production in anemic states with different types of erythropoietic dysfunction. Complete blood counts, biochemical markers of iron status, plasma hepcidin, GDF-15, and known hepcidin regulators [interleukin-6 and erythropoietin (EPO)] were measured in 87 patients with red cell disorders comprising IE and hemolytic states: thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and cobalamin deficiency. Healthy volunteers were also evaluated for comparison. Neither overall increased EPO,nor variable GDF-15 concentrations correlated with circulating hepcidin concentrations (P = 0.265 and P = 0.872). Relative hepcidin deficiency was found in disorders presenting with concurrent elevation of GDF-15 and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), a biomarker of erythropoiesis, and sTfR had the strongest correlation with hepcidin (r(s) = 0.584, P < 0.0001). Our data show that high concentrations of GDF-15 in vivo are not necessarily associated with pathological hepcidin reduction, and hepcidin deficiency was only found when associated with sTfR overproduction. sTfR elevation may be a necessary common denominator of erythropoiesis-driven mechanisms to favor iron absorption in anemic states and appears a suitable target for investigative approaches to iron disorders.

  15. Association study between growth differentiation factor 5 polymorphism and non-contact anterior cruciate ligament rupture in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Biao; Li, Bin; Qi, Yong-Jian; Tie, Kai; Chen, Liao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is the most common ligamentous injury for active adolescents and young adults each year. However, the precise etiologies of ACL injury are not fully understood. The present study was to investigate +104T/C polymorphism of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) gene in patients with ACL rupture, and evaluate the effects of polymorphism on GDF5 mRNA levels in ligament of patients with ACL rupture in central China. Methods: A total of 286 Chinese patients with ACL rupture and 500healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The +104T/C polymorphism in GDF5 gene were genotyped by DNA sequencing. GDF5 mRNA expressions levels in ligament were determined by quantitative PCR. Results: The frequency of the TT genotype tended to be higher in ACL rupture group than in control group (62.6% vs. 48.0%, P< 0.001, OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.44). T allele of the GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism was more common in ACL rupture group than in control group (P< 0.001). Patients carrying TT genotype expressed lower levels of GDF5 mRNA than C carriers (P = 0.005) among ACL rupture. Conclusion: Our study indicated that GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism was associated with ACL rupture patients in central China. This is likely from decreased expressions of GDF5 mRNA. Further studies are necessary to explore the functional implication of the GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism in Chinese ACL rupture patients. PMID:26885231

  16. Association of serum level of growth differentiation factor 15 with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuying; Chi, Xiumei; Gong, Qiaoling; Gao, Lei; Niu, Yuqiang; Chi, Xiaojing; Cheng, Min; Si, Youhui; Wang, Maorong; Zhong, Jin; Niu, Junqi; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis are associated with high mortality worldwide. Currently, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a standard serum marker for the detection of HCC, but its sensitivity and specificity are unsatisfactory, and optimal diagnostic markers for cirrhosis are lacking. We previously reported that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was significantly induced in HCV-infected hepatocytes. This study aimed to investigate GDF15 expression and its correlation with hepatitis virus-related liver diseases. A total of 412 patients with various liver diseases were studied. Healthy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected subjects were included as controls. Serum and tissue GDF15 levels were measured. Serum GDF15 levels were significantly increased in patients with HCC (6.66±0.67 ng/mL, p<0.0001) and cirrhosis (6.51±1.47 ng/mL, p<0.0001) compared with healthy controls (0.31±0.01 ng/mL), though the GDF15 levels in HBV and HCV carriers were moderately elevated (1.34±0.19 ng/mL and 2.13±0.53 ng/mL, respectively). Compared with HBV or HCV carriers, GDF15 had a sensitivity of 63.1% and a specificity of 86.6% at the optimal cut-off point of 2.463 ng/mL in patients with liver cirrhosis or HCC. In HCC patients, the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.84 for GDF15 and 0.76 for AFP, but 0.91 for the combined GDF15 and AFP. Serum GDF15 levels did not significantly differ between the high-AFP and low-AFP groups. GDF15 protein expression in HCC was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent paracarcinomatous tissue and normal liver. Using a combination of GDF15 and AFP will improve the sensitivity and specificity of HCC diagnosis. Further research and the clinical implementation of serum GDF15 measurement as a biomarker for HCC and cirrhosis are recommended.

  17. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-30

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

  18. Exploration concepts for syntectonic sediments of Triassic and Jurassic Age along northern and eastern rim of Gulf of Mexico basin

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, D.A.; Wilkerson, R.P.; Putnam, M.W.

    1985-02-01

    Current tectonic models for the formation of the Gulf of Mexico generally include continental rifting starting in the Triassic and continuing through the Jurassic. A comparison between the sedimentology and structural geology of known continental rifts (such as the Gulf of Suez, Egypt) and the Triassic and Jurassic of the Gulf of Mexico suggests the following. (1) The interior salt basins of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama probably were deposited within a failed continental rift. (2) Positive features such as the Angelina-Caldwell flexure, Wiggins arch, and Middle ground arch probably represent the southern edge of the failed rift. (3) Positive features such as the Sabine uplift and Monroe arch are probably isolated horst blocks within the failed rift. Pre-evaporite sediments account for much of the production in the Gulf of Suez, and these rock sequences are well exposed there on shore. Depositional and structural histories for these rocks are similar in both the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Suez, and a careful comparison suggests new play concepts for the Gulf of Mexico. The post-evaporite sequences of the Gulf of Suez are also similar to the Norphlet and Smackover Formations of the Gulf of Mexico, although Smackover equivalents are currently being deposited in the Gulf of Suez. Comparisons between the two rift systems indicate that a clearer understanding of the structural setting of the Gulf of Mexico at the time of deposition of the Norphlet and Smackover should lead to better exploration plays for these syntectonic formations.

  19. The Global Drug Facility and its role in the market for tuberculosis drugs.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Cordier-Lassalle, Thierry; Vijay, Anant; Dye, Christopher

    2013-10-19

    Universal access to high-quality treatment is central to the Global Plan to Stop TB. The Global Drug Facility (GDF) was launched in 2001 to help to achieve this goal, through services including the supply of affordable, quality-assured drugs to countries in need. We assess the scale of GDF drug supplies worldwide and find that the GDF commands a substantial proportion of the market for drugs for first-line and second-line treatment regimens, having supplied, for example, first-line drugs for roughly 35% of cases reported worldwide in 2011. Significant potential remains for GDF expansion, especially in the provision of second-line drugs, which would be aided by future increases in case detection.

  20. Evolving New Skeletal Traits by cis-Regulatory Changes in Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Indjeian, Vahan B.; Kingman, Garrett A.; Jones, Felicity C.; Guenther, Catherine A.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Myers, Richard M.; Kingsley, David M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Changes in bone size and shape are defining features of many vertebrates. Here we use genetic crosses and comparative genomics to identify specific regulatory DNA alterations controlling skeletal evolution. Armor bone size differences in sticklebacks maps to a major effect locus overlapping BMP family member GDF6. Freshwater fish express more GDF6 due in part to a transposon insertion, and transgenic overexpression of GDF6 phenocopies evolutionary changes in armor plate size. The human GDF6 locus also has undergone distinctive regulatory evolution, including complete loss of an enhancer that is otherwise highly conserved between chimps and other mammals. Functional tests show that the ancestral enhancer drives expression in hindlimbs but not forelimbs, in locations that have been specifically modified during the human transition to bipedalism. Both gain and loss of regulatory elements can localize BMP changes to specific anatomical locations, providing a flexible regulatory basis for evolving species-specific changes in skeletal form. PMID:26774823

  1. Switching axial progenitors from producing trunk to tail tissues in vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    Jurberg, Arnon Dias; Aires, Rita; Varela-Lasheras, Irma; Nóvoa, Ana; Mallo, Moisés

    2013-06-10

    The vertebrate body is made by progressive addition of new tissue from progenitors at the posterior embryonic end. Axial extension involves different mechanisms that produce internal organs in the trunk but not in the tail. We show that Gdf11 signaling is a major coordinator of the trunk-to-tail transition. Without Gdf11 signaling, the switch from trunk to tail is significantly delayed, and its premature activation brings the hindlimbs and cloaca next to the forelimbs, leaving extremely short trunks. Gdf11 activity includes activation of Isl1 to promote formation of the hindlimbs and cloaca-associated mesoderm as the most posterior derivatives of lateral mesoderm progenitors. Gdf11 also coordinates reallocation of bipotent neuromesodermal progenitors from the anterior primitive streak to the tail bud, in part by reducing the retinoic acid available to the progenitors. Our findings provide a perspective to understand the evolution of the vertebrate body plan.

  2. Evaluation of generalized degrees of freedom for sparse estimation by replica method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, A.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a method to evaluate the generalized degrees of freedom (GDF) for linear regression with sparse regularization. The GDF is a key factor in model selection, and thus its evaluation is useful in many modelling applications. An analytical expression for the GDF is derived using the replica method in the large-system-size limit with random Gaussian predictors. The resulting formula has a universal form that is independent of the type of regularization, providing us with a simple interpretation. Within the framework of replica symmetric (RS) analysis, GDF has a physical meaning as the effective fraction of non-zero components. The validity of our method in the RS phase is supported by the consistency of our results with previous mathematical results. The analytical results in the RS phase are calculated numerically using the belief propagation algorithm.

  3. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Predicts Chronic Liver Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eaum Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Byung Seok; Ku, Bon Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. GDF-15 is emerging as a biomarker for several diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical performances of GDF-15 for the prediction of liver fibrosis and severity in chronic liver disease. Methods The serum GDF-15 levels were examined via enzyme immunoassay in 145 patients with chronic liver disease and 101 healthy individuals. The patients with chronic liver disease consisted of 54 patients with chronic hepatitis, 44 patients with compensated liver cirrhosis, and 47 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Results Of the patients with chronic liver diseases, the decompensated liver cirrhosis patients had an increased serum GDF-15 (3,483 ng/L) level compared with the patients with compensated liver cirrhosis (1,861 ng/L) and chronic hepatitis (1,232 ng/L). The overall diagnostic accuracies of GDF-15, as determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, were as follows: chronic hepatitis=0.656 (>574 ng/L, sensitivity, 53.7%; specificity, 79.2%), compensated liver cirrhosis=0.886 (>760 ng/L, sensitivity, 75.6%; specificity, 92.1%), and decompensated liver cirrhosis=0.984 (>869 ng/L, sensitivity, 97.9%; specificity, 94.1%). Conclusions This investigation represents the first study to demonstrate the availability of GDF-15 in chronic liver disease. GDF-15 comprised a useful biomarker for the prediction of liver fibrosis and severity in chronic liver disease. PMID:27728964

  4. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1. Brittany T. Jones, Poomy Pandey, Srustidhar Das and Surinder K. Batra. (2010) Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15...else has every thought. She’s currently working in Dr. Surinder K. Batra’s lab, where her research project is to monitor "What effect do Curcumin ...project is supported in part by DOD PC094594 and NCI CA88184.) Brittany Jones – Abstract Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15

  5. Uncovering the Role of BMP Signaling in Melanocyte Development and Melanoma Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    findings are important because GDF6 represents a prime target for anti-melanoma therapy. GDF6 encodes a secreted protein that is required for melanoma...UMMS Communications Office – ‘Here for a Reason’ campaign 2014 Cancer Walk Kickoff Breakfast (panelist) 2015 Referee for journals: Molecular and...Massachusetts, USA Glutamate signaling, which is important in the central nervous system and in glial cell function, has recently been shown to have a

  6. Inhibition of follicular development induced by chronic unpredictable stress is associated with growth and differentiation factor 9 and gonadotropin in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Min; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong; Shen, Ni; Jin, Ren-Tao; Han, Hui; Hu, Mei-Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Gui-Xiang

    2012-04-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress negatively affects ovarian function. Ovarian follicular development is regulated by both pituitary-derived gonadotropins and intraovarian regulatory factors. To date, the suppressive effects of chronic stress on the ovary have been observed to be manifested mainly as an inhibition of gonadotropin release. It is not clear whether there are any other intraovarian regulatory mechanisms involved in this process. Growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is an important, oocyte-specific paracrine regulator required for follicular development. In this study, the chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice. The number of different developmental stages of follicles was counted on ovarian sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, of GDF9. The results show that chronic unpredictable stress inhibits follicular development, increases follicular atresia, and suppresses GDF9 expression. Exogenous gonadotropin treatment partly restores the repressed antral follicular development, but has no effect on the repressed secondary follicular development associated with chronic stress. Treatment with recombinant GDF9 restores secondary follicular development. Cotreatments with GDF9 and gonadotropins restore both secondary and antral follicular development in stressed mice. These findings demonstrate that inhibition of follicular development induced by chronic unpredictable stress is associated with GDF9 and gonadotropin.

  7. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Rittman, P.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  8. American Security and the International Energy Situation. Volume 4. Collected Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-15

    facilities on the Mediterranean, it has no power over th. crucla! Suez Canal (expected to be reopened within a year), and it cannot bear th. brunt of the...at the present time. due to the closure of the Suez Canal , the Soviet shipping lanes pass in the southern Indian Ocean and around the Cape of Good...Hope, thousands of miles away from the Persian Gulf area, this will not be the case after the expected opening of the Canal next yean the lanes

  9. Growth Differentiation Factor-15–Induced Contractile Activity and Extracellular Matrix Production in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai P.; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the role and regulation of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), a TGF-β–related cytokine in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells in the context of aqueous humor (AH) outflow and IOP. Methods Regulation of expression by external cues, and the distribution and secretion of GDF-15 by human TM primary cell cultures, and the effects of recombinant (r) GDF-15 on TM cell contractile characteristics, actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), SMAD signaling, and gene expression were determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, mass spectrometry, cDNA microarray, and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses. Results Growth differentiation factor-15, a common constituent of ECM derived from the human TM cells, was confirmed to be distributed throughout the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway of the human eye. Growth differentiation factor-15 protein levels were significantly increased in human TM cells in response to TGF-β2, dexamethasone, endothelin-1, lysophosphatidic acid, TNF-α, IL-1β treatment, and by cyclic mechanical stretch. Stimulation of human TM cells with rGDF-15 caused a significant increase in the formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, myosin light chain phosphorylation, SMAD signaling, gene expression, and the levels of αSMA and ECM proteins. Conclusions The results of this study, including a robust induction of GDF-15 expression by several external factors known to elevate IOP, and rGDF-15–induced increase in contractility, cell adhesion, and the levels of ECM proteins and αSMA in TM cells, collectively suggest a potential role for GDF-15 in homeostasis and dysregulation of AH outflow and IOP in normal and glaucomatous eyes, respectively. PMID:27918822

  10. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    PubMed

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  11. Cumulin, an Oocyte-secreted Heterodimer of the Transforming Growth Factor-β Family, Is a Potent Activator of Granulosa Cells and Improves Oocyte Quality*

    PubMed Central

    Mottershead, David G.; Sugimura, Satoshi; Al-Musawi, Sara L.; Li, Jing-Jie; Richani, Dulama; White, Melissa A.; Martin, Georgia A.; Trotta, Andrew P.; Ritter, Lesley J.; Shi, Junyan; Mueller, Thomas D.; Harrison, Craig A.; Gilchrist, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation, and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes. We found that the potent synergistic actions of GDF9 and BMP15 on GC can be attributed to the formation of a heterodimer, which we have termed cumulin. Structural modeling of cumulin revealed a dimerization interface identical to homodimeric GDF9 and BMP15, indicating likely formation of a stable complex. This was confirmed by generation of recombinant heterodimeric complexes of pro/mature domains (pro-cumulin) and covalent mature domains (cumulin). Both pro-cumulin and cumulin exhibited highly potent bioactivity on GC, activating both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways and promoting proliferation and expression of a set of genes associated with oocyte-regulated GC differentiation. Cumulin was more potent than pro-cumulin, pro-GDF9, pro-BMP15, or the two combined on GC. However, on cumulus-oocyte complexes, pro-cumulin was more effective than all other growth factors at notably improving oocyte quality as assessed by subsequent day 7 embryo development. Our results support a model of activation for human GDF9 dependent on cumulin formation through heterodimerization with BMP15. Oocyte-secreted cumulin is likely to be a central regulator of fertility in mono-ovular mammals. PMID:26254468

  12. Growth differentiation factor 9 signaling requires ERK1/2 activity in mouse granulosa and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Maxime; Ritter, Lesley J; Nguyen, Thao M; Liu, Fang; Mottershead, David G; Russell, Darryl L; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2010-09-15

    Ovarian folliculogenesis is driven by the combined action of endocrine cues and paracrine factors. The oocyte secretes powerful mitogens, such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), that regulate granulosa cell proliferation, metabolism, steroidogenesis and differentiation. This study investigated the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2; also known as MAPK3/1) signaling pathway on GDF9 action on granulosa cells. Results show that mitogenic action of the oocyte is prevented by pharmacological inhibition of the EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway. Importantly, EGFR-ERK1/2 activity as well as rous sarcoma oncogene family kinases (SFK) are required for signaling through SMADs, mediating GDF9, activin A and TGFbeta1 mitogenic action in granulosa cells. GDF9 could not activate ERK1/2 or affect EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 in granulosa cells. However, induction of the SMAD3-specific CAGA reporter by GDF9 in granulosa cells required active EGFR, SFKs and ERK1/2 as did GDF9-responsive gene expression. Finally, the EGFR-SFKs-ERK1/2 pathway was shown to be required for the maintenance of phosphorylation of the SMAD3 linker region. Together our results suggest that receptivity of granulosa cells to oocyte-secreted factors, including GDF9, is regulated by the level of activation of the EGFR and resulting ERK1/2 activity, through the requisite permissive phosphorylation of SMAD3 in the linker region. Our results indicate that oocyte-secreted TGFbeta-like ligands and EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling are cooperatively required for the unique granulosa cell response to the signal from oocytes mediating granulosa cell survival and proliferation and hence the promotion of follicle growth and ovulation.

  13. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  14. Characterization of the Ligand Binding Functionality of the Extracellular Domain of Activin Receptor Type IIB

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Dianne; Grinberg, Asya V.; Liu, June; Davies, Monique V.; Castonguay, Roselyne; Maniatis, Silas; Andreucci, Amy J.; Pobre, Eileen G.; Tomkinson, Kathleen N.; Monnell, Travis E.; Ucran, Jeffrey A.; Martinez-Hackert, Erik; Pearsall, R. Scott; Underwood, Kathryn W.; Seehra, Jasbir; Kumar, Ravindra

    2010-01-01

    The single transmembrane domain serine/threonine kinase activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) has been proposed to bind key regulators of skeletal muscle mass development, including the ligands GDF-8 (myostatin) and GDF-11 (BMP-11). Here we provide a detailed kinetic characterization of ActRIIB binding to several low and high affinity ligands using a soluble activin receptor type IIB-Fc chimera (ActRIIB.Fc). We show that both GDF-8 and GDF-11 bind the extracellular domain of ActRIIB with affinities comparable with those of activin A, a known high affinity ActRIIB ligand, whereas BMP-2 and BMP-7 affinities for ActRIIB are at least 100-fold lower. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that ActRIIB binds GDF-11 and activin A in different ways such as, for example, substitutions in ActRIIB Leu79 effectively abolish ActRIIB binding to activin A yet not to GDF-11. Native ActRIIB has four isoforms that differ in the length of the C-terminal portion of their extracellular domains. We demonstrate that the C terminus of the ActRIIB extracellular domain is crucial for maintaining biological activity of the ActRIIB.Fc receptor chimera. In addition, we show that glycosylation of ActRIIB is not required for binding to activin A or GDF-11. Together, our findings reveal binding specificity and activity determinants of the ActRIIB receptor that combine to effect specificity in the activation of distinct signaling pathways. PMID:20385559

  15. Plasma growth differentiation factor 15 is associated with weight loss and mortality in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Lorena; Hayes, Teresa G; Tao, Nianjun; Krieger, Brian; Feng, Bin; Wu, Zhenhua; Nicoletti, Richard; Chiu, M Isabel; Gyuris, Jeno; Garcia, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer-related weight loss is associated with increased inflammation and decreased survival. The novel inflammatory mediator growth differentiation factor (GDF)15 is associated with poor prognosis in cancer but its role in cancer-related weight loss (C-WL) remains unclear. Our objective was to measure GDF15 in plasma samples of cancer subjects and controls and establish its association with other inflammatory markers and clinical outcomes. Methods We measured body weight, appetite, plasma GDF15, and other inflammatory markers in men with cancer-related weight loss (C-WL, n = 58), weight stable patients with cancer (C-WS, n = 72), and non-cancer controls (Co, n = 59) matched by age and pre-illness body mass index. In a subset of patients we also measured handgrip strength, appendicular lean body mass (aLBM), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), and Karnofsky performance scores. Results GDF15, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were increased in C-WL versus other groups. IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4, interferon–gamma, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor A were increased in C-WL versus C-WS, and Activin A was significantly downregulated in Co versus other groups. C-WL patients had lower handgrip strength, aLBM, and fat mass, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and Karnofsky performance scores were lower in both cancer groups. GDF15, IL-6, and IL-8 significantly correlated with weight loss; GDF15 negatively correlated with aLBM, handgrip strength, and fat mass. IL-8 and Activin A negatively correlated with aLBM and fat mass. GDF15 and IL-8 predicted survival adjusting for stage and weight change (Cox regression P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion GDF15 and other inflammatory markers are associated with weight loss, decreased aLBM and strength, and poor survival in patients with cancer. GDF15 may serve as a prognostic indicator in cancer patients and is being evaluated as a potential therapeutic target for

  16. Go with the Floe: Geostrategic Ramifications of a Changing Artic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    largest oceans . Unlike Great Britain’s ultimately unsuccessful Suez war of 1956, America’s experience in Panama achieved American foreign policy...13 Recent research shows the importance climate played in ancient armies’ movement. Genghis Kahn and his offspring...and the Earth : A Political History of the Space Age (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), 177. 12 core of nuclear

  17. The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus, a new Indo-Pacific species in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Dalyan, C; Eryilmaz, L

    2009-05-01

    The Arabian scad Trachurus indicus is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea (Iskenderun Bay, Turkey). The presence of this Indo-Pacific fish in the Mediterranean Sea is probably because of migration from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.

  18. To Defend the Temple: Innovation in the Israeli Defense Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    believed that superior techmque and pllotmg skulls , that is, “physxs”, could defeat the Suez mrsslle array However, the Israeli &r force Commander, MaJor...profound change m Israeli rmhtary culture whxh has mstoncally emphasized the offense The Israeli development of the 1,501 kilometer-range Jericho II IRBM

  19. The Flipped Classroom Model to Develop Egyptian EFL Students' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Samah Zakareya

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of the flipped classroom model on Egyptian EFL students' listening comprehension. A one-group pre-posttest design was adopted. Thirty-four 3rd-year EFL students at the Faculty of Education, Suez University, were pretested on listening comprehension before the experiment and then posttested after…

  20. Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba separates the Sinai peninsula from Saudi Arabia in this scene of the Middle East (29.0N, 34.5E) showing the geomorphology and geology of this region including portions of Egypt, Israel, Jordon and Saudi Arabia. A small portion of the Gulf of Suez can be seen on the opposite side of the Sinai peninsula.

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Corps of Engineers and that there are two new cities that theSe- cond Army is building by its own efforts, one of them east of the [Suez] Canal...civil aircraft!! Shim’on Perez , who is said to be a dove, described the American decision to hold a dialogue with the PLO as a "black day in

  2. Effectiveness of United Nation’s Missions in Africa: A Comparative Assessment of UNAMSIL, MONUC, and UNAMID

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    118 APPENDIX E TIMELINE OF THE DARFUR CRISIS ...The fundamental 3 peacekeeping guidelines laid down during the Suez Canal crisis in 1956 and remain relevant are: 1. The United Nations...mandatory economic sanctions during the Rhodesian crisis between 1965 and 1979. In 1965, the Rhodesian government issued a unilateral Declaration of

  3. Fashoda: Turning Point in Anglo-French Relations: a Study in Military-Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    purchased the Suez Canal Company shares of Khedive Ismail Pasha. Ismail Pasha’s financial difficulties resulted in the establishment in 1876 of a Caisse ...arrangements had been concluded in June 1898, to obtain control of these areas now, as Cambon’s proposal would do, would be sufficient compensation for

  4. A bitter aftertaste: unintended effects of artificial sweeteners on the gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Blaser, Martin J

    2014-11-04

    Intestinal microbial communities regulate a range of host physiological functions, from energy harvest and glucose homeostasis to immune development and regulation. Suez et al. (2014) recently demonstrated that artificial sweeteners alter gut microbial communities, leading to glucose intolerance in both mice and humans.

  5. 75 FR 8685 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Generating Company; Choctaw Gas Generation, LLC; Hopewell Cogeneration Ltd Partnership; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; FirstLight Power Resources Management, LLC; Waterbury Generation, LLC; SUEZ Energy... Numbers: ER10-768-000. Applicants: Southern California Edison Company. Description: Southern...

  6. Mussolini's Marriage and a Game in the Playground: Using Analogy to Help Pupils Understand the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffin, Diana; Wilson, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Diana Laffin and Maggie Wilson want their pupils to connect with people in the past and to experience some of their emotions. The emotional factor is a difficult one in history, both for pupils and professional historians. When studying Eden's actions at Suez, for example, what we lack is a proper insight into the immediate pressures he faced and…

  7. United States’ Grand Strategy through the Lens of Lebanon in 1983 and Iraq in 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    grand strategy for the region. Some examples that immediately spring to mind are the closure of the Suez Canal, the oil embargo, the failed peace......first goal was tied to balance of power and the global policy of containment. The second goal of continuing the supply of oil to the free world was

  8. 75 FR 70736 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Suez S.A., International Power PLC. Description: Supplemental Affidavit of Julie R. Solomon submitted... plc and its Indicated United States Subsidiaries. Filed Date: 10/29/2010. Accession Number: 20101029... Holdings, LLC. Description: TPF Generation Holdings, LLC submits an application for authorization to...

  9. Teaching with Documents: A Cartoonist's View of the Eisenhower Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates how to teach U.S. history through the use of original documents such as Charles Nickerson's cartoon, "Images of the Fifties from Disneyland to Suez." States that the original artwork for this cartoon, which portrays the Eisenhower years, is in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas. Provides a pretest, teaching…

  10. Growth differentiation factor 5 is a key physiological regulator of dendrite growth during development.

    PubMed

    Osório, Catarina; Chacón, Pedro J; Kisiswa, Lilian; White, Matthew; Wyatt, Sean; Rodríguez-Tébar, Alfredo; Davies, Alun M

    2013-12-01

    Dendrite size and morphology are key determinants of the functional properties of neurons. Here, we show that growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subclass of the transforming growth factor β superfamily with a well-characterised role in limb morphogenesis, is a key regulator of the growth and elaboration of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus. Pyramidal cells co-express GDF5 and its preferred receptors, BMP receptor 1B and BMP receptor 2, during development. In culture, GDF5 substantially increased dendrite, but not axon, elongation from these neurons by a mechanism that depends on activation of SMADs 1/5/8 and upregulation of the transcription factor HES5. In vivo, the apical and basal dendritic arbours of pyramidal cells throughout the hippocampus were markedly stunted in both homozygous and heterozygous Gdf5 null mutants, indicating that dendrite size and complexity are exquisitely sensitive to the level of endogenous GDF5 synthesis.

  11. Structural insights into the dual nucleotide exchange and GDI displacement activity of SidM/DrrA

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Won; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Ku, Bonsu; Choi, Sung-Jin; Woo, Jae-Sung; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2010-01-01

    GDP-bound prenylated Rabs, sequestered by GDI (GDP dissociation inhibitor) in the cytosol, are delivered to destined sub-cellular compartment and subsequently activated by GEFs (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) catalysing GDP-to-GTP exchange. The dissociation of GDI from Rabs is believed to require a GDF (GDI displacement factor). Only two RabGDFs, human PRA-1 and Legionella pneumophila SidM/DrrA, have been identified so far and the molecular mechanism of GDF is elusive. Here, we present the structure of a SidM/DrrA fragment possessing dual GEF and GDF activity in complex with Rab1. SidM/DrrA reconfigures the Switch regions of the GTPase domain of Rab1, as eukaryotic GEFs do toward cognate Rabs. Structure-based mutational analyses show that the surface of SidM/DrrA, catalysing nucleotide exchange, is involved in GDI1 displacement from prenylated Rab1:GDP. In comparison with an eukaryotic GEF TRAPP I, this bacterial GEF/GDF exhibits high binding affinity for Rab1 with GDP retained at the active site, which appears as the key feature for the GDF activity of the protein. PMID:19942850

  12. Fluoride antireflection coatings for deep ultraviolet optics deposited by ion-beam sputtering.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiya; Nishimoto, Keiji; Sekine, Keiichi; Etoh, Kazuyuki

    2006-03-01

    Optically high quality coatings of fluoride materials are required in deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography. We have applied ion-beam sputtering (IBS) to obtain fluoride films with smooth surfaces. The extinction coefficients were of the order of 10(-4) at the wavelength of 193 nm due to the reduction of their absorption loss. The transmittance of the MgF2/GdF3 antireflection coating was as high as 99.7% at the wavelength of 193 nm. The surfaces of the IBS deposited films were so smooth that the surface roughness of the A1F3/GdF3 film was comparable with that of the CaF2 substrate. The MgF2/GdF3 coating fulfilled the temperature and humidity requirements of military specification. Thus, the IBS deposited fluoride films are promising candidate for use in the DUV lithography optics.

  13. APPLICATION OF GAS DYNAMICAL FRICTION FOR PLANETESIMALS. II. EVOLUTION OF BINARY PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs long before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas–planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of single intermediate-mass planetesimals (m{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 21}–10{sup 25} g) through gas dynamical friction (GDF). A significant fraction of all solar system planetesimals (asteroids and Kuiper-belt objects) are known to be binary planetesimals (BPs). Here, we explore the effects of GDF on the evolution of BPs embedded in a gaseous disk using an N-body code with a fiducial external force accounting for GDF. We find that GDF can induce binary mergers on timescales shorter than the disk lifetime for masses above m{sub p} ≳ 10{sup 22} g at 1 au, independent of the binary initial separation and eccentricity. Such mergers can affect the structure of merger-formed planetesimals, and the GDF-induced binary inspiral can play a role in the evolution of the planetesimal disk. In addition, binaries on eccentric orbits around the star may evolve in the supersonic regime, where the torque reverses and the binary expands, which would enhance the cross section for planetesimal encounters with the binary. Highly inclined binaries with small mass ratios, evolve due to the combined effects of Kozai–Lidov (KL) cycles with GDF which lead to chaotic evolution. Prograde binaries go through semi-regular KL evolution, while retrograde binaries frequently flip their inclination and ∼50% of them are destroyed.

  14. Positive regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by growth differentiation factor 15 upregulated in osteocytic cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Ochi, Hiroki; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakatani, Eri; Iezaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Hidano, Shinya; Kobayashi, Takashi; Takeda, Shu; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Osteocytes are thought to play a role as a mechanical sensor through their communication network in bone. Although osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological functions in skeletogenesis. Here, we have attempted to delineate the pivotal functional role of osteocytes in regulation of bone remodeling under pathological conditions. We first found markedly increased osteoclastic differentiation by conditioned media (CM) from osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells previously exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Using microarray and real-time PCR analyses, we identified growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) as a key candidate factor secreted from osteocytes under hypoxia. Recombinant GDF15 significantly promoted osteoclastic differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner, with concomitant facilitation of phosphorylation of both p65 and inhibitory-κB in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. To examine the possible functional significance of GDF15 in vivo, mice were subjected to ligation of the right femoral artery as a hypoxic model. A significant increase in GDF15 expression was specifically observed in tibias of the ligated limb but not in tibias of the normally perfused limb. Under these experimental conditions, in cancellous bone of proximal tibias in the ligated limb, a significant reduction was observed in bone volume, whereas a significant increase was seen in the extent of osteoclast surface/bone surface when determined by bone histomorphometric analysis. Finally, the anti-GDF15 antibody prevented bone loss through inhibiting osteoclastic activation in tibias from mice with femoral artery ligation in vivo, in addition to suppressing osteoclastic activity enhanced by CM from osteocytes exposed to hypoxia in vitro. These findings suggest that GDF15 could play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss relevant to hypoxia through promotion of osteoclastogenesis after

  15. A low-molecular-weight compound K7174 represses hepcidin: possible therapeutic strategy against anemia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Tohru; Ikeda, Takashi; Nagasaka, Yuki; Okitsu, Yoko; Katsuoka, Yuna; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Harigae, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin is the principal iron regulatory hormone, controlling the systemic absorption and remobilization of iron from intracellular stores. The expression of the hepcidin gene, HAMP, is increased in patients with anemia of chronic disease. Previously, the synthetic compound K7174 was identified through chemical screening as a novel inhibitor of the adhesion of monocytes to cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. K7174 also ameliorated anemia induced by inflammatory cytokines in mice, which suggests a possible involvement of hepcidin regulation. The present study was performed to assess the impact of K7174 on hepcidin expression in a human hematoma cell line and in mice in vivo. We first demonstrated that K7174 treatment in HepG2 cells significantly decreased HAMP expression. Then, we conducted microarray analysis to determine the molecular mechanism by which K7174 inhibits HAMP expression. Transcriptional profiling confirmed the downregulation of HAMP. Surprisingly, we found that K7174 strongly induced GDF15, known as a negative regulator of HAMP expression. Western blotting analysis as well as ELISA confirmed the induction of GDF15 by K7174 treatment. Furthermore, K7174-mediated HAMP suppression was rescued by the silencing of GDF15 expression. Interestingly, we found that K7174 also upregulates CEBPB. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that CEBPB could contribute to K7174-mediated transcriptional activation of GDF15. Subsequently, we also examined whether K7174 inhibits hepcidin expression in mice. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis with liver samples from K7174-treated mice demonstrated significant upregulation of Gdf15 and downregulation of Hamp expression, as compared to control mice. Furthermore, serum hepcidin concentration was also significantly decreased in K7174-treated mice. In conclusion, K7174 inhibits hepcidin expression partly by inducing GDF15. K-7174 may be a potential therapeutic option to treat anemia of chronic

  16. Application of Gas Dynamical Friction for Planetesimals. II. Evolution of Binary Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs long before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas-planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of single intermediate-mass planetesimals (mp ˜ 1021-1025 g) through gas dynamical friction (GDF). A significant fraction of all solar system planetesimals (asteroids and Kuiper-belt objects) are known to be binary planetesimals (BPs). Here, we explore the effects of GDF on the evolution of BPs embedded in a gaseous disk using an N-body code with a fiducial external force accounting for GDF. We find that GDF can induce binary mergers on timescales shorter than the disk lifetime for masses above mp ≳ 1022 g at 1 au, independent of the binary initial separation and eccentricity. Such mergers can affect the structure of merger-formed planetesimals, and the GDF-induced binary inspiral can play a role in the evolution of the planetesimal disk. In addition, binaries on eccentric orbits around the star may evolve in the supersonic regime, where the torque reverses and the binary expands, which would enhance the cross section for planetesimal encounters with the binary. Highly inclined binaries with small mass ratios, evolve due to the combined effects of Kozai-Lidov (KL) cycles with GDF which lead to chaotic evolution. Prograde binaries go through semi-regular KL evolution, while retrograde binaries frequently flip their inclination and ˜50% of them are destroyed.

  17. Basement structural control on Cretaceous pull-apart basins of the central Eastern Egypt Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, K.; El Kazzaz, Y.; Holdsworth, B.

    2006-12-01

    The present-day Red Sea / Gulf of Suez rift system is attributed to extensional block faulting with along-axis segmentation into sub-basins with different dip polarities. The northwestern margin of the Red Sea - Gulf of Suez rift system is exposed for about 400 km along the northwestern Red Sea coast near Quseir to the tip of the Gulf of Suez at Suez City. This area contains elements of the pre-Red Sea structural pattern which has been viewed in similar terms as one of fault-related basin formation. Four distinct depocenters (sub-basins) separated by complex accommodation zones are present containing 500-700m thick section ranging in age from the Late Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Each sub-basin is asymmetric, bounded on one side by a major NW-trending border fault system with large throws (3-6 km in general) with a dominant strata dip direction toward the border fault system. These basins are arranged in en echelon patterns and now form separate elongated ridges surrounded by basement rocks. Our study of the tectonic evolution of the central eastern section of the Gulf of Suez rift and the Northwestern Red Sea has focused on the interaction of pre-existing basement fabrics with the pre-Red Sea structural development. The study involved analysis of LandsatTM images and aerial photographs integrated with results from reconnaissance geological mapping. Our provisional results indicate that the Gebel Um Hammad/Duwi and Hammadat sub-basins were sited in pull-apart structures created by dextral reactivation of E-W to ENE-WSW trending basement fault zones. We show how the basin-bounding fault systems, lower order normal faults and folds in both hangingwall sequences and in basement are compatible with a Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene strike-slip regime. In contrast, the main Red Sea Gulf of Suez rift shows no evidence for strike-slip influence with the main boundary faults cutting across basement fabrics, however, as pointed out by previous authors, rift segmentation

  18. Aerosol Studies at UMIST.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    treated by the advection- diffusion equation dn D2n - v n dr n is number of particles per unit volume v is velocity of fluid D is diffusion constant (See...September 1977 (GDF data) A weak trailing cold front, associated with a deep depresion over Western Russia, lying from Essex to Northern Ireland at OOh

  19. Genome walk of an unknown upstream region of myostatin gene in Spanish goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myostatin (MSTN) gene product also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF8) is a member of the TGF-ß family of secreted proteins. It is shown to be a negative regulator of muscle mass development. Mutations in the MSTN gene have been reported in mice, cattle and humans that lead to muscular hyp...

  20. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... storage tank at the GDF to prevent the vapors from escaping to the atmosphere. ORVR systems are carbon... before they reach the nozzle. The fuel vapors captured in the carbon canisters are then combusted in the..., including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. EPA has no reason to believe that the removal of the Stage...

  1. Growth differentiation factor-9 and anti-Müllerian hormone expression in cultured human follicles from frozen-thawed ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Sadeu, J C; Smitz, J

    2008-10-01

    In-vitro growth of frozen-thawed human follicles is perceived as a potential option for restoring women's fertility. The aims of this study were: (i) to test the usefulness of a defined serum-free medium for growth of frozen-thawed human follicles; and (ii) to evaluate the expression of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in cultured follicles. Frozen-thawed ovarian cortical pieces from 7-, 12-, 25- and 27-year-old women were cultured for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Follicle developmental quality was evaluated and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (day 21), GDF-9 (days 14 and 28) and AMH (day 21) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Primary follicles and enclosed oocytes underwent significant growth at the end of culture (P < 0.05). Cultured follicles from all patients studied reached the early secondary stage and a few follicles from two patients developed up to the secondary stage. The rate of atresia was variable throughout the culture periods. PCNA was expressed in the granulosa cells at all the different follicular stages. AMH and GDF-9 immunostaining were found respectively in the granulosa cells and oocytes after several weeks of culture. The transition from resting to growing follicles leading to the development of secondary follicles showed the normal expression patterns of GDF-9 and AMH.

  2. VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndrome-like malformations in mice with mutation in the proprotein convertase Pcsk5

    PubMed Central

    Szumska, Dorota; Pieles, Guido; Essalmani, Rachid; Bilski, Michal; Mesnard, Daniel; Kaur, Kulvinder; Franklyn, Angela; El Omari, Kamel; Jefferis, Joanna; Bentham, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Arnold, Sebastian J.; Johnson, Paul; Tymowska-Lalanne, Zuzanna; Stammers, Dave; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Morris, Andrew; Brown, Steve D.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cama, Armando; Capra, Valeria; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Constam, Daniel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Prat, Annik; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

    2008-01-01

    We have identified an ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced recessive mouse mutation (Vcc) with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes cardiac, tracheoesophageal, anorectal, anteroposterior patterning defects, exomphalos, hindlimb hypoplasia, a presacral mass, renal and palatal agenesis, and pulmonary hypoplasia. It results from a C470R mutation in the proprotein convertase PCSK5 (PC5/6). Compound mutants (Pcsk5Vcc/null) completely recapitulate the Pcsk5Vcc/Vcc phenotype, as does an epiblast-specific conditional deletion of Pcsk5. The C470R mutation ablates a disulfide bond in the P domain, and blocks export from the endoplasmic reticulum and proprotein convertase activity. We show that GDF11 is cleaved and activated by PCSK5A, but not by PCSK5A-C470R, and that Gdf11-deficient embryos, in addition to having anteroposterior patterning defects and renal and palatal agenesis, also have a presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and exomphalos. Pcsk5 mutation results in abnormal expression of several paralogous Hox genes (Hoxa, Hoxc, and Hoxd), and of Mnx1 (Hlxb9). These include known Gdf11 targets, and are necessary for caudal embryo development. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in PCSK5 in patients with VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb malformation OMIM 192350) and caudal regression syndrome, the phenotypic features of which resemble the mouse mutation. We propose that Pcsk5, at least in part via GDF11, coordinately regulates caudal Hox paralogs, to control anteroposterior patterning, nephrogenesis, skeletal, and anorectal development. PMID:18519639

  3. 40 CFR 63.11124 - What notifications must I submit and when?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 63.13. (i) The name and address of the owner and the operator. (ii) The address (i.e., physical... Office and the delegated State authority as specified in § 63.13. (i) The name and address of the owner and the operator. (ii) The address (i.e., physical location) of the GDF. (iii) A statement that...

  4. The procurement landscape of pediatric tuberculosis treatment: a Global Drug Facility perspective.

    PubMed

    Scott, C; Gardiner, E; de Lucia, A

    2015-12-01

    Simple, quality-assured, child-friendly formulations of existing first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in the correct dosages are now becoming available. Efforts are currently underway by the TB Alliance, the World Health Organization (WHO), and its partners to make appropriate medicines available to treat children diagnosed with TB. The functioning of the current market and the distribution pathways in pediatric TB drugs now require characterization and understanding in order to develop appropriate strategies for delivery of these and other future pediatric TB medicines. The Stop TB Partnership's Global Drug Facility (GDF) plays a major role in supplying pediatric TB medications worldwide. GDF is considered to be the largest procurer of pediatric TB treatment and the largest supplier to national TB programs of quality pediatric drugs. Between 2007 and 2013, the GDF delivered more than 580, 000 treatments to children in over 50 countries, 14 of which are among the 22 high TB burden countries. We analyzed this data set in the context of WHO estimates of pediatric TB as well as other available information to assess the functioning of the current market, lessons learnt from the GDF experience in the market, and opportunities for future products.

  5. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Fernanda Cavallari; Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho; Leal, Claudia Lima Verde

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review. PMID:26954112

  6. Effects of Trichostatin A on Cumulus Expansion during Mouse Oocyte Maturation.

    PubMed

    Du, Ming; Fu, Xiangwei; Zhou, Yanhua; Zhu, Shien

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Trichostatin A (TSA) on cumulus expansion during mouse oocyte maturation. TSA treatment inhibited cumulus expansion and significantly reduced the cumulus expansion index (CEI) (p<0.05). To determine the underlying mechanism, the expression levels of several key factors that play crucial roles in cumulus expansion including components of extracellular matrix (ECM) (Has2, Ptgs2, Ptx3, and Tnfaip6) and Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) were measured in control and TSA treated samples by real-time PCR. The effect of TSA on ERK phosphorylation (p-ERK1/2) in cumulus cells and GDF9 protein level in fully grown oocytes (FGOs) were detected by Western blotting. The expression levels of the ECM genes were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by TSA treatment while GDF9 expression did not response to TSA (p>0.05). TSA treatment blocked the activation of ERK1/2 (p<0.05) and had no significant effect on GDF9 protein expression (p>0.05). Collectively, these results suggested that TSA treatment altered ECM gene expression and blocked ERK1/2 activation to inhibit cumulus expansion in the mouse.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine genome are associated with the number of oocytes collected during ovum pick up.

    PubMed

    Santos-Biase, W K F; Biase, F H; Buratini, J; Balieiro, J; Watanabe, Y F; Accorsi, M F; Ferreira, C R; Stranieri, P; Caetano, A R; Meirelles, F V

    2012-10-01

    The number of follicles recruited in each estrous cycle has gained practical importance in artificial reproductive technology, as it determines the oocyte yield from ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for in vitro embryo production. We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine genes related to reproductive physiology and evaluate the association between the candidate SNPs and the number of oocytes collected from ultrasound-guided ovum pickup. We sequenced genomic segments of GDF9, FGF8, FGF10 and BMPR2 and identified seventeen SNPs in the Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. Two SNPs cause amino acid changes in the proteins GDF9 and FGF8. Three SNPs in GDF9, FGF8 and BMPR2 were genotyped in 217 Nelore cows (B. indicus), while two previously identified mutations in LHCGR and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were genotyped in the same group. The polymorphisms in GDF9, FGF8, BMRP2 and LHCGR were significantly associated (P<0.01) with the number of oocytes collected by ovum pickup, whereas the SNP in the mtDNA was not. In addition, we estimated an allelic substitution effect of 1.13±0.01 (P<0.01) oocytes for the SNP in the FGF8 gene. The results we report herein provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important component of the number of antral follicles in the bovine ovary.

  8. Granulosa cells and retinoic acid co-treatment enrich potential germ cells from manually selected Oct4-EGFP expressing human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Fu; Jan, Pey-Shynan; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Wu, Fang-Chun; Lan, Chen-Wei; Huang, Mei-Chi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2014-09-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem (HES) cells to germ cells may become clinically useful in overcoming diseases related to germ-cell development. Niches were used to differentiate HES cell lines, NTU1 and H9 Oct4-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), including laminin, granulosa cell co-culture or conditioned medium, ovarian stromal cell co-culture or conditioned medium, retinoic acid, stem cell factor (SCF) and BMP4-BMP7-BMP8b treatment. Flow cytometry showed that granulosa cell co-culture (P < 0.001) or conditioned medium (P = 0.007) treatment for 14 days significantly increased the percentages of differentiated H9 Oct4-EGFP cells expressing early germ cell marker stage-specific embryonic antigen 1(SSEA1); sorted SSEA1[+] cells did not express higher levels of germ cell gene VASA and GDF9. Manually collected H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells expressed significantly higher levels of VASA (P = 0.005) and GDF9 (P = 0.001). H9 Oct4-EGFP[+] cells developed to ovarian follicle-like structures after culture for 28 days but with low efficiency. Unlike SCF and BMP4, retinoic acid co-treatment enhanced VASA, GDF9 and SCP3 expression. A protocol is recommended to enrich differentiated HES cells with germ-cell potential by culture with granulosa cells, conditioned medium or retinoic acid, manual selection of Oct4-EGFP[+] cells, and analysis of VASA, GDF9 expression, or both.

  9. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression...

  10. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF.

  11. Growth differentiation factor 15 may protect the myocardium from no-reflow by inhibiting the inflammatory-like response that predominantly involves neutrophil infiltration

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MEI; PAN, KUNYING; LIU, QIANPING; ZHOU, XIN; JIANG, TIEMIN; LI, YUMING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the time course of the expression of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) in rat ischemic myocardium with increasing durations of reperfusion, and to elucidate its physiopathological role in the no-reflow phenomenon. Wistar rats were randomly divided into ischemia reperfusion (I/R) and sham groups, and myocardial I/R was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h followed by reperfusion for 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h and 7 days whilst rats in the sham group were subjected to a sham operation. The expression levels of GDF-15 and ICAM-1 were measured, in addition to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The myocardial anatomical no-reflow and infarction areas were assessed. The area at risk was not significantly different following various periods of reperfusion, while the infarct area and no-reflow area were significantly greater following 6 h of reperfusion (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of GDF-15 were increased during the onset and development of no-reflow, and peaked following 24 h of reperfusion. MPO activity was reduced with increasing reperfusion duration, while ICAM-1 levels were increased. Hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that myocardial neutrophil infiltration was significantly increased by I/R injury, in particular following 2, 4 and 6 h of reperfusion. GDF-15 expression levels were negatively correlated with MPO activity (r=−0.55, P<0.001), and the MPO activity was negatively correlated with the area of no-reflow (r=−0.46, P<0.01). By contrast, GDF-15 was significantly positively correlated with ICAM-1 levels (r=0.52, P<0.01), which additionally were demonstrated to be significantly positively associated with the size of the no-reflow area (r= 0.39, P<0.05). The current study demonstrated the time course effect of reperfusion on the expression of GDF-15 in the myocardial I/R rat model, with the shorter reperfusion times (6 h) resulting in

  12. The Nile River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east. Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  13. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively.

  14. United States Security Assistance 1977-1980: Human Rights Issues Affecting Arms Transfers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    and faithful support. Their constant devotion and understanding made it all possible . Gary E. Gordon Table of Contents Page Acknowledgments u...Union to gain power in Greece and further the possibility of dominating the vital sea lane from the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal (Curti:771...By passing the act, the U.S. sent a clear message that U.S. efforts to promote peace and stability were based on the principle of "continuous and

  15. The Secret of Future Victories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Cyrenaica toward the Suez Canal. British strategists expressed to counterparts in Washington concern over the prospect of great Axis pincer movements...attacked at night? What and where are the positions--who critiques each and every one of them? Now ask yourselves if we have cone to grips with the...came to grips with the realities of close combat for combined arms, and could reliably teach leaders and soldiers alike how to behave so that they could

  16. Anglo-American Relations: Can The ’Special’ Relationship Survive in the New World Order?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-21

    or by the decision by Britain to withdraw from East of Suez. Nonetheless, history shows that no two countries have ever been so completely "mixed up...the greatest confrontations in the history of Anglo-American relations.25 MacMillan played his Polaris card. There was a strong lobby in America to...Britain’s bid to enter the EEC. For the next decade, America became enmeshed in the most disastrous war of its history . Britain remained in suspense

  17. Deployment of United Nations Peace Keeping Forces: The Nature of Transportation and Review of Current Methodologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    the support by the western countries. For example, the Suez Canal is a vital sea lane for trade between the industrialized developed nations of the west...lines Authority: Security Council Size: Maximum 89 Contributing Countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Mexico , New...other specific public tasks. 3. Royal Netherlands Air Force (a) Organizacion For peace-keeping operations of the United Nations are earmarked: (1

  18. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  19. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-17

    jute, fibers, meat, and vegetable achieve integration between the African countries oils ). through a common African market? Nonetheless, the integrated...lift the burden borne by revenues from oil , tourism, and the Suez Canal had people living on fixed incomes. This would have been dropped, and revenues...Labor Party’s of extinguishing Kuwait’s burning oil wells which isSupreme Board, said, "The IMF’s prescription did not estimated to cost $20 billion. He

  20. The Coast Guard Proceedings of the Marine Safety & Security Council. Volume 72, Number 3, Fall 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Eagle Ford shale play. 2 However, the rapid growth in domestic oil output, espe - cially the lighter “Bakken” type of production, has proved challenging...author: Mr. Curtis Borland is a legal advisor in the Coast Guard Office of Operating and Environmental Standards, Vessel and Facility Operating...Institute, 2015. 6. Singapore, Suez, Panama, Hong Kong, Gibraltar, and some English Channel entrance or existing ports meet these criteria. 7. M. King

  1. Selections from European Scientific Notes 1946 - 1976.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    certain Saltwater lines throughout the special facilities exclusively available aquarium are plastic. Sea water in- to the Institute. It is expected...completed through the heavy-duty of a large specimen, gear root, etc. crocodile clip on the gear (anode). The replica method is particularly The water...sipunculid, four struction of the Suez Canal (completed copepods, two amphipods, one cumacean, in 1809), hotever, was a saltwater pas- 33 decapods, one

  2. Marine Corps Equities in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-18

    Frequency and Very High Frequency communications 25 experience increased disturbances and disruptions due to ionosphere effects that decrease the...nearly halves the shipping distance between Europe and Asia, compared to routing ships through the Suez or Panama Canals.14 Travelling via the NSR...precision-guided munitions due to the geometry of the satellite constellation in relation to GPS receivers and interference from the ionosphere .76

  3. Implementation of MASW and waveform inversion techniques for new seismic hazard estimation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    el-aziz abd el-aal, abd; Kamal, heba

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, an integrated multi-channel analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique is applied to explore the geotechnical parameters of subsurface layers at the Zafarana Wind Farm site. The study area includes many active fault systems along the Gulf of Suez that cause many moderate and large earthquakes. Overall, the seismic activity of the area has recently become better understood following the use of waveform inversion method and software to develop accurate focal mechanism solutions for recent recorded earthquakes around the studied area. These earthquakes resulted in major stress-drops in the Eastern Desert and the Gulf of Suez area. These findings have helped to reshape the understanding of the seismotectonic environment of the Gulf of Suez area, which is a perplexing tectonic domain. Based on the collected new information and data, this study uses new an extended stochastic technique to re-examine the seismic hazard for the Gulf of Suez region, particularly the wind turbine towers sites at Zafarana Wind Farm and its vicinity. The essential characteristics of the extended stochastic technique are to obtain and simulate ground motion in order to minimize future earthquake consequences. The first step of this technique is defining the seismic sources which mostly affect the study area. Then, the maximum expected magnitude is defined for each of these seismic sources. It is followed by estimating the ground motion using an empirical attenuation relationship. Finally, the site amplification is implemented in calculating the peak ground acceleration (PGA) at each site of interest. Key words: MASW, waveform inversion, extended stochastic technique, Zafarana Wind Farm

  4. Near East/South Asia Report No. 2745.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with the 23 April 1974 Dahir, which allows exporters to insure themselves against certain types of commercial and other risks . 36 Finally, one year...budget. It had no equipment, and it did not even have its own building. Several agencies, like the Suez Canal Authority, managed the affairs of the...total income of the land. In addition, we do not deny that agricultural management is inefficient for various considerations. Ever since the late

  5. Growth differentiation factor-9 mediates follicle-stimulating hormone-thyroid hormone interaction in the regulation of rat preantral follicular development.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Orisaka, Makoto; Cao, Mingju; Kotsuji, Fumikazu; Leader, Arthur; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2009-12-01

    FSH regulates follicular growth in a stage-development fashion. Although preantral follicle stage is gonadotropin responsive, FSH is not required for preantral follicular growth. With the antrum, the follicles continue growing under the influence of FSH and become gonadotropin dependent. Although thyroid hormone is important for normal female reproductive function, its role and interaction with FSH in the regulation of preantral ovarian follicular growth is yet to be defined. In the present study, we have examined the action and interaction of FSH and T(3) in the regulation of the growth of preantral follicles, especially in their transition from preantral to early antral stage, using an established follicle culture system and evaluated the involvement of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in this process in vitro. We have demonstrated that although T(3) alone had no effect on follicular development, it markedly enhanced FSH-induced preantral follicular growth. Although FSH alone significantly down-regulated FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNA abundance in the preantral follicles and T(3) alone was ineffective, expression of the message was significantly increased in the presence of both hormones. In addition, intra-oocyte injection of GDF-9 antisense oligonucleotides (GDF-9 morpholino) induced follicular cell apoptosis and suppressed follicular growth induced by FSH and T(3). These responses were attenuated by exogenous GDF-9. Our findings support the concept that thyroid hormone regulates ovarian follicular development through its direct action on the ovary and that promotes FSH-induced preantral follicular growth through up-regulation of FSHR, a mechanism dependent on the expression and action of oocyte-derived GDF-9.

  6. Oocyte-secreted growth differentiation factor 9 inhibits BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death-extra long expression in porcine cumulus cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Long; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Shuan; Wu, Yi; Gao, Hui; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) maintain the low incidence of cumulus cell apoptosis. In this report, we described that the presence of oocytes suppressed the expression of proapoptotic protein BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death-extra long (BIMEL) in porcine cumulus cells. Atretic (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive) cumulus cells strongly expressed BIMEL protein. The healthy cumulus- oocyte complex exhibited a low BIMEL expression in cumulus cell while the removal of oocyte led to an about 2.5-fold (P < 0.5) increased expression in oocytectomized complex (OOX). Coculturing OOXs with denuded oocytes decreased BIMEL expression to the normal level. The similar expression pattern could also be achieved in OOXs treated with exogenous recombinant mouse growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), a well-characterized OSF. This inhibitory action of GDF9 was prevented by the addition of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Luciferase assay further demonstrated that BIM gene expression was forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a)-dependent because mutation of FOXO3a-binding site on the BIM promoter inhibited luciferase activities. Moreover, the activity of BIM promoter encompassing the FOXO3a-binding site could be regulated by GDF9. Additionally, we found that GDF9 elevated the levels of phosphorylated AKT and FOXO3a, and this process was independent of the SMAD signal pathway. Taken together, we concluded that OSFs, particularly GDF9, maintained the low level of BIMEL expression in cumulus cell through activation of the PI3K/FOXO3a pathway.

  7. Stratified whole genome linkage analysis of Chiari type I malformation implicates known Klippel-Feil syndrome genes as putative disease candidates.

    PubMed

    Markunas, Christina A; Soldano, Karen; Dunlap, Kaitlyn; Cope, Heidi; Asiimwe, Edgar; Stajich, Jeffrey; Enterline, David; Grant, Gerald; Fuchs, Herbert; Gregory, Simon G; Ashley-Koch, Allison E

    2013-01-01

    Chiari Type I Malformation (CMI) is characterized by displacement of the cerebellar tonsils below the base of the skull, resulting in significant neurologic morbidity. Although multiple lines of evidence support a genetic contribution to disease, no genes have been identified. We therefore conducted the largest whole genome linkage screen to date using 367 individuals from 66 families with at least two individuals presenting with nonsyndromic CMI with or without syringomyelia. Initial findings across all 66 families showed minimal evidence for linkage due to suspected genetic heterogeneity. In order to improve power to localize susceptibility genes, stratified linkage analyses were performed using clinical criteria to differentiate families based on etiologic factors. Families were stratified on the presence or absence of clinical features associated with connective tissue disorders (CTDs) since CMI and CTDs frequently co-occur and it has been proposed that CMI patients with CTDs represent a distinct class of patients with a different underlying disease mechanism. Stratified linkage analyses resulted in a marked increase in evidence of linkage to multiple genomic regions consistent with reduced genetic heterogeneity. Of particular interest were two regions (Chr8, Max LOD = 3.04; Chr12, Max LOD = 2.09) identified within the subset of "CTD-negative" families, both of which harbor growth differentiation factors (GDF6, GDF3) implicated in the development of Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). Interestingly, roughly 3-5% of CMI patients are diagnosed with KFS. In order to investigate the possibility that CMI and KFS are allelic, GDF3 and GDF6 were sequenced leading to the identification of a previously known KFS missense mutation and potential regulatory variants in GDF6. This study has demonstrated the value of reducing genetic heterogeneity by clinical stratification implicating several convincing biological candidates and further supporting the hypothesis that

  8. Lineage tracing of resident tendon progenitor cells during growth and natural healing.

    PubMed

    Dyment, Nathaniel A; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Matthews, Brya G; Li, Yingcui; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rowe, David W

    2014-01-01

    Unlike during embryogenesis, the identity of tissue resident progenitor cells that contribute to postnatal tendon growth and natural healing is poorly characterized. Therefore, we utilized 1) an inducible Cre driven by alpha smooth muscle actin (SMACreERT2), that identifies mesenchymal progenitors, 2) a constitutively active Cre driven by growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5Cre), a critical regulator of joint condensation, in combination with 3) an Ai9 Cre reporter to permanently label SMA9 and GDF5-9 populations and their progeny. In growing mice, SMA9+ cells were found in peritendinous structures and scleraxis-positive (ScxGFP+) cells within the tendon midsubstance and myotendinous junction. The progenitors within the tendon midsubstance were transiently labeled as they displayed a 4-fold expansion from day 2 to day 21 but reduced to baseline levels by day 70. SMA9+ cells were not found within tendon entheses or ligaments in the knee, suggesting a different origin. In contrast to the SMA9 population, GDF5-9+ cells extended from the bone through the enthesis and into a portion of the tendon midsubstance. GDF5-9+ cells were also found throughout the length of the ligaments, indicating a significant variation in the progenitors that contribute to tendons and ligaments. Following tendon injury, SMA9+ paratenon cells were the main contributors to the healing response. SMA9+ cells extended over the defect space at 1 week and differentiated into ScxGFP+ cells at 2 weeks, which coincided with increased collagen signal in the paratenon bridge. Thus, SMA9-labeled cells represent a unique progenitor source that contributes to the tendon midsubstance, paratenon, and myotendinous junction during growth and natural healing, while GDF5 progenitors contribute to tendon enthesis and ligament development. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the expansion and differentiation of these progenitors may prove crucial to improving future repair strategies.

  9. Effects of growth differentiation factor-9 and FSH on in vitro development, viability and mRNA expression in bovine preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, G L; Saraiva, M V A; Costa, J J N; Passos, M J; Silva, A W B; Rossi, R O D S; Portela, A M L R; Duarte, A B G; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Campelo, C C; Figueiredo, J R; van den Hurk, R; Silva, J R V

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and FSH, alone or in combination, on the growth, viability and mRNA expression of FSH receptor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and proteoglycan-related factors (i.e., hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1, HAS2, versican, perlecan) in bovine secondary follicles before and after in vitro culture. After 12 days culture, sequential FSH (100 ng mL⁻¹) from Days 0 to 6 and 500 ng mL⁻¹ from Days 7 to 12) increased follicular diameter and resulted in increased antrum formation (P<0.05). Alone, 200 ng mL⁻¹ GDF-9 significantly reduced HAS1 mRNA levels, but increased versican and perlecan mRNA levels in whole follicles, which included the oocyte, theca and granulosa cells. Together, FSH and GDF-9 increased HAS2 and versican (VCAN) mRNA levels, but decreased PCNA mRNA expression, compared with levels in follicles cultured in α-minimum essential medium supplemented with 3.0 mg mL⁻¹ bovine serum albumin, 10 µg mL⁻¹ insulin, 5.5 µg mL⁻¹ transferrin, 5 ng mL⁻¹ selenium, 2 mM glutamine, 2mM hypoxanthine and 50 μg mL⁻¹ ascorbic acid (α-MEM⁺). Comparisons of uncultured (0.2 mm) and α-MEM⁺ cultured follicles revealed that HAS1 mRNA expression was higher, whereas VCAN expression was lower, in cultured follicles (P<0.05). Expression of HAS1, VCAN and perlecan (HSPG2) was higher in cultured than in vivo-grown (0.3 mm) follicles. In conclusion, FSH and/or GDF-9 promote follicular growth and antrum formation. Moreover, GDF-9 stimulates expression of versican and perlecan and interacts positively with FSH to increase HAS2 expression.

  10. Earthquakes focal mechanism and stress field pattern in the northeastern part of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Hassoup, A.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Othman, Adel A. A.; Hamed, Diaa-Eldin M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Egypt is characterized by moderate size seismicity where earthquakes are distributed within several active regions. In the present study, we investigated the source mechanism of earthquakes using the digital waveform data recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) during the period from 2004 to 2008. The focal mechanisms are constructed with high reliability based on the polarity of the first motion of P-wave. These solutions are used to examine the mode of tectonic deformation and the present-day stress field pattern affecting on different tectonic provinces in the northern part of Egypt. The results demonstrate mainly a normal faulting mechanism with minor strike slip component generally trending parallel to the northern Red Sea, the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez and Cairo-Alexandria trend. The inversion technique scheme is used also in the present study for determining the regional stress field parameters for earthquake focal mechanism solutions based on the grid search method of Gephart and Forsyth (1984). The Results of the stress tensor using focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes show a prevailed tension stress field in N52°E, N41°E and N52°E for the northern Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba zone respectively.

  11. Labor, nationalism, and imperialism in eastern Arabia: Britain, the Shaikhs, and the Gulf oil workers in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar, 1932-1956

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, H.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the lack of a noticeable indigenous labor movement in the contemporary Gulf Arab countries of Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar; it focuses on the emergence, after the discovery of oil, of an industrial Gulf labor force, and on the evolution of the British policy towards oil and Gulf oil workers. The period examined begins with the discovery of oil in Bahrain in 1932 (the first such discovery on the Arab side of the Gulf), and ends with the Suez Crisis of 1956. The latter is a watershed event in Gulf history. It is argued that the Suez Crisis was in large part responsible for the long-term defeat of the indigenous labor movement in the Gulf. Attention is given to the parts played by the British Government of India, the Foreign Office, the local Shaikhs, the Gulf nationalists, and by the workers themselves. Policies towards workers passed through two different periods. In the first, 1932-1945, the Government of India had no direct interest in the Gulf labor situation; in the second, 1946-1956, the Foreign Office took increased interest in the welfare of local oil workers, primarily because of the importance of oil to reconstruction of the British economy after the war. However, the Suez Crisis in 1956 convinced the British to withdraw their support for the workers.

  12. 170 SUPPLEMENT OF GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 8 ON PORCINE OOCYTE DURING IN VITRO MATURATION ACTIVATES SMAD2 AND cAMP RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN SIGNALING.

    PubMed

    Yoon, J D; Lee, E; Hyun, S-H

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β family that has been identified as a strong physiological regulator. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of GDF8 on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM). We investigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, specific gene transcription levels in oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) after IVM, and specific protein expression and activation levels in matured CC by Western blotting. Each concentration (0, 1, 10, and 100ngmL(-1)) of GDF8 was added in maturation medium (TCM199) during process of IVM. Data were analysed by ANOVA followed by Duncan using SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Data are presented as the mean (replicate numbers) and differences were considered significant at P<0.05. After 44h of IVM, oocytes are mechanically denuded from CC with 0.1% hyaluronidase and only metaphase II stage oocytes are counted as nuclear matured oocytes. Each group of matured oocytes are stained by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and the fluorescence was captured as graphic files under an epifluorescence microscope. The fluorescence intensities of oocytes were measured using Image J software (National Institutes for Health, Bethesda, MD). The groups treated with 10 and 100ngmL(-1) of GDF8 showed significantly more than 10% decrease in intracellular ROS levels compared with other groups (5 times). To assess the effect of GDF8 on specific gene transcription level changes as a dose response during IVM, real-time PCR was performed. In matured oocytes, the developmental competence marker POU5F1, antioxidant enzymes regulator NRF2, and antiapoptosis gene BCL-2 mRNA transcription levels were significantly increased in the 10ngmL(-1) treatment group compared with control (4 times). In CC, the 10ngmL(-1) treatment groups showed significantly higher PCNA and NRF2 mRNA levels, and the 1 and 10ngmL(-1) treatment groups observed significantly increased cumulus expansion

  13. Growth Differentiation Factor 11 is a Circulating Factor that Reverses Age-Related Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Loffredo, Francesco S.; Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Jay, Steven M.; Gannon, Joseph; Pancoast, James R.; Yalamanchi, Pratyusha; Sinha, Manisha; Dall’Osso, Claudia; Khong, Danika; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Miller, Christine M.; Singer, Britta S.; Stewart, Alex; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Gerszten, Robert E.; Hartigan, Adam J.; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Serwold, Thomas; Wagers, Amy J.; Lee, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The most common form of heart failure occurs with normal systolic function and often involves cardiac hypertrophy in the elderly. To clarify the biological mechanisms that drive cardiac hypertrophy in aging, we tested the influence of circulating factors using heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical technique in which joining of animals of different ages leads to a shared circulation. After 4 weeks of exposure to the circulation of young mice, cardiac hypertrophy in old mice dramatically regressed, accompanied by reduced cardiomyocyte size and molecular remodeling. Reversal of age-related hypertrophy was not attributable to hemodynamic or behavioral effects of parabiosis, implicating a blood-borne factor. Using modified aptamer-based proteomics, we identified the TGFβ superfamily member GDF11 as a circulating factor in young mice that declines with age. Treatment of old mice to restore GDF11 to youthful levels recapitulated the effects of parabiosis and reversed age-related hypertrophy, revealing a new therapeutic opportunity for cardiac aging. PMID:23663781

  14. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  15. Cripto/GRP78 modulation of the TGF-β pathway in development and oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter C.; Vale, Wylie

    2013-01-01

    Cripto is a small, GPI-anchored signaling protein that regulates cellular survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration during normal developmental processes and tumorigenesis. Cripto functions as an obligatory co-receptor for the TGF-β ligands Nodal, GDF1 and GDF3 but attenuates signaling of others such as activin-A, activin-B and TGF-β1. Soluble, secreted forms of Cripto also activate Src, ras/raf/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways via a mechanism that remains largely obscure. This review describes the biological roles and signaling mechanisms of Cripto, highlighting our identification of Glucose Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78) as a cell surface receptor/co-factor required for Cripto signaling via both TGF-β and Src/MAPK/PI3K pathways. We discuss emerging evidence indicating that Cripto/GRP78 signaling regulates normal somatic stem cells and their tumorigenic counterparts. PMID:22306319

  16. Ectopic induction of tendon and ligament in rats by growth and differentiation factors 5, 6, and 7, members of the TGF-beta gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfman, N M; Hattersley, G; Cox, K; Celeste, A J; Nelson, R; Yamaji, N; Dube, J L; DiBlasio-Smith, E; Nove, J; Song, J J; Wozney, J M; Rosen, V

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the regulatory signals involved in tendon and ligament formation, and this lack of understanding has hindered attempts to develop biologically based therapies for tendon and ligament repair. Here we report that growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) 5, 6, and 7, members of the TGF-beta gene superfamily that are most related to the bone morphogenetic proteins, induce neotendon/ligament formation when implanted at ectopic sites in vivo. Analysis of tissue induced by GDF-5, 6, or 7, containing implants by currently available morphological and molecular criteria used to characterize tendon and ligament, adds further evidence to the idea that these GDFs act as signaling molecules during embryonic tendon/ligament formation. In addition, comparative in situ localizations of the GDF-5, 6, and 7 mRNAs suggest that these molecules are important regulatory components of synovial joint morphogenesis. PMID:9218508

  17. FGF21 is a biomarker for mitochondrial translation and mtDNA maintenance disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Jenni M.; Forsström, Saara; Bottani, Emanuela; Viscomi, Carlo; Baris, Olivier R.; Isoniemi, Helena; Höckerstedt, Krister; Österlund, Pia; Hurme, Mikko; Jylhävä, Juulia; Leppä, Sirpa; Markkula, Ritva; Heliö, Tiina; Mombelli, Giuliana; Uusimaa, Johanna; Laaksonen, Reijo; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Auranen, Mari; Zeviani, Massimo; Smeitink, Jan; Wiesner, Rudolf J.; Nakada, Kazuto; Isohanni, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To validate new mitochondrial myopathy serum biomarkers for diagnostic use. Methods: We analyzed serum FGF21 (S-FGF21) and GDF15 from patients with (1) mitochondrial diseases and (2) nonmitochondrial disorders partially overlapping with mitochondrial disorder phenotypes. We (3) did a meta-analysis of S-FGF21 in mitochondrial disease and (4) analyzed S-Fgf21 and skeletal muscle Fgf21 expression in 6 mouse models with different muscle-manifesting mitochondrial dysfunctions. Results: We report that S-FGF21 consistently increases in primary mitochondrial myopathy, especially in patients with mitochondrial translation defects or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions (675 and 347 pg/mL, respectively; controls: 66 pg/mL, p < 0.0001 for both). This is corroborated in mice (mtDNA deletions 1,163 vs 379 pg/mL, p < 0.0001). However, patients and mice with structural respiratory chain subunit or assembly factor defects showed low induction (human 335 pg/mL, p < 0.05; mice 335 pg/mL, not significant). Overall specificities of FGF21 and GDF15 to find patients with mitochondrial myopathy were 89.3% vs 86.4%, and sensitivities 67.3% and 76.0%, respectively. However, GDF15 was increased also in a wide range of nonmitochondrial conditions. Conclusions: S-FGF21 is a specific biomarker for muscle-manifesting defects of mitochondrial translation, including mitochondrial transfer-RNA mutations and primary and secondary mtDNA deletions, the most common causes of mitochondrial disease. However, normal S-FGF21 does not exclude structural respiratory chain complex or assembly factor defects, important to acknowledge in diagnostics. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that elevated S-FGF21 accurately distinguishes patients with mitochondrial myopathies from patients with other conditions, and FGF21 and GDF15 mitochondrial myopathy from other myopathies. PMID:27794108

  18. MO-G-BRF-07: Optical Characterization of Novel Terbium-Doped Nanophosphors Excited by Clinical Electron and Photon Beams for Potential Use in Molecular Imaging Or Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Darafsheh, A; Paik, T; Tenuto, M; Najmr, S; Friedberg, J; Murray, C; Finlay, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Optical properties of terbium (Tb3+)-doped gadolinium trifluoride (GdF3) nanoplates irradiated by electron and photon beams were investigated for their potential as optical probes. The contribution of induced Cerenkov radiation in exciting the nanophosphors was investigated as well. Methods: The emission spectra of Terbium-doped GdF3 dispersed in hexane, embedded in tissue mimicking phantoms were collected by an optical fiber connected to a CCD-coupled spectrograph, while the samples were irradiated by a medical linear accelerator with electron beams of energies 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV or X-ray beams of energies of 6, and 15 MV. The contribution of induced Cerenkov radiation in exciting the nanophosphores was investigated in a dedicated experimental apparatus through optical isolation of the samples and also by using 125 kVp X-ray beams whose energy is below the threshold for generating Cerenkov radiation in that medium. Results: Terbium-doped GdF3 nanoplates show characteristic cathodoluminescence emission peaks at 488, 543, 586, and 619 nm, which are responsible for the characteristic f-f transition of terbium ion. In a series of experiments, the contribution of Cerenkov radiation in the luminescence of such nanophosphors was ruled out. Conclusion: We have characterized the optical properties of Terbium-doped GdF3 nanoplates. Such nanocrystals with emission tunability and high surface area that facilitates attachment with targeting reagents are promising in situ light source candidates for molecular imaging or exciting a photosensitizer for ultralow fluence photodynamic therapy. This work is supported by the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Pennsylvania, the American Cancer Society through IRG-78-002-28, and the University of Pennsylvania's Nano/Bio Interface Center through NSEC DMR08-32802.

  19. Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Carrier Detection.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Segura, Monica Alejandra; García-Martínez, Froylan Arturo; Montes-Almanza, Luis Angel; Díaz, Benjamín-Gomez; Avila-Ramírez, Guillermina; Alvarez-Maya, Ikuri; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón Mauricio; Mondragón-Terán, Paul; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; García-Calderón, Noemí; Vazquez-Cardenas, Norma Alejandra; García, Silvia; López-Hernandez, Luz Berenice

    2015-06-17

    Non-invasive biological indicators of the absence/presence or progress of the disease that could be used to support diagnosis and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment are of utmost importance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). This neuromuscular disorder affects male children, causing weakness and disability, whereas female relatives are at risk of being carriers of the disease. A biomarker with both high sensitivity and specificity for accurate prediction is preferred. Until now creatine kinase (CK) levels have been used for DMD diagnosis but these fail to assess disease progression. Herein we examined the potential applicability of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and matrix metalloproteinase 2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, myostatin (GDF-8) and follistatin (FSTN) as non-invasive biomarkers to distinguish between DMD steroid naïve patients and healthy controls of similar age and also for carrier detection. Our data suggest that serum levels of MMP-9, GDF-8 and FSTN are useful to discriminate DMD from controls (p < 0.05), to correlate with some neuromuscular assessments for DMD, and also to differentiate between Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) patients. In DMD individuals under steroid treatment, GDF-8 levels increased as FSTN levels decreased, resembling the proportions of these proteins in healthy controls and also the baseline ratio of patients without steroids. GDF-8 and FSTN serum levels were also useful for carrier detection (p < 0.05). Longitudinal studies with larger cohorts are necessary to confirm that these molecules correlate with disease progression. The biomarkers presented herein could potentially outperform CK levels for carrier detection and also harbor potential for monitoring disease progression.

  20. Mixed Organic Solvents Induce Renal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Weisong; Xu, Zhongxiu; Lu, Yizhou; Zeng, Caihong; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Shengyu; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2∶2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5–6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli. PMID:23029287

  1. Application of Gas Dynamical Friction for Planetesimals. I. Evolution of Single Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B.

    2015-09-01

    The growth of small planetesimals into large planetary embryos occurs far before the dispersal of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. The planetesimal-gaseous disk interactions give rise to migration and orbital evolution of the planetesimals/planets. Small planetesimals are dominated by aerodynamic gas drag. Large protoplanets, m˜ 0.1{M}\\oplus , are dominated by type I migration differential torque. There is an additional mass range m˜ {10}21-{10}25 {{g}} of intermediate-mass planetesimals (IMPs), where gravitational interactions with the disk dominate over aerodynamic gas drag, but for which such interactions were typically neglected. Here, we model these interactions using the gas dynamical friction (GDF) approach, previously used to study the disk-planet interactions at the planetary mass range. We find the critical size where GDF dominates over gas drag, and then we study the implications of GDF on single IMPs. We find that planetesimals with small inclinations rapidly become co-planar. Eccentric orbits circularize within a few Myr, provided the the planetesimal mass is large, m≳ {10}23 {{g}}, and that the initial eccentricity is low, e≲ 0.1. Planetesimals of higher masses, m˜ {10}24-{10}25 {{g}}, inspiral on a timescale of a few Myr, leading to an embryonic migration to the inner disk. This can lead to an overabundance of rocky material (in the form of IMPs) in the inner protoplanetary disk (\\lt 1 {AU}) and induce rapid planetary growth. This can explain the origin of super-Earth planets. In addition, GDF damps the velocities of IMPs, thereby cooling the planetesimal disk and affecting its collisional evolution through quenching the effects of viscous stirring by the large bodies.

  2. Alternative World Scenarios for a New Order of Nations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    and Air and Space Defense Forces ( ASDF ). SCENARIO BRAVO: U.S. World Peacekeeper. Scenario BRAVO describes a competitive world of economic trade markets...equipment and weapons. The warfighting GDF, Land Defense Forces (LDF), Sea Defense Forces (SDF), and Air and Space Defense Forces ( ASDF ), overall, are...since they are outmoded and of mid 20th century vintage. The remainder are high-tech and staffed by well-trained career SDF personnel. The ASDF (Air

  3. Potent Paracrine Effects of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Doxorubicin-induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Liao, Songyan; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Junwen; Li, Xiang; Ding, Yue; Liang, Yingmin; Gao, Fei; Yang, Mo; Fu, Qingling; Xu, Aimin; Chai, Yuet-Hung; He, Jia; Tse, Hung-Fat; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can protect cardiomyocytes against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC) through paracrine effects. Nonetheless the paracrine effects of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) on AIC are poorly understood. In vitro studies reveal that doxorubicin (Dox)-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and cell apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) are significantly reduced when treated with conditioned medium harvested from BM-MSCs (BM-MSCs-CdM) or iPSC-MSCs (iPSC-MSCs-CdM). Compared with BM-MSCs-CdM, NRCMs treated with iPSC-MSCs-CdM exhibit significantly less ROS and cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Transplantation of BM-MSCs-CdM or iPSC-MSCs-CdM into mice with AIC remarkably attenuated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dilatation. Compared with BM-MSCs-CdM, iPSC-MSCs-CdM treatment showed better alleviation of heart failure, less cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrosis. Analysis of common and distinct cytokines revealed that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) were uniquely overpresented in iPSC-MSC-CdM. Immunodepletion of MIF and GDF-15 in iPSC-MSCs-CdM dramatically decreased cardioprotection. Injection of GDF-15/MIF cytokines could partially reverse Dox-induced heart dysfunction. We suggest that the potent paracrine effects of iPSC-MSCs provide novel “cell-free” therapeutic cardioprotection against AIC, and that MIF and GDF-15 in iPSC-MSCs-CdM are critical for these enhanced cardioprotective effects. PMID:26057572

  4. Linguistic Documentation of Metal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    noun; the two constituents must agree in gender , number and case. The noun phrase acquires this common gender , number and case; moreover, the noun...34physics" is of morpholo- gical class 1, CL(1); its gender is feminine, GD(F); its seman- tic type, abstract, TY(AB); and its number, singular, Nü(S...German Noun Features (Category Symbol » N) Because German nouns carry inflectional markers for case, number, and gender , their analysis can be of

  5. Synovial joint morphogenesis requires the chondrogenic action of Sox5 and Sox6 in growth plate and articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Peter; Smits, Patrick; Silvester, Amber; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Han, Yu; de la Motte, Carol A.; Kingsley, David M.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying synovial joint development remain poorly understood. Here we use complete and cell-specific gene inactivation to identify the roles of the redundant chondrogenic transcription factors Sox5 and Sox6 in this process. We show that joint development aborts early in complete mutants (Sox5−/−6−/−). Gdf5 and Wnt9a expression is punctual in articular progenitor cells, but Sox9 downregulation and cell condensation in joint interzones are late. Joint cell differentiation is unsuccessful, regardless of lineage, and cavitation fails. Sox5 and Sox6 restricted expression to chondrocytes in wild-type embryos and continued Erg expression and weak Ihh expression in Sox5−/−6−/− growth plates suggest that growth plate failure contribute to this Sox5−/−6−/− joint morphogenesis block. Sox5/6 inactivation in specified joint cells and chondrocytes (Sox5fl/fl6fl/flCol2Cre) also results in a joint morphogenesis block, whereas Sox5/6 inactivation in specified joint cells only (Sox5fl/fl6fl/flGdf5Cre) results in milder joint defects and normal growth plates. Sox5fl/fl6fl/flGdf5Cre articular chondrocytes remain undifferentiated, as shown by continued Gdf5 expression and pancartilaginous gene downregulation. Along with Prg4 downregulation, these defects likely account for joint tissue overgrowth and incomplete cavitation in adult mice. Together, these data suggest that synovial joint morphogenesis relies on essential roles for Sox5/6 in promoting both growth plate and articular chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:20206616

  6. Chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants in fish from Shanghai markets: a case study of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yanling; Strid, Anna; Bignert, Anders; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Athanasiadou, Maria; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Bergman, Åke

    2012-10-01

    In the present study were two favorite edible fish species for local residents, i.e., mandarin fish and crawfish, collected from the Shanghai market and analyzed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Efforts were also made to identify the potential sources of these contaminants. Comparable concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and HBCDD were found in muscle tissue of mandarin fish from Guangdong (GDF), the Pearl River Delta and from Taihu Lake (TLF), the Yangtze River Delta. Levels of chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs were about one magnitude lower in TLF compared to GDF. The concentrations of OCPs in the butter-like gland of the crawfish (CFB) were 2-5 times of those in the crawfish muscle (CFM) while concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were comparable. The different patterns and levels of chlorinated and brominated organohalogen contaminants seen in mandarin fish from GDF and TLF indicates that different types of chemicals might be used in the two delta regions. The present study also shows a good correlation between the concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachloroanisol (PCA) in fish for the first time. Fish consumption limits based on chemical contaminants with non-carcinogenic effects were calculated. The estimated maximum daily consumption limit for GDF, TLF, CFM and CFB were 1.5, 2.6, 3.7 and 0.08 kg, respectively, indicating no significant risk regarding the persistent organic pollutants measured in the present study.

  7. A Tale from TGF-β Superfamily for Thymus Ontogeny and Function

    PubMed Central

    Jurberg, Arnon Dias; Vasconcelos-Fontes, Larissa; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Multiple signaling pathways control every aspect of cell behavior, organ formation, and tissue homeostasis throughout the lifespan of any individual. This review takes an ontogenetic view focused on the large superfamily of TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein ligands to address thymus morphogenesis and function in T cell differentiation. Recent findings on a role of GDF11 for reversing aging-related phenotypes are also discussed. PMID:26441956

  8. The effects of unilateral varicose ovarian vein on antioxidant capacity and oocyte quality in rat ovary

    PubMed Central

    Kehinde, Babatunde Adebayo; Abolhassani, Farid; Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Abbasi, Niloufar; Heydari, Leyla; Daneshi, Erfan; Rajabi, Zahra; Hamada, Alaa; Agarwal, Ashok; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Several researchers have reported the relationship between infertility in male and varicocele for so many years but the implication of varicocele in female patients is remains elusive. Here, we aim to examine the effects of unilateral varicose ovarian vein on antioxidant capacity and oocyte quality of rat ovary after the experimental creation of varicocele in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty adult female albino rats were divided into three equal groups: Group 1 as the control group has 10 rats, Group 2 as the sham group has 10 rats and they underwent a sham operation and finally Group 3 has the varicocele group has 10 rats. Antioxidant assays for superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were performed using specific assay kits and gene expression for Bax, Bmp-15, Hsp-27 and Gdf-9 was done via real time PCR. Results: The adverse effects of the experimentally induced varicocele were reported and recorded on the left ovary compared to the right sided ovary (no varicocele induction) in the varicocele group. Real time PCR data shows that the expression of Gdf-9, Hsp-27 and Bmp-15 genes were all significantly reduced at p≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study show that reduced gene expression of Bmp-15, Gdf-9 and Hsp-27, increased gene expression of bax and an imbalance between pro-oxidant/antioxidant ratio are few of the several mechanisms by which varicocele may lead to infertility in female. PMID:27746868

  9. Growth differentiation factor 6 derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells reduces age-related functional deterioration in multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hisamatsu, Daisuke; Ohno-Oishi, Michiko; Nakamura, Shiho; Mabuchi, Yo; Naka-Kaneda, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has attracted attention as a mechanism that connects cellular senescence to tissue dysfunction, and specific SASP factors have been identified as systemic pro-aging factors. However, little is known about the age-dependent changes in the secretory properties of stem cells. Young, but not old, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a well-known source of critical regenerative factors, but the identity of these factors remains elusive. In this study, we identified growth differentiation factor 6 (Gdf6; also known as Bmp13 and CDMP-2) as a regenerative factor secreted from young MSCs. The expression of specific secretory factors, including Gdf6, was regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) miR-17, whose expression declined with age. Upregulation of Gdf6 restored the osteogenic capacity of old MSCs in vitro and exerted positive effects in vivo on aging-associated pathologies such as reduced lymphopoiesis, insufficient muscle repair, reduced numbers of neural progenitors in the brain, and chronic inflammation. Our results suggest that manipulation of miRNA could enable control of the SASP, and that regenerative factors derived from certain types of young cells could be used to treat geriatric diseases. PMID:27311402

  10. Genes associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Perez, R; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) influence meat tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and are beneficial to human health. The percentage of long-chain n-3 FAs in total FAs is termed the omega-3 index (O3I). It is thus of great interest to favor rising this index in bovine skeletal muscle, to obtain healthier, tastier, and more nutritive meat. This study was aimed to detect transcriptomic variations related to O3I in muscles in 15-month-old males of 4 Spanish cattle breeds raised under the same conditions. Through the analysis of extreme O3I phenotypes, 3 genes of interest (AANAT, UCP2 and AHA1) were identified. AANAT and UCP2 were strongly up-regulated, while AHA1 was repressed in animals with a high O3I. Moreover, gene expression differed between GDF8-null animal muscles (tested for nt821del11 and Q204X mutations) and the wild-type muscles for genes GDH1, IGF2R, FADS1, ASPH, and AIM1, all showing down-regulation in Asturiana de los Valles calves with muscle hypertrophy (GDF8-null). This shows that in GDF8-null animals other pathways are used for FA synthesis.

  11. IBEX views the global structure of the heliosphere influenced by the Interstellar Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan

    The IBEX ribbon has been separated from the surrounding globally distributed flux (GDF), revealing ENA emission largely from the inner heliosheath. The line-of-sight (LOS) integrated pressure in the GDF is quite large, requiring that the interstellar magnetic field be sufficiently strong (e.g. 3 microG) to balance the pressure of the inner heliosheath. The LOS emissions from the GDF have revealed signatures of the nose of the heliosphere, and the heliotail, which has been examined carefully. The strong interstellar magnetic field has broad implications for the structure of the heliosphere and the existence or lack of a bow shock. These global heliospheric structures also filter primary interstellar neutral atoms and lead to creation of secondary atoms through charge-exchange in the outer heliosheath. IBEX observations of H atoms from the Local Interstellar Medium reveal remarkable signatures of both filtration and the secondary component likely reflecting influences of the interstellar magnetic field on the outer heliosheath. New determinations of the LISM velocity from neutral atom measurments and the LISM magnetic field direction from the IBEX ribbon are shown to be consistent with the interstellar modulation of TeV cosmic rays revealed in global anisotropy maps of Milagro, Asgamma and IceCube. Thus, IBEX observations reveal a new picture of heliospheric structures and interactions that are strongly influenced by the interstellar magnetic field.

  12. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  13. The INF (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces) Controversy: A Confluence of Foreign and Domestic Interests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    2 was deployed. 8 8Joyce Lasky Shub, "Introduction," AEI Foreiqn Policy and Defense Review 4 (1982): 3. 8 9 Charles L. M. Ailleret, "Directed Defense...the Suez crisis). 1 2 1 To repair the rupture in Anglo-American relations, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan met with President Eisenhower in March 1957...Quoted in Joyce Lasky Shub, "A Frenchman Looks at France-- From America." AEI Foreign Policy and Defense Review 4 (1982): 46-48. 140 Rose, Francoise de

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 86, Number 1, January-February 1943

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-02-01

    Garden Encyclopedia. By E. L. D. Seymour 4.00 See Here, Private Hargrove. By ,\\I,triol1 Hargroz1e 2.00 Suez to Singapore. By Cecil BrOIl’l1 3.50 They...Strange Woman. By Ben Ames IPilliam 2.75 This Above All. By Eric Knight 2.50 The Fighting Littles. By Booth Tarkington 2.00 Storm. By George R...The commander of this regiment, Colonel Hubert A. i\\/IcMorrow, evidently believes in the JOUR- NALas a training aid for his unit. Undoubtedly more

  15. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  16. Lack of a genetic bottleneck in a recent Lessepsian bioinvader, the blue-barred parrotfish, Scarus ghobban.

    PubMed

    Bariche, Michel; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic diversity of Scarus ghobban, a recently introduced parrotfish in the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. Two mitochondrial and one nuclear DNA regions were sequenced and phylogenetic relationships investigated, from samples collected from Lebanon and across its natural range. Scarus ghobban clustered in two major clades, Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, indicating strong population structure, or cryptic speciation. Expectedly, Mediterranean samples clustered with Indian Ocean-Red Sea individuals. However, unlike other recent Lessepsian invaders, S. ghobban displayed high genetic diversity. These results underscore that genetic diversity is a poor predictor of success of an invasive species.

  17. Permanent Neutrality and the Panama Canal after 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    railway between Colon and Panama City, a Frenchman pursued his dream of building a canal through the Isthmus of Suez. Under Ferdinand de Lesseps, who...that entered Cristobal on 9 July 1941 for transit to the Pacific. The US had coincidentally learned that Japan had recalled its ships for a "major...largest ship to be seized was an Italian passenger sh ip, the Con.,ite _9ancamano, dockside in Cristobal .’’ US-Panamanian relations were strained during

  18. A Boolean Function for Neural Induction Reveals a Critical Role of Direct Intercellular Interactions in Patterning the Ectoderm of the Ascidian Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Atsushi; Satou, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    A complex system of multiple signaling molecules often produce differential gene expression patterns in animal embryos. In the ascidian embryo, four signaling ligands, Ephrin-A.d (Efna.d), Fgf9/16/20, Admp, and Gdf1/3-r, coordinately induce Otx expression in the neural lineage at the 32-cell stage. However, it has not been determined whether differential inputs of all of these signaling pathways are really necessary. It is possible that differential activation of one of these signaling pathways is sufficient and the remaining signaling pathways are activated in all cells at similar levels. To address this question, we developed a parameter-free method for determining a Boolean function for Otx expression in the present study. We treated activities of signaling pathways as Boolean values, and we also took all possible patterns of signaling gradients into consideration. We successfully determined a Boolean function that explains Otx expression in the animal hemisphere of wild-type and morphant embryos at the 32-cell stage. This Boolean function was not inconsistent with three sensing patterns, which represented whether or not individual cells received sufficient amounts of the signaling molecules. These sensing patterns all indicated that differential expression of Otx in the neural lineage is primarily determined by Efna.d, but not by differential inputs of Fgf9/16/20, Admp, and Gdf1/3-r signaling. To confirm this hypothesis experimentally, we simultaneously knocked-down Admp, Gdf1/3-r, and Fgf9/16/20, and treated this triple morphant with recombinant bFGF and BMP4 proteins, which mimic Fgf9/16/20 and Admp/Gdf1/3-r activity, respectively. Although no differential inputs of Admp, Gdf1/3-r and Fgf9/16/20 signaling were expected under this experimental condition, Otx was expressed specifically in the neural lineage. Thus, direct cell–cell interactions through Efna.d play a critical role in patterning the ectoderm of the early ascidian embryo. PMID:26714026

  19. A Boolean Function for Neural Induction Reveals a Critical Role of Direct Intercellular Interactions in Patterning the Ectoderm of the Ascidian Embryo.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Naoyuki; Waki, Kana; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Satou, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    A complex system of multiple signaling molecules often produce differential gene expression patterns in animal embryos. In the ascidian embryo, four signaling ligands, Ephrin-A.d (Efna.d), Fgf9/16/20, Admp, and Gdf1/3-r, coordinately induce Otx expression in the neural lineage at the 32-cell stage. However, it has not been determined whether differential inputs of all of these signaling pathways are really necessary. It is possible that differential activation of one of these signaling pathways is sufficient and the remaining signaling pathways are activated in all cells at similar levels. To address this question, we developed a parameter-free method for determining a Boolean function for Otx expression in the present study. We treated activities of signaling pathways as Boolean values, and we also took all possible patterns of signaling gradients into consideration. We successfully determined a Boolean function that explains Otx expression in the animal hemisphere of wild-type and morphant embryos at the 32-cell stage. This Boolean function was not inconsistent with three sensing patterns, which represented whether or not individual cells received sufficient amounts of the signaling molecules. These sensing patterns all indicated that differential expression of Otx in the neural lineage is primarily determined by Efna.d, but not by differential inputs of Fgf9/16/20, Admp, and Gdf1/3-r signaling. To confirm this hypothesis experimentally, we simultaneously knocked-down Admp, Gdf1/3-r, and Fgf9/16/20, and treated this triple morphant with recombinant bFGF and BMP4 proteins, which mimic Fgf9/16/20 and Admp/Gdf1/3-r activity, respectively. Although no differential inputs of Admp, Gdf1/3-r and Fgf9/16/20 signaling were expected under this experimental condition, Otx was expressed specifically in the neural lineage. Thus, direct cell-cell interactions through Efna.d play a critical role in patterning the ectoderm of the early ascidian embryo.

  20. Cooperative Effects of FOXL2 with the Members of TGF-β Superfamily on FSH Receptor mRNA Expression and Granulosa Cell Proliferation from Hen Prehierarchical Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ning; Fan, Xian-Cong; Xu, Xiao-Xing; Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Li, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wei, Man-Li; Xu, Ri-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a member of the forkhead nuclear factor 3 gene family and plays an essential role in ovarian growth and maturation in mammals. However, its potential effects and regulative mechanism in development of chicken ovarian prehierarchical follicles remain unexplored. In this study, the cooperative effects of FOXL2 with activin A, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) and follistatin, three members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily that were previously suggested to exert a critical role in follicle development was investigated. We demonstrated herein, using in-situ hybridization, Northern blot and immunohistochemical analyses of oocytes and granulosa cells in various sizes of prehierarchical follicles that both FOXL2 transcripts and FOXL2 proteins are predominantly expressed in a highly similar expression pattern to that of GDF9 gene. In addition, the FOXL2 transcript was found at lower levels in theca cells in the absence of GDF9. Furthermore, culture of granulosa cells (GCs) from the prehierarchical follicles (6–8 mm) in conditioned medium revealed that in the pcDNA3.0-FOXL2 transfected GCs, there was a more dramatic increase in FSHR mRNA expression after treatment with activin A (10 ng/ml) or GDF9 (100 ng/ml) for 24 h which caused a stimulatory effect on the GC proliferation. In contrast, a significant decrease of FSHR mRNA was detected after treatment with follistatin (50 ng/ml) and resulted in an inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation. The results of this suggested that FOXL2 plays a bidirectional modulating role involved in the intracellular FSHR transcription and GC proliferation via an autocrine regulatory mechanism in a positive or negative manner through cooperation with activin A and/or GDF9, and follistatin in the hen follicle development. This cooperative action may be mediated by the examined Smad signals and simultaneously implicated in modulation of the StAR, CCND2, and CYP11A1 expression. PMID

  1. Correlation consistent basis sets for lanthanides: The atoms La-Lu.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Peterson, Kirk A

    2016-08-07

    Using the 3rd-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH3) Hamiltonian, all-electron correlation consistent basis sets of double-, triple-, and quadruple-zeta quality have been developed for the lanthanide elements La through Lu. Basis sets designed for the recovery of valence correlation (defined here as 4f5s5p5d6s), cc-pVnZ-DK3, and outer-core correlation (valence + 4s4p4d), cc-pwCVnZ-DK3, are reported (n = D, T, and Q). Systematic convergence of both Hartree-Fock and correlation energies towards their respective complete basis set (CBS) limits are observed. Benchmark calculations of the first three ionization potentials (IPs) of La through Lu are reported at the DKH3 coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, CCSD(T), level of theory, including effects of correlation down through the 4s electrons. Spin-orbit coupling is treated at the 2-component HF level. After extrapolation to the CBS limit, the average errors with respect to experiment were just 0.52, 1.14, and 4.24 kcal/mol for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd IPs, respectively, compared to the average experimental uncertainties of 0.03, 1.78, and 2.65 kcal/mol, respectively. The new basis sets are also used in CCSD(T) benchmark calculations of the equilibrium geometries, atomization energies, and heats of formation for Gd2, GdF, and GdF3. Except for the equilibrium geometry and harmonic frequency of GdF, which are accurately known from experiment, all other calculated quantities represent significant improvements compared to the existing experimental quantities. With estimated uncertainties of about ±3 kcal/mol, the 0 K atomization energies (298 K heats of formation) are calculated to be (all in kcal/mol): 33.2 (160.1) for Gd2, 151.7 (-36.6) for GdF, and 447.1 (-295.2) for GdF3.

  2. "The Electric City": Sherbrooke et son paysage hydroelectrique (1880--1930)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemette, Remi

    Ce memoire presente l'imbrication des elements hydroelectrique au sein du paysage de la ville de Sherbrooke entre 1880 et 1930. Nous cherchons a comprendre comment les nouveaux elements energetiques s'integrent a celui-ci et comment la population sherbrookoise se represente ces espaces transformes. Comment le paysage hydroelectrique, en tant qu'espace vu et vecu, interagit-il avec la societe sherbrookoise ? A l'interieur de cette problematique generale, nous chercherons a repondre a trois sous-questions. Quelles sont les transformations physiques et materielles engendrees par l'implantation de cette nouvelle technologie hydroelectrique sur le paysage urbain sherbrookois ? Qu'est-ce que les differents groupes valorisent au sein du paysage ? Quel sens prennent ces nouveaux paysages pour les Sherbrookois ? En effet, l'etude du developpement rapide du potentiel hydroelectrique de la riviere Magog nous amene a demontrer que l'exploitation des ressources energetiques a profondement transforme le paysage de Sherbrooke : vastes modifications du trace des cours d'eau, apparition de batiments specifiques a la production energetique, structures de distributions et infrastructures permettant l'illumination de la ville. Nous avancons aussi que differents groupes d'individus ne valorisent pas les memes elements paysagers. Finalement, nous proposons que le regard porte par les citoyens sur le paysage energetique est tributaire de l'usage qu'ils en font. Comme la fonction des elements energetiques paysagers evolue, le regard qu' ils portent vers ces structures se transforme lui aussi. Mots cles: histoire de Sherbrooke, paysage, hydroelectricite, electricite, transformation de l'espace, histoire environnementale

  3. Natural Babesia infection sought in black and Norway rats trapped in five Egyptian Governorates.

    PubMed

    el Bahrawy, A F; Nafei, S M; Morsy, T A; Farrag, A M

    1993-08-01

    Babesiosis is a protozoal disease caused by members of the genus Babesia transmitted by the ixodid ticks. It is a parasite of various mammalian hosts as bovine (B. bovis), equine (B. equi), rodent (B. microti), canine (B. canis) and others. Human cases of babesiosis have been reported from several countries including Egypt. It is now well established that man may become infected (Fulminating or Subclinical) with several species of Babesia without prior splenectomy. In this paper, a total of 398 Rattus rattus and 90 R. norvegicus were trapped in Suez, Ismailia, Port Said, North Sinai and South Sinai Governorates. Blood films were taken from the atil after a simple cut of its end. The films were fixed in acetone free methyl alcohol and stained with Giemsa stain as usual. The results showed that all rats trapped in Ismailia had Babesia infection, then decreased in North Sinai, Port Said, South Sinai and was zero in Suez. As double infection. Trypanosoma lewisi was found in rats trapped in Port Said, North Sinai and South Sinai. But none had Theileria infection. The medical and veterinary importance of these results were discussed.

  4. The Nile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa.

    At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east.

    Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Evidence for deep-water evaporite deposition in the Miocene Kareem Formation, Gemsa basin, eastern Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.A.; Stonecipher, S.A.; Steinmetz, J.C. ); Dyess, J.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The correct interpretation of intercalated Miocene siliciclastics and evaporites of Gemsa basin is crucial for understanding early rift tectonics of the Gulf of Suez, pinpointing the timing of isolation of the Gulf from the Mediterranean, and developing exploration plays. Evaporites of the Kareem Formation comprise celestites and massive, 'chicken-wire,' and laminated anhydrites. Although previously interpreted as sabkha deposits; sedimentologic, petrographic, and paleontologic analyses indicate these evaporites more likely formed in a submarine setting. Marls that encase the evaporites contain a diverse and abundant assemblage of nannoplankton, planktonic foraminifera, diatoms, pteropods, and fish scales indicative of basinal deposition. Associated turbidites also denote deep-water sedimentation. The paucity of benthic diatoms and foraminifera, plus the presence of unburrowed shales, phosphate nodules, early ferroan carbonate cements, and authigenic pyrite, suggest periodic anoxic, or at least disaerobic, bottom waters. These sequences probably represent partial isolation of the Gulf of Suez by middle Miocene, producing periodic basin restriction and evaporative drawdown. Episodes of increasing salinity likely caused the progressive decreases in foram abundance and diversity in marls beneath the anhydrites, culminating in subaqueous evaporite formation. Diverse, indigenous nannoplankton assemblages from shale seams within the anhydrites suggest Gemsa basin was stratified; shallow open-marine conditions coexisted with anhydrite crystallization from deeper hypersaline waters.

  6. The Sinai subplate and tectonic evolution of the northern Red Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Horváth, Ferenc

    1999-03-01

    Although the precise boundaries and kinematics of the Sinai subplate are still doubtful, it has a significant role in the tectonic evolution of the northern Red Sea region. On the basis of earthquake distribution, the Sinai region can be considered as a subplate partially separated from the African plate by the Suez rift. The relative motion between Africa, Sinai and Arabia is the main source generating the present-day earthquake activity in the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba regions. According to geological observations, the southern segment of the Dead Sea fault system can be characterized by a left-lateral displacement of about 107km since the Middle Miocene, in contrast to the northern segment where only 25 to 35km offset can be inferred. We think that along the southern segment the total displacement was 72km until the late Miocene (10Ma). The earthquake activity is strongly reduced along the northern segment of the Dead Sea fault segment. Therefore, we suggest that the northern part (Yammouneh fault) evolves through initial cracking of the crust due to build-up of stress since the Pliocene time (5Ma) and propagates northward into Lebanon and Syria. This last 5 million years is the period when the southern and northern segments became linked and formed a single fault system with a new displacement of 35km. According to the proposed model the predicted opening pole of the Red Sea is near 34.0̊N, 22.0̊E with an angle of total rotation of 3.4̊ since the early miocene, providing a 0.82cm/a opening rate in the northern Red Sea. We suggest that the Dead Sea strike-slip fault was active since Middle Miocene time (15Ma) with a slip rate of 0.72cm/a to provide a total displacement of about 107km. This strike slip motion occured about an Euler pole near 33.0̊N, 21.0̊E with a rotation angle of about 3.0̊. It can be inferred from the proximity of the pole and angle of rotations for the Red Sea and Dead Sea fault that more than 85% of the motion has been

  7. Real-time gamma imaging of technetium transport through natural and engineered porous materials for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Corkhill, Claire L; Bridge, Jonathan W; Chen, Xiaohui C; Hillel, Phil; Thornton, Steve F; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E; Banwart, Steven A; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-03

    We present a novel methodology for determining the transport of technetium-99m, a γ-emitting metastable isomer of (99)Tc, through quartz sand and porous media relevant to the disposal of nuclear waste in a geological disposal facility (GDF). Quartz sand is utilized as a model medium, and the applicability of the methodology to determine radionuclide transport in engineered backfill cement is explored using the UK GDF candidate backfill cement, Nirex Reference Vault Backfill (NRVB), in a model system. Two-dimensional distributions in (99m)Tc activity were collected at millimeter-resolution using decay-corrected gamma camera images. Pulse-inputs of ~20 MBq (99m)Tc were introduced into short (<10 cm) water-saturated columns at a constant flow of 0.33 mL min(-1). Changes in calibrated mass distribution of (99m)Tc at 30 s intervals, over a period of several hours, were quantified by spatial moments analysis. Transport parameters were fitted to the experimental data using a one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation, yielding transport properties for this radionuclide in a model GDF environment. These data demonstrate that (99)Tc in the pertechnetate form (Tc(VII)O4(-)) does not sorb to cement backfill during transport under model conditions, resulting in closely conservative transport behavior. This methodology represents a quantitative development of radiotracer imaging and offers the opportunity to conveniently and rapidly characterize transport of gamma-emitting isotopes in opaque media, relevant to the geological disposal of nuclear waste and potentially to a wide variety of other subsurface environments.

  8. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1f/f and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1f/f mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-cateninf/f mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. PMID:21185280

  9. Identification of Pathways Mediating Growth Differentiation Factor5-Induced Tenogenic Differentiation in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sik-Loo; Ahmad, Tunku Sara; Ng, Wuey-Min; Azlina, Amir Abbas; Azhar, Mahmood Merican; Selvaratnam, Lakshmi; Kamarul, Tunku

    2015-01-01

    To date, the molecular signalling mechanisms which regulate growth factors-induced MSCs tenogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. Therefore, a study to determine the global gene expression profile of tenogenic differentiation in human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) using growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) was conducted. Microarray analyses were conducted on hMSCs cultures supplemented with 100 ng/ml of GDF5 and compared to undifferentiated hMSCs and adult tenocytes. Results of QuantiGene® Plex assay support the use and interpretation of the inferred gene expression profiles and pathways information. From the 27,216 genes assessed, 873 genes (3.21% of the overall human transcriptome) were significantly altered during the tenogenic differentiation process (corrected p<0.05). The genes identified as potentially associated with tenogenic differentiation were ARHGAP29, CCL2, integrin alpha 8 and neurofilament medium polypeptides. These genes, were mainly associated with cytoskeleton reorganization (stress fibers formation) signaling. Pathway analysis demonstrated the potential molecular pathways involved in tenogenic differentiation were: cytoskeleton reorganization related i.e. keratin filament signaling and activin A signaling; cell adhesion related i.e. chemokine and adhesion signaling; and extracellular matrix related i.e. arachidonic acid production signaling. Further investigation using atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated apparent cytoskeleton reorganization in GDF5-induced hMSCs suggesting that cytoskeleton reorganization signaling is an important event involved in tenogenic differentiation. Besides, a reduced nucleostemin expression observed suggested a lower cell proliferation rate in hMSCs undergoing tenogenic differentiation. Understanding and elucidating the tenogenic differentiation signalling pathways are important for future optimization of tenogenic hMSCs for functional tendon cell-based therapy and

  10. Effects of Zusanli and Ashi Acupoint Electroacupuncture on Repair of Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction in a Rabbit Gastrocnemius Contusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhan-ge; Wang, Rong-guo; Xiao, Cheng; Zhao, Jun-yun; Shen, Qian; Liu, Shou-yao; Xu, Qian-wei; Zhang, Qing-xi; Wang, Yun-ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 (EA-ST36) and at Ashi acupoints (EA-Ashi) on skeletal muscle repair. Methods. Seventy-five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: normal, contusion, EA-Ashi, EA-ST36, and EA at Ashi acupoints and ST36 (EA-AS). EA (0.4 mA, 2 Hz, 15 min) was applied after an acute gastrocnemius contusion. The morphology of myofibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and expressions of growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Neuregulin 1 (NGR1), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) were assessed 7, 14, and 28 days after contusion. Results. Compared with that in contusion group, there was an increase in the following respective parameters in treatment groups: the number and diameter of myofibers, the mean staining area, and continuities of NMJs. A comparison of EA-Ashi and EA-ST36 groups indicated that average myofiber diameter, mean staining area of NMJs, and expressions of AChE and NRG1 were higher in EA-Ashi group, whereas expression of GDF-8 decreased on day 7. However, increases in myofiber numbers, expressions of MuSK and AChE, as well as decreases in GDF-8 expression, and the discontinuities were observed in EA-ST36 group on the 28th day. Conclusion. Both EA-ST36 and EA-Ashi promoted myofiber regeneration and restoration of NMJs. EA-Ashi was more effective at earlier stages, whereas EA-ST36 played a more important role at later stages. PMID:27190536

  11. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Doulgeris, Charalampos; McCarthy, Alan J.; Rooks, Dave J.; Loughnane, J. Paul; Laws, Andrew P.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    One design concept for the long-term management of the UK’s intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW) is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF). Under the alkaline (10.013.0) anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP) are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA), which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0. PMID:26367005

  12. Immunolocalization of Growth, Inhibitory, and Proliferative Factors Involved in Initial Ovarian Folliculogenesis From Adult Common Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri collinsi)

    PubMed Central

    Brito, A. B.; Domingues, S. F. S.; Santos, R. R.; Amorim, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We performed an immunohistochemical (IHC) study to determine the follicular expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), Kit Ligand (KL), and c-Kit in squirrel monkey ovary. Ovarian tissue fragments from 4 squirrel monkeys were collected by laparotomy and processed for classical histology and IHC. Additionally, follicle development was assessed by Ki67 immunostaining to evaluate proliferative status of granulosa cells. A total of 4025 follicles were examined (1475 for classical histology and 2550 for immunohistochemistry). More than 80% of the evaluated follicles were morphologically normal. The GDF-9 protein was detectable in oocyte cytoplasm from primordial (100%), primary (99.1%), and secondary (100%) follicles. The AMH was not expressed in primordial follicles but just in few primary follicles (13.8%). On the other hand, it was highly expressed in granulosa cells from secondary follicles (67.9%). c-Kit, KL receptor, was found in the oolemma of primordial (100%), primary (100%), and secondary (100%) follicles. The KL expression was observed in oocytes and granulosa cells from primordial (94.9%), primary (91.6%) and secondary follicles (100%). Ki67 immunostaining was observed in granulosa cells from primary (5.7%) and secondary (54.8%) follicles but not in primordial follicles. In conclusion, we described the localization of GDF-9, KL, c-Kit, and Ki67 proteins and confirmed the presence of AMH protein in preantral follicles from squirrel monkey. Our results offer contribution for understanding of folliculogenesis in neotropical nonhuman primates. Moreover, these markers can be used to assess follicular viability and functionality after cryopreservation, transplantation, or in vitro culture of ovarian tissue. PMID:24784715

  13. Human Masseter Muscle Fiber Type Properties, Skeletal Malocclusions, and Muscle Growth Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sciote, James Joseph; Horton, Michael J.; Rowlerson, Anthea M.; Ferri, Joel; Close, John M.; Raoul, Gwenael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We identified masseter muscle fiber type property differences in subjects with dentofacial deformities. Patients and Methods Samples of masseter muscle were collected from 139 young adults during mandibular osteotomy procedures to assess mean fiber areas and percent tissue occupancies for the 4 fiber types that comprise the muscle. Subjects were classified into 1 of 6 malocclusion groups based on the presence of a skeletal Class II or III sagittal dimension malocclusion and either a skeletal open, deep, or normal bite vertical dimension malocclusion. In a subpopulation, relative quantities of the muscle growth factors IGF-I and GDF-8 gene expression were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Fiber properties were not different in the sagittal malocclusion groups, but were very different in the vertical malocclusion groups (P ≤ .0004). There were significant mean fiber area differences for type II (P ≤ .0004) and type neonatal—atrial (P = .001) fiber types and for fiber percent occupancy differences for both type I–II hybrid fibers and type II fibers (P ≤ .0004). Growth factor expression differed by gender for IGF-I (P = .02) and GDF-8 (P < .01). The ratio of IGF-I:GDF-8 expression associates with type I and II mean fiber areas. Conclusion Fiber type properties are very closely associated with variations in vertical growth of the face, with statistical significance for overall comparisons at P ≤ .0004. An increase in masseter muscle type II fiber mean fiber areas and percent tissue occupancies is inversely related to increases in vertical facial dimension. PMID:21821327

  14. Characterization of Putative Erythroid Regulators of Hepcidin in Mouse Models of Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Mirciov, Cornel S. G.; Wilkins, Sarah J.; Dunn, Linda A.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Frazer, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Iron is crucial for many biological functions, but quantitatively the most important use of iron is in the production of hemoglobin in red blood cell precursors. The amount of iron in the plasma, and hence its availability for hemoglobin synthesis, is determined by the liver-derived iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. When the iron supply to erythroid precursors is limited, as often occurs during stimulated erythropoiesis, these cells produce signals to inhibit hepatic hepcidin production, thereby increasing the amount of iron that enters the plasma. How stimulated erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production is incompletely understood, but erythroferrone, Gdf15 and Twsg1 have emerged as candidate regulatory molecules. To further examine the relationship between erythropoiesis and the candidate erythroid regulators, we have studied five mouse models of anemia, including two models of β-thalassemia (Hbbth3/+ and RBC14), the hemoglobin deficit mouse (hbd), dietary iron deficient mice and mice treated with phenylhydrazine to induce acute hemolysis. Hematological parameters, iron status and the expression of Erfe (the gene encoding erythroferrone), Gdf15 and Twsg1 in the bone marrow and spleen were examined. Erfe expression was the most consistently upregulated of the candidate erythroid regulators in all of the mouse models examined. Gene expression was particularly high in the bone marrow and spleen of iron deficient animals, making erythroferrone an ideal candidate erythroid regulator, as its influence is strongest when iron supply to developing erythroid cells is limited. Gdf15 expression was also upregulated in most of the anemia models studied although the magnitude of the increase was generally less than that of Erfe. In contrast, very little regulation of Twsg1 was observed. These results support the prevailing hypothesis that erythroferrone is a promising erythroid regulator and demonstrate that Erfe expression is stimulated most strongly when the iron supply

  15. Effects of jacalin and follicle-stimulating hormone on in vitro goat primordial follicle activation, survival and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Regislane P; Portela, Antonia M L R; Silva, Anderson W B; Costa, José J N; Passos, José R S; Cunha, Ellen V; Souza, Glaucinete B; Saraiva, Márcia V A; Donato, Mariana A M; Peixoto, Christina A; van den Hurk, Robert; Silva, José R V

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of jacalin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on activation and survival of goat primordial follicles, as well as on gene expression in cultured ovarian tissue. Ovarian fragments were cultured for 6 days in minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with jacalin (10, 25, 50 or 100 μg/ml - Experiment 1) or in MEM supplemented with jacalin (50 μg/ml), FSH (50 ng/ml) or both (Experiment 2). Non-cultured and cultured tissues were processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. Cultured tissues from Experiment 2 were also stored to evaluate the expression of BMP-15, KL (Kit ligand), c-kit, GDF-9 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results of Experiment 1 showed that, compared with tissue that was cultured in control medium, the presence of 50 μg/ml of jacalin increased both the percentages of developing follicles and viability. In Experiment 2, after 6 days, higher percentages of normal follicles were observed in tissue cultured in presence of FSH, jacalin or both, but no synergistic interaction between FSH and jacalin was observed. These substances had no significant effect on the levels of mRNA for BMP-15 and KL, but FSH increased significantly the levels of mRNA for PCNA and c-kit. On the other hand, jacalin reduced the levels of mRNA for GDF-9. In conclusion, jacalin and FSH are able to improve primordial follicle activation and survival after 6 days of culture. Furthermore, presence of FSH increases the expression of mRNA for PCNA and c-kit, but jacalin resulted in lower GDF-9 mRNA expression.

  16. Effects of Zusanli and Ashi Acupoint Electroacupuncture on Repair of Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction in a Rabbit Gastrocnemius Contusion Model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhan-Ge; Wang, Rong-Guo; Xiao, Cheng; Zhao, Jun-Yun; Shen, Qian; Liu, Shou-Yao; Xu, Qian-Wei; Zhang, Qing-Xi; Wang, Yun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 (EA-ST36) and at Ashi acupoints (EA-Ashi) on skeletal muscle repair. Methods. Seventy-five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: normal, contusion, EA-Ashi, EA-ST36, and EA at Ashi acupoints and ST36 (EA-AS). EA (0.4 mA, 2 Hz, 15 min) was applied after an acute gastrocnemius contusion. The morphology of myofibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and expressions of growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Neuregulin 1 (NGR1), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) were assessed 7, 14, and 28 days after contusion. Results. Compared with that in contusion group, there was an increase in the following respective parameters in treatment groups: the number and diameter of myofibers, the mean staining area, and continuities of NMJs. A comparison of EA-Ashi and EA-ST36 groups indicated that average myofiber diameter, mean staining area of NMJs, and expressions of AChE and NRG1 were higher in EA-Ashi group, whereas expression of GDF-8 decreased on day 7. However, increases in myofiber numbers, expressions of MuSK and AChE, as well as decreases in GDF-8 expression, and the discontinuities were observed in EA-ST36 group on the 28th day. Conclusion. Both EA-ST36 and EA-Ashi promoted myofiber regeneration and restoration of NMJs. EA-Ashi was more effective at earlier stages, whereas EA-ST36 played a more important role at later stages.

  17. Identification of Pathways Mediating Growth Differentiation Factor5-Induced Tenogenic Differentiation in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sik-Loo; Ahmad, Tunku Sara; Ng, Wuey-Min; Azlina, Amir Abbas; Azhar, Mahmood Merican; Selvaratnam, Lakshmi; Kamarul, Tunku

    2015-01-01

    To date, the molecular signalling mechanisms which regulate growth factors-induced MSCs tenogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. Therefore, a study to determine the global gene expression profile of tenogenic differentiation in human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) using growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) was conducted. Microarray analyses were conducted on hMSCs cultures supplemented with 100 ng/ml of GDF5 and compared to undifferentiated hMSCs and adult tenocytes. Results of QuantiGene® Plex assay support the use and interpretation of the inferred gene expression profiles and pathways information. From the 27,216 genes assessed, 873 genes (3.21% of the overall human transcriptome) were significantly altered during the tenogenic differentiation process (corrected p<0.05). The genes identified as potentially associated with tenogenic differentiation were ARHGAP29, CCL2, integrin alpha 8 and neurofilament medium polypeptides. These genes, were mainly associated with cytoskeleton reorganization (stress fibers formation) signaling. Pathway analysis demonstrated the potential molecular pathways involved in tenogenic differentiation were: cytoskeleton reorganization related i.e. keratin filament signaling and activin A signaling; cell adhesion related i.e. chemokine and adhesion signaling; and extracellular matrix related i.e. arachidonic acid production signaling. Further investigation using atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated apparent cytoskeleton reorganization in GDF5-induced hMSCs suggesting that cytoskeleton reorganization signaling is an important event involved in tenogenic differentiation. Besides, a reduced nucleostemin expression observed suggested a lower cell proliferation rate in hMSCs undergoing tenogenic differentiation. Understanding and elucidating the tenogenic differentiation signalling pathways are important for future optimization of tenogenic hMSCs for functional tendon cell-based therapy and

  18. Real-Time Gamma Imaging of Technetium Transport through Natural and Engineered Porous Materials for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel methodology for determining the transport of technetium-99m, a γ-emitting metastable isomer of 99Tc, through quartz sand and porous media relevant to the disposal of nuclear waste in a geological disposal facility (GDF). Quartz sand is utilized as a model medium, and the applicability of the methodology to determine radionuclide transport in engineered backfill cement is explored using the UK GDF candidate backfill cement, Nirex Reference Vault Backfill (NRVB), in a model system. Two-dimensional distributions in 99mTc activity were collected at millimeter-resolution using decay-corrected gamma camera images. Pulse-inputs of ∼20 MBq 99mTc were introduced into short (<10 cm) water-saturated columns at a constant flow of 0.33 mL min–1. Changes in calibrated mass distribution of 99mTc at 30 s intervals, over a period of several hours, were quantified by spatial moments analysis. Transport parameters were fitted to the experimental data using a one-dimensional convection–dispersion equation, yielding transport properties for this radionuclide in a model GDF environment. These data demonstrate that 99Tc in the pertechnetate form (Tc(VII)O4–) does not sorb to cement backfill during transport under model conditions, resulting in closely conservative transport behavior. This methodology represents a quantitative development of radiotracer imaging and offers the opportunity to conveniently and rapidly characterize transport of gamma-emitting isotopes in opaque media, relevant to the geological disposal of nuclear waste and potentially to a wide variety of other subsurface environments. PMID:24147650

  19. New mutations in ZFPM2/FOG2 gene in tetralogy of Fallot and double outlet right ventricle.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Alessandro; Sarkozy, A; Ferese, R; Consoli, F; Lepri, F; Dentici, M L; Vergara, P; De Zorzi, A; Versacci, P; Digilio, M C; Marino, B; Dallapiccola, B

    2011-08-01

    Conotruncal defects (CTDs) represent 15-20% of all congenital heart defects. Mutations in a number of genes have been associated with CTD in humans and animal models. We investigated the occurrence and the prevalence of GATA4, NKX2.5, ZFPM2/FOG2, GDF1, and ISLET1 gene mutations in a large cohort of individuals with CTD, including tetralogy of Fallot with or without pulmonary atresia (TOF, 178 patients), double outlet right ventricle (DORV, 13 patients), and truncus arteriosus (11 patients). Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis followed by bidirectional sequencing disclosed no putative pathogenic mutation in GATA4, ISLET1, and GDF1 genes. Two novel (Ile227Val, Met544Ile) and one previously reported (Glu30Gly) possibly pathogenic missense variants were identified in the ZFPM2/FOG2 gene in 3 sporadic patients of 202 (1.5%) with CTD, including 1 of 178 (0.6%) with TOF and 2 of 13 (15.4%) with DORV. Mutation analysis also detected one known missense change (Arg25Cys) in NKX2.5 gene in two (1.1%) sporadic patients with TOF. These sequence alterations were found to be absent in 500 population-matched controls. In conclusion, the present results (i) indicate and confirm that mutations in the GATA4, GDF1, and ISLET1 genes are not major determinants in the pathogenesis of TOF, (ii) provide supportive evidence of an association between ZFPM2/FOG2 gene and TOF/DORV, and (iii) provide additional examples of the possible contribution of the Arg25Cys change in the NKX2.5 to a small number of TOF cases.

  20. Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1, members of the TGF-beta superfamily and follistatin do not reflect different stages of dynapenia and sarcopenia in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Marlene; Halper, Barbara; Oesen, Stefan; Franzke, Bernhard; Stuparits, Petra; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Quittan, Michael; Ploder, Martin; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    There is a high need for blood-based biomarkers detecting age-related changes in muscular performance at an early stage. Therefore, we investigated whether serum levels of growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), activin A, myostatin, follistatin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would reflect age- and physical performance-related differences between young (22-28 years) and elderly (65-92 years) females. Isokinetic peak torque of knee extension (PTE) was measured in young females to obtain reference values for the discrimination of different stages of age-associated muscle weakness. Additionally, elderly women were screened for sarcopenia using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (low muscle mass in addition to low PTE and/or low walking speed). IGF-1 levels were higher and GDF-15 levels were lower in young females in comparison to the elderly (p < 0.01), whereas members of the activin A/myostatin/follistatin axis showed similar levels across age groups. In older women, IGF-1 correlated negatively with age (ρ = -0.359, p < 0.01) and positively with muscle mass (ρ = 0.365, p < 0.01). In contrast, GDF-15 correlated positively with age (ρ = 0.388, p < 0.001) and negatively with muscle mass (ρ = -0.320, p < 0.01). However, none of the serum markers differed between women classified as non-, mildly and severely dynapenic/sarcopenic. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that a combination of all blood-based biomarkers obtained in addition to age and fat mass moderately predicted muscle mass (+2.9%). Neither a single nor a combined set of tested biomarkers reflected the presence of dynapenia or sarcopenia in elderly women. However, due to the associations of IGF-1 and GDF-15 with correlates of muscle mass and function, these parameters remain promising candidates in a potential set of blood-based biomarkers to diagnose sarcopenia and/or dynapenia.

  1. Skeletogenesis in Xenopus tropicalis: characteristic bone development in an anuran amphibian.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shinichirou; Hanaoka, Kazunori; Togashi, Shin

    2008-11-01

    In mammals and birds, most of the skeletal bones develop via endochondral ossification. Chondrocytes in the cartilaginous anlagen undergo processes of maturation such as hypertrophy, calcification and apoptosis. Concomitantly, osteoblasts are recruited to replace the cartilage scaffold gradually with bone matrix and become osteocytes in the trabecular bones. Throughout the successive development of bones, several gene products have been identified as being the components of the molecular mechanism regulating bone development. Transcription factor SOX9 plays essential roles during developmental steps from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to proliferating chondrocytes, meanwhile, it inhibits transition of proliferating chondrocytes to hypertrophy. Other transcription factors RUNX2 and OSTERIX are critical in osteoblast differentiation, and RUNX2 is also essential for chondrocyte maturation such as hypertrophy and matrix mineralization. GDF5, a protein belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is involved in joint formation and chondrogenesis. The limb skeleton of one of the ancestral tetrapod, anuran amphibians also develops through cartilaginous anlagen to bones, but their skeletogenesis has some unique characteristics compared with that of mammals and birds. Anuran amphibians develop and grow with less bone trabeculae and poor epiphyseal growth plates, and its endochondral ossification was found to be a delayed process. In order to address the characteristic skeletal development of anuran amphibians, we cloned Xenopus tropicalis RUNX2 (Xt-runx2), OSTERIX (Xt-osterix) and GDF5 (Xt-gdf5) homologue, and observed expression patterns together with Xt-sox9. In X. tropicalis limbs, histological observation and section in situ hybridization analysis suggest that Xt-SOX9 is involved in chondrogenesis, Xt-RUNX2 and Xt-OSTERIX are involved in osteogenesis, and Xt-GDF5 is involved in joint formation. In the cartilaginous anlagen, Xt-runx2 expression was

  2. Pedestrian navigation data modeling for hybrid travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianghua; Tao, Jianwei; Ding, Jianli; Abuliz, Abudukim; Xiang, Hanyu

    2008-10-01

    At present, navigation data models, such as GDF4.0, KIWI, SDAL and WI 19134, didn't pay attention to form pedestrian transport infrastructure into their models. With the development of navigation, pedestrian navigation has become a hot topic. The research team put forward their pilot research on pedestrian data modeling for hybrid travel patters, mainly including subway, bus and feet. Pedestrian road network modeling was made. Based on this, it carried out the discussion on multi-level navigation data modeling of hybrid travel patterns. It also gave algorithm suggestion to operate the optimal route computing more efficient. The future work is just to focus on demonstrate the algorithm.

  3. The `advanced DIR-MCFC development' project, an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortbeek, P. J.; Ottervanger, R.

    An overview is given of the approach and mid-term status of the joint European `Advanced DIR-MCFC Development' project, in which BCN, BG plc, GDF, ECN, Stork, Schelde and Sydkraft co-operate. Hospitals are identified as an attractive initial market for cogeneration direct internal reforming-molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC) systems in the size of 400 kWe. Innovative system and stack design concepts are being developed for this application. The `SMARTER' system, based on DIR stacks, combines high electric efficiency and a wide operational window with optimal system simplicity and low cost.

  4. Stress analysis and tectonic trends of southern Sinai Peninsula, using potential field data analysis and anisotropy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Salah; Saleh, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the stress direction and the tectonic trends of the study area using magnetic anisotropy and potential field data interpretations (Bouguer and aeromagnetic). The specific objective of the gravity and aeromagnetic interpretation is to establish the trend and depth of the structural configuration of the basement rocks. Horizontal gradient techniques could to delineate directions of deep sources and enabled tracing several faults, lineaments and tectonic boundaries of basement rocks. The trend analysis shows N40°-50°W, N10°-20°W and N10°-20°E which may be related to the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba stresses. However, Euler Deconvolution technique was applied using the aeromagnetic data to provide reliable information about penetrated source depth (100 m and ˜10.0 km) and trends of the subsurface sources (principally in NW and NE directions). Moreover, representative 72 oriented rock samples have been collected from seven sites in the study area. The rock magnetic properties and magnetic anisotropy analysis have been determined for all the studied samples. The interpretation clearly defined magnetic lineation at all sites and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility ( AMS) parameters. The stress direction of the studied area has been evaluated using magnetic anisotropy and geophysical analysis. Generally the estimated geophysical data analysis (Bouguer and aeromagnetic) are well consistent with the AMS interpretations of this study. The results indicated that the directions of predominant faults and foliations are NW-SE (related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea rifting) which indicate that the main stress and tectonic trend is NE-SW, which is more predominant in southern Sinai region. Moreover, it is clear that, the studied area was affected also by less predominant sources trended in NE-SW direction, which related to the tectonic activity of Gulf of Aqaba. The least predominant is north 40°-50° east that is

  5. Stress analysis and tectonic trends of southern Sinai Peninsula, using potential field data analysis and anisotropy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Salah; Saleh, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the stress direction and the tectonic trends of the study area using magnetic anisotropy and potential field data interpretations (Bouguer and aeromagnetic). The specific objective of the gravity and aeromagnetic interpretation is to establish the trend and depth of the structural configuration of the basement rocks. Horizontal gradient techniques could to delineate directions of deep sources and enabled tracing several faults, lineaments and tectonic boundaries of basement rocks. The trend analysis shows N40°-50°W, N10°-20°W and N10°-20°E which may be related to the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba stresses. However, Euler Deconvolution technique was applied using the aeromagnetic data to provide reliable information about penetrated source depth (100 m and ˜10.0 km) and trends of the subsurface sources (principally in NW and NE directions). Moreover, representative 72 oriented rock samples have been collected from seven sites in the study area. The rock magnetic properties and magnetic anisotropy analysis have been determined for all the studied samples. The interpretation clearly defined magnetic lineation at all sites and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) parameters. The stress direction of the studied area has been evaluated using magnetic anisotropy and geophysical analysis. Generally the estimated geophysical data analysis (Bouguer and aeromagnetic) are well consistent with the AMS interpretations of this study. The results indicated that the directions of predominant faults and foliations are NW-SE (related to the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea rifting) which indicate that the main stress and tectonic trend is NE-SW, which is more predominant in southern Sinai region. Moreover, it is clear that, the studied area was affected also by less predominant sources trended in NE-SW direction, which related to the tectonic activity of Gulf of Aqaba. The least predominant is north 40°-50° east that is

  6. Are There Oceanographic Explanations for the Israelites'Crossing of the Red Sea?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, Doron; Paldor, Nathan

    1992-03-01

    Two relatively simple physical oceanographic processes are suggested as plausible explanations for the biblical description of the Israelites' Crossing of the Red Sea during their exodus from Egypt. The first involves strong wind that blows along the Gulf of Suez and pushes the water a considerable distance away from the regular shoreline. This process is examined with the aid of a simple conceptual model consisting of a shallow, narrow, and long channel (corresponding to the Gulf of Suez) connected to a large body of water (corresponding to the main body of the Red Sea). Uniform wind is allowed to blow over the entire gulf for a period of about a day and the resulting phenomena are examined by solving the appropriate governing equations.It is shown that, in a similar fashion to the familiar wind setup in a long and narrow lake, the water at the edge of the gulf slowly recedes away from its original prewind position. The receding distance of the shoreline and the associated sea level drop are computed by solving the nonlinear equation that governs the motion resulting from the wind. It is found that, even for moderate storms with wind speed of about 20 s1 receding distance of more than 1 km and a sea level drop of more than 2.5 m are obtained. These relatively high values are a result of the unique geometry of the gulf (i.e., its rather small width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios) and the nonlinearity of the governing equation. Upon an abrupt relaxation of the wind, the water returns to its prewind position as a fast (nonlinear) gravity wave that floods the entire receding zone within minutes. It is suggested that the crossing occurred while the water receded and that the drowning of the Egyptians was a result of the rapidly returning wave.The second possible mechanism that is considered is a tsunami (i.e., a flood resulting from an earthquake under the sea)m that arrived at the Gulf of Suez from the main body of the Red Sea. In a similar fashion to the wind

  7. Rejuvenation of aging hearts.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2013-08-01

    Specific subtle changes in regulation or activity of factors that maintain homeostasis and cell differentiation may play significant roles in mammalian aging. Drift resulting from reaching the end of an organism's developmental program might involve a specific ordered set of changes. Several studies have suggested that dysfunctional changes associated with aging in skeletal muscle, neurons, and hematopoietic stem cells may be caused by specific changes either in the extracellular environment or in intracellular regulatory networks and that such dysfunction may be reversible. On the basis these data, Loffredo et al. hypothesized that extrinsic circulating factors in young mice might reverse cardiac aging. Parabiosis, the surgical linking of circulations between old and young mice, was employed to identify an anti-hypertrophic factor (growth differentiation factor 11 [GDF-11]) that appears to rejuvenate aging murine hearts, raising exciting prospects for the development of anti-aging therapeutics. However, much work remains to be done to evaluate the utility of GDF-11 as a therapeutic rejuvenation factor. Similar rejuvenating factors for diverse tissues may exist as well and will hopefully be identified in the near future.

  8. The transcription factor Pitx2 positions the embryonic axis and regulates twinning

    PubMed Central

    Torlopp, Angela; Khan, Mohsin A F; Oliveira, Nidia M M; Lekk, Ingrid; Soto-Jiménez, Luz Mayela; Sosinsky, Alona; Stern, Claudio D

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic polarity of invertebrates, amphibians and fish is specified largely by maternal determinants, which fixes cell fates early in development. In contrast, amniote embryos remain plastic and can form multiple individuals until gastrulation. How is their polarity determined? In the chick embryo, the earliest known factor is cVg1 (homologous to mammalian growth differentiation factor 1, GDF1), a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signal expressed posteriorly before gastrulation. A molecular screen to find upstream regulators of cVg1 in normal embryos and in embryos manipulated to form twins now uncovers the transcription factor Pitx2 as a candidate. We show that Pitx2 is essential for axis formation, and that it acts as a direct regulator of cVg1 expression by binding to enhancers within neighbouring genes. Pitx2, Vg1/GDF1 and Nodal are also key actors in left–right asymmetry, suggesting that the same ancient polarity determination mechanism has been co-opted to different functions during evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03743.001 PMID:25496870

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic as a nanocomposite scintillator for x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Struebing, Christian; Wagner, Brent; Summers, Christopher; Ding, Yong; Bryant, Alex; Thadhani, Naresh; Shedlock, Daniel; Star-Lack, Josh; Kang, Zhitao

    2016-05-20

    Transparent glass ceramics with embedded light-emitting nanocrystals show great potential as low-cost nanocomposite scintillators in comparison to single crystal and transparent ceramic scintillators. In this study, cubic structure BaGdF5:Tb nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix are reported for potential high performance MeV imaging applications. Scintillator samples with systematically varied compositions were prepared by a simple conventional melt-quenching method followed by annealing. Optical, structural and scintillation properties were characterized to guide the design and optimization of selected material systems, aiming at the development of a system with higher crystal volume and larger crystal size for improved luminosity. It is observed that enhanced scintillation performance was achieved by tuning the glass matrix composition and using GdF3 in the raw materials, which served as a nucleation agent. A 26% improvement in light output was observed from a BaGdF5:Tb glass ceramic with addition of GdF3.

  10. Skeletal muscle-derived progenitors capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes proliferate through myostatin-independent TGF-{beta} family signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ashihara, Eishi; Tateishi, Kento; Asada, Satoshi; Nakajima, Norio; Isodono, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-01-25

    The existence of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) has been suggested in mammals; however, the signaling pathways controlling MDSC proliferation remain largely unknown. Here we report the isolation of myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) that can give rise to beating cardiomyocytes from adult skeletal muscle. We identified that follistatin, an antagonist of TGF-{beta} family members, was predominantly expressed in MDPCs, whereas myostatin was mainly expressed in myogenic cells and mature skeletal muscle. Although follistatin enhanced the replicative growth of MDPCs through Smad2/3 inactivation and cell cycle progression, disruption of myostatin did not increase the MDPC proliferation. By contrast, inhibition of activin A (ActA) or growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) signaling dramatically increased MDPC proliferation via down-regulation of p21 and increases in the levels of cdk2/4 and cyclin D1. Thus, follistatin may be an effective progenitor-enhancing agent neutralizing ActA and GDF11 signaling to regulate the growth of MDPCs in skeletal muscle.

  11. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection. PMID:15601592

  12. The enrichment of an alkaliphilic biofilm consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of isosaccharinic acid from cellulosic materials incubated within an anthropogenic, hyperalkaline environment.

    PubMed

    Charles, C J; Rout, S P; Garratt, E J; Patel, K; Laws, A P; Humphreys, P N

    2015-08-01

    Anthropogenic hyperalkaline sites provide an environment that is analogous to proposed cementitious geological disposal facilities (GDF) for radioactive waste. Under anoxic, alkaline conditions cellulosic wastes will hydrolyze to a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) dominated by isosaccharinic acids (ISA). In order to investigate the potential for microbial activity in a cementitious GDF, cellulose samples were incubated in the alkaline (∼pH 12), anaerobic zone of a lime kiln waste site. Following retrieval, these samples had undergone partial alkaline hydrolysis and were colonized by a Clostridia-dominated biofilm community, where hydrogenotrophic, alkaliphilic methanogens were also present. When these samples were used to establish an alkaline CDP fed microcosm, the community shifted away from Clostridia, methanogens became undetectable and a flocculate community dominated by Alishewanella sp. established. These flocs were composed of bacteria embedded in polysaccharides and proteins stabilized by extracellular DNA. This community was able to degrade all forms of ISA with >60% of the carbon flow being channelled into extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production. This study demonstrated that alkaliphilic microbial communities can degrade the CDP associated with some radioactive waste disposal concepts at pH 11. These communities divert significant amounts of degradable carbon to EPS formation, suggesting that EPS has a central role in the protection of these communities from hyperalkaline conditions.

  13. Allometric growth of the trunk leads to the rostral shift of the pelvic fin in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yumie; Tamura, Mika; Aita, Yusuke; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Yasunori; Okabe, Masataka; Okada, Norihiro; Tanaka, Mikiko

    2010-11-01

    The pelvic fin position among teleost fishes has shifted rostrally during evolution, resulting in diversification of both behavior and habitat. We explored the developmental basis for the rostral shift in pelvic fin position in teleost fishes using zebrafish (abdominal pelvic fins) and Nile tilapia (thoracic pelvic fins). Cell fate mapping experiments revealed that changes in the distribution of lateral plate mesodermal cells accompany the trunk-tail protrusion. Presumptive pelvic fin cells are originally located at the body wall adjacent to the anterior limit of hoxc10a expression in the spinal cord, and their position shifts rostrally as the trunk grows. We then showed that the differences in pelvic fin position between zebrafish and Nile tilapia were not due to changes in expression or function of gdf11. We also found that hox-independent motoneurons located above the pelvic fins innervate into the pelvic musculature. Our results suggest that there is a common mechanism among teleosts and tetrapods that controls paired appendage positioning via gdf11, but in teleost fishes the position of prospective pelvic fin cells on the yolk surface shifts as the trunk grows. In addition, teleost motoneurons, which lack lateral motor columns, innervate the pelvic fins in a manner independent of the rostral-caudal patterns of hox expression in the spinal cord.

  14. Fecundity genes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, G H

    2004-07-01

    Since 1980 there has been increasing interest in the identification and utilisation of major genes for prolificacy in sheep. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. DNA tests enable some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  15. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, George Henry

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  16. Gonadal mRNA expression levels of TGFbeta superfamily signaling factors correspond with post-hatching morphological development in American alligators.

    PubMed

    Moore, B C; Hamlin, H J; Botteri, N L; Guillette, L J

    2010-01-01

    Paracrine factor signaling regulates many aspects of vertebrate gonadal development. We investigated key ovarian and testicular morphological markers of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) during the first 5 months post-hatching and correlated gonadal development with mRNA expression levels of a suite of regulatory factors. In both sexes, we observed significant morphology changes, including ovarian follicle assembly and meiotic progression of testicular germ cells. Concomitant with these changes were sexually dimorphic and ontogenetically variable mRNA expressions. In ovaries, FOXL2, aromatase, and follistatin mRNA expression was greater than in testes at all ages. At one week after hatching, we observed ovarian medullary remodeling in association with elevated activin/inhibin beta A subunit, follistatin, and aromatase mRNA expressions. Three and 5 months following hatching and concomitant with follicle assembly, ovaries showed increased mRNA expression levels of GDF9 and the mitotic factor PCNA. In testes, the activin/inhibin alpha and beta B subunit transcript levels were greater than in ovaries at all ages. Elevated testicular expression of GDF9 mRNA levels at 5 months after hatching aligned with increased spermatogenic activity. We propose that the mRNA expression levels and concomitant morphological changes observed here affect the establishment of alligator reproductive health and later fertility.

  17. Oocyte-dependent activation of MTOR in cumulus cells controls the development and survival of cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Shi, Lanying; Gong, Xuhong; Jiang, Mengjie; Yin, Yaoxue; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yin, Hong; Li, Hui; Emori, Chihiro; Sugiura, Koji; Eppig, John J; Su, You-Qiang

    2016-08-15

    Communication between oocytes and their companion somatic cells promotes the healthy development of ovarian follicles, which is crucial for producing oocytes that can be fertilized and are competent to support embryogenesis. However, how oocyte-derived signaling regulates these essential processes remains largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that oocyte-derived paracrine factors, particularly GDF9 and GDF9-BMP15 heterodimer, promote the development and survival of cumulus-cell-oocyte complexes (COCs), partly by suppressing the expression of Ddit4l, a negative regulator of MTOR, and enabling the activation of MTOR signaling in cumulus cells. Cumulus cells expressed less Ddit4l mRNA and protein than mural granulosa cells, which is in striking contrast to the expression of phosphorylated RPS6 (a major downstream effector of MTOR). Knockdown of Ddit4l activated MTOR signaling in cumulus cells, whereas inhibition of MTOR in COCs compromised oocyte developmental competence and cumulus cell survival, with the latter likely to be attributable to specific changes in a subset of transcripts in the transcriptome of COCs. Therefore, oocyte suppression of Ddit4l expression allows for MTOR activation in cumulus cells, and this oocyte-dependent activation of MTOR signaling in cumulus cells controls the development and survival of COCs.

  18. 2D magnetotelluric imaging of the Anqing-Guichi ore district, Yangtze metallogenic belt, eastern China: An insight into the crustal structure and tectonic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangbin; Yan, Jiayong

    2016-08-01

    Two parallel NW-trending magnetotelluric (MT) profiles were placed perpendicularly to the main structures of the Anqing-Guichi ore district, one of the seven ore districts in the middle-lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt of eastern China. In October-December 2013, the MT data acquisition was carried out at 117 sites with 0.5-1 km site spacing. The MT data has a good quality in the frequency range between 320 and 0.01 Hz. The dimensionality analysis and 2D resistivity inversion results indicate that: (1) the deep of the ore district with three-dimensional structural characteristics, but two-dimensional structural characteristics for shallow; (2) there is a clear correlation between resistivity and the main geological units of the ore district, as well as correlation with mapped surface faults; (3) the Gandan deep fault (GDF) and Jiangnan deep fault (JNF) extend from the surface to 10 km deep, with dip of NW45°, and dip angles larger than 60°. A series of NE-trending acidic intrusive rocks were controlled by the GDF.

  19. The K153R variant in the myostatin gene and sarcopenia at the end of the human lifespan

    PubMed Central

    González-Freire, Marta; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Santiago, Catalina; Bustamante-Ara, Natalia; Yvert, Thomas; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Serra Rexach, José A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the A55T, E164K, I225T, K153R and P198A variants in the myostatin (GDF8) gene, muscle strength and mass, and physical function during daily living in 41 nonagenarians [33 women, age range, 90, 97]. No participant carried a mutant allele of the aforementioned variants, except three participants (all women), who carried the R allele of the K153R polymorphism, with one of them (woman aged 96 years) being homozygous. Overall, in KR women muscle phenotype values (1RM leg press and estimated muscle mass) were low-to-normal compared to the whole group (∼25th–50th percentile), and their functional capacity (Barthel and Tinetti tests) was normal. In the woman bearing the RR genotype, values of muscle mass and functional capacity were below the 25th percentile. She is the first RR Caucasian whose phenotype has been characterised specifically. In summary, heterozygosity for the GDF8 K153R polymorphism does not seem to exert a negative influence on the muscle phenotypes of women who are at the end of the human lifespan, yet homozygosity might do so. More research on larger cohorts of nonagenarians is needed to corroborate the present findings. PMID:20640547

  20. Stokes Emission inGdF3:Nd3+Nanoparticles for Bioimaging Probe

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, M.; Mimun, L.C.; Yust, B.; Kumar, G.A.; Dhanale, A.; Tang, L.; Sardar, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in rare earth (RE) doped nanoparticles (NPs) due to their sharp absorption and photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region. These NIR based nanoparticles (NPs) could allow biological imaging at substantial depths with enhanced contrast and high spatial resolution due to the absence of auto fluorescence in biological samples under infrared excitation. Here, we present the highly efficient infrared photoluminescence in GdF3:Nd3+ nanoparticles under 800 nm excitation within the hydrodynamic size limitations for bio-applications. The downconversion (Stokes emission) absolute quantum yield (QY) measurements in powder, poly maleic anhydride- alt-1- octadicene (PMAO) coated powder and colloidal solutions have been investigated. QY measurements have revealed that downconversion(Stokes emission)QY in an average 5 ± 2 nm sized GdF3: 1% Nd3+colloidalNPs are 2000 times higher than efficient upconversion (UC) particles NaYF4: 20 % Er/ 2% Yb of same size. Furthermore, the utility of these NIR emitting nanoparticles forbioimagingprobe has been demonstrated by confocal imaging and spectroscopic study. PMID:24336743

  1. Rare variants in the notch signaling pathway describe a novel type of autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Ender; Yuregir, Ozge O; Bozdogan, Sevcan T; Aslan, Huseyin; Pehlivan, Davut; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Gambin, Tomasz; Bayram, Yavuz; Atik, Mehmed M; Erdin, Serkan; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

    2015-11-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare disorder represented by a subgroup of segmentation defects of the vertebrae and characterized by fusion of the cervical vertebrae, low posterior hairline, and short neck with limited motion. Both autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns were reported in families with Klippel-Feil. Mutated genes for both dominant (GDF6 and GDF3) and recessive (MEOX1) forms of Klippel-Feil syndrome have been shown to be involved in somite development via transcription regulation and signaling pathways. Heterotaxy arises from defects in proteins that function in the development of left-right asymmetry of the developing embryo. We describe a consanguineous family with a male proband who presents with classical Klippel-Feil syndrome together with heterotaxy (situs inversus totalis). The present patient also had Sprengel's deformity, deformity of the sternum, and a solitary kidney. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.299delT; p.L100fs) in RIPPLY2, a gene shown to play a crucial role in somitogenesis and participate in the Notch signaling pathway via negatively regulating Tbx6. Our data confirm RIPPLY2 as a novel gene for autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome, and in addition-from a mechanistic standpoint-suggest the possibility that mutations in RIPPLY2 could also lead to heterotaxy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rare Variants in the Notch Signaling Pathway Describe a Novel Type of Autosomal Recessive Klippel–Feil Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Ender; Yuregir, Ozge O.; Bozdogan, Sevcan T.; Aslan, Huseyin; Pehlivan, Davut; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Akdemir, Zeynep C.; Gambin, Tomasz; Bayram, Yavuz; Atik, Mehmed M.; Erdin, Serkan; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Klippel–Feil syndrome is a rare disorder represented by a subgroup of segmentation defects of the vertebrae and characterized by fusion of the cervical vertebrae, low posterior hairline, and short neck with limited motion. Both autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns were reported in families with Klippel–Feil. Mutated genes for both dominant (GDF6 and GDF3) and recessive (MEOX1) forms of Klippel–Feil syndrome have been shown to be involved in somite development via transcription regulation and signaling pathways. Heterotaxy arises from defects in proteins that function in the development of left–right asymmetry of the developing embryo. We describe a consanguineous family with a male proband who presents with classical Klippel–Feil syndrome together with heterotaxy (situs inversus totalis). The present patient also had Sprengel’s deformity, deformity of the sternum, and a solitary kidney. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.299delT; p.L100fs) in RIPPLY2, a gene shown to play a crucial role in somitogenesis and participate in the Notch signaling pathway via negatively regulating Tbx6. Our data confirm RIPPLY2 as a novel gene for autosomal recessive Klippel–Feil syndrome, and in addition—from a mechanistic standpoint—suggest the possibility that mutations in RIPPLY2 could also lead to heterotaxy. PMID:26238661

  3. PEGylated Carbon Nanocapsule: A Universal Reactor and Carrier for In Vivo Delivery of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Amritha; Mishra, Gargi; Mahaling, Binapani; Tayal, Lokesh; Mukhopadhyay, Ahana; Gambhir, Sanjay; Sharma, Ashutosh; Sivakumar, Sri

    2016-01-13

    We have developed PEGylated mesoporous carbon nanocapsule as a universal nanoreactor and carrier for the delivery of highly crystalline hydrophobic/hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) which shows superior biocompatibility, dispersion in body fluids, good biodistribution and NPs independent cellular uptake mechanism. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic NPs without surface modification were synthesized in situ inside the cavities of mesoporous carbon capsules (200-850 nm). Stable and inert nature of carbon capsules in a wide range of reaction conditions like high temperature and harsh solvents, make it suitable for being used as nano/microreactors for the syntheses of a variety of NPs for bioimaging applications, such as NaYF4:Eu(3+)(5%), LaVO4:Eu(3+)(10%), GdVO4:Eu(3+)(10%), Y2O3:Eu(3+)(5%), GdF3:Tb(3+)(10%), Mo, Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag. Multiple types of NPs (Y2O3:Eu(3+)(5%) (hydrophobic) and GdF3:Tb(3+)(10%) (hydrophilic)) were coloaded inside the carbon capsules to create a multimodal agent for magneto-fluorescence imaging. Our in vivo study clearly suggests that carbon capsules have biodistribution in many organs including liver, heart, spleen, lungs, blood pool, and muscles.

  4. Cripto Binds Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) and Inhibits TGF-β Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter C.; Shani, Gidi; Aung, Kevin; Kelber, Jonathan; Vale, Wylie

    2006-01-01

    Cripto is a developmental oncoprotein and a member of the epidermal growth factor-Cripto, FRL-1, Cryptic family of extracellular signaling molecules. In addition to having essential functions during embryogenesis, Cripto is highly expressed in tumors and promotes tumorigenesis. During development, Cripto acts as an obligate coreceptor for transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) ligands, including nodals, growth and differentiation factor 1 (GDF1), and GDF3. As an oncogene, Cripto is thought to promote tumor growth via mechanisms including activation of mitogenic signaling pathways and antagonism of activin signaling. Here, we provide evidence supporting a novel mechanism in which Cripto inhibits the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β. Cripto bound TGF-β and reduced the association of TGF-β with its type I receptor, TβRI. Consistent with its ability to block receptor assembly, Cripto suppressed TGF-β signaling in multiple cell types and diminished the cytostatic effects of TGF-β in mammary epithelial cells. Furthermore, targeted disruption of Cripto expression by use of small inhibitory RNA enhanced TGF-β signaling, indicating that endogenous Cripto plays a role in restraining TGF-β responses. PMID:17030617

  5. Multiscale seismic attributes: source-corrected wavelet response and application to high-resolution seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Stephan; Le Gonidec, Yves; Gibert, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    A wavelet-based method was presented in a previous work to introduce multiscale seismic attributes for high-resolution seismic data. Because of the limited frequency bandwidth of the seismic source, we observed distortions in the seismic attributes based on the wavelet response of the subsurface discontinuities (Le Gonidec et al.). In this paper, we go further in the seismic source-correction by considering Lévy alpha-stable distributions introduced in the formalism of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The wavelets are Gaussian derivative functions (GDF), characterized by a derivative order. We show that a high-resolution seismic source, after a classical signature processing, can be taken into account with a GDF. We demonstrate that in the framework of the Born approximation, the CWT of a seismic trace involving such a finite frequency bandwidth can be made equivalent to the CWT of the impulse response of the subsurface and is defined for a reduced range of dilations. We apply the method for the SYSIF seismic device (Marsset et al.; Ker et al.) and show that the source-corrections allow to define seismic attributes for layer thicknesses in the range [24; 115 cm]. We present the analysis for two seismic reflectors identified on a SYSIF profile, and we show that the source-corrected multiscale analysis quantifies their complex geometries.

  6. The enrichment of an alkaliphilic biofilm consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of isosaccharinic acid from cellulosic materials incubated within an anthropogenic, hyperalkaline environment

    PubMed Central

    Charles, C. J.; Rout, S. P.; Garratt, E. J.; Patel, K.; Laws, A. P.; Humphreys, P. N.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic hyperalkaline sites provide an environment that is analogous to proposed cementitious geological disposal facilities (GDF) for radioactive waste. Under anoxic, alkaline conditions cellulosic wastes will hydrolyze to a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) dominated by isosaccharinic acids (ISA). In order to investigate the potential for microbial activity in a cementitious GDF, cellulose samples were incubated in the alkaline (∼pH 12), anaerobic zone of a lime kiln waste site. Following retrieval, these samples had undergone partial alkaline hydrolysis and were colonized by a Clostridia-dominated biofilm community, where hydrogenotrophic, alkaliphilic methanogens were also present. When these samples were used to establish an alkaline CDP fed microcosm, the community shifted away from Clostridia, methanogens became undetectable and a flocculate community dominated by Alishewanella sp. established. These flocs were composed of bacteria embedded in polysaccharides and proteins stabilized by extracellular DNA. This community was able to degrade all forms of ISA with >60% of the carbon flow being channelled into extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production. This study demonstrated that alkaliphilic microbial communities can degrade the CDP associated with some radioactive waste disposal concepts at pH 11. These communities divert significant amounts of degradable carbon to EPS formation, suggesting that EPS has a central role in the protection of these communities from hyperalkaline conditions. PMID:26195600

  7. Niche-mediated control of human embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Peerani, Raheem; Rao, Balaji M; Bauwens, Celine; Yin, Ting; Wood, Geoffrey A; Nagy, Andras; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Zandstra, Peter W

    2007-11-14

    Complexity in the spatial organization of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures creates heterogeneous microenvironments (niches) that influence hESC fate. This study demonstrates that the rate and trajectory of hESC differentiation can be controlled by engineering hESC niche properties. Niche size and composition regulate the balance between differentiation-inducing and -inhibiting factors. Mechanistically, a niche size-dependent spatial gradient of Smad1 signaling is generated as a result of antagonistic interactions between hESCs and hESC-derived extra-embryonic endoderm (ExE). These interactions are mediated by the localized secretion of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) by ExE and its antagonist, growth differentiation factor-3 (GDF3) by hESCs. Micropatterning of hESCs treated with small interfering (si) RNA against GDF3, BMP2 and Smad1, as well treatments with a Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor demonstrate that independent control of Smad1 activation can rescue the colony size-dependent differentiation of hESCs. Our results illustrate, for the first time, a role for Smad1 in the integration of spatial information and in the niche-size-dependent control of hESC self-renewal and differentiation.

  8. Transcriptomic profiling of TK2 deficient human skeletal muscle suggests a role for the p53 signalling pathway and identifies growth and differentiation factor-15 as a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the gene encoding thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) result in the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome which is a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy presenting in children. In order to unveil some of the mechanisms involved in this pathology and to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets we have investigated the gene expression profile of human skeletal muscle deficient for TK2 using cDNA microarrays. Results We have analysed the whole transcriptome of skeletal muscle from patients with TK2 mutations and compared it to normal muscle and to muscle from patients with other mitochondrial myopathies. We have identified a set of over 700 genes which are differentially expressed in TK2 deficient muscle. Bioinformatics analysis reveals important changes in muscle metabolism, in particular, in glucose and glycogen utilisation, and activation of the starvation response which affects aminoacid and lipid metabolism. We have identified those transcriptional regulators which are likely to be responsible for the observed changes in gene expression. Conclusion Our data point towards the tumor suppressor p53 as the regulator at the centre of a network of genes which are responsible for a coordinated response to TK2 mutations which involves inflammation, activation of muscle cell death by apoptosis and induction of growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in muscle and serum. We propose that GDF-15 may represent a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction although further studies are required. PMID:24484525

  9. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  10. Ship canals and aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aron, William I.; Smith, Stanford H.

    1971-01-01

    Through a combination of ecosystem homeostasis and the perversity of man and nature, oftentimes the significant biological changes effected by environmental modifications are not detected until long after the initial change has taken place. The immediate impact, which may range from the spectacular to the undetectable, is a deceptive measure of the long-term and often more important changes in the ecosystem. Two major engineering achievements illustrate this premise: (i) construction of the Erie Canal, which provided access from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, and the Welland Canal, which bypasses the block between Lakes Ontario and Erie created by Niagara Falls (Fig. 1), and (ii) construction of the Suez Canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  12. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project.

  13. Africa: It's good news, bad news - again

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article presents the outlook for African petroleum. Observations include: Nigerian oil revenues will be $6-7 billion this year, down 50% from '84; Egyptian drillers are still going strong in the Western Desert and Gulf of Suez; Algeria is looking for natural gas buyers, and they have plenty of gas to sell-cheap; Even with new petroleum legislation, Tunisian production and reserves are falling; Libya's bozo leader is feeling the effects of falling oil revenues and falling bombs; Angola continues as a hot spot of activity with 42 successful oil strikes last year; Crude production jumped 29% in Cameroun last year with three new fields onstream; Congo is another West African winner due to major commitments by Elf and Agip.

  14. Climate Optimum rejuvenates the Mediterranean marine world.

    PubMed

    Por, Francis D

    2010-06-01

    The Mediterranean, a sea with an already eventful history, is again undergoing an extreme change. A combination of general warming of the Mediterranean Sea and contact with the Indopacific world through the Suez Canal has set the stage for massive changes in the biota that inhabit this sea. For over a century, tropical species of all taxa have been migrating back into the Mediterranean, suggesting a duplication or restoration of a mid-Pliocene Piacenzian or late Miocene Tortonian situation. Test cases are presented in three major taxa. It is not a serial invasion by individual rogue exotic and damaging species, as often wrongly assumed and asserted. Despite its unique biogeographic magnitude being recognized, an opportunity to study the progress of this phenomenon is being missed. This is because of the changed priorities in research, the acute taxonomic impediment and to the geopolitical difficulties in cooperation. Nonetheless, the limitations of the restoration process are defined and a careful future outlook is presented.

  15. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  16. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-12-09

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent.

  17. Heat flow in eastern Egypt - The thermal signature of a continental breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the heat flow in eastern Egypt were collected to provide information related to the mode and the mechanism of the Red Sea opening. The data indicate a general increase in heat flow towards the Red Sea (75-100 mW/sq m in a zone within 40 km of the coast compared with 35-55 mW/sq m inland). Moderately high heat flow (about 70 mW/sq m) was found for the Gulf of Suez. Heat production data indicate that the coastal thermal anomaly is not primarily related to crustal radiogenic heat production. Possible causes of the anomaly (one of which could be a high mantle heat flow causing a lithospheric thinning centered beneath the Red Sea) are discussed.

  18. Climate penalty for shifting shipping to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Berntsen, Terje; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Eide, Magnus Strandmyr; Bergh, Trond Flisnes

    2014-11-18

    The changing climate in the Arctic opens new shipping routes. A shift to shorter Arctic transit will, however, incur a climate penalty over the first one and a half centuries. We investigate the net climate effect of diverting a segment of Europe-Asia container traffic from the Suez to an Arctic transit route. We find an initial net warming for the first one-and-a-half centuries, which gradually declines and transitions to net cooling as the effects of CO2 reductions become dominant, resulting in climate mitigation only in the long term. Thus, the possibilities for shifting shipping to the Arctic confront policymakers with the question of how to weigh a century-scale warming with large uncertainties versus a long-term climate benefit from CO2 reductions.

  19. An extended stochastic method for seismic hazard estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd el-aal, A. K.; El-Eraki, M. A.; Mostafa, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution, we developed an extended stochastic technique for seismic hazard assessment purposes. This technique depends on the hypothesis of stochastic technique of Boore (2003) "Simulation of ground motion using the stochastic method. Appl. Geophy. 160:635-676". The essential characteristics of extended stochastic technique are to obtain and simulate ground motion in order to minimize future earthquake consequences. The first step of this technique is defining the seismic sources which mostly affect the study area. Then, the maximum expected magnitude is defined for each of these seismic sources. It is followed by estimating the ground motion using an empirical attenuation relationship. Finally, the site amplification is implemented in calculating the peak ground acceleration (PGA) at each site of interest. We tested and applied this developed technique at Cairo, Suez, Port Said, Ismailia, Zagazig and Damietta cities to predict the ground motion. Also, it is applied at Cairo, Zagazig and Damietta cities to estimate the maximum peak ground acceleration at actual soil conditions. In addition, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 % damping median response spectra are estimated using the extended stochastic simulation technique. The calculated highest acceleration values at bedrock conditions are found at Suez city with a value of 44 cm s-2. However, these acceleration values decrease towards the north of the study area to reach 14.1 cm s-2 at Damietta city. This comes in agreement with the results of previous studies of seismic hazards in northern Egypt and is found to be comparable. This work can be used for seismic risk mitigation and earthquake engineering purposes.

  20. Survival of high latitude fringing corals in extreme temperatures: Red Sea oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, M. Z.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, Z. D.; Moustafa, S. E.

    2014-04-01

    This multi-year study set out to establish a comprehensive knowledgebase for a fringing coral reef in the Gulf of Suez, while also investigating the link between coral reef survivability and the extreme environmental conditions present in the region. The Gulf of Suez is a narrow branch of the northern Red Sea for which all forms of environmental and scientific data are severely lacking. Monitoring oceanographic and meteorological data provides evidence of both seasonal variability and interannual variability in this region, and may reveal correlations between reef health and prevailing climate conditions. Specifically, this research sought to document the environmental conditions under which Zaki's Reef, a small fringing coral reef (29.5°N and 32.4°E) that lies at the northernmost limit of tropical reefs worldwide, is able to survive, in order to determine how extreme the conditions are. Results of observed seawater temperature revealed that coral species at Zaki's Reef regularly experience 2-4 °C and 10-15 °C daily and seasonal temperature variations, respectively. Seawater temperature monthly means reached a minimum of 14 °C in February and a maximum of 33 °C in August. Monthly mean sea surface temperature climatology obtained from satellite measurements was comparable to observed seawater temperatures, while annual air and seawater temperature means were identical at 22 °C. Observed seawater temperatures exceeded established coral bleaching thresholds for extended periods of time, suggesting that coral species at this location may have developed a mechanism to cope with such extreme temperatures. Further scrutiny of these species and the mechanisms by which they are able to thrive is recommended.

  1. Rapid assessment of non-indigenous species in the era of the eDNA barcoding: A Mediterranean case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge

    2017-03-01

    With only a narrow opening through the Gibraltar and Suez Canals, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed seas. The marine flora and fauna are some of the richest in the world, relative to its size, particularly in the coastal habitats, which are also characterized by numerous endemic species although the introduction of non-indigenous species threatens its rich and unique biodiversity. Following the opening of the Suez Canal, and in combination with shipping and aquaculture activities, non-indigenous species (NIS) introduction has had measurable impacts on the Mediterranean. Lagoon ecosystems along the French coastline, with approx. 100 NIS identified, are considered hot-spot areas for these species. Rapid assessment sampling for sessile benthic species together with DNA barcoding is a rapid, easy and cheap method to detect non-indigenous species. Two nearby and different ecosystems were sampled for invertebrate species: Saint-Nazaire lagoon, a Special Protection Area within the Natura 2000 Network and Canet port, a marina in a small village. The DNA barcoding tool for species identification was used for confirming the taxonomy. This showed that, despite the Saint-Nazaire Lagoon classification within the Natura 2000 network, it is already contaminated with a single NIS that was found in high densities and is clearly beginning to dominate the system. It is proposed that a rapid assessment of the sampled environment and the DNA barcode approach are efficient and can provide sufficient information on the new target species to be used in conservation planning and ongoing management efforts.

  2. Salt weathering in Egyptian limestone after laboratory simulations with continuous flow of salt solutions at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Nevin; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Hamed, Ayman; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica

    2013-04-01

    weathering in Egyptian limestone after laboratory simulations with continuous flow of salt solutions at different temperatures Nevin Aly Mohamed (1), Miguel Gomez - Heras(2), Ayman Hamed Ahmed (1), and Monica Alvarez de Buergo(2). (1) Faculty of Pet. & Min. Engineering- Suez Canal University, Suez, Egypt, (2) Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM) Madrid. Spain. Limestone is one of the most frequent building stones in Egypt and is used since the time of ancient Egyptians and salt weathering is one of the main threats to its conservation. Most of the limestone used in historical monuments in Cairo is a biomicrite extracted from the Mid-Eocene Mokattam Group. During this work, cylindrical samples (2.4 cm diameter and approx. 4.8 cm length) were subjected, in a purpose-made simulation chamber, to simulated laboratory weathering tests with fixed salt concentration (10% weight NaCl solution), at different temperatures, which were kept constant throughout each test (10, 20, 30, 40 oC). During each test, salt solutions flowed continuously imbibing samples by capilarity. Humidity within the simulation chamber was reduced using silica gel to keep it low and constant to increase evaporation rate. Temperature, humidity inside the simulation chamber and samples weight were digitally monitored during each test. Results show the advantages of the proposed experimental methodology using a continuous flow of salt solutions and shed light on the effect of temperature on the dynamics of salt crystallization on and within samples. Research funded by mission sector of high education ministry, Egypt and Geomateriales S2009/MAT-1629.

  3. The crustal structure of Egypt and the northern Red Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Nyblade, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    P-wave receiver functions from 26 stations in the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) have been modeled using the H-k stacking method and in a joint inversion method with Rayleigh wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure across Egypt and the northern Red Sea region. The new estimates of crustal structure, when combined with previous results, show that along the rifted margins of the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 30 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.77, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.6 km/s. Beneath northern and central Egypt, including the Sinai Peninsula, crustal thickness ranges from 32 to 38 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.79, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.5 km/s. Beneath southern Egypt, crustal thickness ranges from 35 to 40 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.76, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.7 km/s. In southern Egypt, the crust is also characterized by a 10-20 km thick mafic lower crust. These findings indicate that crust along the rifted margins of the northern Red Sea, and Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba have been thinned by about 5 to 10 km. The thick mafic lower crust in southern Egypt can be attributed to suturing during the Neoproterozoic collision of east Gondwana against the Sahara metacraton. Overall, the structure of the crust in Egypt away from the northern Red Sea region is similar to the structure of Precambrian crust in many other parts of Africa.

  4. Analyse des interactions energetiques entre un arena et son systeme de refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghouani, Lotfi

    La presente these s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un projet strategique sur les arenas finance par le CRSNG (Conseil de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles et en Genie du Canada) qui a pour but principal le developpement d'un outil numerique capable d'estimer et d'optimiser la consommation d'energie dans les arenas et curlings. Notre travail s'inscrit comme une suite a un travail deja realise par DAOUD et coll. (2006, 2007) qui a developpe un modele 3D (AIM) en regime transitoire de l'arena Camilien Houde a Montreal et qui calcule les flux de chaleur a travers l'enveloppe du batiment ainsi que les distributions de temperatures et d'humidite durant une annee meteorologique typique. En particulier, il calcule les flux de chaleur a travers la couche de glace dus a la convection, la radiation et la condensation. Dans un premier temps nous avons developpe un modele de la structure sous la glace (BIM) qui tient compte de sa geometrie 3D, des differentes couches, de l'effet transitoire, des gains de chaleur du sol en dessous et autour de l'arena etudie ainsi que de la temperature d'entree de la saumure dans la dalle de beton. Par la suite le BIM a ete couple le AIM. Dans la deuxieme etape, nous avons developpe un modele du systeme de refrigeration (REFSYS) en regime quasi-permanent pour l'arena etudie sur la base d'une combinaison de relations thermodynamiques, de correlations de transfert de chaleur et de relations elaborees a partir de donnees disponibles dans le catalogue du manufacturier. Enfin le couplage final entre l'AIM +BIM et le REFSYS a ete effectue sous l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS. Plusieurs etudes parametriques on ete entreprises pour evaluer les effets du climat, de la temperature de la saumure, de l'epaisseur de la glace, etc. sur la consommation energetique de l'arena. Aussi, quelques strategies pour diminuer cette consommation ont ete etudiees. Le considerable potentiel de recuperation de chaleur au niveau des condenseurs qui peut reduire l'energie requise par

  5. Relative messenger RNA abundance in bovine oocytes collected in vitro or in vivo before and 20 hr after the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Patrick; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Rizos, Dimitrios; Pintado, Belen; de la Fuente, Julio; Boland, Maurice P

    2003-11-01

    In the cyclic cow, final maturation of the ovulatory follicle is initiated by the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. During the subsequent 24 hr period, the oocyte nucleus undergoes meiotic progression to metaphase II and several changes in cytoplasmic organization take place. We have previously shown that oocytes recovered at the time of the LH peak and matured in vitro are less competent to reach the blastocyst stage than their counterparts recovered 20 hr later following in vivo maturation, despite both groups undergoing IVF and culture in parallel. The objective of this study was to compare, using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, the relative abundance of various developmentally important gene transcripts in these oocytes. The groups used were mature bovine oocytes originating from: (1) 2-6 mm follicles from slaughterhouse ovaries; (2) preovulatory follicles punctured by ovum pick-up just before the LH surge (i.e., immature) and matured in vitro; or (3) preovulatory follicles punctured 20 hr later, just prior to ovulation (i.e., in vivo matured). In addition, immature oocytes from 2-6 mm follicles were examined. We examined the relative mRNA expression of five enzymes involved in protection against free oxygen radicals (mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase, MnSOD, cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, Cu/ZnSOD, gamma-glutamyl-cysteine transferase, GCS, glutathione peroxidase, GPX, sarcosine oxidase, SOX), a transcript involved in follicular development (growth differentiation factor-9, GDF-9), transcripts involved in glucose metabolism (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH, glucose transporter type-1 and -8, Glut-1, Glut-8) and genes involved in cell cycle events, Cyclin A and B, and poly(A) polymerase (PAP). Transcripts for all genes were detected, irrespective of oocyte origin. While differences were not significant in all cases, variations in levels of transcript abundance between the groups were related to developmental competence. In

  6. Testicular cell-conditioned medium supports embryonic stem cell differentiation toward germ lineage and to spermatocyte- and oocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed M; Saini, Neha; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S

    2016-08-01

    Testicular cells are believed to secrete various growth factors that activate signaling pathways finally leading to gametogenesis. In vitro gametogenesis is an obscure but paramountly important task primarily because of paucity of the precursor cells and first trimester gonadal tissues. To overcome these limitations for development of in vitro gametes, the present study was designed to induce differentiation of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ lineage cells on stimulation by testicular cell-conditioned medium (TCM), on the basis of the assumption that ES cells have the intrinsic property to differentiate into any cell type and TCM would provide the necessary growth factors for differentiation toward germ cell lineage. For this purpose, buffalo ES cells were differentiated as embryoid bodies (EB) in floating cultures and as monolayer adherent cultures in different doses (10%, 20%, and 40%) of TCM for different culture intervals (4, 8, and 14 days), to identify the optimum dose-and-time period. We observed that 40% TCM dose induces highest expression of primordial germ cell-specific (DAZL, VASA, and PLZF), meiotic (SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2, and PRM2), spermatocyte-specific (BOULE and TEKT1), and oocyte-specific genes (GDF9 and ZP2/3) for a culture period of 14 days under both floating and adherent differentiation. Immunocytochemical analysis of EBs and adherent cultures revealed presence of primordial germ cell markers (c-KIT, DAZL, and VASA), meiotic markers (SYCP3, MLH1 and PROTAMINE1), spermatocyte markers (ACROSIN and HAPRIN), and oocyte markers (GDF9 and ZP4), indicating progression into post-meiotic gametogenesis. The detection of germ cell-specific proteins in Day 14 EBs like VASA, GDF9, and ZP4 by Western blotting further confirmed germ lineage differentiation. The significantly lower (P < 0.05) concentration of 5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine in optimally differentiated EBs is suggestive of the process of methylation erasure. Oocyte-like structures

  7. Genetics of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease caused by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. This review focuses on the studies that have contributed to the discovery of genetic susceptibility factors in OA. The most relevant associations discovered until now are discussed in detail: GDF-5, 7q22 locus, MCF2L, DOT1L, NCOA3 and also some important findings from the arcOGEN study. Moreover, the different approaches that can be used to minimize the specific problems of the study of OA genetics are discussed. These include the study of microsatellites, phenotype standardization and other methods such as meta-analysis of GWAS and gene-based analysis. It is expected that these new approaches contribute to finding new susceptibility genetic factors for OA.

  8. Small-signal model parameter extraction for AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Yu; Yingkui, Zheng; Sheng, Zhang; Lei, Pang; Ke, Wei; Xiaohua, Ma

    2016-03-01

    A new 22-element small signal equivalent circuit model for the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is presented. Compared with the traditional equivalent circuit model, the gate forward and breakdown conductions (G gsf and G gdf) are introduced into the new model to characterize the gate leakage current. Additionally, for the new gate-connected field plate and the source-connected field plate of the device, an improved method for extracting the parasitic capacitances is proposed, which can be applied to the small-signal extraction for an asymmetric device. To verify the model, S-parameters are obtained from the modeling and measurements. The good agreement between the measured and the simulated results indicate that this model is accurate, stable and comparatively clear in physical significance.

  9. Identification of genome-wide selection signatures in the Limousin beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Ropka-Molik, K; Jasielczuk, I; Pawlina, K; Semik, E; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at identifying selection footprints within the genome of Limousin cattle. With the use of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity test, supplemented with correction for variation in recombination rates across the genome, we created map of selection footprints and detected 173 significant (p < 0.01) core haplotypes being potentially under positive selection. Within these regions, a number of candidate genes associated inter alia with skeletal muscle growth (GDF15, BMP7, BMP4 and TGFB3) or postmortem proteolysis and meat maturation (CAPN1 and CAPN5) were annotated. Noticeable clusters of selection footprints were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 8 and 14, which are known to carry several quantitative trait loci for growth traits and meat quality. The study provides information about the genes and metabolic pathways potentially modified under the influence of directional selection, aimed at improving beef production characteristics in Limousin cattle.

  10. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  11. Lessons from rare diseases of cartilage and bone.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, James A; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Boyde, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Studying severe phenotypes of rare syndromes can elucidate disease mechanisms of more common disorders and identify potential therapeutic targets. Lessons from rare bone diseases contributed to the development of the most successful class of bone active agents, the bisphosphonates. More recent research on rare bone diseases has helped elucidate key pathways and identify new targets in bone resorption and bone formation including cathepsin K and sclerostin, for which drugs are now in clinical trials. By contrast, there has been much less focus on rare cartilage diseases and osteoarthritis (OA) remains a common disease with no effective therapy. Investigation of rare cartilage syndromes is identifying new potential targets in OA including GDF5 and lubricin. Research on the arthropathy of the ultra-rare disease alkaptonuria has identified several new features of the OA phenotype, including high density mineralized protrusions (HDMPs) which constitute a newly identified mechanism of joint destruction.

  12. Mechanochemical preparation of nanocrystalline NaYF4:Gd3+/Yb3+/Tm3+: An efficient upconversion phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Riesen, Hans

    2015-11-01

    We report on a mechanochemical preparation route for NaYF4:Gd3+/Yb3+/Tm3+ nanoparticles by ball-milling NaF, YF3, GdF3, YbF3 and TmF3 at room temperature. An analysis by XRD and TEM demonstrates that the resulting materials are mainly (∼88% after 4 h ball-milling) in the hexagonal phase and are on the nanoscale with an average crystallite size of ∼20 nm. The prepared nanoparticles display efficient upconversion emission; upon excitation by a 980 nm laser diode, bright visible blue light emission can be observed. However, in accord with previous results, the strongest emission is observed in the NIR at 800 nm.

  13. [Genomic study of susceptibility genes for common bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, Shiro

    2009-06-01

    Common bone and joint diseases like osteoarthritis and lumbar disc disease are polygenic diseases caused by genetic and environment factors. We are challenging susceptibility genes for common bone and joint diseases using association study as a tool. By a combination of candidate-gene approach and whole-genome screen, we have succeeded in identification of five genes for osteoarthritis and for lumbar disc diseases, respectively. In the present paper, I mention the main genes among them, ASPN, GDF5 and DVWA for osteoarthritis, and TBSP2 and MMP9 for lumbar disc disease. Identification of the new genes will open a new window for the clarification of pathomechanism of the diseases and their treatment.

  14. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Monje, Alberto; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Tang, ZhiHui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD), Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2), Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7), Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5). PMID:26509173

  15. Quality Control Systems in Cardiac Aging

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, Ellen K; Dai, Dao-Fu; Tocchi, Autumn; Basisty, Nathan; Gitari, Lemuel; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac aging is an intrinsic process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with cellular and molecular changes. These degenerative changes are intimately associated with quality control mechanisms. This review provides a general overview of the clinical and cellular changes which manifest in cardiac aging, and the quality control mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis and retarding aging. These mechanisms include autophagy, ubiquitin-mediated turnover, apoptosis, mitochondrial quality control and cardiac matrix homeostasis. Finally, we discuss aging interventions that have been observed to impact cardiac health outcomes. These include caloric restriction, rapamycin, resveratrol, GDF11, mitochondrial antioxidants and cardiolipin-targeted therapeutics. A greater understanding of the quality control mechanisms that promote cardiac homeostasis will help to understand the benefits of these interventions, and hopefully lead to further improved therapeutic modalities. PMID:25702865

  16. Sequence analysis of myostatin promoter in cattle.

    PubMed

    Crisà, A; Marchitelli, C; Savarese, M C; Valentini, A

    2003-01-01

    Myostatin (GDF8) acts as a negative regulator of muscle growth. Mutations in the gene are responsible for the double muscling phenotype in several European cattle breeds. Here we describe the sequence of the upstream 5' region of the myostatin gene. The sequence analysis was carried out on three animals of nine European cattle breeds, with the aim to search for polymorphisms. A T/A polymorphism at -371 and a G/C polymorphism at -805 (relative to ATG) were found. PCR- RFLP was used to further screen 353 animals of the nine breeds studied and to assess the frequencies of the SNPs. The promoter region of the gene contains several binding sites for transcription factors found also in other myogenic genes. This may play an important role in the regulation of the protein and consequently on muscular development.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and vibrational properties of p-fluorosulfinylaniline.

    PubMed

    Páez Jerez, Ana L; Flores Antognini, Andrea; Cutin, Edgardo H; Robles, Norma L

    2015-02-25

    The reaction of p-fluoroaniline and SOCl2 rendered p-fluorosulfinylaniline in good yield. The obtained dark yellowish liquid compound was characterized by NMR, UV-visible, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The observed features were consistent with the existence of only one conformer, belonging to the CS symmetry group. A tentative assignment of the vibrational modes was performed on the basis of experimental spectra and quantum chemical calculations at different levels of theory (B3LYP and MP2 with 6-31+G(d), 6-311+G(d) and 6-311+G(df) basis sets). The conformational and vibrational properties of p-fluorosulfinylaniline were in good agreement with experimental data reported for other substituted sulfinylanilines and p-halogenanilines.

  18. Genetic aspects of reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Notter, D R

    2008-07-01

    Maintenance of high levels of realized fertility (defined as the percentage of ewes that lamb) and appropriate levels of fecundity are critical for efficient sheep production. The optimal level of fecundity in most situations is well below the maximum attainable level and can be targeted by combining selection among and within breeds with use of an expanding array of single-gene mutations affecting ovulation rate and litter size. The heritability of litter size is approximately 0.10, allowing changes of up to 2%/year from simple mass selection. Mutations in several genes associated with the transforming growth factor beta superfamily (BMPRIB, GDF9 and sex-linked BMP15) can increase ovulation rates by 0.7-1.5 ova in heterozygous ewes. However, ewes that are homozygous for BMP15 or GDF9 mutations are sterile, so use of these mutations requires carefully structured breeding programmes. Improvements in fertility may be critical for autumn lambing or programmes that aspire to lamb throughout the year. Selection to improve fertility in spring matings has been successful; selected adult ewes have lambing rates of 80-85% in October and early November. The selected ewes have a dramatically reduced seasonal anestrus, and many ewes continue to cycle during spring and summer. Major genes affecting seasonal breeding have not been identified in sheep. Polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor 1a gene appear to be associated with seasonal breeding in some, but not all breeds. However, functional genomic studies of genes associated with circadian and circannual rhythms have potential to reveal additional candidate genes involved in seasonal breeding.

  19. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-05-17

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect's life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb'Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb'jhamt In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb'Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb'Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb'jhamt Gb'Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb'myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb'jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb'myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb'myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5-8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development.

  20. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect’s life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb’Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb’jhamt. In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb’Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb’Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb’jhamt. Gb’Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb’myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb’jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb’myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb’myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5–8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development. PMID:27140602

  1. TP53inp1 Gene Is Implicated in Early Radiation Response in Human Fibroblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling-Tóth, Boglárka; Kis, Enikő; Fodor, Lili; Mucsányi, Fruzsina; Sáfrány, Géza; Hegyesi, Hargita

    2015-10-23

    Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein-1 (TP53inp1) is expressed by activation via p53 and p73. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of TP53inp1 in response of fibroblasts to ionizing radiation. γ-Ray radiation dose-dependently induces the expression of TP53inp1 in human immortalized fibroblast (F11hT) cells. Stable silencing of TP53inp1 was done via lentiviral transfection of shRNA in F11hT cells. After irradiation the clonogenic survival of TP53inp1 knockdown (F11hT-shTP) cells was compared to cells transfected with non-targeting (NT) shRNA. Radiation-induced senescence was measured by SA-β-Gal staining and autophagy was detected by Acridine Orange dye and microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3B) immunostaining. The expression of TP53inp1, GDF-15, and CDKN1A and alterations in radiation induced mitochondrial DNA deletions were evaluated by qPCR. TP53inp1 was required for radiation (IR) induced maximal elevation of CDKN1A and GDF-15 expressions. Mitochondrial DNA deletions were increased and autophagy was deregulated following irradiation in the absence of TP53inp1. Finally, we showed that silencing of TP53inp1 enhances the radiation sensitivity of fibroblast cells. These data suggest functional roles for TP53inp1 in radiation-induced autophagy and survival. Taken together, we suppose that silencing of TP53inp1 leads radiation induced autophagy impairment and induces accumulation of damaged mitochondria in primary human fibroblasts.

  2. Three dimensional in vitro culture of preantral follicles following slow-freezing and vitrification of mouse ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Fatemeh; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fatehi, Roya

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects slow-freezing and vitrification on three dimensional in vitro culture of preantral follicles, ovaries of 12-14 days old female NMRI mice were isolated and randomly assigned to fresh control, slow-freezing and vitrification groups. Slow-freezing was performed using programmable freezer. Vitrification was carried out in a medium consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) by needle immersion method. middle sized preantral follicles were mechanically isolated and cultured for 12 days in 0.7% sodium alginate gel. The follicles development and quantitative expression of oocyte specific genes (Bmp15, Gdf9, Fgf8) and the growth related genes (Igf1, Kit, Kit-l) were assessed after 1, 8 and 12 days of culture. Both cryopreserved groups showed reduction of follicular survival rates compared to the control group on days 8 and 12 of culture (P < 0.05). Antrum formation rates reduced in slow-freezing after 12 days of culture (P < 0.05). Evaluation of gene expression showed reduction of Bmp15, Gdf9, Fgf8, Kit and Kit-l during 12 days of culture (P < 0.05). Kit and Kit-l expression in slow-freezing group significantly reduced on day 8 of culture (p < 0.05). Igf1 expression was lower in slow-freezing group on 1st day of culture than vitrification and control groups (P < 0.05). Finally, intergroup comparison showed same expression pattern of genes after 12 days of culture. Thus, cryopreservation of mouse ovaries by both methods can preserve most developmental parameters and expression of maturation genes. However, vitrification is a better method for cryopreservation of mouse ovaries due to greater antrum formation and expression of growth related markers.

  3. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  4. 3D Osteoarthritic Changes in TMJ Condylar Morphology Correlates with Specific Systemic and Local Biomarkers of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Walker, David; Schilling, Juan; Sugai, James; Giannobile, William; Paniagua, Beatriz; Benavides, Erika; Zhu, Hongtu; Marron, J. Steve; Jung, Bryan T.; Baranowski, David; Rhodes, Jesse; Nackley, Andrea; Lim, Pei Feng; Ludlow, John B.; Nguyen, Tung; Goncalves, Joao R.; Wolford, Larry; Kapila, Sunil; Styner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess 3D morphological variations and local and systemic biomarker profiles in subjects with a diagnosis of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA). Design Twenty-eight patients with long-term TMJ OA (39.9 ± 16 years), 12 patients at initial diagnosis of OA (47.4 ± 16.1 years), and 12 healthy controls (41.8 ± 12.2 years) were recruited. All patients were female and had cone beam CT scans taken. TMJ arthrocentesis and venipuncture were performed on 12 OA and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Serum and synovial fluid levels of 50 biomarkers of arthritic inflammation were quantified by protein microarrays. Shape Analysis MANCOVA tested statistical correlations between biomarker levels and variations in condylar morphology. Results Compared with healthy controls, the OA average condyle was significantly smaller in all dimensions except its anterior surface, with areas indicative of bone resorption along the articular surface, particularly in the lateral pole. Synovial fluid levels of ANG, GDF15, TIMP-1, CXCL16, MMP-3 and MMP-7 were significantly correlated with bone apposition of the condylar anterior surface. Serum levels of ENA-78, MMP-3, PAI-1, VE-Cadherin, VEGF, GM-CSF, TGFβb1, IFNγg, TNFαa, IL-1αa, and IL-6 were significantly correlated with flattening of the lateral pole. Expression levels of ANG were significantly correlated with the articular morphology in healthy controls. Conclusions Bone resorption at the articular surface, particularly at the lateral pole was statistically significant at initial diagnosis of TMJ OA. Synovial fluid levels of ANG, GDF15, TIMP-1, CXCL16, MMP-3 and MMP-7 were correlated with bone apposition. Serum levels of ENA-78, MMP-3, PAI-1, VE-Cadherin, VEGF, GM-CSF, TGFβ1, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1α, and IL-6 were correlated with bone resorption. PMID:25278075

  5. The Infertility of Repeat-Breeder Cows During Summer Is Associated with Decreased Mitochondrial DNA and Increased Expression of Mitochondrial and Apoptotic Genes in Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto; Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-03-01

    Oocyte quality is known to be a major cause of infertility in repeat-breeder (RB) and heat-stressed dairy cows. However, the mechanisms by which RB oocytes become less capable of supporting embryo development remain largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the decreased oocyte competence of RB cows (RBs) during summer is associated with an altered gene expression profile and a decrease in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. Therefore, oocytes collected from heifers, non-RBs in peak lactation (PLs), and RBs were used to evaluate mtDNA amounts as well as the expression levels of genes associated with the mitochondria (MT-CO1, NRF1, POLG, POLG2, PPARGC1A, and TFAM), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2, and ITM2B), and oocyte maturation (BMP15, FGF8, FGF10, FGF16, FGF17, and GDF9). The oocytes retrieved from RBs during winter contained over eight times more mtDNA than those retrieved from RBs during summer. They also contained significantly less mtDNA than oocytes retrieved from heifers and PLs during summer. Moreover, the expression of mitochondria- (NRF1, POLG, POLG2, PPARGC1A, and TFAM) and apoptosis-related (BAX and ITM2B) genes, as well as of GDF9, in RB oocytes collected during summer was significantly greater than that in oocytes collected from heifers and PLs during the same season. In oocytes from heifers and PLs, the expression levels of these genes were lower in those collected during summer compared with winter, but this difference was not observed in oocytes collected from RBs. Altogether, these data provide evidence of altered gene expression and reduced mtDNA copy number in the oocytes collected from RBs during summer. This indicates a loss of fertility in RBs during summer, which might be caused by a possible mitochondrial dysfunction associated with a greater chance of oocytes to undergo apoptosis.

  6. Developmental competence and gene expression of immature oocytes following liquid helium vitrification in bovine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Yi; Li, Xiao-Xia; Xu, Ya-Kun; Wu, Hua; Zheng, Jun-Jun; Yu, Xue-Li

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an effective ultra-rapid vitrification method and evaluate its effect on maturation, developmental competence and development-related gene expression in bovine immature oocytes. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) controls, (2) liquid nitrogen vitrification, and (3) liquid helium vitrification. Oocytes were vitrified and then warmed, the percentage of morphologically normal oocytes in liquid helium group (89.0%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the liquid nitrogen group (81.1%). When the vitrified-thawed oocytes were matured in vitro for 24h, the maturation rate in liquid helium group (50.6%) was higher (P<0.05) than liquid nitrogen group (42.6%). Oocytes of liquid helium vitrification had higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (41.1% and 10.0%) than that of liquid nitrogen vitrification (33.0% and 4.5%; P<0.05) after in vitro fertilization. Moreover, the expression of GDF9 (growth/differentiation factor-9), BAX (apoptosis factor) and ZAR1 (zygote arrest 1) was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) when the vitrified-thawed oocytes were matured 24h. The expression of these genes was altered after vitrification. Expression of GDF9 and BAX in the liquid helium vitrification group was not significantly different from that of the control, however there were significant differences between the liquid nitrogen vitrification group and control. In conclusion, it was feasible to use liquid helium for vitrifying bovine immature oocytes. There existed an association between the compromised developmental competence and the altered expression levels of these genes for the vitrified oocytes.

  7. Stem cells derived from human first-trimester umbilical cord have the potential to differentiate into oocyte-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Lu, Hua; Cao, Sheng; Deng, Yan-Li; Li, Qi-Jia; Wan, Qian; Yie, Shang-Mian

    2015-05-01

    Compared to stem cells derived from human term umbilical cord, stem cells derived from human first-trimester umbilical cord (hFTUC) exhibit a significantly greater proliferative potential, and more efficiency in terms of their in vitro differentiation. In the present study, we investigated whether hFTUC-derived stem cells are able to differentiate into germ cells. The hFTUC-derived stem cells were first isolated, expanded and then cultured in differentiation medium containing human follicular fluid, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol for 24 days. During the period of induction, a subpopulation of the cultured cells appeared that had a morphological resemblance to primordial germ cells (PGCs) and cumulus-oocyte complex (COC)-like cells, and oocyte-like cells (OLCs). The PGC-like cells expressed specific markers indicative of germ cell formation such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1), B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp1), PR domain containing 14 (Prdm14), transcription factor AP-2 gamma (Tfap2C), VASA, STELLA, deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) and interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3). The OLCs, which contained a single germinal vesicle, expressed oocyte-specific markers, such as synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3), growth/differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), GDF9B and zona pellucida (ZP)1, ZP2 and ZP3. The COC-like cells secreted estradiol, vascular endothelial growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor. Thus, our findings suggest that hFTUC-derived stem cells have an intrinsic ability to differentiate into OLCs, which may provide an in vitro model for the identification of factors involved in germ cell formation and differentiation.

  8. Retinoic acid can induce mouse embryonic stem cell R1/E to differentiate toward female germ cells while oleanolic acid can induce R1/E to differentiate toward both types of germ cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qian; Lu, Hua; Wu, Lin-Tao; Liu, Xia; Xiang, Jun-Bei

    2014-12-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were studied about their potential to induce mouse embryonic stem cell R1/E (MESC-R1/E) to differentiate toward germ cells. Embryoid bodies (EBs) first formed from MESC-R1/E and EBs were allowed to attach to the bottoms of normal cell-culturing plate and grow. Then, different compounds including RA, OA and so on were respectively added to induce MESC-R1/E to differentiate. After 72 h, microscopy images were taken for all interventions, then total RNAs were extracted, cDNAs were synthesized and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect the transcriptional expression patterns of 11 reproductive-differentiation-related genes for different compounds respectively. During the data analysis, it was found RA significantly up-regulated the expression levels of GDF-9, Stra8, SCP3, Mvh, ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3, while significantly down-regulated the levels of Itag6 and Itgb1, and the level of Oct-4 was down-regulated insignificantly, while the level of TP2 was up-regulated insignificantly; OA significantly up-regulated the expression levels of Stra8, SCP3, Mvh, ZP1, ZP2, Itgb1, and TP2, and the levels of Oct-4, GDF-9, ZP3, and Itga6 were up-regulated insignificantly. The data showed that RA can induce MESC-R1/E to differentiate toward female germ cells while OA can induce MESC-R1/E to differentiate toward male and female germ cells.

  9. Activation of p53 by MEG3 non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhong, Ying; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Xun; Batista, Dalia L; Gejman, Roger; Ansell, Peter J; Zhao, Jing; Weng, Catherine; Klibanski, Anne

    2007-08-24

    MEG3 is a maternally expressed imprinted gene suggested to function as a non-coding RNA. Our previous studies suggest that MEG3 has a function of tumor suppression. The tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression and mediates the functions of many other tumor suppressors. Therefore, we hypothesized that MEG3 functions through activation of p53. We found that transfection of expression constructs for MEG3 and its isoforms results in a significant increase in p53 protein levels and dramatically stimulates p53-dependent transcription from a p53-responsive promoter. Using this as the functional assay, we demonstrated that the open reading frames encoded by MEG3 transcripts are not required for MEG3 function, and the folding of MEG3 RNA is critical to its function, supporting the concept that MEG3 functions as a non-coding RNA. We further found that MEG3 stimulates expression of the growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) by enhancing p53 binding to the GDF15 gene promoter. Interestingly, MEG3 does not stimulate p21(CIP1) expression, suggesting that MEG3 can regulate the specificity of p53 transcriptional activation. p53 degradation is mainly mediated by the mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2). We found that MDM2 levels were down-regulated in cells transfected with MEG3, suggesting that MDM2 suppression contributes at least in part to p53 accumulation induced by MEG3. Finally, we found that MEG3 is able to inhibit cell proliferation in the absence of p53. These data suggest that MEG3 non-coding RNA may function as a tumor suppressor, whose action is mediated by both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

  10. Evidence of the Generation of Isosaccharinic Acids and Their Subsequent Degradation by Local Microbial Consortia within Hyper-Alkaline Contaminated Soils, with Relevance to Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Garratt, Eva J.; Laws, Andrew P.; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration. PMID:25748643

  11. Indications of that migration of stem cells is influenced by the extra cellular matrix architecture in the mammalian intervertebral disk region.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, H Barreto; Papadimitriou, N; Tschernitz, S; Svala, E; Skioldebrand, E; Windahl, S; Junevik, K; Brisby, H

    2015-10-01

    Disk-degeneration is believed a major cause for lumbar pain. Previously, potential stem cell niches in the intervertebral disk (IVD) region, located adjacent to epiphyseal plate, was reported. The aim of the study was to examine migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture in a potential cellular migration route (CMR; area located between the niche and IVD) and in the IVD in non-degenerated lapine- and in human degenerated IVD tissues. Human MSCs (n=3), human degenerated IVD tissues (n=10) and lapine IVDs (n=10) were collected. The samples were examined by immunohistochemistry for stem cell markers; CD90, OCT3/4, pre-chondrocytic marker; GDF5, catabolic markers; MMP9, MMP13, inflammatory marker; IL1R, cellular migration markers; SNAI1, SNAI2, adhesion markers; β1-INTEGRIN and DDR2. In addition, gene-expression analyses (Real time PCR) were performed on additional samples. Further, time lapse studies were performed with hMSCs cultured on aligned COLL-I-fibers-coated glass-slides in DMEM-LG, 10% human serum containing fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Presence of stem cells (CD90+, OCT3/4+), pre-chondocytic cells (GDF5+) and cells positive for migration markers (SNAI1+, SNAI2+), catabolic markers (MMP9+, MMP13+), inflammatory marker (IL1R+), adhesion markers (DDR2+, B1-INTEGRIN+) were detected (gene- and protein level) in investigated CMR and IVD regions. In the time lapse studies, MSCs alignment and protrusions were observed orientated in the same direction as collagen fibers. Results display influence of ECM collagen architecture and collagen fiber spatial direction on migration of stem cells. The results can be useful when developing tissue-engineering strategies for disk-degeneration.

  12. Gene expression changes during HPV-mediated carcinogenesis: a comparison between an in vitro cell model and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang; Miao, Xijiang; Quraishi, Iram; Kennedy, Valerie; Creek, Kim E; Pirisi, Lucia

    2008-07-01

    We used oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes associated with multi-step human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-mediated carcinogenesis in vitro. Gene expression profiles in 4 early passage HPV16-immortalized human keratinocyte (HKc) lines derived from different donors were compared with their corresponding 4 late-passage, differentiation-resistant cell lines, and to 4 pools of normal HKc, each composed of 3 individual HKc strains, on Agilent 22 k human oligonucleotide microarrays. The resulting data were analyzed using a modified T-test coded in R to obtain lists of differentially expressed genes. Gene expression changes identified in this model system were then compared with gene expression changes described in published studies of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Common genes in these lists were further studied by cluster analysis. Genes whose expression changed in the same direction as in CIN or cervical cancer (concordant) at late stages of HPV16-mediated transformation in vitro formed one major cluster, while those that changed in the opposite direction (discordant) formed a second major cluster. Further annotation found that many discordant expression changes involved gene products with an extracellular localization. Two novel genes were selected for further study: overexpression of SIX1 and GDF15, observed during in vitro progression in our model system, was confirmed in tissue arrays of cervical cancer. These microarray-based studies show that our in vitro model system reflects many cellular and molecular alterations characteristic of cervical cancer, and identified SIX1 and GDF15 as 2 novel potential biomarkers of cervical cancer progression.

  13. Gene expression changes during HPV-mediated carcinogenesis: A comparison between an in vitro cell model and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Fang; Miao, Xijiang; Quraishi, Iram; Kennedy, Valerie; Creek, Kim E.; Pirisi, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    We used oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes associated with multi-step human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-mediated carcinogenesis in vitro. Gene expression profiles in 4 early passage HPV16-immortalized human keratinocyte (HKc) lines derived from different donors were compared with their corresponding 4 late-passage, differentiation-resistant cell lines, and to 4 pools of normal HKc, each composed of 3 individual HKc strains, on Agilent 22 k human oligonucleotide microarrays. The resulting data were analyzed using a modified T-test coded in R to obtain lists of differentially expressed genes. Gene expression changes identified in this model system were then compared with gene expression changes described in published studies of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Common genes in these lists were further studied by cluster analysis. Genes whose expression changed in the same direction as in CIN or cervical cancer (concordant) at late stages of HPV16-mediated transformation in vitro formed one major cluster, while those that changed in the opposite direction (discordant) formed a second major cluster. Further annotation found that many discordant expression changes involved gene products with an extracellular localization. Two novel genes were selected for further study: overexpression of SIX1 and GDF15, observed during in vitro progression in our model system, was confirmed in tissue arrays of cervical cancer. These micro-array-based studies show that our in vitro model system reflects many cellular and molecular alterations characteristic of cervical cancer, and identified SIX1 and GDF15 as 2 novel potential bio-markers of cervical cancer progression. PMID:18398830

  14. Clinical Utility of Molecular Biomarkers in Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in a Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Spiryda, Lisa Beth; Whitaker, Kara M.; Messersmith, Amy; Banister, Carolyn E.; Creek, Kim E.; Pirisi-Creek, Lucia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL/CIN) and cancer to develop, exposure to HPV is not predictive of which women will develop cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer. This study examines mRNA expression of several potential biomarkers in exfoliated cervical cells collected from college age women. Methods Freshman female students were recruited into the Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS) which was designed to prospectively evaluate factors that contribute to persistent HPV infections. One component of this study was to extract mRNA from exfoliated cervical cells. In this study, mRNA expression of FZD, GDF15, IL1β and N-cadherin was assessed through real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed with a Student’s t-test; all results were standardized with GAPDH. Results Fifty samples were selected that reflected the demographics of the CWCS participants. IL1β mRNA expression was 9.4-fold higher in cervical cells from women with abnormal Pap tests (p=0.0018); LSIL had 12.7-fold higher expression than negatives (p=0.0011). FZD mRNA expression was 5.7-fold higher in CIN2 as compared to CIN1 (p=0.0041) and 8.5-fold higher compared to cytology/pathology-negative (p=0.0014). Other differences in mRNA expression showed trends but not reaching statistical significance for each condition. Conclusions It appears that several biomarkers involved in the cytokine/inflammatory pathway (IL1 β), cell adhesion pathway (N-cadherin), growth factors (GDF-15), WNT signaling pathway (FZD) may be potential biomarkers in conjunction with the Pap test and HPV that help predict which women are at highest risk for developing CIN3 and cervical cancer. PMID:26579841

  15. Evasion of anti-growth signaling: a key step in tumorigenesis and potential target for treatment and prophylaxis by natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Karpowicz, Phillip A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Arbiser, Jack; Nahta, Rita; Chen, Zhuo G.; Dong, Jin-Tang; Kucuk, Omer; Khan, Gazala N.; Huang, Gloria S.; Mi, Shijun; Lee, Ho-Young; Reichrath, Joerg; Honoki, Kanya; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S.; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Azmi, Asfar S.; Keith, W Nicol; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Fujii, Hiromasa; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S. Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan; Bilsland, Alan; Shin, Dong M.

    2015-01-01

    The evasion of anti-growth signaling is an important characteristic of cancer cells. In order to continue to proliferate, cancer cells must somehow uncouple themselves from the many signals that exist to slow down cell growth. Here, we define the anti-growth signaling process, and review several important pathways involved in growth signaling: p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), retinoblastoma protein (Rb), Hippo, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A), Notch, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) pathways. Aberrations in these processes in cancer cells involve mutations and thus the suppression of genes that prevent growth, as well as mutation and activation of genes involved in driving cell growth. Using these pathways as examples, we prioritize molecular targets that might be leveraged to promote anti-growth signaling in cancer cells. Interestingly, naturally-occurring phytochemicals found in human diets (either singly or as mixtures) may promote anti-growth signaling, and do so without the potentially adverse effects associated with synthetic chemicals. We review examples of naturally-occurring phytochemicals that may be applied to prevent cancer by antagonizing growth signaling, and propose one phytochemical for each pathway. These are: epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for the Rb pathway, luteolin for p53, curcumin for PTEN, porphyrins for Hippo, genistein for GDF15, resveratrol for ARID1A, withaferin A for Notch and diguelin for the IGF1-receptor pathway. The coordination of anti-growth signaling and natural compound studies will provide insight into the future application of these compounds in the clinical setting. PMID:25749195

  16. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  17. Altered Cytokine Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Monocytes across the Menstrual Cycle in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongyue; Hong, Min; Duan, Jinao; Liu, Pei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase), and the first (menstrual phase) and the fifth (regenerative phase) days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased), 14 (five increased and nine decreased), and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased) genes with ≥2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05) in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8) were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN) were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23390521

  18. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Presslauer, Christopher; Nagasawa, Kazue; Dahle, Dalia; Babiak, Joanna; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Babiak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf), growth differentiation factor (Gdf9), and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75), all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329) were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik) pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a straightforward potential

  19. Panel of three novel serum markers predicts liver stiffness and fibrosis stages in patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Zimmermann, Simone; Hess, Georg; Holz, Robert; Dauer, Marc; Raedle, Jochen; Lammert, Frank; Grünhage, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Latest data suggest that placental growth factor (PLGF), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and hepatic growth factor (HGF) are involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Diagnostic performance of these markers for non-invasive liver fibrosis prediction was evaluated based on liver histology and stiffness. In total 834 patients were recruited. Receiver-operating-characteristics were used to define cut-offs for markers correlating to fibrosis stages. Odds-ratios were calculated for the presence/absence of fibrosis/cirrhosis and confirmed in the sub-group of patients phenotyped by elastography only. Logistic and uni- and multivariate regression analyses were used to test for association of markers with liver fibrosis stages and for independent prediction of liver histology and stiffness. Marker concentrations correlated significantly (P<0.001) with histology and stiffness. Cut-offs for liver fibrosis (≥F2) were PLGF = 20.20 pg/ml, GDF15 = 1582.76 pg/ml and HGF = 2598.00 pg/ml. Logistic regression confirmed an increase of ORs from 3.6 over 33.0 to 108.4 with incremental (1–3) markers positive for increased liver stiffness (≥12.8kPa; all P<0.05). Subgroup analysis revealed associations with advanced fibrosis for HCV (three markers positive: OR = 59.9, CI 23.4–153.4, P<0.001) and non-HCV patients (three markers positive: OR = 144, CI 59–3383, P<0.001). Overall, serum markers identified additional 50% of patients at risk for advanced fibrosis presenting with low elastography results. In conclusion, this novel combination of markers reflects the presence of significant liver fibrosis detected by elastography and histology and may also identify patients at risk presenting with low elastography values. PMID:28301573

  20. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns

  1. Regional consequences of a biotic interchange: insights from the Lessepsian invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrot, Rafal; Albano, Paolo G.; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The fossil record provides ample evidence of large-scale biotic interchanges and their pervasive effects on regional biotas, but mechanisms controlling such events are difficult to decipher in deep time. Massive invasion of Indo-Pacific species into the Mediterranean Sea triggered by the opening of the Suez Canal offers a unique opportunity to examine the ecological consequences of breaking down biogeographic barriers. We developed an extensive database of taxonomic composition, body size and ecological characteristics of the Red Sea and Mediterranean bivalve fauna in order to link biotic selectivity of the invasion process with its effects on the recipient biota. Shallow-water occurrence and presence outside the tropical zone in other regions are the strongest predictors of the successful transition through the Suez Canal. Subsequent establishment of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea correlates with early arrival and preference for hard substrates. Finally, large-bodied species and hard-bottom dwellers are over-represented among the invasive aliens that have reached the spread stage and impose a strong impact on native communities. Although body size is important only at the last invasion stage, alien species are significantly larger compared to native Mediterranean bivalves. This reflects biogeographic difference in the body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools related to the recent geological history of the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to the general expectations on the effects of temperature on average body size, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea accelerates the entry of tropical aliens and thus indirectly leads to increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in local communities and the regional biota. Invasion-driven shifts in species composition are stronger in hard-substrate communities, which host a smaller pool of incumbent species and are more susceptible to the establishment of newcomers. Analogous differences

  2. Spatial and Temporal Strain Distribution Along the Central Red Sea Rift - A Study of the Hamd-Jizil Basin in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D.; Johnson, P.; Kattan, F. H.; Al Shamari, A.

    2006-12-01

    Numerous models exploring the rupturing modes and mechanisms of continental lithosphere are based on geological evidence from the Red Sea/Gulf of Suez rift system. Individually, the Red Sea basin is the prototype for many models of orthogonal continental rifting. Despite being a classic example of continental extension, many temporal and spatial strain distribution aspects, as well as the dynamic evolution of the rift architecture of the Red Sea, remain poorly constrained. Critical data come mostly from the Gulf of Suez and the Egyptian and Yemeni margins of the Red Sea; the rift flanks in Sudan and Saudi Arabia have remained largely unstudied, leaving a large information gap along the central portions of the rift system. Improving continental lithosphere rupture models requires an absolute understanding of the timing and magnitude of strain partitioning along the full rift flank. This study focuses on the development of extensional structures, syn- extensional sedimentary deposits, and rift-related Tertiary basaltic volcanism along the central flank of the rift system in Saudi Arabia. Geo- and thermochronometric techniques are used to elucidate the evolution of inboard and outboard strain markers manifested by structurally-controlled extensional basins that parallel the trend of the main Red Sea rift. Constraints on the dynamics of rift flank deformation are achieved through the collection of thermochronometric transects that traverse both the entire Arabian shield and individual normal faults that bound inland basins. Preliminary results show inland basins as asymmetric half-grabens filled by tilted Cenozoic sedimentary strata and separated by exhumed basement fault blocks. The most prominent extensional basin is the NW-trending Hamd-Jizil basin, located north of Madinah, measuring ~200 km along strike and up to 20 km in width. The Hamd-Jizil basin is structurally characterized by two half-grabens exposing a series of syn-rift siliciclastic sedimentary sections

  3. [Migrations and economic and social change in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ged, A

    1985-01-01

    The inexistence in the Arab world of institutions to facilitate development led Egypt to adopt the infitah, a policy of economic opening which is not a voluntarist economic strategy but rather is intended to create a climate favorable to a more capitalistic orientation for individuals with access to petroleum income. Egypt's gross national product grew by 4.6%/year in the dozen years through 1965, but thereafter growth was sluggish or even negative. After 1967 the choices of the dominant economic classes were oriented toward liberalism, and the arrival of Sadat allowed this orientation to prevail even before the infitah. The various measures of the infitah were designed to promote investment, reactivate the private sector, and reorganize the public sector. Most of the specific projects approved through 1978 were in the tertiary sector, they did little to stimulate further development, and the total number of jobs created was relatively insignificant. The transformation of the Egyptian economy is due not so much to the infitah as to 4 other elements: oil, income from the Suez canal, tourism, and emigration. At present petroleum represents 30% of Egypt's exports, the Suez canal will probably bring in $1.5 billion annually in coming years, and tourism brought in $1 billion in 1984, but in terms of economic and social impact on the total population emigration is much more important. The number of emigrants increased from 100,000 in 1973 to over 3 million in 1984 and the extent of their remittances increased from $184 million in 1973 to nearly $4 billion at present. Serious shortages of skilled and unskilled labor have been created by the departure of 10-15% of the overall labor force and a higher proportion for some skilled professions. The number of workers in construction more than doubled from 1971-79, while 10% of the agricultural labor force departed. Agricultural wages increased by an average of 7.1% in these years as agricultural workers were attracted to the

  4. Statistics of Wind over the Red Sea with Application to the Exodus Question.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, Doron; Paldor, Nathan

    1994-08-01

    This paper supplements an earlier article by Nof and Paldor that offered a possible explanation for the biblical crossing of the Red Sea in terms of natural phenomena. In that article, it was suggested that sustained winds (of 20 m s1) could have caused a receding of the shoreline (of the Gulf of Suez) of more than a kilometer from its original prewind position. Such a wind would also be associated with a sea level drop of more than 2.5 m that would expose a swath of Red Sea bottom and make a crossing possible. The present article puts this nonlinear theory on firmer ground by providing a statistical analysis of the actual wind pattern in the area.The authors used the Weibull distribution, the known duration of typical storms in the area, and direct measurements in the region. On the basis of the Weibull distribution applied to winds in the part of the Indian Ocean adjacent to the Red Sea, it is argued that the likelihood of a storm sustaining winds of 20 m s1 and lasting, as required, for the entire night is roughly once every 2000 years. Direct measurements along the Gulf of Suez suggest, on the other hand, a somewhat lower probability—once every 2400 years or so. When the application of the direct measurement calculation is restricted to a specific time of the year, such as the spring, when the crossing presumably occurred and when the area is usually more stormy than the rest of the year, the likelihood of the event increases to once every 1400 years. However, the relatively high likelihood associated with the last calculation is at least partially a result of the fact that one of the stations was situated in the mountains a few hundred meters above sea level. When this station is excluded from the computation, the likelihood of the storm occurring in April decreases to once every 2400 years.Given the sensitivity of the above predictions to the distribution of the measured values and the fact that both the Weibull distribution method and the direct

  5. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  6. Plio-Pleistocene extinctions and immigration credit reflected in the size-frequency distribution of Mediterranean marine bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrot, Rafal; Zuschin, Martin; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya

    2015-04-01

    Following the opening of the Suez Canal hundreds of Red Sea species have entered the Mediterranean Sea making it a global hot spot of marine bioinvasion. With the ongoing influx of the subtropical and tropical alien species and increasing sea surface temperatures, the Mediterranean biota is currently gaining a more tropical character and increasingly becoming a mixture of faunal stocks with different evolutionary histories. This susceptibility to invasion was suggested to reflect the presence of an empty ecological space left after decimation of incumbent warm-water fauna during Plio-Pleistocene climate fluctuations. As molluscs are among the most prolific immigrants, we test this hypothesis using data on taxonomic composition and body size of Pliocene Mediterranean bivalves derived from the literature sources and museum collections. The Pliocene inter-specific size-frequency distribution (SFD) is strikingly similar to the SFDs of the Recent Red Sea bivalve fauna, in spite of different biogeographic provenance and the absence of true reef ecosystems in the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region. In contrast, body-size patterns in both assemblages are significantly different from the present-day Mediterranean fauna characterized by smaller median and modal size. Our preliminary results suggest that the distinct shape of the modern Mediterranean SFD may reflect the selective nature of the late Piacenzian - Galesian (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene) extinctions pulses related to the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciations. These extinctions affected almost 40% of Pliocene species and were biased towards large-bodied taxa. They were not followed by re-immigration of warm-water species owing to the isolation from the tropical Atlantic biota by the cold upwelling along the NW coasts of Africa. The resulting invasion credit (sensu Jackson & Sax, 2010) is currently being paid by the Red Sea bivalves colonizing the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. Successful

  7. A major Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous (Hercynian) Thermotectonic event at the NW Margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Evidence from zircon fission track dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, B. P.; Eyal, M.; Feinstein, S.

    1992-10-01

    Zircon fission track (ZFT) ages of 17 Precambrian samples from deep boreholes and outcrops in southern Israel and Sinai fall within the range 328-373 Ma (Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous). Single zircon grain age distributions are unimodal with a high chi-square probability. The age data indicate total resetting of the ZFT clocks but only partial resetting of coexisting sphenes, constraining the temperatures attained to about 225° ± 50°C, followed by relatively rapid regional cooling at the times indicated. In the study area, the lower Paleozoic section presently overlying Precambrian rocks is limited to Cambrian strata, up to 300 m thick. Further, stratigraphic evidence for sub-Carboniferous erosion is preserved only in SW Sinai. To the east, in southern Jordan, a 2-2.5 km thick lower Paleozoic succession is reported. Despite the lack of stratigraphic evidence in the study area, the ZFT data (1) strongly suggest that an equivalent or thicker section also existed, (2) constrain the timing of the erosion to Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous (Hercynian), and (3) indicate that thermal gradients may have reached ≥50°C/km prior to the uplift/erosion event. Regional stratigraphic evidence indicates that the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous event was confined to a relatively narrow belt extending from the Gulf of Suez area to the vicinity of NE Syria and SE Turkey.

  8. Population genetics of coagulant factor IX: frequencies of two DNA polymorphisms in five ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, D B; Lord, S T; Bosco, J; Kirshtein, J; Jeffries, O J; Parker, N; Levtzow, C; Silverman, L M; Graham, J B

    1987-01-01

    Two frequently used restriction-enzyme polymorphisms (RFLPs) of coagulant F.IX, TaqI and XmnI, have been examined in five ethnic groups: white Americans, black Americans, East Indians, Chinese, and Malays. There is a distinct "cline" in the frequencies of both polymorphisms, from white Americans to Malays. The rarer type 2 alleles of both polymorphisms, in which middle recognition sites are present--and which in our sample reach their highest frequencies in white Americans--are marginally higher in four groups of Europeans previously reported by others. The frequencies of the rarer alleles are significantly higher in Europeans than in black Americans and East Indians, and these alleles are essentially absent in Chinese and Malays. The frequency of heterozygosity diminishes in the same order, being zero in Malays for both polymorphisms. The polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium, and in all groups the type 1 allele for TaqI is disproportionately accompanied by the type 1 allele for XmnI. The paucity of type 2 alleles and the low rate of heterozygosity in four non-European groups suggest that the polymorphisms will be of little diagnostic value south of Gibraltar and east of Suez. This prediction is confirmed by the observed haplotype frequencies in the black American and the Oriental groups. PMID:2884869

  9. Effectiveness of environmental-based educative program for disaster preparedness and burn management.

    PubMed

    Moghazy, Amr; Abdelrahman, Amira; Fahim, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Preparedness is a necessity for proper handling of emergencies and disaster, particularly in Suez Canal and Sinai regions. To assure best success rates, educative programs should be environmentally based. Burn and fire preventive educative programs were tailored to adapt social and education levels of audience. In addition, common etiologies and applicability of preventive measures, according to local resources and logistics, were considered. Presentations were the main educative tool; they were made as simple as possible to assure best understanding. To assure continuous education, brochures and stickers, containing most popular mistakes and questions, were distributed after the sessions. Audience was classified according to their level of knowledge to health professional group; students groups; high-risk group; and lay people group. For course efficacy evaluation, pre- and posttests were used immediately before and after the sessions. Right answers in both tests were compared for statistical significance. Results showed significant acquisition of proper attitude and knowledge in all educated groups. The highest was among students and the least was in health professionals. Comprehensive simple environmental-based educative programs are ideal for rapid reform and community mobilization in our region. Activities should include direct contact, stickers and flyers, and audiovisual tools if possible.

  10. North African geology: exploration matrix for potential major hydrocarbon discoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Kanes, W.H.; O'Connor, T.E.

    1985-02-01

    Based on results and models presented previously, it is possible to consider an exploration matrix that examines the 5 basic exploration parameters: source, reservoir, timing, structure, and seal. This matrix indicates that even those basins that have had marginal exploration successes, including the Paleozoic megabasin and downfaulted Triassic grabens of Morocco, the Cyrenaican platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf, have untested plays. The exploration matrix also suggests these high-risk areas could change significantly, if one of the 5 basic matrix parameters is upgraded or if adjustments in political or financial risk are made. The Sirte basin and the Gulf of Suez, 2 of the more intensely explored areas, also present attractive matrix prospects, particularly with deeper Nubian beds or with the very shallow Tertiary sections. The Ghadames basin of Libya and Tunisia shows some potential, but its evaluation responds strongly to stratigraphic and external nongeologic matrix variations based on degree of risk exposure to be assumed. Of greatest risk in the matrix are the very deep Moroccan Paleozoic clastic plays and the Jurassic of Sinai. However, recent discoveries may upgrade these untested frontier areas. Based on the matrix generated by the data presented at a North African Petroleum Geology symposium, significant hydrocarbon accumulations are yet to be found. The remaining questions are: where in the matrix does each individual company wish to place its exploration capital and how much should be the risk exposure.

  11. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  12. Organochlorine contamination in some marketable fish in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

    2004-03-01

    Ten organochlorine compounds were analyzed in four species of fish (Bouri Mugil spp., Denis Sparus auratus, Moza Boops boops and Mousa Pegusa lascaris), from four Egyptian governorates (South Sinai, Suez, Port-Said and Demietta). Although all fish studied are bottom or near-bottom feeders, remarkable variations between studied species were noticed. The grand total values recorded at the studied governorates were in descending order: Bouri>Denis>Moza>Mousa. The highest concentration of pesticides was recorded in Demietta governorate fish (20-211 ng/g of wet weight) and the p,p'-DDE dominated over the other p,p'-isomers in all studied fish, while dieldrin was the dominated in the studied cyclodiene compounds. However, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) occurred at all studied governorate fish except Mousa fish from South Sinai. Toxaphene was detected only in fish (Bouri, Denis, and Mousa) from Demietta governorate. Chlordane was not detected in any studied fish. The level of organochlorine pesticides contamination in fish from the studied governorates is relatively low and should not pose a health risk to consumers.

  13. Impact of wastewater reuse on cobalt status in Egyptian environment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sabour, M F

    2003-05-01

    Cobalt is used in the manufacture of alloys, catalysts in the petroleum industry, catalytic converters, and paint pigments. Thus the potential for Co releases into the environment is highly increased. Use of waste sludges and sewage effluent to fertilize and irrigate soils has also increased soil Co concentrations. Total cobalt contents of alluvial delta soil of Egypt show considerable variation ranging from 13.1 to 64.7 ppm. The impact of either wastewater irrigation or industrial activities on soil total Co was obvious due to accumulation of organic matter and solid waste in the surface soil samples. Food crops and vegetables should not be grown on soil highly contaminated by Co. It is noteworthy that the delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) technique could be used successfully for total Co determination due to its high sensitivity. It is quit clearly that dust samples of Cairo City contains higher Co level, as compared to Suez Canal Region (Ismailia, Port Said an El-Sues cities). The high values in Cairo City may be due to the existence of industries around the city and the intensive traffic. To minimize Co environmental hazards, waste effluents should be treated on site. Thus, levels of potentially toxic Co needs to be continuously monitored and should be removed during several treatment processes before the disposal of these wastes.

  14. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii infection among rodents and dogs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A K; Botros, B A; Ksiazek, T G; Hoogstraal, H; Helmy, I; Morrill, J C

    1989-10-01

    A serological survey of 1813 rodent and 549 dog sera, collected from 1979 to 1986 from animals in 16 Egyptian Governorates were tested for antibody to Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia conorii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Only three of 82 (4%) sera from Rattus rattus collected near Aswan had antibody to R. conorii. The prevalence of R. typhi antibody in dog sera was only 0.4% (n = 549) while 25% (n = 547) of Rattus norvegicus and 11% (n = 1138) of R. rattus had measurable antibodies. Among the other rodents, antibody was demonstrated in only 2% (n = 45) of Arvicanthis spp., and 1% (n = 83) of Acomys spp. Collectively, rodents captured in the Nile Delta had a higher prevalence (mean 24% (n = 787] than those captured in the Nile Valley (mean 4% (n = 650]. Antibody to R. typhi was detected in rodents collected in all port cities: ismailiya, 13%; Port Said, 9%; Suez, 9%; Safaga, 16%; Quseir, 32% and Alexandria, 34%. These data showed evidence of R. typhi infection among rodents in widespread geographic localities of Egypt and suggested that infected rodents may be a source of human infections.

  15. Survey of residues of organochlorine pesticides in some marketable Egyptian fish.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, M A; Hassan, I M; Naguib, M M; Abodonia, M A

    1990-01-01

    One hundred random samples representing 34 species of marketable fish were collected from 8 Egyptian governorates during the period March 1986 to March 1988 and were analyzed for the presence of some organochlorine pesticides. The results showed the predominance of beta-BHC and lindane at maximum levels of 435.30 and 59.00 micrograms/kg, respectively, for fish samples obtained from Damietta governorate. The corresponding levels of aldrin, and o,p'-DDT were 34.27 and 734.10 micrograms/kg, respectively, for fish from the Red Sea governorate. gamma-Chlordane, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT were found in fish from Ismailia governorate at respective maximum levels of 36.17, 234.40, and 57.19 microgram/kg. Heptachlor was identified at 8.50 micrograms/kg in Port Said governorate fish and o,p'-DDE at 10.59 micrograms/kg in Suez governorate fish. Mirex, on the other hand, could not be detected in any of the samples investigated.

  16. RT-PCR and cell culture infectivity assay to detect enteroviruses during drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; El-Esnawy, N A; Shoaeb, A R; Ibraheim, M; El-Hawaary, S E

    1999-01-01

    In this study, 62 water samples were collected from two water treatment plants (WTPs) in Suez Canal cities (Port Said and Ismaillia) and one plant in Cairo (Giza WTP) in addition to the beginning of the two Nile river branches (Rosetta and Damietta). Viruses were concentrated by adsorption-elution ethod sing 142 mm-diameter nitrocellulose membrane of 0.45 microm pore size and eluted with 3% beef extract at pH 9.5. The concentrated samples were inoculated for 3 successive passages in three cell culture types (Vero, BGM and RD). Enterovirus RNAs in CPE-induced samples were extracted by guanidinium thiocyanate/ phenol/chloroform and heat shock methods and detected by RT-PCR and neutralization test. The results showed that eight samples [14.5% (8/62)] contained enteroviruses most of them were polioviruses [87.5% (7/8)] and coxsackievirus type B2 [12.5% (1/8)]. The three cell cultures were of the same sensitivity to detect the isolated viruses. Also, RT-PCR followed by neutralization assay facilitates and accelerate the results. The guanidinium thiocyanate extraction method was more sensitive than heat shock method. The results turned our attention to review our technology of water treatment and disinfection step in addition to the selection of suitable intake for the drinking water treatment plants.

  17. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radiospectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations.

    PubMed

    El-Sadek, Mohamed A

    2002-07-01

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area. North-eastern Desert, Egypt.

  18. Holocene evolution of the northeastern corner of the Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneh, A.; Weissbrod, T.; Ehrlich, A.; Horowitz, A.; Moshkovitz, S.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1986-09-01

    The constructive phase of the modern Nile Delta, as manifested in a 48-m section drilled east of the Suez Canal, commenced in very early Holocene times. Sands rich in marine fauna were deposited in the littoral zone and the shoreline was more than 20 km landward of its present-day position. Subsequently, clays and silts were dumped from the Nile distributaries and the marine faunal spectrum became very limited and brackish. Later in early and middle Holocene times the sediments deposited were rich in freshwater, delta-plain diatoms and pollen and in allochthonous fern spores from the tropics, indicating proximity of a distributary mouth. The middle part of the section (22.5-17.5 m) is very poor in faunal and floral remains; pollen grains from sabkha vegetation are abundant. The environment, which seems lagoonal and slightly hypersaline, is related to the sea regression in middle Holocene times. Euryhaline pelecypods, dating from about 3000 yr B.P., are abundant around the 8-m depth. Upward, there is an increase in pollen grains from sabkhas; the section is poor in diatoms and those present are mostly euryhaline and lagoonal. Allochthonous spores derived from the nearby Pelusiac Branch are abundant. Between 3000 and 2000 yr B.P. the constructive phase of the modern delta terminated and winnowed sands began accreting in front of the delta plain.

  19. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered by this paper amounted to 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1983, an 11% decrease from the 2,044,851 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1982. This decrease is mostly due to relinquishments in Sudan. Onshore seismic activity decreased in all countries except Sudan, where it slightly increased. Marine seismic activity increased by 85%, mostly due to significant efforts in Morocco and Egypt. Exploration drilling activity increased with 179 wildcats completed in 1983 compared to 166 in 1982. The success rate was 44.7% compared to 36% in 1982. No discoveries were made in Morocco. No new hydrocarbon province was discovered in 1983. Development drilling sharply increased in Egypt and remained at about the same levels in the other countries as in 1982. In Sudan, Chevron started in late September the first development drilling operations in Unity field. Oil production, with a daily average of 2,872,000 bbl, was at the same level as in 1982. In Egypt, 7 new fields went on-stream in the Gulf of Suez, 2 in the Western Desert, and 1 in the Eastern Desert. One field was put on-stream in Libya and 4 in Tunisia. Utilized gas production probably remained at the same level as in 1982 (2000 mmcf/day). 9 figures, 28 tables.

  20. Sudanese Gulf of Aden petroleum geology and regional geophysical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, E.; Rahman, B.A.; Abdella, H.E.M.; Ali, A.O. )

    1991-08-01

    The World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project was organized to synthesize data on the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins. The primary objectives were to encourage increased hydrocarbon exploration activity within the project area by applying recent exploration techniques basin wide, and to train national geoscientists in exploration techniques. The study of the Sudanese Red Sea was based on public-domain exploration data, published information, and data released by operating companies. The results show that the Sudanese, Red Sea is similar to the better known, productive Gulf of Suez. In many respects, including the overall tectonic evolution, the structural style,a nd Miocene-to-Holocene stratigraphic sequence. A major difference involves the development of thick depocenters of Pliocene-Holocene super-evaporite sediments, in part controlled by offsets in the topographic rift shoulder of the basin, which result in large paleodrainage basins that supplied sediment to the basin. The sediments in these depocenters are thick enough, and geothermal gradients sufficiently high, to suggest the possibility of significant hydrocarbon generation in the depocenters. This is supported by important super-evaporite hydrocarbon shows in the Tokar Delta area of southern Sudanese Red Sea. Outside of the Pliocene-Holocene depocenters, conditions appear favorable for an attractive hydrocarbon potential in subevaporite units.

  1. Arterial reconstruction after mangled extremity: injury severity scoring systems are not predictive of limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Elsharawy, Mohamed Amin

    2005-01-01

    The Vascular Unit at Suez Canal University Hospital in Egypt covers a wide area with high rates of severe injuries. This is a prospective study of mangled extremities to identify risk factors associated with limb loss in these patients. Between December 2000 and August 2003, a prospective study on all patients with arterial injuries in mangled extremities was undertaken. All patients were scored using the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) and the Mangled Extremity Severity Index (MESI). During this period, arterial reconstruction was performed in 62 patients. Primary patency, secondary patency, and limb salvage rates were 81%, 85.5%, and 93.5%, respectively. The only factor affecting limb salvage (statistical trend) was the site of trauma (upper limb 100% vs lower limb 89%; p = .08%). There was no significant effect related to the mechanism of trauma (blunt 90% vs stab 100%; p = .125), MESS (< 7, 100% vs > 7, 91%; p = .22), and MESI (< 20, 100% vs > 20, 90.5%; p = .154). Upper limb injuries were the least likely to lead to amputation. We recommend that all injuries, whatever their score, should be surgically explored before treatment decisions are made.

  2. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global shipping. This is the first stage of the invasion process where it is still possible to intervene with regulating measures. We compile a selection of widely used and newly developed network properties and apply these to analyse the structure and spread characteristics of the directed and weighted global cargo ship network (GCSN). Our results reveal that the GCSN is highly efficient, shows small world characteristics and is positive assortative, indicating that quick spread of invasive organisms between ports is likely. The GCSN shows strong community structure and contains two large communities, the Atlantic and Pacific trading groups. Ports that appear as connector hubs and are of high centralities are the Suez and Panama Canal, Singapore and Shanghai. Furthermore, from robustness analyses and the network's percolation behaviour, we evaluate differences of onboard and in-port ballast water treatment, set them into context with previous studies and advise bioinvasion management strategies.

  3. Evaluation of the pollution load discharged at an upstream industry--Egypt--and methods for its reduction.

    PubMed

    El-Dars, F M S E; Mohammed, H A; Farag, A B

    2011-01-01

    Oil exploration in Egypt is a major contributor to the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). With 50-65% of the oil resources located in the Gulf of Suez (GoS) region, the impact of such activity upon the region's water environment and its quality cannot be overlooked because of the volume of effluent generated. The objective of this study (September 2000-September 2001) was to assess the impact of a 650,000 barrels/day (bl/d) (100,000 m3/d) effluent arising from a major oil exploration site located south of GoS upon the local water environment. Another objective was to identify the pollutant contents amenable for reduction relative to the new Egyptian regulations. This was achieved by the characterization of the main contributing streams and the identification of the final effluent parameter constraints relative to the type of injection waters used. Subsequent investigations for the reduction of these contents were conducted on site and the results obtained are reviewed herewith.

  4. Depositional environments and sequence architecture of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), west central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Tarek I.; El-Shahat, Adam; Genedi, Adel; Grammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Cenomanian-Turonian deposits are important reservoirs for many oil fields in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez region of Egypt. Study of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), from five dip-oriented outcrop locations in west central Sinai; indicates deposition of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The inner ramp facies (bivalve and benthonic foraminiferal wackestone) grades northward to the mid ramp facies (echinoderm calcisphere packstone, and oyster floatstone), and outer ramp facies (planktonic foraminiferal wackestone and calcisphere wackestone). The two studied formations comprise one second-order depositional sequence (duration of approximately 10 Million years). This large scale sequence includes four third-order depositional sequences, three of which are observed in the Raha Formation, with the other one recorded in the Abu Qada Formation. Because west central Sinai was tectonically stable during the Cenomanian and Turonian, the main factor controlling the lateral and vertical distribution of facies tracts is likely due to changes in the relative sea level. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event is known as the largest oceanic anoxic event during the Cretaceous. This global event has been documented in three of the studied sections. The recorded δ13C excursions range from +3.04‰ to +5.24‰. These high positive excursions in δ13C are associated with highly negative values of δ18O (values range from -6.01‰ to -1.38‰).

  5. Late Tertiary faulting along the coastal plain of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, J.; Gvirtzman, Z.; Gvirtzman, H.; Ben-Gai, Y.

    2008-08-01

    This study documents a 70-km long and 200-400 m high step at the base of the Pliocene section in the Israeli coastal plain. Depositional explanations for this lineament, such as a buried shelf edge or reef front, are very unlikely; whereas a fault scarp explanation is supported by seismic profiles and geological cross sections. The eastern elevated side of the fault was eroded before its burial, though a quantitive distinction between this erosion, earlier truncations, and original hiatuses, is not possible at this stage. Sediments covering the fault scarp constrain its age to Late Miocene and/or Early Pliocene. The presence of such a fault along the Israeli coastal plain may also shed light on numerous post-Mid-Cretaceous faults previously documented along the coastal plain, but never explained. In a wider perspective, the fault described here along with other documented processes indicate that in the Late Tertiary tectonism along the Levant continental margin resumed after a long passive history. This renewed activity is coeval with the Africa-Arabian breakup and the Red Sea- Suez rifting. In particular, the fault described here is coeval with plate reorganization and vertical motions along the Dead Sea transform and possibly along the Cypriot Arc during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene.

  6. Diagenetic control of reservoir quality of Araba and Naqua diagenetic quartzarenites (Cambrian), Gebel Araba-Qabeliat, Southwest Sinai, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Wahab, A. ); Mcbride, E.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Sandstones of the marine Lower Cambrian Araba Formation and the overlying fluvial Upper Cambrian( ) Naqus Formation in Gebel Araba-Qabeliat, southwest Sinai (the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez) were studied to evaluate the major factors controlling potential hydrocarbon reservoir quality. The formations have a composite thickness of 873 m and overlie Precambrian granite and metamorphic rocks and underlie Cretaceous marine strata. The framework composition of both sandstones is almost entirely quartz with trace amounts of muscovite, K-feldspar, and heavy minerals. Up to 21.5% oversize pores, some filled with younger cements, attest to extensive dissolution loss of detrital grains, chiefly feldspar. Because the final mineralogical maturation of these quartzarenites was through diagenesis, they are diagenetic quartzarenites. Following deposition, the introduction of thin coatings of infiltered clay was followed by the precipitation of 6.3% unhomogeneously distributed quartz cement. Some outcrop samples contain pore-occluding gypsum cement or mixtures of gypsum and halite cement. Sr{sup 87}/Sr{sup 86} ratios of seven samples of gypsum cement have values (0.7077 to 0.7083) that are equal to Miocene and slightly younger seawater. These Cambrian sandstones have excellent reservoir potential (mean thin section porosity = 25.7%) because they contained few ductile grains to enhance compaction, and they developed significant amounts of secondary pores by both dissolution of calcite cement and unstable detrital grains. Kaolinite and dickite are potential problems for hydrocarbon production in some beds.

  7. A Change of Heart? British Policies towards Tubercular Refugees during 1959 World Refugee Year.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Becky

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at Britain's response to the World Refugee Year (1959-60), and in particular the government's decision to allow entry to refugees with tuberculosis and other chronic illnesses. In doing so, it broke the practice established by the 1920 Aliens' Order which had barred entry to immigrants with a range of medical conditions. This article uses the entry of these sick refugees as an opportunity to explore whether government policy represented as much of a shift in attitude and practice as contemporary accounts suggested. It argues for the importance of setting the reception of tubercular and other 'disabled' refugees in 1959-61 in its very particular historical context, showing it was a case less of the government thinking differently about refugees, and more of how, in a post-Suez context, the government felt obliged to take into account international and public opinion. The work builds on and adds to the growing literature surrounding refugees and disease. It also places the episode within the specificity of the post-war changing epidemiological climate; the creation of the National Health Service; and the welfare state more broadly. In looking at the role of refugee organizations in the Year, the article also contributes to debates over the place of voluntary agencies within British society.

  8. Truth and consequences: the bioinvasion of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Over 660 alien marine multicellular species have been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea, with many establishing viable populations and subsequently dispersing from their points of entry. A brief overview is presented of the current state of knowledge of bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea, with particular attention paid to gelatinous invasive species. A database of alien species records was used to characterize their identity, pattern of expansion and native region, and to discuss the relative importance of different taxa and vectors in the various regions of the sea. The temporal and spatial spread of 4 alien scyphozoans and 2 alien ctenophores is outlined. Although thermophilic species constitute the majority of Mediterranean aliens, Erythrean aliens are predominant in the east, with shipping and mariculture being mainly responsible for introductions in the northwest. The propagule pressure driving the Erythrean invasion is powerful in the establishment and spread of alien species in the eastern Mediterranean. The implications of the enlargement of the Suez Canal, reflecting patterns in global trade and economy, are briefly discussed. Finally, as alien species inventories play a pivotal role in informing regional policy and management decisions and identifying resource priorities, the scientific community is called upon to pay particular attention to their accuracy and veracity.

  9. Evaluation of the Role of Postnatal Ambroxol in the Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Hesham F; Elkhaiouby, Muhammed I; Elsharkawey, Sunia M; Elnemr, Muna A

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to study the effect of the postnatal administration of Ambroxol in the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates at risk and on the severity of the disease in those neonates already suffering from it. Methods: the study was a randomized clinical trial performed on 120 preterm neonates admitted to the neonatal unit of the Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, with gestational age of 28 to 34 weeks. It was performed in the period from September 2001 through March 2003. Half of the enrolled neonates received intravenous ambroxol (20 mg/kg/d), while the control group received the routine management of prematurity and a placebo. Results: Ambroxol decreased the incidence of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), improved the gas exchange, and decreased Continious Positive Airway pressure (CPAP) pressure, the length of mechanical ventilation and also the mortality rate. Conclusion: the study concluded that Ambroxol reduced the incidence of this disease in preterm neonates at risk of developing it, and improved the clinical course of RDS. PMID:21748134

  10. Using Synoptic Systems' Typical Wind Trajectories for the Analysis of Potential Atmospheric Long-Distance Dispersal of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Z; Fattal, E; Klement, E

    2017-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is an infectious, arthropod-borne virus that affects mostly cattle. Solitary outbreaks have occurred in Israel in 1989 and 2006. In both years, the outbreaks occurred parallel to a severe outbreak in Egypt, and LSDV was hypothesized to be transmitted from Egypt to Israel via long-distance dispersal (LDD) of infected vectors by wind. The aim of this study was to identify possible events of such transport. At the first stage, we identified the relevant synoptic systems that allowed wind transport from Egypt to Israel during the 3 months preceding each outbreak. Three-dimensional backwards Lagrangian trajectories were calculated from the receptor sites in Israel for each occurrence of such relevant synoptic system. The analysis revealed several events in which atmospheric connection routes between the affected locations in Egypt and Israel were established. Specifically, during the 1989, Damietta and Port Said stand out as likely sources for the outbreak in Israel. In 2006, different locations acted simultaneously as potential sources of the outbreak in Israel. These locations were situated in the Nile delta, the Suez Canal and in northern Sinai. The analysis pointed out Sharav low and Shallow Cyprus low to the North to be the most likely systems to enable windborne transport from Egypt to Israel. These findings are of high importance for the analysis of the risk of transmission of vectorborne viruses in the eastern Mediterranean region.

  11. A.E. Nordenski and the auroral oval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygrén, Tuomo; Silén, Johan

    In 1857, Adold Erik Nordenskiöld (1832-1901), a Finnish geographer and mineralogist, was forced to withdraw from his position at the University of Helsinki because of a conflict with the czarist officials in Finland. He then moved to Sweden, where he became one of the most celebrated explorers of his time. Most famous of his polar expeditions was the discovery of the Northeast Passage. Nordenskiöld made his voyage in the wooden steamship Vega in 1878-79.Vega started its voyage on June 22, 1878, and was directed in a course around Scandinavia and along the Siberian coast toward Bering Strait. Nordenskiöld's plan was to reach the Pacific Ocean during the summer months, but this was hindered by unfavorable ice conditions. At the end of September the sea was blocked by ice fields, and the Vega had to pass the winter on the northern coast of the Chukchi Peninsula (67°4‧49″N, 173°23‧2″W)—exasperatingly close to the open waters of Bering Strait. The ship could not set sail any sooner than the following July when the sea was free again. After visiting Japan, China, and Ceylon, the Vega passed through the Suez Canal and finally, on April 24, 1880, arrived at Stockholm.

  12. Tectonic paleostress fields in the southwestern part of Jordan: New insights from the fault slip data in the southeastern flank of the Dead Sea Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaideh, Omar M. A.; Melichar, Rostislav

    2015-09-01

    A new approach for paleostress analysis, using the nine-dimensional space fault slip inversion method, was performed in the southeastern flank of the Jordan-Dead Sea Fault. Five major tectonic episodes with different kinematics were successfully detected from the inversion of a new fault slip data, which thereby caused reactivation of inherited crustal structures and established new ones. These episodes prevailed since Late Cretaceous times, and their chronological constraints were established essentially from the stratigraphic ages of the affected rocks and the crosscutting relationships of successive striae locally observed on the fault planes. During the Late Cretaceous to late Eocene, the area was under a compressional/strike-slip stress regime with a ~E-W trending σ1. At Oligocene, a strike-slip stress regime with NW-SE striking σ1 occurred. Both compression regimes correspond to the so-called Syrian Arc Deformation that gave rise to distinctive folds in Jordan and its surrounding areas. An extension with ~N-S to NE-SW trending σ3 followed the late Oligocene compression event and took place during Miocene time, most probably linked to the opening of the Red Sea-Suez Rift. Late Cenozoic tectonics show the occurrence of two successive compressions, NW-SE then both NE-SW and ~N-S, which generally reflect a continental collisional setting between the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  13. 3D Gravity Inversion of Northern Sinai Peninsula: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.

    2014-07-01

    The Sinai Peninsula has attracted the attention of many geological and geophysical studies as it is influenced and bounded by major tectonic events. Those are (1) the Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic tectonically active opening of the Tethys, (2) the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Laramide) Syrian arc system, due to closing of the Tethys (3) the Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rifted basin, and (4) the Late Miocene to Recent transform Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba rift. Additionally, the shear zones inside Sinai such as the Ragabet El-Naam and Minsherah-Abu Kandu Shear Zones. Each of these major tectonic events has affected dramatically the structure evolution of the northern Sinai area. The present paper estimates the 3D density contrast model using the gravity data of northern Sinai. The estimated 3D density contrast model elucidated the peculiarities of the main structural elements in the region. The estimated 3D density contrast model showed the high and low gravity anomalies that form the main mountains and main valleys in northern Sinai. The estimated low density zones are in agreement with the inferred faults resulting from the first horizontal derivative. Comparing the 3D model with the tectonic history of the region and the results of the first horizontal derivative and least square separation increased the reliability of the model.

  14. 2-D Fourier transform analysis of the gravitational field of Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.; Farzamian, Mohammad; El-Kenawy, Abeer

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula has fascinated the consideration of many geophysical studies as it is influenced by major tectonic events. Those are (1) the Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic tectonically active opening of Tethys, (2) the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Laramide) Syrian arc system, due to closing of the Tethys (3) the Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rifted basin, and (4) the Late Miocene to Recent transform Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba rift. Moreover, the shear zones inside Sinai have affected intensely the structure development of the northern Sinai area. 2-D fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis has been applied to transfer the data from space domain to frequency domain, in which basic gradients and derived gradients have been estimated. The frequency domain operations resulted in frequency filtering, first and second degree xyz gradients, horizontal, total (analytical signal) and tilt gradients, maximum horizontal gradient amplitude (total horizontal derivative), and theta map. As a result, the basic and derived gradient maps have succeeded to outline the major structure elements of Northern Sinai Peninsula. Comparisons with some well known surface structures showed a large degree of matching.

  15. Assessment of amniotic and polyurethane membrane dressings in the treatment of burns.

    PubMed

    Adly, O A; Moghazy, A M; Abbas, A H; Ellabban, A M; Ali, O S; Mohamed, B A

    2010-08-01

    As allograft and xenografts are not available in Islamic countries, amniotic membrane seems to be an effective alternative in the management of deep burns. Its proven bioactivities and modest price suggest that it might be superior to synthetic dressings. Forty-six patients were enrolled in this randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in the Burn Unit at Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. All age groups and both gender were included in the study. Only patients with less than 50% total body surface area burned were included, thus minimizing the dropouts in both groups. All were either second or third degree. These patients were randomly assigned either to group I: amniotic membrane (Biomembrane) dressing, or group II: polyurethane membrane (Tegaderm) dressing. Those in group I demonstrated a significantly lower rate of infection and required less frequent dressing changes than those in group II. They also sustained less electrolyte and albumin loss. The rate of healing in the amniotic membrane group was significantly faster than in the polyurethane group. Furthermore, pain was significantly less when Biomembrane was used. Based on these findings, we recommend the use of lyophilized gamma-irradiated amniotic membrane as an effective alternative for allograft and xenografts in Islamic countries and the Jewish population.

  16. The strokes that killed Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rohaid; Connolly, Ian D; Li, Amy; Choudhri, Omar A; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    From February 4 to 11, 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Soviet Union Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met near Yalta in Crimea to discuss how post-World War II (WWII) Europe should be organized. Within 2 decades of this conference, all 3 men had died. President Roosevelt died 2 months after the Yalta Conference due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Premier Stalin died 8 years later, also due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Finally, Prime Minister Churchill died 20 years after the conference because of complications due to stroke. At the time of Yalta, these 3 men were the leaders of the most powerful countries in the world. The subsequent deterioration of their health and eventual death had varying degrees of historical significance. Churchill's illness forced him to resign as British prime minister, and the events that unfolded immediately after his resignation included Britain's mismanagement of the Egyptian Suez Crisis and also a period of mistrust with the United States. Furthermore, Roosevelt was still president and Stalin was still premier at their times of passing, so their deaths carried huge political ramifications not only for their respective countries but also for international relations. The early death of Roosevelt, in particular, may have exacerbated post-WWII miscommunication between America and the Soviet Union-miscommunication that may have helped precipitate the Cold War.

  17. Source parameters and moment tensor of the ML 4.6 earthquake of November 19, 2011, southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gad-Elkareem Abdrabou; Omar, Khaled

    2014-06-01

    The southern part of the Gulf of Suez is one of the most seismically active areas in Egypt. On Saturday November 19, 2011 at 07:12:15 (GMT) an earthquake of ML 4.6 occurred in southwest Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. The quake has been felt at Sharm El-Sheikh city while no casualties were reported. The instrumental epicenter is located at 27.69°N and 34.06°E. Seismic moment is 1.47 E+22 dyne cm, corresponding to a moment magnitude Mw 4.1. Following a Brune model, the source radius is 101.36 m with an average dislocation of 0.015 cm and a 0.06 MPa stress drop. The source mechanism from a fault plane solution shows a normal fault, the actual fault plane is strike 358, dip 34 and rake -60, the computer code ISOLA is used. Twenty seven small and micro earthquakes (1.5 ⩽ ML ⩽ 4.2) were also recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) from the same region. We estimate the source parameters for these earthquakes using displacement spectra. The obtained source parameters include seismic moments of 2.77E+16-1.47E+22 dyne cm, stress drops of 0.0005-0.0617 MPa and relative displacement of 0.0001-0.0152 cm.

  18. Egyptian Red Sea petroleum geology and regional geophysical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Y.H.; Shalaan, A.A.; Zaki, H.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project was organized to synthesize data on the