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Sample records for battery algorithm verification

  1. Battery algorithm verification and development using hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongsheng; Liu, Wei; Koch, Brain J.

    Battery algorithms play a vital role in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and electric vehicles (EVs). The energy management of hybrid and electric propulsion systems needs to rely on accurate information on the state of the battery in order to determine the optimal electric drive without abusing the battery. In this study, a cell-level hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system is used to verify and develop state of charge (SOC) and power capability predictions of embedded battery algorithms for various vehicle applications. Two different batteries were selected as representative examples to illustrate the battery algorithm verification and development procedure. One is a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode, which is a power battery for HEV applications. The other is a lithium-ion battery with an iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) cathode, which is an energy battery for applications in PHEVs, EREVs, and EVs. The battery cell HIL testing provided valuable data and critical guidance to evaluate the accuracy of the developed battery algorithms, to accelerate battery algorithm future development and improvement, and to reduce hybrid/electric vehicle system development time and costs.

  2. Distilling the Verification Process for Prognostics Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose R.; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The goal of prognostics and health management (PHM) systems is to ensure system safety, and reduce downtime and maintenance costs. It is important that a PHM system is verified and validated before it can be successfully deployed. Prognostics algorithms are integral parts of PHM systems. This paper investigates a systematic process of verification of such prognostics algorithms. To this end, first, this paper distinguishes between technology maturation and product development. Then, the paper describes the verification process for a prognostics algorithm as it moves up to higher maturity levels. This process is shown to be an iterative process where verification activities are interleaved with validation activities at each maturation level. In this work, we adopt the concept of technology readiness levels (TRLs) to represent the different maturity levels of a prognostics algorithm. It is shown that at each TRL, the verification of a prognostics algorithm depends on verifying the different components of the algorithm according to the requirements laid out by the PHM system that adopts this prognostics algorithm. Finally, using simplified examples, the systematic process for verifying a prognostics algorithm is demonstrated as the prognostics algorithm moves up TRLs.

  3. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  4. Battery Technology Life Verification Test Manual Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this Technology Life Verification Test (TLVT) Manual is to help guide developers in their effort to successfully commercialize advanced energy storage devices such as battery and ultracapacitor technologies. The experimental design and data analysis discussed herein are focused on automotive applications based on the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV, HEV, and PHEV, respectively) performance targets. However, the methodology can be equally applied to other applications as well. This manual supersedes the February 2005 version of the TLVT Manual (Reference 1). It includes criteria for statistically-based life test matrix designs as well as requirements for test data analysis and reporting. Calendar life modeling and estimation techniques, including a user’s guide to the corresponding software tool is now provided in the Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual (Reference 2).

  5. Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1992-01-01

    The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.

  6. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  7. Verification of IEEE Compliant Subtractive Division Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.; Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A parameterized definition of subtractive floating point division algorithms is presented and verified using PVS. The general algorithm is proven to satisfy a formal definition of an IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic. The utility of the general specification is illustrated using a number of different instances of the general algorithm.

  8. Formal verification of a fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Vonhenke, Frieder

    1989-01-01

    A formal specification and mechanically assisted verification of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm of Lamport and Melliar-Smith is described. Several technical flaws in the analysis given by Lamport and Melliar-Smith were discovered, even though their presentation is unusally precise and detailed. It seems that these flaws were not detected by informal peer scrutiny. The flaws are discussed and a revised presentation of the analysis is given that not only corrects the flaws but is also more precise and easier to follow. Some of the corrections to the flaws require slight modifications to the original assumptions underlying the algorithm and to the constraints on its parameters, and thus change the external specifications of the algorithm. The formal analysis of the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm was performed using the Enhanced Hierarchical Development Methodology (EHDM) formal specification and verification environment. This application of EHDM provides a demonstration of some of the capabilities of the system.

  9. Monitoring and Commissioning Verification Algorithms for CHP Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Jiang, Wei

    2008-03-31

    This document provides the algorithms for CHP system performance monitoring and commissioning verification (CxV). It starts by presenting system-level and component-level performance metrics, followed by descriptions of algorithms for performance monitoring and commissioning verification, using the metric presented earlier. Verification of commissioning is accomplished essentially by comparing actual measured performance to benchmarks for performance provided by the system integrator and/or component manufacturers. The results of these comparisons are then automatically interpreted to provide conclusions regarding whether the CHP system and its components have been properly commissioned and where problems are found, guidance is provided for corrections. A discussion of uncertainty handling is then provided, which is followed by a description of how simulations models can be used to generate data for testing the algorithms. A model is described for simulating a CHP system consisting of a micro-turbine, an exhaust-gas heat recovery unit that produces hot water, a absorption chiller and a cooling tower. The process for using this model for generating data for testing the algorithms for a selected set of faults is described. The next section applies the algorithms developed to CHP laboratory and field data to illustrate their use. The report then concludes with a discussion of the need for laboratory testing of the algorithms on a physical CHP systems and identification of the recommended next steps.

  10. Modeling and verification of a lithium iron phosphate battery pack system for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lin

    In recent years, Lithium chemistry based batteries have gained popularity with all automotive manufacturers. Thousands of battery cells are put into a battery pack to satisfy the need of power consumption of vehicles using electric traction. Managing the battery pack for hybrid and electric vehicles is a challenging problem. Despite the advantage of power density and charge retaining capabilities, Lithium ion batteries do not handle over-charge and over-discharge very well compared to other battery chemistries. Therefore, creating an accurate model to predict the battery pack behavior is essential in research and development for battery management systems. This work presents a general technique to extend accepted modeling methodologies for single cells to models for large packs. The theoretical framework is accompanied by parameter identification process based on the circuit model, and experimental verification procedures supporting the validity of this approach.

  11. Formal Verification of Air Traffic Conflict Prevention Bands Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In air traffic management, a pairwise conflict is a predicted loss of separation between two aircraft, referred to as the ownship and the intruder. A conflict prevention bands system computes ranges of maneuvers for the ownship that characterize regions in the airspace that are either conflict-free or 'don't go' zones that the ownship has to avoid. Conflict prevention bands are surprisingly difficult to define and analyze. Errors in the calculation of prevention bands may result in incorrect separation assurance information being displayed to pilots or air traffic controllers. This paper presents provably correct 3-dimensional prevention bands algorithms for ranges of track angle; ground speed, and vertical speed maneuvers. The algorithms have been mechanically verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS). The verification presented in this paper extends in a non-trivial way that of previously published 2-dimensional algorithms.

  12. Mechanical verification of a schematic Byzantine clock synchronization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Natarajan

    1991-01-01

    Schneider generalizes a number of protocols for Byzantine fault tolerant clock synchronization and presents a uniform proof for their correctness. The authors present a machine checked proof of this schematic protocol that revises some of the details in Schneider's original analysis. The verification was carried out with the EHDM system developed at the SRI Computer Science Laboratory. The mechanically checked proofs include the verification that the egocentric mean function used in Lamport and Melliar-Smith's Interactive Convergence Algorithm satisfies the requirements of Schneider's protocol.

  13. ON THE VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF GEOSPATIAL IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Randy S.; Trucano, Timothy G.; Pope, Paul A.; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Jiang , Ming; Wei, Thomas; Chilton, Lawrence; Bakel, A. J.

    2010-07-25

    Verification and validation (V&V) of geospatial image analysis algorithms is a difficult task and is becoming increasingly important. While there are many types of image analysis algorithms, we focus on developing V&V methodologies for algorithms designed to provide textual descriptions of geospatial imagery. In this paper, we present a novel methodological basis for V&V that employs a domain-specific ontology, which provides a naming convention for a domain-bounded set of objects and a set of named relationship between these objects. We describe a validation process that proceeds through objectively comparing benchmark imagery, produced using the ontology, with algorithm results. As an example, we describe how the proposed V&V methodology would be applied to algorithms designed to provide textual descriptions of facilities

  14. Research on registration algorithm for check seal verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Liu, Tiegen

    2008-03-01

    Nowadays seals play an important role in China. With the development of social economy, the traditional method of manual check seal identification can't meet the need s of banking transactions badly. This paper focus on pre-processing and registration algorithm for check seal verification using theory of image processing and pattern recognition. First of all, analyze the complex characteristics of check seals. To eliminate the difference of producing conditions and the disturbance caused by background and writing in check image, many methods are used in the pre-processing of check seal verification, such as color components transformation, linearity transform to gray-scale image, medium value filter, Otsu, close calculations and labeling algorithm of mathematical morphology. After the processes above, the good binary seal image can be obtained. On the basis of traditional registration algorithm, a double-level registration method including rough and precise registration method is proposed. The deflection angle of precise registration method can be precise to 0.1°. This paper introduces the concepts of difference inside and difference outside and use the percent of difference inside and difference outside to judge whether the seal is real or fake. The experimental results of a mass of check seals are satisfied. It shows that the methods and algorithmic presented have good robustness to noise sealing conditions and satisfactory tolerance of difference within class.

  15. Verification of ICESat-2/ATLAS Science Receiver Algorithm Onboard Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Saba, J. L.; Leigh, H. W.; Magruder, L. A.; Urban, T. J.; Mcgarry, J.; Schutz, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's ICESat-2 mission will fly the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimetry System (ATLAS) instrument on a 3-year mission scheduled to launch in 2016. ATLAS is a single-photon detection system transmitting at 532nm with a laser repetition rate of 10 kHz, and a 6 spot pattern on the Earth's surface. A set of onboard Receiver Algorithms will perform signal processing to reduce the data rate and data volume to acceptable levels. These Algorithms distinguish surface echoes from the background noise, limit the daily data volume, and allow the instrument to telemeter only a small vertical region about the signal. For this purpose, three onboard databases are used: a Surface Reference Map (SRM), a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and a Digital Relief Maps (DRMs). The DEM provides minimum and maximum heights that limit the signal search region of the onboard algorithms, including a margin for errors in the source databases, and onboard geolocation. Since the surface echoes will be correlated while noise will be randomly distributed, the signal location is found by histogramming the received event times and identifying the histogram bins with statistically significant counts. Once the signal location has been established, the onboard Digital Relief Maps (DRMs) will be used to determine the vertical width of the telemetry band about the signal. University of Texas-Center for Space Research (UT-CSR) is developing the ICESat-2 onboard databases, which are currently being tested using preliminary versions and equivalent representations of elevation ranges and relief more recently developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Global and regional elevation models have been assessed in terms of their accuracy using ICESat geodetic control, and have been used to develop equivalent representations of the onboard databases for testing against the UT-CSR databases, with special emphasis on the ice sheet regions. A series of verification checks have been implemented, including

  16. A Battery-Aware Algorithm for Supporting Collaborative Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, Sami; Chang-Yit, Cheryl

    Battery-powered devices such as laptops, cell phones, and MP3 players are becoming ubiquitous. There are several significant ways in which the ubiquity of battery-powered technology impacts the field of collaborative computing. First, applications such as collaborative data gathering, become possible. Also, existing applications that depend on collaborating devices to maintain the system infrastructure must be reconsidered. Fundamentally, the problem lies in the fact that collaborative applications often require end-user computing devices to perform tasks that happen in the background and are not directly advantageous to the user. In this work, we seek to better understand how laptop users use the batteries attached to their devices and analyze a battery-aware alternative to Gnutella’s ultrapeer selection algorithm. Our algorithm provides insight into how system maintenance tasks can be allocated to battery-powered nodes. The most significant result of our study indicates that a large portion of laptop users can participate in system maintenance without sacrificing any of their battery. These results show great promise for existing collaborative applications as well as new applications, such as collaborative data gathering, that rely upon battery-powered devices.

  17. Imaging for dismantlement verification: information management and analysis algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Allen; Miller, Erin A.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Misner, Alex C.; Pitts, W. Karl; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-09-01

    The level of detail discernible in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes. An image will almost certainly contain highly sensitive information, and storing a comparison image will almost certainly violate a cardinal principle of information barriers: that no sensitive information be stored in the system. To overcome this problem, some features of the image might be reduced to a few parameters suitable for definition as an attribute. However, this process must be performed with care. Computing the perimeter, area, and intensity of an object, for example, might reveal sensitive information relating to shape, size, and material composition. This paper presents three analysis algorithms that reduce full image information to non-sensitive feature information. Ultimately, the algorithms are intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying the presence of features in the image. We evaluate the algorithms on both their technical performance in image analysis, and their application with and without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The underlying images can be highly detailed, since they are dynamically generated behind the information barrier. We consider the use of active (conventional) radiography alone and in tandem with passive (auto) radiography.

  18. On the Formal Verification of Conflict Detection Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky W.; Carreno, Victor A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    Safety assessment of new air traffic management systems is a main issue for civil aviation authorities. Standard techniques such as testing and simulation have serious limitations in new systems that are significantly more autonomous than the older ones. In this paper, we present an innovative approach, based on formal verification, for establishing the correctness of conflict detection systems. Fundamental to our approach is the concept of trajectory, which is a continuous path in the x-y plane constrained by physical laws and operational requirements. From the Model of trajectories, we extract, and formally prove, high level properties that can serve as a framework to analyze conflict scenarios. We use the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) alerting algorithm as a case study of our approach.

  19. Experimental verification of Space Platform battery discharger design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sable, Dan M.; Deuty, Scott; Lee, Fred C.; Cho, Bo H.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed design of two candidate topologies for the Space Platform battery discharger, a four module boost converter (FMBC) and a voltage-fed push-pull autotransformer (VFPPAT), is presented. Each has unique problems. The FMBC requires careful design and analysis in order to obtain good dynamic performance. This is due to the presence of a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in the control-to-output transfer function. The VFPPAT presents a challenging power stage design in order to yield high efficiency and light component weight. The authors describe the design of each of these converters and compare their efficiency, weight, and dynamic characteristics.

  20. Formal Verification of a Conflict Resolution and Recovery Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey; Butler, Ricky; Geser, Alfons; Munoz, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    New air traffic management concepts distribute the duty of traffic separation among system participants. As a consequence, these concepts have a greater dependency and rely heavily on on-board software and hardware systems. One example of a new on-board capability in a distributed air traffic management system is air traffic conflict detection and resolution (CD&R). Traditional methods for safety assessment such as human-in-the-loop simulations, testing, and flight experiments may not be sufficient for this highly distributed system as the set of possible scenarios is too large to have a reasonable coverage. This paper proposes a new method for the safety assessment of avionics systems that makes use of formal methods to drive the development of critical systems. As a case study of this approach, the mechanical veri.cation of an algorithm for air traffic conflict resolution and recovery called RR3D is presented. The RR3D algorithm uses a geometric optimization technique to provide a choice of resolution and recovery maneuvers. If the aircraft adheres to these maneuvers, they will bring the aircraft out of conflict and the aircraft will follow a conflict-free path to its original destination. Veri.cation of RR3D is carried out using the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  1. Using Small-Step Refinement for Algorithm Verification in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    Stepwise program refinement techniques can be used to simplify program verification. Programs are better understood since their main properties are clearly stated, and verification of rather complex algorithms is reduced to proving simple statements connecting successive program specifications. Additionally, it is easy to analyse similar…

  2. Specification of Selected Performance Monitoring and Commissioning Verification Algorithms for CHP Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2006-10-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Distributed Energy (DE) Program by developing advanced control algorithms that would lead to development of tools to enhance performance and reliability, and reduce emissions of distributed energy technologies, including combined heat and power technologies. This report documents phase 2 of the program, providing a detailed functional specification for algorithms for performance monitoring and commissioning verification, scheduled for development in FY 2006. The report identifies the systems for which algorithms will be developed, the specific functions of each algorithm, metrics which the algorithms will output, and inputs required by each algorithm.

  3. An Algorithmic Form Of Verification Of Appointed Phases Of The Project Documentation For A Building Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The process of area development and planning in compliance with conditions outlined in the Zoning Scheme is significant because of the current rapid development of rural and urban areas. The verification of project documentation in terms of observing constant and nationally binding norms, legislation and local laws is based on certain standards. In order to streamline the process of verification undertaken by the relevant public authorities, it is necessary to create formal algorithms that will automate the existing method of control of architecture-building documentation. The objective of this article is algorithmisation of the project documentation verification allowing further streamlining and automation of the process.

  4. Hill-Climbing Attacks and Robust Online Signature Verification Algorithm against Hill-Climbing Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo

    Attacks using hill-climbing methods have been reported as a vulnerability of biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we propose a robust online signature verification algorithm against such attacks. Specifically, the attack considered in this paper is a hill-climbing forged data attack. Artificial forgeries are generated offline by using the hill-climbing method, and the forgeries are input to a target system to be attacked. In this paper, we analyze the menace of hill-climbing forged data attacks using six types of hill-climbing forged data and propose a robust algorithm by incorporating the hill-climbing method into an online signature verification algorithm. Experiments to evaluate the proposed system were performed using a public online signature database. The proposed algorithm showed improved performance against this kind of attack.

  5. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-08-21

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack-the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals.

  6. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack-the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals. PMID:26307995

  7. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack—the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals. PMID:26307995

  8. Building a medical image processing algorithm verification database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. Wayne

    2000-06-01

    The design of a database containing head Computed Tomography (CT) studies is presented, along with a justification for the database's composition. The database will be used to validate software algorithms that screen normal head CT studies from studies that contain pathology. The database is designed to have the following major properties: (1) a size sufficient for statistical viability, (2) inclusion of both normal (no pathology) and abnormal scans, (3) inclusion of scans due to equipment malfunction, technologist error, and uncooperative patients, (4) inclusion of data sets from multiple scanner manufacturers, (5) inclusion of data sets from different gender and age groups, and (6) three independent diagnosis of each data set. Designed correctly, the database will provide a partial basis for FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) approval of image processing algorithms for clinical use. Our goal for the database is the proof of viability of screening head CT's for normal anatomy using computer algorithms. To put this work into context, a classification scheme for 'computer aided diagnosis' systems is proposed.

  9. Plenoptic camera image simulation for reconstruction algorithm verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiegerling, Jim

    2014-09-01

    Plenoptic cameras have emerged in recent years as a technology for capturing light field data in a single snapshot. A conventional digital camera can be modified with the addition of a lenslet array to create a plenoptic camera. Two distinct camera forms have been proposed in the literature. The first has the camera image focused onto the lenslet array. The lenslet array is placed over the camera sensor such that each lenslet forms an image of the exit pupil onto the sensor. The second plenoptic form has the lenslet array relaying the image formed by the camera lens to the sensor. We have developed a raytracing package that can simulate images formed by a generalized version of the plenoptic camera. Several rays from each sensor pixel are traced backwards through the system to define a cone of rays emanating from the entrance pupil of the camera lens. Objects that lie within this cone are integrated to lead to a color and exposure level for that pixel. To speed processing three-dimensional objects are approximated as a series of planes at different depths. Repeating this process for each pixel in the sensor leads to a simulated plenoptic image on which different reconstruction algorithms can be tested.

  10. Performance analysis results of a battery fuel gauge algorithm at multiple temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasingam, B.; Avvari, G. V.; Pattipati, K. R.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating a battery fuel gauge (BFG) algorithm is a challenging problem due to the fact that there are no reliable mathematical models to represent the complex features of a Li-ion battery, such as hysteresis and relaxation effects, temperature effects on parameters, aging, power fade (PF), and capacity fade (CF) with respect to the chemical composition of the battery. The existing literature is largely focused on developing different BFG strategies and BFG validation has received little attention. In this paper, using hardware in the loop (HIL) data collected form three Li-ion batteries at nine different temperatures ranging from -20 °C to 40 °C, we demonstrate detailed validation results of a battery fuel gauge (BFG) algorithm. The BFG validation is based on three different BFG validation metrics; we provide implementation details of these three BFG evaluation metrics by proposing three different BFG validation load profiles that satisfy varying levels of user requirements.

  11. Charging Algorithm Extends the Life of Lead-acid Batteries: 2001 R and D 100 Award Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2001-09-27

    Fact sheet describing NREL's work with Recombination Technologies and Optima Batteries to develop a current interrupt charging algorithm to extend the deep life cycle of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries.

  12. Battery available power prediction of hybrid electric vehicle based on improved Dynamic Matrix Control algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zou, Ju

    2014-09-01

    The core technology to any hybrid engine vehicle (HEV) is the design of energy management strategy (EMS). To develop a reasonable EMS, it is necessary to monitor the state of capacity, state of health and instantaneous available power of battery packs. A new method that linearizes RC equivalent circuit model and predicts battery available power according to original Dynamic Matrix Control algorithm is proposed. To verify the validity of the new algorithm, a bench test with lithium-ion battery cell and a HEV test with lithium-ion battery packs are carried out. The bench test results indicate that a single RC block equivalent circuit model could be used to describe the dynamic and the steady state characteristics of a battery under testing conditions. However, lacking of long time constant of RC modules, there is a sample deviation in the open-circuit voltage identified and that measured. The HEV testing results show that the battery voltage predicted is in good agreement with that measured, the maximum difference is within 3.7%. Fixing the time constant to a numeric value, satisfactory results can still be achieved. After setting a battery discharge cut-off voltage, the instantaneous available power of the battery can be predicted.

  13. Experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm for improved estimates of animal position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, Chad; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2004-07-01

    This article presents experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm that was previously proposed in Jaffe [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3168-3175 (1999)]. The goal of the algorithm is to improve estimates of both target position and target strength by minimizing a least-squares residual between noise-corrupted target measurement data and the output of a model of the sonar's amplitude response to a target at a set of known locations. Although this positional estimator was shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator, in principle, experimental verification was desired because of interest in understanding its true performance. Here, the accuracy of the algorithm is investigated by analyzing the correspondence between a target's true position and the algorithm's estimate. True target position was measured by precise translation of a small test target (bead) or from the analysis of images of fish from a coregistered optical imaging system. Results with the stationary spherical test bead in a high signal-to-noise environment indicate that a large increase in resolution is possible, while results with commercial aquarium fish indicate a smaller increase is obtainable. However, in both experiments the algorithm provides improved estimates of target position over those obtained by simply accepting the angular positions of the sonar beam with maximum output as target position. In addition, increased accuracy in target strength estimation is possible by considering the effects of the sonar beam patterns relative to the interpolated position. A benefit of the algorithm is that it can be applied ``ex post facto'' to existing data sets from commercial multibeam sonar systems when only the beam intensities have been stored after suitable calibration.

  14. Experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm for improved estimates of animal position.

    PubMed

    Schell, Chad; Jaffe, Jules S

    2004-07-01

    This article presents experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm that was previously proposed in Jaffe [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3168-3175 (1999)]. The goal of the algorithm is to improve estimates of both target position and target strength by minimizing a least-squares residual between noise-corrupted target measurement data and the output of a model of the sonar's amplitude response to a target at a set of known locations. Although this positional estimator was shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator, in principle, experimental verification was desired because of interest in understanding its true performance. Here, the accuracy of the algorithm is investigated by analyzing the correspondence between a target's true position and the algorithm's estimate. True target position was measured by precise translation of a small test target (bead) or from the analysis of images of fish from a coregistered optical imaging system. Results with the stationary spherical test bead in a high signal-to-noise environment indicate that a large increase in resolution is possible, while results with commercial aquarium fish indicate a smaller increase is obtainable. However, in both experiments the algorithm provides improved estimates of target position over those obtained by simply accepting the angular positions of the sonar beam with maximum output as target position. In addition, increased accuracy in target strength estimation is possible by considering the effects of the sonar beam patterns relative to the interpolated position. A benefit of the algorithm is that it can be applied "ex post facto" to existing data sets from commercial multibeam sonar systems when only the beam intensities have been stored after suitable calibration.

  15. Verification measurements of an eMC algorithm using a 2D ion chamber array.

    PubMed

    Wanklyn, Mark D; Kidane, Ghirmay; Crees, Liz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the Im'RT MatriXX 2D ion chamber array for performing verification measurements on the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for a range of clinical energies (6, 12, and 20 MeV) on a Varian 2100iX linear accelerator. Firstly, the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring percentage depth doses (PDD) in water was assessed, including characterization of the inherent buildup found in the MatriXX. Secondly the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring dose distributions in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms was assessed using gamma analysis at 3%/3 mm. It was found that after adjusting the PDD curves for the inherent buildup, that the position of R50,D measured using the MatriXX agreed to within 1 mm to the PDDs generated using the eMC algorithm for all energies used in this study. Gamma analysis at 3%/3mm showed very good agreement (> 95%) for all cases in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. It was concluded that the Im'RT MatriXX is a suitable device for performing eMC verification and could potentially be used for routine energy checks of electron beams. PMID:27685111

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-B-1, 105-B Battery Acid Sump, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-057

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 120-B-1 waste site, located in the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site, consisted of a concrete battery acid sump that was used from 1944 to 1969 to neutralize the spent sulfuric acid from lead cell batteries of emergency power packs and the emergency lighting system. The battery acid sump was associated with the 105-B Reactor Building and was located adjacent to the building's northwest corner. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal[trademark

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA's ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal[trademark] Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal[trademark] batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  18. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA`s ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal{trademark} Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal{trademark} batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  19. A Probabilistic Mass Estimation Algorithm for a Novel 7- Channel Capacitive Sample Verification Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A document describes an algorithm created to estimate the mass placed on a sample verification sensor (SVS) designed for lunar or planetary robotic sample return missions. A novel SVS measures the capacitance between a rigid bottom plate and an elastic top membrane in seven locations. As additional sample material (soil and/or small rocks) is placed on the top membrane, the deformation of the membrane increases the capacitance. The mass estimation algorithm addresses both the calibration of each SVS channel, and also addresses how to combine the capacitances read from each of the seven channels into a single mass estimate. The probabilistic approach combines the channels according to the variance observed during the training phase, and provides not only the mass estimate, but also a value for the certainty of the estimate. SVS capacitance data is collected for known masses under a wide variety of possible loading scenarios, though in all cases, the distribution of sample within the canister is expected to be approximately uniform. A capacitance-vs-mass curve is fitted to this data, and is subsequently used to determine the mass estimate for the single channel s capacitance reading during the measurement phase. This results in seven different mass estimates, one for each SVS channel. Moreover, the variance of the calibration data is used to place a Gaussian probability distribution function (pdf) around this mass estimate. To blend these seven estimates, the seven pdfs are combined into a single Gaussian distribution function, providing the final mean and variance of the estimate. This blending technique essentially takes the final estimate as an average of the estimates of the seven channels, weighted by the inverse of the channel s variance.

  20. Real-Time Simulation for Verification and Validation of Diagnostic and Prognostic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Robet; Luu, Chuong; Santi, Louis M.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2005-01-01

    To verify that a health management system (HMS) performs as expected, a virtual system simulation capability, including interaction with the associated platform or vehicle, very likely will need to be developed. The rationale for developing this capability is discussed and includes the limited capability to seed faults into the actual target system due to the risk of potential damage to high value hardware. The capability envisioned would accurately reproduce the propagation of a fault or failure as observed by sensors located at strategic locations on and around the target system and would also accurately reproduce the control system and vehicle response. In this way, HMS operation can be exercised over a broad range of conditions to verify that it meets requirements for accurate, timely response to actual faults with adequate margin against false and missed detections. An overview is also presented of a real-time rocket propulsion health management system laboratory which is available for future rocket engine programs. The health management elements and approaches of this lab are directly applicable for future space systems. In this paper the various components are discussed and the general fault detection, diagnosis, isolation and the response (FDIR) concept is presented. Additionally, the complexities of V&V (Verification and Validation) for advanced algorithms and the simulation capabilities required to meet the changing state-of-the-art in HMS are discussed.

  1. Search for an optimized cyclic charging algorithm for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. F.; Sexton, E. D.; Olson, J. B.; Keyser, M.; Pesaran, A.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are characterized by relatively poor performance in cyclic applications of the order of two hundred to three hundred 100% depth-of-discharge (DoD) cycles. Failure is due to sulfation of the negative plate and softening of the positive active-material. It is felt that this failure mode arises from abnormally high levels of oxygen recombination that arise due to decreases in separator saturation levels as VRLA batteries age. Charging algorithms have been developed to address this changing condition throughout life. The key step is the finish of charge where, traditionally, low currents and low overcharge limits have been employed with poor results. It has been found that using high finishing currents in an alternating charge-rest algorithm results in proper recharge of the negative plate without creating unacceptable temperature increases. This has resulted in deep-discharge lifetimes of 800 to 1000 cycles, particularly when using a charging algorithm employing only partial recharges (97-100% return) interspersed with full conditioning recharges every 10th cycle. With such minimal average overcharge levels, deep-cycle lifetimes approaching 1000 cycles have been achieved without experiencing failure due to massive grid corrosion.

  2. Extraction of battery parameters using a multi-objective genetic algorithm with a non-linear circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Aimun; Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-08-01

    There is need for a battery model that can accurately describe the battery performance for an electrical system, such as the electric drive train of electric vehicles. In this paper, both linear and non-linear equivalent circuit models (ECM) are employed as a means of extracting the battery parameters that can be used to model the performance of a battery. The linear and non-linear equivalent circuit models differ in the numbers of capacitance and resistance; the non-linear model has an added circuit; however their numerical characteristics are equivalent. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed to accurately extract the values of the battery model parameters. The battery model parameters are obtained for several existing industrial batteries as well as for two recently proposed high performance batteries. Once the model parameters are optimally determined, the results demonstrate that both linear and non-linear equivalent circuit models can predict with acceptable accuracy the performance of various batteries of different sizes, characteristics, capacities, and materials. However, the comparisons of results with catalog and experimental data shows that the predictions of results using the non-linear equivalent circuit model are slightly better than those predicted by the linear model, calculating voltages that are closer to the manufacturers' values.

  3. Film based verification of calculation algorithms used for brachytherapy planning-getting ready for upcoming challenges of MBDCA

    PubMed Central

    Bielęda, Grzegorz; Skowronek, Janusz; Mazur, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Well-known defect of TG-43 based algorithms used in brachytherapy is a lack of information about interaction cross-sections, which are determined not only by electron density but also by atomic number. TG-186 recommendations with using of MBDCA (model-based dose calculation algorithm), accurate tissues segmentation, and the structure's elemental composition continue to create difficulties in brachytherapy dosimetry. For the clinical use of new algorithms, it is necessary to introduce reliable and repeatable methods of treatment planning systems (TPS) verification. The aim of this study is the verification of calculation algorithm used in TPS for shielded vaginal applicators as well as developing verification procedures for current and further use, based on the film dosimetry method. Material and methods Calibration data was collected by separately irradiating 14 sheets of Gafchromic® EBT films with the doses from 0.25 Gy to 8.0 Gy using HDR 192Ir source. Standard vaginal cylinders of three diameters were used in the water phantom. Measurements were performed without any shields and with three shields combination. Gamma analyses were performed using the VeriSoft® package. Results Calibration curve was determined as third-degree polynomial type. For all used diameters of unshielded cylinder and for all shields combinations, Gamma analysis were performed and showed that over 90% of analyzed points meets Gamma criteria (3%, 3 mm). Conclusions Gamma analysis showed good agreement between dose distributions calculated using TPS and measured by Gafchromic films, thus showing the viability of using film dosimetry in brachytherapy.

  4. Film based verification of calculation algorithms used for brachytherapy planning-getting ready for upcoming challenges of MBDCA

    PubMed Central

    Bielęda, Grzegorz; Skowronek, Janusz; Mazur, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Well-known defect of TG-43 based algorithms used in brachytherapy is a lack of information about interaction cross-sections, which are determined not only by electron density but also by atomic number. TG-186 recommendations with using of MBDCA (model-based dose calculation algorithm), accurate tissues segmentation, and the structure's elemental composition continue to create difficulties in brachytherapy dosimetry. For the clinical use of new algorithms, it is necessary to introduce reliable and repeatable methods of treatment planning systems (TPS) verification. The aim of this study is the verification of calculation algorithm used in TPS for shielded vaginal applicators as well as developing verification procedures for current and further use, based on the film dosimetry method. Material and methods Calibration data was collected by separately irradiating 14 sheets of Gafchromic® EBT films with the doses from 0.25 Gy to 8.0 Gy using HDR 192Ir source. Standard vaginal cylinders of three diameters were used in the water phantom. Measurements were performed without any shields and with three shields combination. Gamma analyses were performed using the VeriSoft® package. Results Calibration curve was determined as third-degree polynomial type. For all used diameters of unshielded cylinder and for all shields combinations, Gamma analysis were performed and showed that over 90% of analyzed points meets Gamma criteria (3%, 3 mm). Conclusions Gamma analysis showed good agreement between dose distributions calculated using TPS and measured by Gafchromic films, thus showing the viability of using film dosimetry in brachytherapy. PMID:27648087

  5. Development of a charge algorithm for the optimized charging of a 120-V flooded lead-acid lighthouse battery with forced electrolyte destratification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D.

    1989-10-01

    Proper charging was identified as the most important requirement for the reliable and economical operation of a battery that is part of the hybrid power system for remote lighthouses. Therefore a charge algorithm was developed to optimize charging of a flooded lead-acid battery with forced electrolyte destratification. This algorithm is independent of the operating temperature, the state of charge and the battery age. It controls charging according to the weakest battery module in the pack and is able in the course of several cycles to automatically equalize the performance of the modules in the battery pack without excessive overcharging. The charge algorithm prevents overheating due to bad battery connectors and quite generally responds to all causes of poor charge acceptance with a gentle treatment of the battery during charging.

  6. Optimal Design of Wind-PV-Diesel-Battery System using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryoatmojo, Heri; Hiyama, Takashi; Elbaset, Adel A.; Ashari, Mochamad

    Application of diesel generators to supply the load demand on isolated islands in Indonesia has widely spread. With increases in oil price and the concerns about global warming, the integration of diesel generators with renewable energy systems have become an attractive energy sources for supplying the load demand. This paper performs an optimal design of integrated system involving Wind-PV-Diesel-Battery system for isolated island with CO2 emission evaluation by using genetic algorithm. The proposed system has been designed for the hybrid power generation in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia-latitude 09.30S, longitude 122.0E. From simulation results, the proposed system is able to minimize the total annual cost of the system under study and reduce CO2 emission generated by diesel generators.

  7. Thermal contact algorithms in SIERRA mechanics : mathematical background, numerical verification, and evaluation of performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Copps, Kevin D.; Carnes, Brian R.

    2008-04-01

    We examine algorithms for the finite element approximation of thermal contact models. We focus on the implementation of thermal contact algorithms in SIERRA Mechanics. Following the mathematical formulation of models for tied contact and resistance contact, we present three numerical algorithms: (1) the multi-point constraint (MPC) algorithm, (2) a resistance algorithm, and (3) a new generalized algorithm. We compare and contrast both the correctness and performance of the algorithms in three test problems. We tabulate the convergence rates of global norms of the temperature solution on sequentially refined meshes. We present the results of a parameter study of the effect of contact search tolerances. We outline best practices in using the software for predictive simulations, and suggest future improvements to the implementation.

  8. Estimation of stratospheric NO2 from nadir-viewing satellites: The MPI-C TROPOMI verification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 requires the subtraction of the stratospheric fraction from the total columns derived by DOAS. Here we present a modified reference sector method, which estimates the stratosphere over "clean" regions, as well as over clouded scenarios in which the tropospheric column is shielded. The selection of "clean" pixels is realized gradually by assingning weighting factors to the individual ground pixels, instead of applying binary flags. Global stratospheric fields are then compiled by "weighted convolution". In a second iteration, unphysical negative tropospheric residues are suppressed by adjusting the weights respectively. This algorithm is foreseen as "verification algorithm" for the upcoming TROPOMI on S5p. We show the resulting stratospheric estimates and tropospheric residues for a test data set based on OMI observations. The dependencies on the a-priori settings (definition of weighting factors and convolution kernels) are discussed, and the results are compared to other products, in particular to DOMINO v.2 (based on assimilation, similar to the TROPOMI prototype algorithm) and the NASA standard product (based on a similar reference-region-type approach).

  9. Optimal Battery Sizing in Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generation Using Enhanced Opposition-Based Firefly Algorithm for Voltage Rise Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ling Ai; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Ibrahim, Ahmad Asrul

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm in obtaining the optimal battery energy storage systems (BESS) sizing in photovoltaic generation integrated radial distribution network in order to mitigate the voltage rise problem. Initially, the performance of the original firefly algorithm is enhanced by utilizing the opposition-based learning and introducing inertia weight. After evaluating the performance of the enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm (EOFA) with fifteen benchmark functions, it is then adopted to determine the optimal size for BESS. Two optimization processes are conducted where the first optimization aims to obtain the optimal battery output power on hourly basis and the second optimization aims to obtain the optimal BESS capacity by considering the state of charge constraint of BESS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by applying the algorithm to the 69-bus distribution system and by comparing the performance of EOFA with conventional firefly algorithm and gravitational search algorithm. Results show that EOFA has the best performance comparatively in terms of mitigating the voltage rise problem. PMID:25054184

  10. Optimal battery sizing in photovoltaic based distributed generation using enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm for voltage rise mitigation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ling Ai; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Ibrahim, Ahmad Asrul

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm in obtaining the optimal battery energy storage systems (BESS) sizing in photovoltaic generation integrated radial distribution network in order to mitigate the voltage rise problem. Initially, the performance of the original firefly algorithm is enhanced by utilizing the opposition-based learning and introducing inertia weight. After evaluating the performance of the enhanced opposition-based firefly algorithm (EOFA) with fifteen benchmark functions, it is then adopted to determine the optimal size for BESS. Two optimization processes are conducted where the first optimization aims to obtain the optimal battery output power on hourly basis and the second optimization aims to obtain the optimal BESS capacity by considering the state of charge constraint of BESS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by applying the algorithm to the 69-bus distribution system and by comparing the performance of EOFA with conventional firefly algorithm and gravitational search algorithm. Results show that EOFA has the best performance comparatively in terms of mitigating the voltage rise problem.

  11. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  12. Verification of the Astronomical Almanac's algorithm for approximate the position of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lin; Shen, Guotu; Cai, Jiguang; Dong, Zhanhai; Gao, Jing

    2013-09-01

    With the consumption of the resources, it's important to develop clean solar energy that can solve the problem of energy shortage. Obtaining an accurate position of the sun is the premise of using the solar energy efficiently. An accurate solar position includes two factors that are elevation and azimuth. In the paper, Joseph J. Michalsky's algorithm for calculation of the solar position is verified that is taken from the American Astronomical Almanac. The algorithm has been written into program by Joseph J. Michalsky in FORTRAN. In the paper, it's has been adapted to visual C++ that can calculate the solar elevation and azimuth and errors or some places that less accurate are corrected. The Chinese Astronomical Almanac for the year 1985 doesn't tabulate elevation and azimuth. The quantities needed to calculate elevation and azimuth are the right ascension, the declination and the Greenwich mean sidereal time that are tabulated in the Almanac. Comparing those variables that calculated from the algorithm with the data from the Chinese Astronomical Almanac for the year 1985, it can be found that the biggest difference of the two ways is only 0.01°, 0.01° and 0.0001h respectively, which prove the accuracy of the algorithm indirectly. The measured data that only include elevation comes from Basic Data of Geography in China written by Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Comparing elevation given by the algorithm with the measured data, it shows that the algorithm can be accurate calculating the position of the sun in some extent. And the paper shows in detail the conversion from the local real solar time to Universal Time because the time in Basic Data of Geography in China is the local real solar time. Finally we notice that the 0.01° accuracy mentioned by other paper is not the accuracy of the elevation and azimuth of the sun, but the accuracy of the right ascension and declination. It's easy to understand why the difference of the results

  13. Verification measurements and clinical evaluation of the iPlan RT Monte Carlo dose algorithm for 6 MV photon energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoukhova, A. L.; van Wingerden, K.; Wiggenraad, R. G. J.; van de Vaart, P. J. M.; van Egmond, J.; Franken, E. M.; van Santvoort, J. P. C.

    2010-08-01

    This study presents data for verification of the iPlan RT Monte Carlo (MC) dose algorithm (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany). MC calculations were compared with pencil beam (PB) calculations and verification measurements in phantoms with lung-equivalent material, air cavities or bone-equivalent material to mimic head and neck and thorax and in an Alderson anthropomorphic phantom. Dosimetric accuracy of MC for the micro-multileaf collimator (MLC) simulation was tested in a homogeneous phantom. All measurements were performed using an ionization chamber and Kodak EDR2 films with Novalis 6 MV photon beams. Dose distributions measured with film and calculated with MC in the homogeneous phantom are in excellent agreement for oval, C and squiggle-shaped fields and for a clinical IMRT plan. For a field with completely closed MLC, MC is much closer to the experimental result than the PB calculations. For fields larger than the dimensions of the inhomogeneities the MC calculations show excellent agreement (within 3%/1 mm) with the experimental data. MC calculations in the anthropomorphic phantom show good agreement with measurements for conformal beam plans and reasonable agreement for dynamic conformal arc and IMRT plans. For 6 head and neck and 15 lung patients a comparison of the MC plan with the PB plan was performed. Our results demonstrate that MC is able to accurately predict the dose in the presence of inhomogeneities typical for head and neck and thorax regions with reasonable calculation times (5-20 min). Lateral electron transport was well reproduced in MC calculations. We are planning to implement MC calculations for head and neck and lung cancer patients.

  14. Experimental verification of the planned dose perturbation algorithm in an anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygelman, V.; Opp, D.; Zhang, G.; Stevens, C.; Nelms, B.

    2013-06-01

    3DVH software is capable of generating a volumetric patient VMAT dose by applying a volumetric perturbation algorithm based on comparing measurement-guided dose reconstruction and TPS calculated dose to a cylindrical phantom. The primary purpose of this paper is to validate this dose reconstruction method on an anthropomorphic heterogeneous thoracic phantom by direct comparison to independent measurements. Reconstructed "patient" doses compare well with the independent dose profile measurements in the unit-density target inside a thoracic phantom lung. The largest differences are observed in lung and are associated with the highly modulated plan with narrow (few mm) MLC openings. Such a plan is instructive as a stress test of the algorithm but is not likely to be clinically encountered in lung. This residual disagreement underscores the fact that 3DVH is not designed to correct the errors related to the TPS dose calculations in the low-density media.

  15. Tuning of Kalman Filter Parameters via Genetic Algorithm for State-of-Charge Estimation in Battery Management System

    PubMed Central

    Ting, T. O.; Lim, Eng Gee

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a state-space battery model is derived mathematically to estimate the state-of-charge (SoC) of a battery system. Subsequently, Kalman filter (KF) is applied to predict the dynamical behavior of the battery model. Results show an accurate prediction as the accumulated error, in terms of root-mean-square (RMS), is a very small value. From this work, it is found that different sets of Q and R values (KF's parameters) can be applied for better performance and hence lower RMS error. This is the motivation for the application of a metaheuristic algorithm. Hence, the result is further improved by applying a genetic algorithm (GA) to tune Q and R parameters of the KF. In an online application, a GA can be applied to obtain the optimal parameters of the KF before its application to a real plant (system). This simply means that the instantaneous response of the KF is not affected by the time consuming GA as this approach is applied only once to obtain the optimal parameters. The relevant workable MATLAB source codes are given in the appendix to ease future work and analysis in this area. PMID:25162041

  16. Development and Experimental Verification of a Nonlinear Data Reduction Algorithm for the Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, Gordon Thomas

    The Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission (GP-B) is a space experiment intended to check previously untested aspects of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. It will measure, over the course of a one-year experiment, the directional change of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope's spin axis relative to inertial space as defined by the fixed stars. According to general relativity, the spin axis undergoes two orthogonal precessions of magnitude 6.6 and 0.04 arcseconds per year for a 650-km polar orbit. These tiny drift angles will be measured to sub-milliarcsecond accuracy, a requirement which puts extreme constraints on the gyroscope and the readout system. Given these requirements, it is crucial that the gyroscope, readout system and data reduction scheme be verified to the fullest extent possible on the ground before the mission is flown. This dissertation is a summary of recent work on the GP-B Niobium Bird project, which is intended to provide precisely this end-to-end verification. Analogous to the "Iron Birds" of the aircraft industry, the Niobium Bird (the name refers to the extensive use of niobium in the experiment) is a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, integrating computer simulation of the science signal with prototypical readout hardware. Contributions have been made in several areas of the Niobium Bird. Improvements in the signal simulation include modeling of extraneous signals due to temperature variations and magnetic flux trapped on the surface of the gyroscopes. Upgrades to the experiment include seamless high-speed data injection and acquisition, monitoring of environmental variables such as temperature and vibrations, and characterization of system properties, including linearity and stability. An optimal, recursive nonlinear least-squares estimation algorithm has been developed for performing the data reduction. This algorithm has been generalized for application to other nonlinear problems. Examples are given in which significant improvement was found

  17. Verification of IMRT dose calculations using AAA and PBC algorithms in dose buildup regions.

    PubMed

    Oinam, Arun S; Singh, Lakhwant

    2010-08-26

    The purpose of this comparative study was to test the accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithms of Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculations in the low- and high-dose buildup regions. AAA and PBC algorithms were used to create two intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans of the same optimal fluence generated from a clinically simulated oropharynx case in an in-house fabricated head and neck phantom. The TPS computed buildup doses were compared with the corresponding measured doses in the phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD 100). Analysis of dose distribution calculated using PBC and AAA shows an increase in gamma value in the dose buildup region indicating large dose deviation. For the surface areas of 1, 50 and 100 cm2, PBC overestimates doses as compared to AAA calculated value in the range of 1.34%-3.62% at 0.6 cm depth, 1.74%-2.96% at 0.4 cm depth, and 1.96%-4.06% at 0.2 cm depth, respectively. In high-dose buildup region, AAA calculated doses were lower by an average of -7.56% (SD = 4.73%), while PBC was overestimated by 3.75% (SD = 5.70%) as compared to TLD measured doses at 0.2 cm depth. However, at 0.4 and 0.6 cm depth, PBC overestimated TLD measured doses by 5.84% (SD = 4.38%) and 2.40% (SD = 4.63%), respectively, while AAA underestimated the TLD measured doses by -0.82% (SD = 4.24%) and -1.10% (SD = 4.14%) at the same respective depth. In low-dose buildup region, both AAA and PBC overestimated the TLD measured doses at all depths except -2.05% (SD = 10.21%) by AAA at 0.2 cm depth. The differences between AAA and PBC at all depths were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in high-dose buildup region, whereas it is not statistically significant in low-dose buildup region. In conclusion, AAA calculated the dose more accurately than PBC in clinically important high-dose buildup region at 0.4 cm and 0.6 cm depths. The use of an orfit cast increases the dose buildup

  18. Multi-objective optimal design of lithium-ion battery packs based on evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severino, Bernardo; Gana, Felipe; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo; Estévez, Pablo A.; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R.; Orchard, Marcos E.; Reyes, Jorge; Cortés, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-battery energy storage systems (LiBESS) are increasingly being used on electric mobility and stationary applications. Despite its increasing use and improvements of the technology there are still challenges associated with cost reduction, increasing lifetime and capacity, and higher safety. A correct battery thermal management system (BTMS) design is critical to achieve these goals. In this paper, a general framework for obtaining optimal BTMS designs is proposed. Due to the trade-off between the BTMS's design goals and the complex modeling of thermal response inside the battery pack, this paper proposes to solve this problem using a novel Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) approach. A theoretical case of a module with 6 cells and a real case of a pack used in a Solar Race Car are presented. The results show the capabilities of the proposal methodology, in which improved designs for battery packs are obtained.

  19. Verification of the Solar Dynamics Observatory High Gain Antenna Pointing Algorithm Using Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourkland, Kristin L.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2011-01-01

    presentehat shows the readback delay does not have a negative impact on gimbal control. The decision was made to consider implementing two of the jitter mitigation techniques on board the spacecraft: stagger stepping and the NSR. Flight data from two sets of handovers, one set without jitter mitigation and the other with mitigation enabled, were examined. The trajectory of the predicted handover was compared with the measured trajectory for the two cases, showing that tracking was not negatively impacted with the addition of the jitter mitigation techniques. Additionally, the individual gimbal steps were examined, and it was confirmed that the stagger stepping and NSRs worked as designed. An Image Quality Test was performed to determine the amount of cumulative jitter from the reaction wheels, HGAs, and instruments during various combinations of typical operations. In this paper, the flight results are examined from a test where the HGAs are following the path of a nominal handover with stagger stepping on and HMI NSRs enabled. In this case, the reaction wheels are moving at low speed and the instruments are taking pictures in their standard sequence. The flight data shows the level of jitter that the instruments see when their shutters are open. The HGA-induced jitter is well within the jitter requirement when the stagger step and NSR mitigation options are enabled. The SDO HGA pointing algorithm was designed to achieve nominal antenna pointing at the ground station, perform slews during handover season, and provide three HGA-induced jitter mitigation options without compromising pointing objectives. During the commissioning phase, flight data sets were collected to verify the HGA pointing algorithm and demonstrate its jitter mitigation capabilities.

  20. TH-E-BRE-11: Adaptive-Beamlet Based Finite Size Pencil Beam (AB-FSPB) Dose Calculation Algorithm for Independent Verification of IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C; Arhjoul, L; Yan, G; Lu, B; Li, J; Liu, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In current IMRT and VMAT settings, the use of sophisticated dose calculation procedure is inevitable in order to account complex treatment field created by MLCs. As a consequence, independent volumetric dose verification procedure is time consuming which affect the efficiency of clinical workflow. In this study, the authors present an efficient Pencil Beam based dose calculation algorithm that minimizes the computational procedure while preserving the accuracy. Methods: The computational time of Finite Size Pencil Beam (FSPB) algorithm is proportional to the number of infinitesimal identical beamlets that constitute the arbitrary field shape. In AB-FSPB, the dose distribution from each beamlet is mathematically modelled such that the sizes of beamlets to represent arbitrary field shape are no longer needed to be infinitesimal nor identical. In consequence, it is possible to represent arbitrary field shape with combinations of different sized and minimal number of beamlets. Results: On comparing FSPB with AB-FSPB, the complexity of the algorithm has been reduced significantly. For 25 by 25 cm2 squared shaped field, 1 beamlet of 25 by 25 cm2 was sufficient to calculate dose in AB-FSPB, whereas in conventional FSPB, minimum 2500 beamlets of 0.5 by 0.5 cm2 size were needed to calculate dose that was comparable to the Result computed from Treatment Planning System (TPS). The algorithm was also found to be GPU compatible to maximize its computational speed. On calculating 3D dose of IMRT (∼30 control points) and VMAT plan (∼90 control points) with grid size 2.0 mm (200 by 200 by 200), the dose could be computed within 3∼5 and 10∼15 seconds. Conclusion: Authors have developed an efficient Pencil Beam type dose calculation algorithm called AB-FSPB. The fast computation nature along with GPU compatibility has shown performance better than conventional FSPB. This completely enables the implantation of AB-FSPB in the clinical environment for independent

  1. 40 CFR 1065.372 - NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously conduct such measurements to test the algorithms during the analyzer interference verification....

  2. 40 CFR 1065.372 - NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously conduct such measurements to test the algorithms during the analyzer interference verification....

  3. 40 CFR 1065.372 - NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously conduct such measurements to test the algorithms during the analyzer interference verification....

  4. Dosimetric verification and clinical evaluation of a new commercially available Monte Carlo-based dose algorithm for application in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Margarida; Wen, Ning; Kumar, Sanath; Liu, Dezhi; Ryu, Samuel; Movsas, Benjamin; Munther, Ajlouni; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2010-08-01

    Modern cancer treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have greatly increased the demand for more accurate treatment planning (structure definition, dose calculation, etc) and dose delivery. The ability to use fast and accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculations within a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in the clinical setting is now becoming more of a reality. This study describes the dosimetric verification and initial clinical evaluation of a new commercial MC-based photon beam dose calculation algorithm, within the iPlan v.4.1 TPS (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany). Experimental verification of the MC photon beam model was performed with film and ionization chambers in water phantoms and in heterogeneous solid-water slabs containing bone and lung-equivalent materials for a 6 MV photon beam from a Novalis (BrainLAB) linear accelerator (linac) with a micro-multileaf collimator (m3 MLC). The agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions in the water phantom verification tests was, on average, within 2%/1 mm (high dose/high gradient) and was within ±4%/2 mm in the heterogeneous slab geometries. Example treatment plans in the lung show significant differences between the MC and one-dimensional pencil beam (PB) algorithms within iPlan, especially for small lesions in the lung, where electronic disequilibrium effects are emphasized. Other user-specific features in the iPlan system, such as options to select dose to water or dose to medium, and the mean variance level, have been investigated. Timing results for typical lung treatment plans show the total computation time (including that for processing and I/O) to be less than 10 min for 1-2% mean variance (running on a single PC with 8 Intel Xeon X5355 CPUs, 2.66 GHz). Overall, the iPlan MC algorithm is demonstrated to be an accurate and efficient dose algorithm, incorporating robust tools for MC

  5. Modeling in the State Flow Environment to Support Launch Vehicle Verification Testing for Mission and Fault Management Algorithms in the NASA Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Berg, Peter; England, Dwight; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis methods and testing processes are essential activities in the engineering development and verification of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS). Central to mission success is reliable verification of the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the SLS launch vehicle (LV) flight software. This is particularly difficult because M&FM algorithms integrate and operate LV subsystems, which consist of diverse forms of hardware and software themselves, with equally diverse integration from the engineering disciplines of LV subsystems. M&FM operation of SLS requires a changing mix of LV automation. During pre-launch the LV is primarily operated by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) organization with some LV automation of time-critical functions, and much more autonomous LV operations during ascent that have crucial interactions with the Orion crew capsule, its astronauts, and with mission controllers at the Johnson Space Center. M&FM algorithms must perform all nominal mission commanding via the flight computer to control LV states from pre-launch through disposal and also address failure conditions by initiating autonomous or commanded aborts (crew capsule escape from the failing LV), redundancy management of failing subsystems and components, and safing actions to reduce or prevent threats to ground systems and crew. To address the criticality of the verification testing of these algorithms, the NASA M&FM team has utilized the State Flow environment6 (SFE) with its existing Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) platform which also hosts vendor-supplied physics-based LV subsystem models. The human-derived M&FM algorithms are designed and vetted in Integrated Development Teams composed of design and development disciplines such as Systems Engineering, Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and major subsystems and vehicle elements

  6. Algorithm development and verification of UASCM for multi-dimension and multi-group neutron kinetics model

    SciTech Connect

    Si, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Universal Algorithm of Stiffness Confinement Method (UASCM) for neutron kinetics model of multi-dimensional and multi-group transport equations or diffusion equations has been developed. The numerical experiments based on transport theory code MGSNM and diffusion theory code MGNEM have demonstrated that the algorithm has sufficient accuracy and stability. (authors)

  7. Development and verification of an analytical algorithm to predict absorbed dose distributions in ocular proton therapy using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Koch, Nicholas C; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-02-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy is an effective and non-invasive treatment for uveal melanoma. Recent research efforts have focused on improving the dosimetric accuracy of treatment planning and overcoming the present limitation of relative analytical dose calculations. Monte Carlo algorithms have been shown to accurately predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) values, but this has yet to be shown for analytical algorithms dedicated to ocular proton therapy, which are typically less computationally expensive than Monte Carlo algorithms. The objective of this study was to determine if an analytical method could predict absolute dose distributions and D/MU values for a variety of treatment fields like those used in ocular proton therapy. To accomplish this objective, we used a previously validated Monte Carlo model of an ocular nozzle to develop an analytical algorithm to predict three-dimensional distributions of D/MU values from pristine Bragg peaks and therapeutically useful spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). Results demonstrated generally good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations. While agreement in the proximal region decreased for beams with less penetrating Bragg peaks compared with the open-beam condition, the difference was shown to be largely attributable to edge-scattered protons. A method for including this effect in any future analytical algorithm was proposed. Comparisons of D/MU values showed typical agreement to within 0.5%. We conclude that analytical algorithms can be employed to accurately predict absolute proton dose distributions delivered by an ocular nozzle.

  8. Verification of Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in Han-Chinese Patients Undertaking Mechanic Heart Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Bei; Dong, Li; Guo, Yingqiang; Xiao, Xijun; Zhang, Eryong; Qin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the performance of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in the initial and the stable warfarin treatment phases in a cohort of Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. Methods We searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases for selecting pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing models. Patients with mechanic heart valve replacement were consecutively recruited between March 2012 and July 2012. The predicted warfarin dose of each patient was calculated and compared with the observed initial and stable warfarin doses. The percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of their actual therapeutic dose (percentage within 20%), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were utilized to evaluate the predictive accuracy of all the selected algorithms. Results A total of 8 algorithms including Du, Huang, Miao, Wei, Zhang, Lou, Gage, and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) model, were tested in 181 patients. The MAE of the Gage, IWPC and 6 Han-Chinese pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms was less than 0.6 mg/day in accuracy and the percentage within 20% exceeded 45% in all of the selected models in both the initial and the stable treatment stages. When patients were stratified according to the warfarin dose range, all of the equations demonstrated better performance in the ideal-dose range (1.88–4.38 mg/day) than the low-dose range (<1.88 mg/day). Among the 8 algorithms compared, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a lower MAE and higher percentage within 20% in both the initial and the stable warfarin dose prediction and in the low-dose and the ideal-dose ranges. Conclusions All of the selected pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing regimens performed similarly in our cohort. However, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a better potential for warfarin prediction in the initial and the stable treatment phases in Han

  9. Design and experimental verification of a thin broadband nanocomposite multilayer microwave absorber using genetic algorithm based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Ravi; Agarwala, Vijaya; Singh, Dharmendra

    2014-10-01

    The bandwidth-thickness tradeoff of single layer microwave wave absorber has become challenge for researchers. This paper presents experimental results of thin broadband multilayer microwave wave absorbing structures using magnetic ceramic based nano-composites for absorption at X-band. A genetic algorithm (GA) based approach has been used to optimize thickness of different material layers and selection of suitable material to ensure minimum reflection. The parameters optimized through genetic algorithm have been simulated through Ansoft High Frequency structural simulator (HFSS) and experimentally verified through Absorption Testing device (ATD). It has been found that the peak value of reflection loss is -24.53 dB for 1.3 mm absorber layer coating thickness, which shows the effectiveness of absorber for various applications..

  10. Differential evolution algorithm based photonic structure design: numerical and experimental verification of subwavelength λ/5 focusing of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bor, E.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.

    2016-08-01

    Photonic structure designs based on optimization algorithms provide superior properties compared to those using intuition-based approaches. In the present study, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate subwavelength focusing of light using wavelength scale absorption-free dielectric scattering objects embedded in an air background. An optimization algorithm based on differential evolution integrated into the finite-difference time-domain method was applied to determine the locations of each circular dielectric object with a constant radius and refractive index. The multiobjective cost function defined inside the algorithm ensures strong focusing of light with low intensity side lobes. The temporal and spectral responses of the designed compact photonic structure provided a beam spot size in air with a full width at half maximum value of 0.19λ, where λ is the wavelength of light. The experiments were carried out in the microwave region to verify numerical findings, and very good agreement between the two approaches was found. The subwavelength light focusing is associated with a strong interference effect due to nonuniformly arranged scatterers and an irregular index gradient. Improving the focusing capability of optical elements by surpassing the diffraction limit of light is of paramount importance in optical imaging, lithography, data storage, and strong light-matter interaction.

  11. Differential evolution algorithm based photonic structure design: numerical and experimental verification of subwavelength λ/5 focusing of light.

    PubMed

    Bor, E; Turduev, M; Kurt, H

    2016-01-01

    Photonic structure designs based on optimization algorithms provide superior properties compared to those using intuition-based approaches. In the present study, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate subwavelength focusing of light using wavelength scale absorption-free dielectric scattering objects embedded in an air background. An optimization algorithm based on differential evolution integrated into the finite-difference time-domain method was applied to determine the locations of each circular dielectric object with a constant radius and refractive index. The multiobjective cost function defined inside the algorithm ensures strong focusing of light with low intensity side lobes. The temporal and spectral responses of the designed compact photonic structure provided a beam spot size in air with a full width at half maximum value of 0.19λ, where λ is the wavelength of light. The experiments were carried out in the microwave region to verify numerical findings, and very good agreement between the two approaches was found. The subwavelength light focusing is associated with a strong interference effect due to nonuniformly arranged scatterers and an irregular index gradient. Improving the focusing capability of optical elements by surpassing the diffraction limit of light is of paramount importance in optical imaging, lithography, data storage, and strong light-matter interaction.

  12. Differential evolution algorithm based photonic structure design: numerical and experimental verification of subwavelength λ/5 focusing of light.

    PubMed

    Bor, E; Turduev, M; Kurt, H

    2016-01-01

    Photonic structure designs based on optimization algorithms provide superior properties compared to those using intuition-based approaches. In the present study, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate subwavelength focusing of light using wavelength scale absorption-free dielectric scattering objects embedded in an air background. An optimization algorithm based on differential evolution integrated into the finite-difference time-domain method was applied to determine the locations of each circular dielectric object with a constant radius and refractive index. The multiobjective cost function defined inside the algorithm ensures strong focusing of light with low intensity side lobes. The temporal and spectral responses of the designed compact photonic structure provided a beam spot size in air with a full width at half maximum value of 0.19λ, where λ is the wavelength of light. The experiments were carried out in the microwave region to verify numerical findings, and very good agreement between the two approaches was found. The subwavelength light focusing is associated with a strong interference effect due to nonuniformly arranged scatterers and an irregular index gradient. Improving the focusing capability of optical elements by surpassing the diffraction limit of light is of paramount importance in optical imaging, lithography, data storage, and strong light-matter interaction. PMID:27477060

  13. Differential evolution algorithm based photonic structure design: numerical and experimental verification of subwavelength λ/5 focusing of light

    PubMed Central

    Bor, E.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.

    2016-01-01

    Photonic structure designs based on optimization algorithms provide superior properties compared to those using intuition-based approaches. In the present study, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate subwavelength focusing of light using wavelength scale absorption-free dielectric scattering objects embedded in an air background. An optimization algorithm based on differential evolution integrated into the finite-difference time-domain method was applied to determine the locations of each circular dielectric object with a constant radius and refractive index. The multiobjective cost function defined inside the algorithm ensures strong focusing of light with low intensity side lobes. The temporal and spectral responses of the designed compact photonic structure provided a beam spot size in air with a full width at half maximum value of 0.19λ, where λ is the wavelength of light. The experiments were carried out in the microwave region to verify numerical findings, and very good agreement between the two approaches was found. The subwavelength light focusing is associated with a strong interference effect due to nonuniformly arranged scatterers and an irregular index gradient. Improving the focusing capability of optical elements by surpassing the diffraction limit of light is of paramount importance in optical imaging, lithography, data storage, and strong light-matter interaction. PMID:27477060

  14. Formal Verification of Safety Properties for Aerospace Systems Through Algorithms Based on Exhaustive State-Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2004-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) designed by Lockheed Martin is part of NASA's effort to reduce aviation accidents. We developed a Petri net model of the RSM protocol and used the model checking functions of our tool SMART to investigate a number of safety properties in RSM. To mitigate the impact of state-space explosion, we built a highly discretized model of the system, obtained by partitioning the monitored runway zone into a grid of smaller volumes and by considering scenarios involving only two aircraft. The model also assumes that there are no communication failures, such as bad input from radar or lack of incoming data, thus it relies on a consistent view of reality by all participants. In spite of these simplifications, we were able to expose potential problems in the RSM conceptual design. Our findings were forwarded to the design engineers, who undertook corrective action. Additionally, the results stress the efficiency attained by the new model checking algorithms implemented in SMART, and demonstrate their applicability to real-world systems. Attempts to verify RSM with NuSMV and SPIN have failed due to excessive memory consumption.

  15. Dosimetric verification of the anisotropic analytical algorithm in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kaoru; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hirokawa, Yutaka

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of dose calculations performed by the convolution/superposition based anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities. Methods: Calculations of PDDs using the AAA and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP4C) were compared to ionization chamber measurements with a heterogeneous phantom consisting of lung equivalent and bone equivalent materials. Both 6 and 10 MV photon beams of 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were used for the simulations. Furthermore, changes of energy spectrum with depth for the heterogeneous phantom using MCNP were calculated. Results: The ionization chamber measurements and MCNP calculations in a lung equivalent phantom were in good agreement, having an average deviation of only 0.64{+-}0.45%. For both 6 and 10 MV beams, the average deviation was less than 2% for the 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} fields in the water-lung equivalent phantom and the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field in the water-lung-bone equivalent phantom. Maximum deviations for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field in the lung equivalent phantom before and after the bone slab were 5.0% and 4.1%, respectively. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated an increase of the low-energy photon component in these regions, more for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field compared to the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field. Conclusions: The low-energy photon by Monte Carlo simulation component increases sharply in larger fields when there is a significant presence of bone equivalent heterogeneities. This leads to great changes in the build-up and build-down at the interfaces of different density materials. The AAA calculation modeling of the effect is not deemed to be sufficiently accurate.

  16. Numerical predictions and experimental verification of Li-O2 battery capacity limits for cathodes with spherical conductors and solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heung Chan; Roev, Victor; Kim, Tae Young; Park, Min Sik; Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2016-11-01

    The capacity limits, local formation of Li2O2, passivation of active surfaces, and depletion of oxygen by mass transport characteristics in a composite cathode are modeled, numerically simulated, and experimentally evaluated for non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries employing composites of a solid polymer electrolyte and carbon particles as the cathode, Li metal as the anode, and an ion conductive oxide membrane as the separator. Although the theoretical maximum specific energy of the Li-O2 battery is known to be 3458 Wh kg-1cathode, our simulation predicts a maximum specific energy of 1840 Wh kg-1cathode with an optimized weight ratio of all essential components as well as cathode thickness. A specific energy of 1713 Wh kg-1cathode is experimentally demonstrated in a cell with a composite cathode of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte and Printex carbon nanoparticles with 48% carbon volume and 30 μm thickness. The model also predicts that the incorporation of voids in the cathode can significantly improve the specific energy.

  17. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  18. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  19. Face verification with balanced thresholds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuicheng; Xu, Dong; Tang, Xiaoou

    2007-01-01

    The process of face verification is guided by a pre-learned global threshold, which, however, is often inconsistent with class-specific optimal thresholds. It is, hence, beneficial to pursue a balance of the class-specific thresholds in the model-learning stage. In this paper, we present a new dimensionality reduction algorithm tailored to the verification task that ensures threshold balance. This is achieved by the following aspects. First, feasibility is guaranteed by employing an affine transformation matrix, instead of the conventional projection matrix, for dimensionality reduction, and, hence, we call the proposed algorithm threshold balanced transformation (TBT). Then, the affine transformation matrix, constrained as the product of an orthogonal matrix and a diagonal matrix, is optimized to improve the threshold balance and classification capability in an iterative manner. Unlike most algorithms for face verification which are directly transplanted from face identification literature, TBT is specifically designed for face verification and clarifies the intrinsic distinction between these two tasks. Experiments on three benchmark face databases demonstrate that TBT significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art subspace techniques for face verification.

  20. Geometric verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Present LANDSAT data formats are reviewed to clarify how the geodetic location and registration capabilities were defined for P-tape products and RBV data. Since there is only one geometric model used in the master data processor, geometric location accuracy of P-tape products depends on the absolute accuracy of the model and registration accuracy is determined by the stability of the model. Due primarily to inaccuracies in data provided by the LANDSAT attitude management system, desired accuracies are obtained only by using ground control points and a correlation process. The verification of system performance with regards to geodetic location requires the capability to determine pixel positions of map points in a P-tape array. Verification of registration performance requires the capability to determine pixel positions of common points (not necessarily map points) in 2 or more P-tape arrays for a given world reference system scene. Techniques for registration verification can be more varied and automated since map data are not required. The verification of LACIE extractions is used as an example.

  1. Enhanced Cancelable Biometrics for Online Signature Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo; Inuma, Manabu; Shikata, Junji; Otsuka, Akira

    Cancelable approaches for biometric person authentication have been studied to protect enrolled biometric data, and several algorithms have been proposed. One drawback of cancelable approaches is that the performance is inferior to that of non-cancelable approaches. In this paper, we propose a scheme to improve the performance of a cancelable approach for online signature verification. Our scheme generates two cancelable dataset from one raw dataset and uses them for verification. Preliminary experiments were performed using a distance-based online signature verification algorithm. The experimental results show that our proposed scheme is promising.

  2. 40 CFR 1065.355 - H2O and CO2 interference verification for CO NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Co and... compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously conduct these other measurements to test the compensation algorithms during the...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.355 - H2O and CO2 interference verification for CO NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously conduct these other measurements to test the compensation algorithms during the...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.355 - H2O and CO2 interference verification for CO NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases to meet this interference verification, simultaneously conduct these other measurements to test the compensation algorithms during the...

  5. Swarm Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.; Joshi, Rajeev; Groce, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Reportedly, supercomputer designer Seymour Cray once said that he would sooner use two strong oxen to plow a field than a thousand chickens. Although this is undoubtedly wise when it comes to plowing a field, it is not so clear for other types of tasks. Model checking problems are of the proverbial "search the needle in a haystack" type. Such problems can often be parallelized easily. Alas, none of the usual divide and conquer methods can be used to parallelize the working of a model checker. Given that it has become easier than ever to gain access to large numbers of computers to perform even routine tasks it is becoming more and more attractive to find alternate ways to use these resources to speed up model checking tasks. This paper describes one such method, called swarm verification.

  6. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Mary, Yves R.; Shironoshita, E. Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R.

    2009-01-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies. PMID:20186256

  7. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.

    PubMed

    Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R

    2009-09-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

  8. Use of COTS Batteries on ISS and Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation focuses on COTS Battery testing for energy content, toxicity, hazards, failures modes and controls for different battery chemistries. It also discusses the current program requirements, challenges with COTS Batteries in manned vehicle COTS methodology, JSC test details, and gives a list of incidents from consumer protection safety commissions. The Battery test process involved testing new batteries for engineering certification, qualification of batteries, flight acceptance, cell and battery, environment, performance and abuse. Their conclusions and recommendations were that: high risk is undertaken with the use of COTS batteries, hazard control verification is required to allow the use of these batteries on manned space flights, failures during use cannot be understood if different scenarios of failure are not tested on the ground, and that testing is performed on small sample numbers due to restrictions on cost and time. They recommend testing of large sample size to gain more confidence in the operation of the hazard controls.

  9. Verification of VENTSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The VENTSAR code is an upgraded and improved version of the VENTX code, which estimates concentrations on or near a building from a release at a nearby location. The code calculates the concentrations either for a given meteorological exceedance probability or for a given stability and wind speed combination. A single building can be modeled which lies in the path of the plume, or a penthouse can be added to the top of the building. Plume rise may also be considered. Release types can be either chemical or radioactive. Downwind concentrations are determined at user-specified incremental distances. This verification report was prepared to demonstrate that VENTSAR is properly executing all algorithms and transferring data. Hand calculations were also performed to ensure proper application of methodologies.

  10. Collaborative Localization and Location Verification in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chunyu; Dai, Guoyong; Ying, Kezhen; Chen, Qingzhang

    2015-01-01

    Localization is one of the most important technologies in wireless sensor networks. A lightweight distributed node localization scheme is proposed by considering the limited computational capacity of WSNs. The proposed scheme introduces the virtual force model to determine the location by incremental refinement. Aiming at solving the drifting problem and malicious anchor problem, a location verification algorithm based on the virtual force mode is presented. In addition, an anchor promotion algorithm using the localization reliability model is proposed to re-locate the drifted nodes. Extended simulation experiments indicate that the localization algorithm has relatively high precision and the location verification algorithm has relatively high accuracy. The communication overhead of these algorithms is relative low, and the whole set of reliable localization methods is practical as well as comprehensive. PMID:25954948

  11. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  12. Description and verification of an algorithm for obtaining microdosimetric quantities for high-LET radiation using a single TEPC without pulse height analysis.

    PubMed

    Borak, Thomas B; Chapman, Phillip L

    2014-10-01

    Microdosimetric spectra of single event distributions have been used to provide estimates of quality factors for radiation protection of high-LET radiation. In situations with high-dose rates it becomes difficult to measure, record and store energy deposition from single events. An alternative approach is to store random energy deposition events in a sequence of fixed time intervals that does not require identifying from single events. This can be accomplished with a single detector without pulse height analysis. We show the development of the algorithm using expectation analysis of the statistical estimators for moments of lineal energy: ȳf and ȳD. The method was tested using Monte Carlo simulations based on single event distributions measured with spherical tissue equivalent proportional counters where the event sizes spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The evaluation included testing at various mean numbers of events per interval (i.e., dose rate) and numbers of intervals (i.e., total duration). Results of the expectation analysis and Monte Carlo simulation showed that the algorithm corrects for the excess dispersion due to the random number of events in each time interval when the underlying dose rate is constant. It also converges to the correct value when there is a linear trend in dose rate of the duration of the measurement process. Although this system is not applicable for pulsed radiation fields it proved to be robust when applied to measured distributions with single event spectra (PuBe neutrons, Fe ions at 1,000 MeV/nucleon and a power function distribution of single event sizes) with a coefficient of variation of 25% for estimates of ȳD using 100 sampling intervals and 10% using 400 sampling intervals. PMID:25211132

  13. Generic Verification Protocol for Verification of Online Turbidimeters

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of online turbidimeters. The verification tests described in this document will be conducted under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Verification tests will...

  14. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  15. Columbus pressurized module verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messidoro, Piero; Comandatore, Emanuele

    1986-01-01

    The baseline verification approach of the COLUMBUS Pressurized Module was defined during the A and B1 project phases. Peculiarities of the verification program are the testing requirements derived from the permanent manned presence in space. The model philosophy and the test program have been developed in line with the overall verification concept. Such critical areas as meteoroid protections, heat pipe radiators and module seals are identified and tested. Verification problem areas are identified and recommendations for the next development are proposed.

  16. Verification of VLSI designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we explore the specification and verification of VLSI designs. The paper focuses on abstract specification and verification of functionality using mathematical logic as opposed to low-level boolean equivalence verification such as that done using BDD's and Model Checking. Specification and verification, sometimes called formal methods, is one tool for increasing computer dependability in the face of an exponentially increasing testing effort.

  17. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  18. Aerospace Nickel-cadmium Cell Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Strawn, D. Michael; Hall, Stephen W.

    2001-01-01

    During the early years of satellites, NASA successfully flew "NASA-Standard" nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cells manufactured by GE/Gates/SAFF on a variety of spacecraft. In 1992 a NASA Battery Review Board determined that the strategy of a NASA Standard Cell and Battery Specification and the accompanying NASA control of a standard manufacturing control document (MCD) for Ni-Cd cells and batteries was unwarranted. As a result of that determination, standards were abandoned and the use of cells other than the NASA Standard was required. In order to gain insight into the performance and characteristics of the various aerospace Ni-Cd products available, tasks were initiated within the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program that involved the procurement and testing of representative aerospace Ni-Cd cell designs. A standard set of test conditions was established in order to provide similar information about the products from various vendors. The objective of this testing was to provide independent verification of representative commercial flight cells available in the marketplace today. This paper will provide a summary of the verification tests run on cells from various manufacturers: Sanyo 35 Ampere-hour (Ali) standard and 35 Ali advanced Ni-Cd cells, SAFr 50 Ah Ni-Cd cells and Eagle-Picher 21 Ali Magnum and 21 Ali Super Ni-CdTM cells from Eagle-Picher were put through a full evaluation. A limited number of 18 and 55 Ali cells from Acme Electric were also tested to provide an initial evaluation of the Acme aerospace cell designs. Additionally, 35 Ali aerospace design Ni-MH cells from Sanyo were evaluated under the standard conditions established for this program. Ile test program is essentially complete. The cell design parameters, the verification test plan and the details of the test result will be discussed.

  19. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  20. Verification of Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pullum, Laura L; Cui, Xiaohui; Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Christopher; Buskens, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive systems are critical for future space and other unmanned and intelligent systems. Verification of these systems is also critical for their use in systems with potential harm to human life or with large financial investments. Due to their nondeterministic nature and extremely large state space, current methods for verification of software systems are not adequate to provide a high level of assurance for them. The combination of stabilization science, high performance computing simulations, compositional verification and traditional verification techniques, plus operational monitors, provides a complete approach to verification and deployment of adaptive systems that has not been used before. This paper gives an overview of this approach.

  1. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  2. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  3. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  4. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  5. Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

    2006-12-29

    As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.375 - Interference verification for N2O analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certain analyzers by causing a response similar to N2O. If the analyzer uses compensation algorithms that... other measurements to test the compensation algorithms during the analyzer interference verification....

  7. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... response to CO2. If the NDIR analyzer uses compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases... compensation algorithms during the analyzer interference verification. (c) System requirements. A CO2...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... response to CO2. If the NDIR analyzer uses compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases... compensation algorithms during the analyzer interference verification. (c) System requirements. A CO2...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... response to CO2. If the NDIR analyzer uses compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases... compensation algorithms during the analyzer interference verification. (c) System requirements. A CO2...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.375 - Interference verification for N2O analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certain analyzers by causing a response similar to N2O. If the analyzer uses compensation algorithms that... other measurements to test the compensation algorithms during the analyzer interference verification....

  11. Simulation verification techniques study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.350 - H2O interference verification for CO2 NDIR analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Co and Co2... response to CO2. If the NDIR analyzer uses compensation algorithms that utilize measurements of other gases... compensation algorithms during the analyzer interference verification. (c) System requirements. A CO2...

  13. Software verification and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    General procedures for software verification and validation are provided as a guide for managers, programmers, and analysts involved in software development. The verification and validation procedures described are based primarily on testing techniques. Testing refers to the execution of all or part of a software system for the purpose of detecting errors. Planning, execution, and analysis of tests are outlined in this document. Code reading and static analysis techniques for software verification are also described.

  14. COS FUV Target Acquisition Algorithm Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, David

    2009-07-01

    Verify the ability of the COS FSW to place an isolated point source at the center of the aperture, both for the BOA and PSA, using dispersed light from the object using the FUV gratings. The various options for target centering should be exercised and shown to work properly. This test is for acquisitions in dispersed-light mode only. This program is modeled from SMOV activity summary COS28.This program should be executed two or more weeks after visit 12 of 11469, and after the SIAF update, so that we have confirmed that NUV imaging acquisitions work properly with the BOA.

  15. Runtime Verification with State Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoller, Scott D.; Bartocci, Ezio; Seyster, Justin; Grosu, Radu; Havelund, Klaus; Smolka, Scott A.; Zadok, Erez

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of Runtime Verification with State Estimation and show how this concept can be applied to estimate theprobability that a temporal property is satisfied by a run of a program when monitoring overhead is reduced by sampling. In such situations, there may be gaps in the observed program executions, thus making accurate estimation challenging. To deal with the effects of sampling on runtime verification, we view event sequences as observation sequences of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), use an HMM model of the monitored program to "fill in" sampling-induced gaps in observation sequences, and extend the classic forward algorithm for HMM state estimation (which determines the probability of a state sequence, given an observation sequence) to compute the probability that the property is satisfied by an execution of the program. To validate our approach, we present a case study based on the mission software for a Mars rover. The results of our case study demonstrate high prediction accuracy for the probabilities computed by our algorithm. They also show that our technique is much more accurate than simply evaluating the temporal property on the given observation sequences, ignoring the gaps.

  16. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests are performed on an improved battery charger. The primary purpose of the testing is to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. Tests are developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests show this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  17. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  18. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  19. Secure optical verification using dual phase-only correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Zhenwei; Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a security-enhanced optical verification system using dual phase-only correlation based on a novel correlation algorithm. By employing a nonlinear encoding, the inherent locks of the verification system are obtained in real-valued random distributions, and the identity keys assigned to authorized users are designed as pure phases. The verification process is implemented in two-step correlation, so only authorized identity keys can output the discriminate auto-correlation and cross-correlation signals that satisfy the reset threshold values. Compared with the traditional phase-only-correlation-based verification systems, a higher security level against counterfeiting and collisions are obtained, which is demonstrated by cryptanalysis using known attacks, such as the known-plaintext attack and the chosen-plaintext attack. Optical experiments as well as necessary numerical simulations are carried out to support the proposed verification method.

  20. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 1, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume I: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries of the program's operations.

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 1, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume I: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements of the program's operations.

  2. Biometric verification based on grip-pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.; Bazen, Asker M.; Kauffman, Joost A.; Hartel, Pieter

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a user-verification system for a smart gun, which is based on grip-pattern recognition. An existing pressure sensor consisting of an array of 44 × 44 piezoresistive elements is used to measure the grip pattern. An interface has been developed to acquire pressure images from the sensor. The values of the pixels in the pressure-pattern images are used as inputs for a verification algorithm, which is currently implemented in software on a PC. The verification algorithm is based on a likelihoodratio classifier for Gaussian probability densities. First results indicate that it is feasible to use grip-pattern recognition for biometric verification.

  3. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  4. Lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabano, J.-P.

    The physical principles and technology of commercial Li batteries operating at ambient temperatures are reviewed in chapters contributed by international specialists. An overview of Li battery systems is presented, and organic and inorganic electrolytes are characterized in terms of properties, structure, conductivity, Li stability, and film formation. Individual chapters are devoted to Li/CuO cells; cells with Pb, Bi, Pb/Bi, or Bi/Cu oxides; Li/FeS2, Li/CuS, Li/MnO2, Li/CF, Li/Ag2CrO4, Li/AgBi(CrO4)2, Li/V2O5, Li/SO2, and Li/oxyhalide cells, secondary Li cells, and solid-electrolyte Li cells. Graphs and tables of performance parameters and drawings and photographs of typical batteries are included. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  5. Verification and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increased stress upon the verification of arms control agreements, both as a technical problem and as a political issue. As one contribution here points out, the middle ground has shrunk between those who are persuaded that the Soviets are ''cheating'' and those who are willing to take some verification risks for the sake of achieving arms control. One angle, according to a Lawrence Livermore physicist who served as a member of the delegation to the various test-ban treaty negotiations, is the limited effectiveness of on-site inspection as compared to other means of verification.

  6. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  7. Verification of RADTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipe, F.L.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents details of the verification process of the RADTRAN computer code which was established for the calculation of risk estimates for radioactive materials transportation by highway, rail, air, and waterborne modes.

  8. Voltage verification unit

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  9. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  10. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  11. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  12. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian, H.C.; Bryant, J.A.

    1984-04-15

    Tests were performed on an improved battery charger manufactured by Lester Electrical of Nebraska, Inc. This charger was installed in a South Coast Technology Rabbit No. 4, which was equipped with lead-acid batteries produced by ESB Company. The primary purpose of the testing was to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. To this end tests were developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests showed this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  13. Verification of a Viscous Computational Aeroacoustics Code using External Verification Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingraham, Daniel; Hixon, Ray

    2015-01-01

    The External Verification Analysis approach to code verification is extended to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with constant properties, and is used to verify a high-order computational aeroacoustics (CAA) code. After a brief review of the relevant literature, the details of the EVA approach are presented and compared to the similar Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS). Pseudocode representations of EVA's algorithms are included, along with the recurrence relations needed to construct the EVA solution. The code verification results show that EVA was able to convincingly verify a high-order, viscous CAA code without the addition of MMS-style source terms, or any other modifications to the code.

  14. Verification of a Viscous Computational Aeroacoustics Code Using External Verification Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingraham, Daniel; Hixon, Ray

    2015-01-01

    The External Verification Analysis approach to code verification is extended to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with constant properties, and is used to verify a high-order computational aeroacoustics (CAA) code. After a brief review of the relevant literature, the details of the EVA approach are presented and compared to the similar Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS). Pseudocode representations of EVA's algorithms are included, along with the recurrence relations needed to construct the EVA solution. The code verification results show that EVA was able to convincingly verify a high-order, viscous CAA code without the addition of MMS-style source terms, or any other modifications to the code.

  15. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  16. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  17. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  18. Goddard high resolution spectrograph science verification and data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The data analysis performed was to support the Orbital Verification (OV) and Science Verification (SV) of the GHRS was in the areas of the Digicon detector's performance and stability, wavelength calibration, and geomagnetic induced image motion. The results of the analyses are briefly described. Detailed results are given in the form of attachments. Specialized software was developed for the analyses. Calibration files were formatted according to the specifications in a Space Telescope Science report. IRAS images were restored of the Large Magellanic Cloud using a blocked iterative algorithm. The algorithm works with the raw data scans without regridding or interpolating the data on an equally spaced image grid.

  19. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  20. Bipolar-Battery Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 2/Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume II Appendix A to Part 2 - Volume I.

  2. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  3. Explaining Verification Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The Hoare approach to program verification relies on the construction and discharge of verification conditions (VCs) but offers no support to trace, analyze, and understand the VCs themselves. We describe a systematic extension of the Hoare rules by labels so that the calculus itself can be used to build up explanations of the VCs. The labels are maintained through the different processing steps and rendered as natural language explanations. The explanations can easily be customized and can capture different aspects of the VCs; here, we focus on their structure and purpose. The approach is fully declarative and the generated explanations are based only on an analysis of the labels rather than directly on the logical meaning of the underlying VCs or their proofs. Keywords: program verification, Hoare calculus, traceability.

  4. Wind gust warning verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  5. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  6. Verification of Ceramic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar-Lafenetre, Stephanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michael; De Graaf, Dennis; Hartmann, Peter; Coe, Graham; Laine, Benoit

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the “Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures” contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instrument structures. It has been written in order to be applicable to most types of ceramic or glass-ceramic materials - typically Cesic®, HBCesic®, Silicon Nitride, Silicon Carbide and ZERODUR®. The proposed guideline describes the activities to be performed at material level in order to cover all the specific aspects of ceramics (Weibull distribution, brittle behaviour, sub-critical crack growth). Elementary tests and their post-processing methods are described, and recommendations for optimization of the test plan are given in order to have a consistent database. The application of this method is shown on an example in a dedicated article [7]. Then the verification activities to be performed at system level are described. This includes classical verification activities based on relevant standard (ECSS Verification [4]), plus specific analytical, testing and inspection features. The analysis methodology takes into account the specific behaviour of ceramic materials, especially the statistical distribution of failures (Weibull) and the method to transfer it from elementary data to a full-scale structure. The demonstration of the efficiency of this method is described in a dedicated article [8]. The verification is completed by classical full-scale testing activities. Indications about proof testing, case of use and implementation are given and specific inspection and protection measures are described. These additional activities are necessary to ensure the required reliability. The aim of the guideline is to describe how to reach the same reliability level as for structures made of more classical materials (metals, composites).

  7. Verification of the time evolution of cosmological simulations via hypothesis-driven comparative and quantitative visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-hsing; Ahrens, James P; Heitmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    We describe a visualization assisted process for the verification of cosmological simulation codes. The need for code verification stems from the requirement for very accurate predictions in order to interpret observational data confidently. We compare different simulation algorithms in order to reliably predict differences in simulation results and understand their dependence on input parameter settings.

  8. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  9. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  10. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  11. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  12. Field verification of Wave Equation tidal dynamics in the English Channel and southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Francisco E.; Lynch, Daniel R.

    Finite element results obtained with the implicit Wave Equation algorithm are compared with field data in a blind (uncalibrated) verification exercise. The study area comprises the English Channel and the southern North Sea.

  13. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately.

  14. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  15. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. The Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) was initiated in 1995 to speed implementation of new and innovative commercial-ready environemntal technologies by providing objective, 3rd pa...

  17. FPGA Verification Accelerator (FVAX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Jane; Burke, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Is Verification Acceleration Possible? - Increasing the visibility of the internal nodes of the FPGA results in much faster debug time - Forcing internal signals directly allows a problem condition to be setup very quickly center dot Is this all? - No, this is part of a comprehensive effort to improve the JPL FPGA design and V&V process.

  18. Is flow verification necessary

    SciTech Connect

    Beetle, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Safeguards test statistics are used in an attempt to detect diversion of special nuclear material. Under assumptions concerning possible manipulation (falsification) of safeguards accounting data, the effects on the statistics due to diversion and data manipulation are described algebraically. A comprehensive set of statistics that is capable of detecting any diversion of material is defined in terms of the algebraic properties of the effects. When the assumptions exclude collusion between persons in two material balance areas, then three sets of accounting statistics are shown to be comprehensive. Two of the sets contain widely known accountancy statistics. One of them does not require physical flow verification - comparisons of operator and inspector data for receipts and shipments. The third set contains a single statistic which does not require physical flow verification. In addition to not requiring technically difficult and expensive flow verification, this single statistic has several advantages over other comprehensive sets of statistics. This algebraic approach as an alternative to flow verification for safeguards accountancy is discussed in this paper.

  19. Telescope performance verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Buckley, David A. H.

    2004-09-01

    While Systems Engineering appears to be widely applied on the very large telescopes, it is lacking in the development of many of the medium and small telescopes currently in progress. The latter projects rely heavily on the experience of the project team, verbal requirements and conjecture based on the successes and failures of other telescopes. Furthermore, it is considered an unaffordable luxury to "close-the-loop" by carefully analysing and documenting the requirements and then verifying the telescope's compliance with them. In this paper the authors contend that a Systems Engineering approach is a keystone in the development of any telescope and that verification of the telescope's performance is not only an important management tool but also forms the basis upon which successful telescope operation can be built. The development of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has followed such an approach and is now in the verification phase of its development. Parts of the SALT verification process will be discussed in some detail to illustrate the suitability of this approach, including oversight by the telescope shareholders, recording of requirements and results, design verification and performance testing. Initial test results will be presented where appropriate.

  20. Multibody modeling and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Gloria J.

    1989-01-01

    A summary of a ten week project on flexible multibody modeling, verification and control is presented. Emphasis was on the need for experimental verification. A literature survey was conducted for gathering information on the existence of experimental work related to flexible multibody systems. The first portion of the assigned task encompassed the modeling aspects of flexible multibodies that can undergo large angular displacements. Research in the area of modeling aspects were also surveyed, with special attention given to the component mode approach. Resulting from this is a research plan on various modeling aspects to be investigated over the next year. The relationship between the large angular displacements, boundary conditions, mode selection, and system modes is of particular interest. The other portion of the assigned task was the generation of a test plan for experimental verification of analytical and/or computer analysis techniques used for flexible multibody systems. Based on current and expected frequency ranges of flexible multibody systems to be used in space applications, an initial test article was selected and designed. A preliminary TREETOPS computer analysis was run to ensure frequency content in the low frequency range, 0.1 to 50 Hz. The initial specifications of experimental measurement and instrumentation components were also generated. Resulting from this effort is the initial multi-phase plan for a Ground Test Facility of Flexible Multibody Systems for Modeling Verification and Control. The plan focusses on the Multibody Modeling and Verification (MMV) Laboratory. General requirements of the Unobtrusive Sensor and Effector (USE) and the Robot Enhancement (RE) laboratories were considered during the laboratory development.

  1. Galileo probe battery system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Dagarin, B.P.; Taenaka, R.K.; Stofel, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    NASA`s Galileo 6-year trip to Jupiter is in its final phase. The mission consists of a Jovian Orbiter and an atmospheric entry Probe. The Probe is designed to coast autonomously for up to 190 days and turn itself on 6 hours prior to entry. It will then descend through the upper atmosphere for 50 to 75 minutes with the aid of an 8-foot parachute. This paper discusses sources of electrical power for the Probe and battery testing at the systems level. Described are the final production phase, qualification, and systems testing prior to and following launch, as well as decisions made regarding the Probe separation Li/SO{sub 2} battery configuration. In addition, the paper briefly describes the thermal battery verification program. The main power source comprises three Li/SO{sub 2} battery modules containing 13 D-sized cell strings per module. These modules are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years and support a 150-day clock, ending with a 7-hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 A to 9.5 A during the last 30 minutes. The main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO{sub 4}-Ca), which will be used for firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric entry.

  2. Tradeoffs between battery energy capacity and stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Scott J.; Callaway, Duncan S.; Fathy, Hosam K.; Stein, Jeffrey L.

    Recent results in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power management research suggest that battery energy capacity requirements may be reduced through proper power management algorithm design. Specifically, algorithms which blend fuel and electricity during the charge depletion phase using smaller batteries may perform equally to algorithms that apply electric-only operation during charge depletion using larger batteries. The implication of this result is that "blended" power management algorithms may reduce battery energy capacity requirements, thereby lowering the acquisition costs of PHEVs. This article seeks to quantify the tradeoffs between power management algorithm design and battery energy capacity, in a systematic and rigorous manner. Namely, we (1) construct dynamic PHEV models with scalable battery energy capacities, (2) optimize power management using stochastic control theory, and (3) develop simulation methods to statistically quantify the performance tradeoffs. The degree to which blending enables smaller battery energy capacities is evaluated as a function of both daily driving distance and energy (fuel and electricity) pricing.

  3. Program verification document for the ASTP flight program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The various segments of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) flight program were verified. This included checks on the following: general verification, reference systems and transformations, launch preparations, boost navigation and guidance, orbital navigation and guidance, time bases, discretes, and interrupts, launch vehicle attitude control, switch selector processing, digital command system, real time telemetry and data compression, and algorithms.

  4. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  5. Improved Verification for Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace systems are subject to many stringent performance requirements to be verified with low risk. This report investigates verification planning using conditional approaches vice the standard classical statistical methods, and usage of historical surrogate data for requirement validation and in verification planning. The example used in this report to illustrate the results of these investigations is a proposed mission assurance requirement with the concomitant maximum acceptable verification risk for the NASA Constellation Program Orion Launch Abort System (LAS). This report demonstrates the following improvements: 1) verification planning using conditional approaches vice classical statistical methods results in plans that are more achievable and feasible; 2) historical surrogate data can be used to bound validation of performance requirements; and, 3) incorporation of historical surrogate data in verification planning using conditional approaches produces even less costly and more reasonable verification plans. The procedures presented in this report may produce similar improvements and cost savings in verification for any stringent performance requirement for an aerospace system.

  6. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  7. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  8. Electrochemistry-based Battery Modeling for Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications. In recent years, they have become popular as a source of power for electric vehicles such as cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and commericial passenger aircraft. In such application domains, it becomes crucial to both monitor battery health and performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL) events. To implement such technologies, it is crucial to understand how batteries work and to capture that knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis algorithms. In this work, we develop electrochemistry-based models of lithium-ion batteries that capture the significant electrochemical processes, are computationally efficient, capture the effects of aging, and are of suitable accuracy for reliable EOD prediction in a variety of usage profiles. This paper reports on the progress of such a model, with results demonstrating the model validity and accurate EOD predictions.

  9. Performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Raffaele; Maio, Dario; Maltoni, Davide; Wayman, James L; Jain, Anil K

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the performance evaluation of fingerprint verification systems. After an initial classification of biometric testing initiatives, we explore both the theoretical and practical issues related to performance evaluation by presenting the outcome of the recent Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC2004). FVC2004 was organized by the authors of this work for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art in this challenging pattern recognition application and making available a new common benchmark for an unambiguous comparison of fingerprint-based biometric systems. FVC2004 is an independent, strongly supervised evaluation performed at the evaluators' site on evaluators' hardware. This allowed the test to be completely controlled and the computation times of different algorithms to be fairly compared. The experience and feedback received from previous, similar competitions (FVC2000 and FVC2002) allowed us to improve the organization and methodology of FVC2004 and to capture the attention of a significantly higher number of academic and commercial organizations (67 algorithms were submitted for FVC2004). A new, "Light" competition category was included to estimate the loss of matching performance caused by imposing computational constraints. This paper discusses data collection and testing protocols, and includes a detailed analysis of the results. We introduce a simple but effective method for comparing algorithms at the score level, allowing us to isolate difficult cases (images) and to study error correlations and algorithm "fusion." The huge amount of information obtained, including a structured classification of the submitted algorithms on the basis of their features, makes it possible to better understand how current fingerprint recognition systems work and to delineate useful research directions for the future.

  10. Industrial methodology for process verification in research (IMPROVER): toward systems biology verification

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia; Rice, J. Jeremy; Norel, Raquel; Sprengel, Jörg; Stolle, Katrin; Bonk, Thomas; Corthesy, Stephanie; Royyuru, Ajay; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Analyses and algorithmic predictions based on high-throughput data are essential for the success of systems biology in academic and industrial settings. Organizations, such as companies and academic consortia, conduct large multi-year scientific studies that entail the collection and analysis of thousands of individual experiments, often over many physical sites and with internal and outsourced components. To extract maximum value, the interested parties need to verify the accuracy and reproducibility of data and methods before the initiation of such large multi-year studies. However, systematic and well-established verification procedures do not exist for automated collection and analysis workflows in systems biology which could lead to inaccurate conclusions. Results: We present here, a review of the current state of systems biology verification and a detailed methodology to address its shortcomings. This methodology named ‘Industrial Methodology for Process Verification in Research’ or IMPROVER, consists on evaluating a research program by dividing a workflow into smaller building blocks that are individually verified. The verification of each building block can be done internally by members of the research program or externally by ‘crowd-sourcing’ to an interested community. www.sbvimprover.com Implementation: This methodology could become the preferred choice to verify systems biology research workflows that are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated in industrial and academic settings. Contact: gustavo@us.ibm.com PMID:22423044

  11. Fusion strategies for boosting cancelable online signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo; Inuma, Manabu; Shikata, Junji; Otsuka, Akira

    2010-04-01

    Cancelable approaches for biometric person authentication have been studied to protect enrolled biometric data, and several algorithms have been proposed. One drawback of cancelable approaches is that the performance is inferior to that of non-cancelable approaches. As one solution, we proposed a scheme to enhance the performance of a cancelable approach for online signature verification by combining scores calculated from two transformed datasets generated using two keys. Generally, the same verification algorithm is used for transformed data as for raw (non-transformed) data in cancelable approaches, and, in our previous work, a verification system developed for a non-transformed dataset was used to calculate the scores from transformed data. In this paper, we modify the verification system by using transformed data for training. Several experiments were performed by using public databases, and the experimental results show that the modification of the verification system improved the performances. Our cancelable system combines two scores to make a decision. Several fusion strategies are also considered, and the experimental results are reported here.

  12. TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the semiannual progress report is to summarize the technical results obtained during the latest reporting period. The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TF Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern. The general logic and strategy of the program to achieve its objectives is shown on Fig. 1-1. Five prior programs form the basis for the TFE Verification Program: (1) AEC/NASA program of the 1960s and early 1970; (2) SP-100 concept development program;(3) SP-100 thermionic technology program; (4) Thermionic irradiations program in TRIGA in FY-86; (5) and Thermionic Technology Program in 1986 and 1987. 18 refs., 64 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. Cancelable face verification using optical encryption and authentication.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Motahareh; Mozaffari, Saeed; Keshavarzi, Parviz

    2015-10-01

    In a cancelable biometric system, each instance of enrollment is distorted by a transform function, and the output should not be retransformed to the original data. This paper presents a new cancelable face verification system in the encrypted domain. Encrypted facial images are generated by a double random phase encoding (DRPE) algorithm using two keys (RPM1 and RPM2). To make the system noninvertible, a photon counting (PC) method is utilized, which requires a photon distribution mask for information reduction. Verification of sparse images that are not recognizable by direct visual inspection is performed by unconstrained minimum average correlation energy filter. In the proposed method, encryption keys (RPM1, RPM2, and PDM) are used in the sender side, and the receiver needs only encrypted images and correlation filters. In this manner, the system preserves privacy if correlation filters are obtained by an adversary. Performance of PC-DRPE verification system is evaluated under illumination variation, pose changes, and facial expression. Experimental results show that utilizing encrypted images not only increases security concerns but also enhances verification performance. This improvement can be attributed to the fact that, in the proposed system, the face verification problem is converted to key verification tasks. PMID:26479930

  14. Learning Assumptions for Compositional Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Jamieson M.; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pasareanu, Corina; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Compositional verification is a promising approach to addressing the state explosion problem associated with model checking. One compositional technique advocates proving properties of a system by checking properties of its components in an assume-guarantee style. However, the application of this technique is difficult because it involves non-trivial human input. This paper presents a novel framework for performing assume-guarantee reasoning in an incremental and fully automated fashion. To check a component against a property, our approach generates assumptions that the environment needs to satisfy for the property to hold. These assumptions are then discharged on the rest of the system. Assumptions are computed by a learning algorithm. They are initially approximate, but become gradually more precise by means of counterexamples obtained by model checking the component and its environment, alternately. This iterative process may at any stage conclude that the property is either true or false in the system. We have implemented our approach in the LTSA tool and applied it to the analysis of a NASA system.

  15. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  16. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  17. Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, J R; Brock, J S; Brandon, S T; Cotrell, D L; Johnson, B; Knupp, P; Rider, W; Trucano, T; Weirs, V G

    2008-10-10

    This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations. The key points of this document are: (1) Verification deals with mathematical correctness of the numerical algorithms in a code, while validation deals with physical correctness of a simulation in a regime of interest. This document is about verification. (2) The current seven-problem Tri-Laboratory Verification Test Suite, which has been used for approximately five years at the DOE WP laboratories, is limited. (3) Both the methodology for and technology used in verification analysis have evolved and been improved since the original test suite was proposed. (4) The proposed test problems are in three basic areas: (a) Hydrodynamics; (b) Transport processes; and (c) Dynamic strength-of-materials. (5) For several of the proposed problems we provide a 'strong sense verification benchmark', consisting of (i) a clear mathematical statement of the problem with sufficient information to run a computer simulation, (ii) an explanation of how the code result and benchmark solution are to be evaluated, and (iii) a description of the acceptance criterion for simulation code results. (6) It is proposed that the set of verification test problems with which any particular code be evaluated include some of the problems described in this document. Analysis of the proposed verification test problems constitutes part of a necessary--but not sufficient--step that builds confidence in physics and engineering simulation codes. More complicated test cases, including physics models of greater

  18. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  19. Using color for face verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, Mariusz

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents research on importance of color information in face verification system. Four most popular color spaces where used: RGB, YIQ, YCbCr, luminance and compared using four types of discriminant classifiers. Experiments conducted on facial databases with complex background, different poses and light condition show that color information can improve the verification accuracy compared to the traditionally used luminance information. To achieve the best performance we recommend to use multi frames verification encoded to YIQ color space.

  20. Quantum money with classical verification

    SciTech Connect

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  1. Nickel cadmium battery evaluation, modeling, and application in an electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, William Alfred

    A battery testing facility was set up in the battery evaluation laboratory. This system includes a set of current regulators which were fabricated in the UMASS. Lowell labs and a PC based data acquisition system. Batteries were charged or discharged at any rate within system ratings, and data including battery voltage, current, temperature and impedance were stored by a PC. STM5.140 type nickel-cadmium electric vehicle batteries were subjected to various test procedures using the battery testing facility. The results from these tests were used to determine battery characteristics. An electrical component battery model was also developed using the test data. The validity of the battery model was verified through experimental testing, and it was found to be accurate. Additionally, improved battery charging algorithms were developed which resulted in significant improvements in battery efficiency. Electric car operation with STM5.140 type of batteries was evaluated. Realistic road test data were analyzed experimentally and using the battery model. No battery abuse was found under EV driving conditions. The performance of the STM5.140 battery under abuse conditions was evaluated and it was found that it performs reasonably well under all abuse conditions tested. The model and test methodologies may be incorporated into complete electric vehicle models in order to assist in the design and operation of current and future electric vehicles.

  2. Verification of LHS distributions.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton

    2006-04-01

    This document provides verification test results for normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions that are used in Sandia's Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) software. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the sample values being generated in LHS are distributed according to the desired distribution types. The testing of distribution correctness is done by examining summary statistics, graphical comparisons using quantile-quantile plots, and format statistical tests such as the Chisquare test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Anderson-Darling test. The overall results from the testing indicate that the generation of normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions in LHS is acceptable.

  3. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  4. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  5. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  6. Battery Review Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-02-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  7. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  9. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  10. Software Verification and Validation Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Olund, Thomas S.

    2008-09-15

    This Software Verification and Validation procedure provides the action steps for the Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) testing process. The primary objective of the testing process is to provide assurance that the software functions as intended, and meets the requirements specified by the client. Verification and validation establish the primary basis for TWINS software product acceptance.

  11. Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Jose Barcelar; Barbosa, Manuel; Pinto, Jorge Sousa; Vieira, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We report on the application of an off-the-shelf verification platform to the RC4 stream cipher cryptographic software implementation (as available in the openSSL library), and introduce a deductive verification technique based on self-composition for proving the absence of error propagation.

  12. HDL to verification logic translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  13. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  14. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 2, Part 3; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S,; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume II Appendices to Part 3 - Volume I.

  15. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  16. TU-A-9A-03: Development and Verification of a Forward Model That Assists in Iterative Post-Processing Algorithms Used to Reduce Blur in Compton Backscatter Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Juneja, B; Gilland, D; Hintenlang, D; Doxsee, K; Bova, F

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI), the source and detector reside on the same side of the patient. We previously demonstrated the applicability of CBI systems for medical purposes using an industrial system. To assist in post-processing images from a CBI system, a forward model based on radiation absorption and scatter principles has been developed. Methods: The forward model was developed in C++ using raytracing to track particles. The algorithm accepts phantoms of any size and resolution to calculate the fraction of incident photons scattered back to the detector, and can perform these calculations for any detector geometry and source specification. To validate the model, results were compared to MCNP-X, which is a Monte Carlo based simulation software, for various combinations of source specifications, detector geometries, and phantom compositions. Results: The model verified that the backscatter signal to the detector was based on three interaction probabilities: a) attenuation of photons going into the phantom, b) Compton scatter of photons toward the detector, and c) attenuation of photons coming out of the phantom. The results from the MCNP-X simulations and the forward model varied from 1 to 5%. This difference was less than 1% for energies higher than 30 keV, but was up to 4% for lower energies. At 50 keV, the difference was less than 1% for multiple detector widths and for both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Conclusion: As part of the optimization of a medical CBI system, an efficient and accurate forward model was constructed in C++ to estimate the output of CBI system. The model characterized individual components contributing to CBI output and increased computational efficiency over Monte Carlo simulations. It is now used in the development of novel post-processing algorithms that reduce image blur by reversing undesired contribution from outside the region of interest.

  17. Interface Generation and Compositional Verification in JavaPathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pasareanu, Corina

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for interface generation of software components. Given a component, our algorithm uses learning techniques to compute a permissive interface representing legal usage of the component. Unlike our previous work, this algorithm does not require knowledge about the component s environment. Furthermore, in contrast to other related approaches, our algorithm computes permissive interfaces even in the presence of non-determinism in the component. Our algorithm is implemented in the JavaPathfinder model checking framework for UML statechart components. We have also added support for automated assume-guarantee style compositional verification in JavaPathfinder, using component interfaces. We report on the application of the presented approach to the generation of interfaces for flight software components.

  18. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  19. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  20. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  1. Online fingerprint verification.

    PubMed

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

    2007-01-01

    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications. PMID:17365425

  2. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  5. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  6. A Spectral Verification of the HELIOS-2 Lattice Physics Code

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Crawford; B. D. Ganapol; D. W. Nigg

    2012-11-01

    Core modeling of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL is currently undergoing a significant update through the Core Modeling Update Project1. The intent of the project is to bring ATR core modeling in line with today’s standard of computational efficiency and verification and validation practices. The HELIOS-2 lattice physics code2 is the lead code of several reactor physics codes to be dedicated to modernize ATR core analysis. This presentation is concerned with an independent verification of the HELIOS-2 spectral representation including the slowing down and thermalization algorithm and its data dependency. Here, we will describe and demonstrate a recently developed simple cross section generation algorithm based entirely on analytical multigroup parameters for both the slowing down and thermal spectrum. The new capability features fine group detail to assess the flux and multiplication factor dependencies on cross section data sets using the fundamental infinite medium as an example.

  7. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing... § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process verification. (a) Scope and frequency. This section describes three verifications. (1) Independent verification of PM balance performance within...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing... § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process verification. (a) Scope and frequency. This section describes three verifications. (1) Independent verification of PM balance performance within...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing... § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process verification. (a) Scope and frequency. This section describes three verifications. (1) Independent verification of PM balance performance within...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing... § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process verification. (a) Scope and frequency. This section describes three verifications. (1) Independent verification of PM balance performance within...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PM balance verifications and weighing... § 1065.390 PM balance verifications and weighing process verification. (a) Scope and frequency. This section describes three verifications. (1) Independent verification of PM balance performance within...

  13. Visualization of Instrumental Verification Information Details (VIVID) : code development, description, and usage.

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Christopher John; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Potter, Donald L.; Blottner, Frederick G.; Black, Amalia Rebecca

    2005-03-01

    The formulation, implementation and usage of a numerical solution verification code is described. This code uses the Richardson extrapolation procedure to estimate the order of accuracy and error of a computational program solution. It evaluates multiple solutions performed in numerical grid convergence studies to verify a numerical algorithm implementation. Analyses are performed on both structured and unstructured grid codes. Finite volume and finite element discretization programs are examined. Two and three-dimensional solutions are evaluated. Steady state and transient solution analysis capabilities are present in the verification code. Multiple input data bases are accepted. Benchmark options are included to allow for minimal solution validation capability as well as verification.

  14. Action-based verification of RTCP-nets with CADP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacki, Jerzy; Biernacka, Agnieszka; Szpyrka, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents an RTCP-nets' (real-time coloured Petri nets) coverability graphs into Aldebaran format translation algorithm. The approach provides the possibility of automatic RTCP-nets verification using model checking techniques provided by the CADP toolbox. An actual fire alarm control panel system has been modelled and several of its crucial properties have been verified to demonstrate the usability of the approach.

  15. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  16. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  17. Biometric verification with correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Kumar, B V K; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-10

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification. PMID:14735958

  18. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  19. TPS verification with UUT simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Meng, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Ruixian

    2006-11-01

    TPS's (Test Program Set) verification or first article acceptance test commonly depends on fault insertion experiment on UUT (Unit Under Test). However the failure modes injected on UUT is limited and it is almost infeasible when the UUT is in development or in a distributed state. To resolve this problem, a TPS verification method based on UUT interface signal simulation is putting forward. The interoperability between ATS (automatic test system) and UUT simulation platform is very important to realize automatic TPS verification. After analyzing the ATS software architecture, the approach to realize interpretability between ATS software and UUT simulation platform is proposed. And then the UUT simulation platform software architecture is proposed based on the ATS software architecture. The hardware composition and software architecture of the UUT simulation is described in details. The UUT simulation platform has been implemented in avionics equipment TPS development, debug and verification.

  20. Explosion proof battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A. S.

    1985-07-16

    Apparatus for eliminating the possibility of propagation of gas ignition from the outside to the interior of wet cell batteries such as those used in autos, boats, tractors and the like. The invention in its simplest form is characterized by a set of chambers attached to or incorporated with the structure of a wet cell battery to form a single compact explosion proof battery assembly. The chambers contain non flammable liquid through which gases traveling to and from the interior of the battery pass and thereby create a barrier to the propagation of ignition from the outside of the battery to the interior of the battery. Supporting inventive means are provided to make the apparatus fully functional and practical. Such supporting means include an injection fill means, a liquid level indicator and a pressure release tube for conducting gases safely away from the apparatus.

  1. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  2. Verification hybrid control of a wheeled mobile robot and manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszynska, Magdalena; Burghardt, Andrzej; Kurc, Krzysztof; Szybicki, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    In this article, innovative approaches to realization of the wheeled mobile robots and manipulator tracking are presented. Conceptions include application of the neural-fuzzy systems to compensation of the controlled system's nonlinearities in the tracking control task. Proposed control algorithms work on-line, contain structure, that adapt to the changeable work conditions of the controlled systems, and do not require the preliminary learning. The algorithm was verification on the real object which was a Scorbot - ER 4pc robotic manipulator and a Pioneer - 2DX mobile robot.

  3. Coherent Lidar Design and Performance Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, Rod

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes the investigative results from the 3 complete years of funding and corresponding publications are listed. The first year saw the verification of beam alignment for coherent Doppler lidar in space by using the surface return. The second year saw the analysis and computerized simulation of using heterodyne efficiency as an absolute measure of performance of coherent Doppler lidar. A new method was proposed to determine the estimation error for Doppler lidar wind measurements without the need for an independent wind measurement. Coherent Doppler lidar signal covariance, including wind shear and turbulence, was derived and calculated for typical atmospheric conditions. The effects of wind turbulence defined by Kolmogorov spatial statistics were investigated theoretically and with simulations. The third year saw the performance of coherent Doppler lidar in the weak signal regime determined by computer simulations using the best velocity estimators. Improved algorithms for extracting the performance of velocity estimators with wind turbulence included were also produced.

  4. Figures of Merit for Control Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Goesu. Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for evaluating a controller's ability to satisfy a set of closed-loop specifications when the plant has an arbitrary functional dependency on uncertain parameters. Control verification metrics applicable to deterministic and probabilistic uncertainty models are proposed. These metrics, which result from sizing the largest uncertainty set of a given class for which the specifications are satisfied, enable systematic assessment of competing control alternatives regardless of the methods used to derive them. A particularly attractive feature of the tools derived is that their efficiency and accuracy do not depend on the robustness of the controller. This is in sharp contrast to Monte Carlo based methods where the number of simulations required to accurately approximate the failure probability grows exponentially with its closeness to zero. This framework allows for the integration of complex, high-fidelity simulations of the integrated system and only requires standard optimization algorithms for its implementation.

  5. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  6. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  7. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  8. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  9. Electric battery research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-16

    Electric-battery research programs are receiving less funding, and efforts have been made to phase out the still-unsuccessful effort to produce a commercially viable automotive battery. Lead-acid and nickel-iron batteries are top contenders for commercial applications, but a short life span continues to limit their usefulness. Until electric cars can compete (when gasoline approaches $2.50 a gallon) the market does not look hopeful. (DCK)

  10. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  11. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  12. Reliable Entanglement Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan; Gittsovich, Oleg; Donohue, John; Lavoie, Jonathan; Resch, Kevin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    Entanglement plays a central role in quantum protocols. It is therefore important to be able to verify the presence of entanglement in physical systems from experimental data. In the evaluation of these data, the proper treatment of statistical effects requires special attention, as one can never claim to have verified the presence of entanglement with certainty. Recently increased attention has been paid to the development of proper frameworks to pose and to answer these type of questions. In this work, we apply recent results by Christandl and Renner on reliable quantum state tomography to construct a reliable entanglement verification procedure based on the concept of confidence regions. The statements made do not require the specification of a prior distribution nor the assumption of an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) source of states. Moreover, we develop efficient numerical tools that are necessary to employ this approach in practice, rendering the procedure ready to be employed in current experiments. We demonstrate this fact by analyzing the data of an experiment where photonic entangled two-photon states were generated and whose entanglement is verified with the use of an accessible nonlinear witness.

  13. US industrial battery forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, V. III

    1996-09-01

    Last year was strong year for the US industrial battery market with growth in all segments. Sales of industrial batteries in North America grew 19.2% in 1995, exceeding last year`s forecasted growth rate of 11.6%. The results of the recently completed BCI Membership Survey forecast 1996 sales to be up 10.5%, and to continue to increase at a 10.4% compound annual rate through the year 2000. This year`s survey includes further detail on the stationary battery market with the inclusion of less than 25 Ampere-Hour batteries for the first time.

  14. Nonaqueous secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamahira, Takayuki; Anzai, Masanori

    1991-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to make possible the repeated use for a long period of time of nonaqueous secondary battery that contains in the battery case a negative electrode of a carbonized organic substance, a positive electrode with Li(x)MO2 (where M is at least one of Co and Ni; x being 0.05 less than or = x less than or = 1.10) and an electrolytic solution. The method comprises at least one charging operation of the battery before the sealing of their cells to inhibit the gas generation that would occur in the finished battery in its charging and discharging.

  15. Numerical estimation of heat distribution from the implantable battery system of an undulation pump LVAD.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Makino, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Mochizuki, Shu-ichi; Imachi, Kou; Inoue, Yusuke; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing an implantable battery system using three series-connected lithium ion batteries having an energy capacity of 1,800 mAh to drive an undulation pump left ventricular assist device. However, the lithium ion battery undergoes an exothermic reaction during the discharge phase, and the temperature rise of the lithium ion battery is a critical issue for implantation usage. Heat generation in the lithium ion battery depends on the intensity of the discharge current, and we obtained a relationship between the heat flow from the lithium ion battery q(c)(I) and the intensity of the discharge current I as q(c)(I) = 0.63 x I (W) in in vitro experiments. The temperature distribution of the implantable battery system was estimated by means of three-dimentional finite-element method (FEM) heat transfer analysis using the heat flow function q(c)(I), and we also measured the temperature rise of the implantable battery system in in vitro experiments to conduct verification of the estimation. The maximum temperatures of the lithium ion battery and the implantable battery case were measured as 52.2 degrees C and 41.1 degrees C, respectively. The estimated result of temperature distribution of the implantable battery system agreed well with the measured results using thermography. In conclusion, FEM heat transfer analysis is promising as a tool to estimate the temperature of the implantable lithium ion battery system under any pump current without the need for animal experiments, and it is a convenient tool for optimization of heat transfer characteristics of the implantable battery system.

  16. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  17. A Study of a Network-Flow Algorithm and a Noncorrecting Algorithm for Test Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, R. D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    When the network-flow algorithm (NFA) and the average growth approximation algorithm (AGAA) were used for automated test assembly with American College Test and Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery item banks, results indicate that reasonable error in item parameters is not harmful for test assembly using NFA or AGAA. (SLD)

  18. An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.

  19. An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei

    2011-12-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.

  20. Recovering lead from batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Prengaman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

  1. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  2. ESA battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, H. J.; Goudot, D.

    1980-01-01

    The improvement of nickel cadmium batteries and the development of a silver hydrogen cell for spacecraft power systems are discussed. The design of nickel cadmium batteries is examined with a particular emphasis on weight reduction concepts. Results from performance tests on silver hydrogen cells are given and comparisons are made with current nickel cadmium cells.

  3. Batteries: Avoiding oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, Laurence J.

    2016-08-01

    In the development of lithium–air batteries, managing the phase change between gaseous oxygen and crystalline lithium peroxide is a key challenge. Now, a high-performing sealed battery with an oxygen anion-redox electrode is presented that does not involve any gas evolution.

  4. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  5. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  6. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  7. Aluminum-ferricyanide battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-29

    A battery capable of producing high current densities with high charge capacity is described which includes an aluminum anode, a ferricyanide electrolyte and a second electrode capable of reducing ferricyanide electrolyte which is either dissolved in an alkaline solution or alkaline seawater solution. The performance of the battery is enhanced by high temperature and high electrolyte flow rates.

  8. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  9. COPPERHEAD battery tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, W. J.

    1983-06-01

    The development of a tester for the control section battery of the M712 Cannon-Launched Guided Projectile has fulfilled a requirement for the automatic testing of a series of batteries. The tester is a self-contained instrument that is used with a shock test system to rapidly perform complete tests after an initial setup.

  10. Batteries: Avoiding oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, Laurence J.

    2016-08-01

    In the development of lithium-air batteries, managing the phase change between gaseous oxygen and crystalline lithium peroxide is a key challenge. Now, a high-performing sealed battery with an oxygen anion-redox electrode is presented that does not involve any gas evolution.

  11. Extremely accurate sequential verification of RELAP5-3D

    DOE PAGES

    Mesina, George L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.

    2015-11-19

    Large computer programs like RELAP5-3D solve complex systems of governing, closure and special process equations to model the underlying physics of nuclear power plants. Further, these programs incorporate many other features for physics, input, output, data management, user-interaction, and post-processing. For software quality assurance, the code must be verified and validated before being released to users. For RELAP5-3D, verification and validation are restricted to nuclear power plant applications. Verification means ensuring that the program is built right by checking that it meets its design specifications, comparing coding to algorithms and equations and comparing calculations against analytical solutions and method ofmore » manufactured solutions. Sequential verification performs these comparisons initially, but thereafter only compares code calculations between consecutive code versions to demonstrate that no unintended changes have been introduced. Recently, an automated, highly accurate sequential verification method has been developed for RELAP5-3D. The method also provides to test that no unintended consequences result from code development in the following code capabilities: repeating a timestep advancement, continuing a run from a restart file, multiple cases in a single code execution, and modes of coupled/uncoupled operation. In conclusion, mathematical analyses of the adequacy of the checks used in the comparisons are provided.« less

  12. Extremely accurate sequential verification of RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mesina, George L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.

    2015-11-19

    Large computer programs like RELAP5-3D solve complex systems of governing, closure and special process equations to model the underlying physics of nuclear power plants. Further, these programs incorporate many other features for physics, input, output, data management, user-interaction, and post-processing. For software quality assurance, the code must be verified and validated before being released to users. For RELAP5-3D, verification and validation are restricted to nuclear power plant applications. Verification means ensuring that the program is built right by checking that it meets its design specifications, comparing coding to algorithms and equations and comparing calculations against analytical solutions and method of manufactured solutions. Sequential verification performs these comparisons initially, but thereafter only compares code calculations between consecutive code versions to demonstrate that no unintended changes have been introduced. Recently, an automated, highly accurate sequential verification method has been developed for RELAP5-3D. The method also provides to test that no unintended consequences result from code development in the following code capabilities: repeating a timestep advancement, continuing a run from a restart file, multiple cases in a single code execution, and modes of coupled/uncoupled operation. In conclusion, mathematical analyses of the adequacy of the checks used in the comparisons are provided.

  13. AREST-CT V1.0 software verification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.; Lessor, K.S.

    1995-07-01

    The Analyzer for Radionuclide Source-Term with Chemical Transport (AREST-CT) is a scientific computer code designed for performance assessments of engineered barrier system (EBS) concepts for the underground storage of nuclear waste, including high-level, intermediate, and low-level wastes. The AREST-CT code has features for analyzing the degradation of and release of radionuclides from the waste form, chemical reactions that depend on time and space, and transport of the waste and other products through the EBS. This document provides a description of the verification testing that has been performed on the initial version of ARESTCT (V1.0). Software verification is the process of confirming that the models and algorithms have been correctly implemented into a computer code. Software verification for V1.0 consisted of testing the individual modules (unit tests) and a test of the fully-coupled model (integration testing). The integration test was done by comparing the results from AREST-CT with the results from the reactive transport code CIRF.A. The test problem consisted of a 1-D analysis of the release, transport, and precipitation of {sup 99}{Tc} in an idealized LLW disposal system. All verification tests showed that AREST-CT works properly and in accordance with design specifications.

  14. Advanced fingerprint verification software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradarani, A.; Taylor, J. R. B.; Severin, F.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a fingerprint software package that can be used in a wide range of applications from law enforcement to public and private security systems, and to personal devices such as laptops, vehicles, and door- locks. The software and processing units are a unique implementation of new and sophisticated algorithms that compete with the current best systems in the world. Development of the software package has been in line with the third generation of our ultrasonic fingerprinting machine1. Solid and robust performance is achieved in the presence of misplaced and low quality fingerprints.

  15. Hard and Soft Safety Verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Anderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between and the effects of hard and soft safety verifications. Initially, the terminology should be defined and clarified. A hard safety verification is datum which demonstrates how a safety control is enacted. An example of this is relief valve testing. A soft safety verification is something which is usually described as nice to have but it is not necessary to prove safe operation. An example of a soft verification is the loss of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) casings from Shuttle flight, STS-4. When the main parachutes failed, the casings impacted the water and sank. In the nose cap of the SRBs, video cameras recorded the release of the parachutes to determine safe operation and to provide information for potential anomaly resolution. Generally, examination of the casings and nozzles contributed to understanding of the newly developed boosters and their operation. Safety verification of SRB operation was demonstrated by examination for erosion or wear of the casings and nozzle. Loss of the SRBs and associated data did not delay the launch of the next Shuttle flight.

  16. Integrating Fingerprint Verification into the Smart Card-Based Healthcare Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Daesung; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum; Park, Jin-Won

    2009-12-01

    As VLSI technology has been improved, a smart card employing 32-bit processors has been released, and more personal information such as medical, financial data can be stored in the card. Thus, it becomes important to protect personal information stored in the card. Verification of the card holder's identity using a fingerprint has advantages over the present practices of Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) and passwords. However, the computational workload of fingerprint verification is much heavier than that of the typical PIN-based solution. In this paper, we consider three strategies to implement fingerprint verification in a smart card environment and how to distribute the modules of fingerprint verification between the smart card and the card reader. We first evaluate the number of instructions of each step of a typical fingerprint verification algorithm, and estimate the execution time of several cryptographic algorithms to guarantee the security/privacy of the fingerprint data transmitted in the smart card with the client-server environment. Based on the evaluation results, we analyze each scenario with respect to the security level and the real-time execution requirements in order to implement fingerprint verification in the smart card with the client-server environment.

  17. Structural verification for GAS experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peden, Mark Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist the Get Away Special (GAS) experimenter in conducting a thorough structural verification of its experiment structural configuration, thus expediting the structural review/approval process and the safety process in general. Material selection for structural subsystems will be covered with an emphasis on fasteners (GSFC fastener integrity requirements) and primary support structures (Stress Corrosion Cracking requirements and National Space Transportation System (NSTS) requirements). Different approaches to structural verifications (tests and analyses) will be outlined especially those stemming from lessons learned on load and fundamental frequency verification. In addition, fracture control will be covered for those payloads that utilize a door assembly or modify the containment provided by the standard GAS Experiment Mounting Plate (EMP). Structural hazard assessment and the preparation of structural hazard reports will be reviewed to form a summation of structural safety issues for inclusion in the safety data package.

  18. Hailstorms over Switzerland: Verification of Crowd-sourced Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noti, Pascal-Andreas; Martynov, Andrey; Hering, Alessandro; Martius, Olivia

    2016-04-01

    The reports of smartphone users, witnessing hailstorms, can be used as source of independent, ground-based observation data on ground-reaching hailstorms with high temporal and spatial resolution. The presented work focuses on the verification of crowd-sourced data collected over Switzerland with the help of a smartphone application recently developed by MeteoSwiss. The precise location, time of hail precipitation and the hailstone size are included in the crowd-sourced data, assessed on the basis of the weather radar data of MeteoSwiss. Two radar-based hail detection algorithms, POH (Probability of Hail) and MESHS (Maximum Expected Severe Hail Size), in use at MeteoSwiss are confronted with the crowd-sourced data. The available data and investigation time period last from June to August 2015. Filter criteria have been applied in order to remove false reports from the crowd-sourced data. Neighborhood methods have been introduced to reduce the uncertainties which result from spatial and temporal biases. The crowd-sourced and radar data are converted into binary sequences according to previously set thresholds, allowing for using a categorical verification. Verification scores (e.g. hit rate) are then calculated from a 2x2 contingency table. The hail reporting activity and patterns corresponding to "hail" and "no hail" reports, sent from smartphones, have been analyzed. The relationship between the reported hailstone sizes and both radar-based hail detection algorithms have been investigated.

  19. Formal verification of mathematical software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.

  20. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  1. Coherent lidar design and performance verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, Rod

    1993-01-01

    The verification of LAWS beam alignment in space can be achieved by a measurement of heterodyne efficiency using the surface return. The crucial element is a direct detection signal that can be identified for each surface return. This should be satisfied for LAWS but will not be satisfied for descoped LAWS. The performance of algorithms for velocity estimation can be described with two basic parameters: the number of coherently detected photo-electrons per estimate and the number of independent signal samples per estimate. The average error of spectral domain velocity estimation algorithms are bounded by a new periodogram Cramer-Rao Bound. Comparison of the periodogram CRB with the exact CRB indicates a factor of two improvement in velocity accuracy is possible using non-spectral domain estimators. This improvement has been demonstrated with a maximum-likelihood estimator. The comparison of velocity estimation algorithms for 2 and 10 micron coherent lidar was performed by assuming all the system design parameters are fixed and the signal statistics are dominated by a 1 m/s rms wind fluctuation over the range gate. The beam alignment requirements for 2 micron are much more severe than for a 10 micron lidar. The effects of the random backscattered field on estimating the alignment error is a major problem for space based lidar operation, especially if the heterodyne efficiency cannot be estimated. For LAWS, the biggest science payoff would result from a short transmitted pulse, on the order of 0.5 microseconds instead of 3 microseconds. The numerically errors for simulation of laser propagation in the atmosphere have been determined as a joint project with the University of California, San Diego. Useful scaling laws were obtained for Kolmogorov atmospheric refractive turbulence and an atmospheric refractive turbulence characterized with an inner scale. This permits verification of the simulation procedure which is essential for the evaluation of the effects of

  2. Improving battery charging with solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boico, Florent Michael

    Recent technological developments in thin-film photovoltaics, such as amorphous silicon and hybrid dye sensitized photovoltaic (PV) cells are leading to new generations of portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, flexible, and have been reported to achieve power efficiencies of up to 10%. Already, commercial-off-the-shelf arrays exist that have panels embedded in fabric that can be folded to dimensions of less than 12" x 12", yet are able to produce up to 50Watts of power at 12V. These new products make solar power available to various types of applications. In particular, military applications are emerging to give soldier a source of power that can always be at reach. In parallel with these developments, NiMH and Li-ion batteries are increasingly being used to power various equipment. Currently, the military is field testing solar charging of its batteries with portable solar arrays. However, so far, all known charge control algorithm have failed as they commonly falsely detect overcharge at random times in the charging and leave the battery partially charged. The goal of our research is to investigate the origins of failure in existing charge control algorithms and to propose adequate algorithms that would improve the battery charging. Additionally, ways to optimize the generated photovoltaic power is critical for portable solar application as the energy produced is limited. It is known that the use of a DC-DC converter between the solar panel and the load allows optimization of the power delivered by the solar panel when "Maximum Power Point Tracking" is utilized. Therefore we are developing new solutions that address the specific problem of Maximum Power Point Tracking for modular solar panels.

  3. CHEMICAL INDUCTION MIXER VERIFICATION - ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, which is supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and facilitated by NSF International, has recently evaluated the performance of chemical induction mixers used for di...

  4. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  5. Quantum Statistical Testing of a QRNG Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Pooser, Raphael C; Britt, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We present the algorithmic design of a quantum random number generator, the subsequent synthesis of a physical design and its verification using quantum statistical testing. We also describe how quantum statistical testing can be used to diagnose channel noise in QKD protocols.

  6. A verification system of RMAP protocol controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanov, V. Kh; Shakhmatov, A. V.; Chekmarev, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The functional verification problem of IP blocks of RMAP protocol controller is considered. The application of the verification method using fully- functional models of the processor and the internal bus of a system-on-chip is justified. Principles of construction of a verification system based on the given approach are proposed. The practical results of creating a system of verification of IP block of RMAP protocol controller is presented.

  7. Verification of knowledge bases based on containment checking

    SciTech Connect

    Levy. A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Building complex knowledge based applications requires encoding large amounts of domain knowledge. After acquiring knowledge from domain experts, much of the effort in building a knowledge base goes into verifying that the knowledge is encoded correctly. We consider the problem of verifying hybrid knowledge bases that contain both Horn rules and a terminology in a description logic. Our approach to the verification problem is based on showing a close relationship to the problem of query containment. Our first contribution, based on this relationship, is presenting a thorough analysis of the decidability and complexity of the verification problem, for knowledge bases containing recursive rules and the interpreted predicates =, {le}, < and {ne}. Second, we show that important new classes of constraints on correct inputs and outputs can be expressed in a hybrid setting, in which a description logic class hierarchy is also considered, and we present the first complete algorithm for verifying such hybrid knowledge bases.

  8. Abstraction and Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Automated Software Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaki, S.; Clarke, E.; Giannakopoulou, D.; Pasareanu, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Compositional verification and abstraction are the key techniques to address the state explosion problem associated with model checking of concurrent software. A promising compositional approach is to prove properties of a system by checking properties of its components in an assume-guarantee style. This article proposes a framework for performing abstraction and assume-guarantee reasoning of concurrent C code in an incremental and fully automated fashion. The framework uses predicate abstraction to extract and refine finite state models of software and it uses an automata learning algorithm to incrementally construct assumptions for the compositional verification of the abstract models. The framework can be instantiated with different assume-guarantee rules. We have implemented our approach in the COMFORT reasoning framework and we show how COMFORT out-performs several previous software model checking approaches when checking safety properties of non-trivial concurrent programs.

  9. The Design and Algorithms of a Verification Condition Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulet, Sarah

    Current strategies for low temperature bonding (<300 C) and 3D integration employ polymer interfaces (1--3 um) with low thermal conductivity which can result in poor heat transfer between bonded elements. The introduction of thinner interfaces to improve heat transfer is desirable; however, deposition of thin polymer films (<100 nm) for bonding applications can lead to reduced film uniformity and negatively affect bonding strength. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) chemistries provide a potential solution and can yield nanometer control of the interfacial layer thickness without a significant effect on surface roughness. Siloxanes are one available option to realize these nanometer thin reactive layers. Due to their propensity to crosslink and form multilayers, careful control of the reaction conditions is required. Considering this, we have evaluated the molecular vapor deposition of siloxane precursors to generate molecular layers with reactive end-groups for potential use in bonding applications. Film stability, morphology, thickness, and composition were monitored after deposition using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. Working Memory Mechanism in Proportional Quantifier Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajenkowski, Marcin; Szymanik, Jakub; Garraffa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores the cognitive mechanisms involved in the verification of sentences with proportional quantifiers (e.g. "More than half of the dots are blue"). The first study shows that the verification of proportional sentences is more demanding than the verification of sentences such as: "There are seven blue and eight yellow…

  11. 78 FR 58492 - Generator Verification Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Generator Verification Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Organization: MOD-025-2 (Verification and Data Reporting of Generator Real and Reactive Power Capability and Synchronous Condenser Reactive Power Capability), MOD- 026-1 (Verification of Models and Data for...

  12. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  13. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  14. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  15. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  16. Bipolar battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  17. Synthetic battery cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

  18. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  19. A comparative study of commercial lithium ion battery cycle life in electrical vehicle: Aging mechanism identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Zheng, Yuejiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-04-01

    When lithium-ion batteries age with cycling, the battery capacity decreases and the resistance increases. The aging mechanism of different types of lithium-ion batteries differs. The loss of lithium inventory, loss of active material, and the increase in resistance may result in battery aging. Generally, analysis of the battery aging mechanism requires dismantling of batteries and using methods such as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These methods may permanently damage the battery. Therefore, the methods are inappropriate for the battery management system (BMS) in an electric vehicle. The constant current charging curves while charging the battery could be used to get the incremental capacity and differential voltage curves for identifying the aging mechanism; the battery state-of-health can then be estimated. This method can be potentially used in the BMS for online diagnostic and prognostic services. The genetic algorithm could be used to quantitatively analyze the battery aging offline. And the membership function could be used for onboard aging mechanism identification.

  20. Genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  1. The science verification of FLAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, Francesca

    2003-06-01

    After a new VLT instrument has been commissioned and thoroughly tested1, a series of scientific and technical checkups are scheduled in order to test the front-to-end operations chain before the official start of regular operations. Technically speaking, these are the socalled Dry Runs, part of which are usually devoted to the Science Verification (SV for short) of that specific instrument. A Science Verification programme includes a set of typical scientific observations with the aim of verifying and demonstrating to the community the capabilities of a new instrument in the operational framework of the VLT Paranal Observatory. Though manifold, its goals can be summarised in two main points: from the scientific point of view, by demonstrating the scientific potential of the new instrument, these observations will provide ESO users with first science- grade data, thus fostering an early scientific return. From the technical point of view, by testing the whole operational system (from the preparation of the observations to their execution and analysis), it will provide important feedback to the Instrument Operation Teams (both in Paranal and in Garching), to the Instrument Division, and to the Data Flow groups. More details about the concept(s) behind a Science Verification can be found in the “Science Verification Policy and Procedures” document (available at http://www.eso.org/science/vltsv/).

  2. Programmable RET Mask Layout Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Daniel F.; Mayhew, Jeffrey P.; Rieger, Michael L.; Tang, Zongwu

    2002-12-01

    Emerging resolution enhancement techniques (RET) and OPC are dramatically increasing the complexity of mask layouts and, in turn, mask verification. Mask shapes needed to achieve required results on the wafer diverge significantly from corresponding shapes in the physical design, and in some cases a single chip layer may be decomposed into two masks used in multiple exposures. The mask verification challenge is to certify that a RET-synthesized mask layout will produce an acceptable facsimile of the design intent expressed in the design layout. Furthermore costs, tradeoffs between mask-complexity, design intent, targeted process latitude, and other factors are playing a growing role in helping to control rising mask costs. All of these considerations must in turn be incorporated into the mask layout verification strategy needed for data prep sign-off. In this paper we describe a technique for assessing the lithographic quality of mask layouts for diverse RET methods while effectively accommodating various manufacturing objectives and specifications. It leverages the familiar DRC paradigm for identifying errors and producing DRC-like error shapes in its output layout. It integrates a unique concept of "check figures" - layer-based geometries that dictate where and how simulations of shapes on the wafer are to be compared to the original desired layout. We will show how this provides a highly programmable environment that makes it possible to engage in "compound" check strategies that vary based on design intent and adaptive simulation with multiple checks. Verification may be applied at the "go/no go" level or can be used to build a body of data for quantitative analysis of lithographic behavior at multiple process conditions or for specific user-defined critical features. In addition, we will outline automated methods that guide the selection of input parameters controlling specific verification strategies.

  3. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  4. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  5. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  6. Battery Life Predictive Model

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  7. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  8. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  9. Aluminum permanganate battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-30

    A battery is provided comprising an aluminum anode, an aqueous solution of permanganate as the cathodic species and a second electrode capable of reducing permanganate. Such a battery system is characterized by its high energy density and low polarization losses when operating at high temperatures in a strong caustic electrolyte, i.e., high concentration of hydroxyl ions. A variety of anode and electrocatalyst materials are suitable for the efficient oxidation-reduction process and are elucidated.

  10. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  11. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  12. Extended Kalman filtering for battery management systems of LiPB-based HEV battery packs. Part 1. Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plett, Gregory L.

    Battery management systems (BMS) in hybrid-electric-vehicle (HEV) battery packs must estimate values descriptive of the pack's present operating condition. These include: battery state of charge, power fade, capacity fade, and instantaneous available power. The estimation mechanism must adapt to changing cell characteristics as cells age and therefore provide accurate estimates over the lifetime of the pack. In a series of three papers, we propose a method, based on extended Kalman filtering (EKF), that is able to accomplish these goals on a lithium-ion polymer battery pack. We expect that it will also work well on other battery chemistries. These papers cover the required mathematical background, cell modeling and system identification requirements, and the final solution, together with results. This first paper investigates the estimation requirements for HEV BMS in some detail, in parallel to the requirements for other battery-powered applications. The comparison leads us to understand that the HEV environment is very challenging on batteries and the BMS, and that precise estimation of some parameters will improve performance and robustness, and will ultimately lengthen the useful lifetime of the pack. This conclusion motivates the use of more complex algorithms than might be used in other applications. Our premise is that EKF then becomes a very attractive approach. This paper introduces the basic method, gives some intuitive feel to the necessary computational steps, and concludes by presenting an illustrative example as to the type of results that may be obtained using EKF.

  13. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  14. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  15. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  16. SSTI- Lewis Spacecraft Nickel-Hydrogen Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: NASA-Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) objectives, SSTI-Lewis overview, battery requirement, two cells Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design summary, CPV electric performance, battery design summary, battery functional description, battery performance.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  18. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  19. Automated Verification of Specifications with Typestates and Access Permissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.; Catano, Nestor

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach to formally verify Plural specifications based on access permissions and typestates, by model-checking automatically generated abstract state-machines. Our exhaustive approach captures all the possible behaviors of abstract concurrent programs implementing the specification. We describe the formal methodology employed by our technique and provide an example as proof of concept for the state-machine construction rules. The implementation of a fully automated algorithm to generate and verify models, currently underway, provides model checking support for the Plural tool, which currently supports only program verification via data flow analysis (DFA).

  20. Status and Verification of Edge Plasma Turbulence Code BOUT

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V; Xu, X Q; Dudson, B; LoDestro, L L; Myra, J R

    2009-01-08

    The BOUT code is a detailed numerical model of tokamak edge turbulence based on collisional plasma uid equations. BOUT solves for time evolution of plasma uid variables: plasma density N{sub i}, parallel ion velocity V{sub {parallel}i}, electron temperature T{sub e}, ion temperature T{sub i}, electric potential {phi}, parallel current j{sub {parallel}}, and parallel vector potential A{sub {parallel}}, in realistic 3D divertor tokamak geometry. The current status of the code, physics model, algorithms, and implementation is described. Results of verification testing are presented along with illustrative applications to tokamak edge turbulence.

  1. Verification duty policy for task-role-based workflow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Honglin; Liu, Yiliang; Huang, Qin; Yang, Tianyi; Ma, Fang

    2010-01-01

    A broad literature review presents great interests about theoretical specification or various formalizations on the constraints of Separation of Duty (SoD) Policy, which can improve Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). To gain the flexible and specific access control of information exchange within the enterprise environment, the proposed verification algorithm can check whether or not the Task-Role-Based Access Control (TRBAC) state can be satisfied with an assigned type of SoD policy, according to different given role-task and user-role assignments.

  2. Verification duty policy for task-role-based workflow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Honglin; Liu, Yiliang; Huang, Qin; Yang, Tianyi; Ma, Fang

    2009-12-01

    A broad literature review presents great interests about theoretical specification or various formalizations on the constraints of Separation of Duty (SoD) Policy, which can improve Role-Based Access Control (RBAC). To gain the flexible and specific access control of information exchange within the enterprise environment, the proposed verification algorithm can check whether or not the Task-Role-Based Access Control (TRBAC) state can be satisfied with an assigned type of SoD policy, according to different given role-task and user-role assignments.

  3. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Experimental verification of quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, Stefanie; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham; Walther, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Quantum computers are expected to offer substantial speed-ups over their classical counterparts and to solve problems intractable for classical computers. Beyond such practical significance, the concept of quantum computation opens up fundamental questions, among them the issue of whether quantum computations can be certified by entities that are inherently unable to compute the results themselves. Here we present the first experimental verification of quantum computation. We show, in theory and experiment, how a verifier with minimal quantum resources can test a significantly more powerful quantum computer. The new verification protocol introduced here uses the framework of blind quantum computing and is independent of the experimental quantum-computation platform used. In our scheme, the verifier is required only to generate single qubits and transmit them to the quantum computer. We experimentally demonstrate this protocol using four photonic qubits and show how the verifier can test the computer's ability to perform quantum computation.

  5. Verification of the FtCayuga fault-tolerant microprocessor system. Volume 1: A case study in theorem prover-based verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam; Bickford, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The design and formal verification of a hardware system for a task that is an important component of a fault tolerant computer architecture for flight control systems is presented. The hardware system implements an algorithm for obtaining interactive consistancy (byzantine agreement) among four microprocessors as a special instruction on the processors. The property verified insures that an execution of the special instruction by the processors correctly accomplishes interactive consistency, provided certain preconditions hold. An assumption is made that the processors execute synchronously. For verification, the authors used a computer aided design hardware design verification tool, Spectool, and the theorem prover, Clio. A major contribution of the work is the demonstration of a significant fault tolerant hardware design that is mechanically verified by a theorem prover.

  6. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  7. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  8. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  9. Formal verification of AI software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.

  10. Energizing the batteries for electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1993-07-01

    This article reports of the nickel-metal-hydride battery and its ability to compete with the lead-acid battery in electric-powered vehicles. The topics of the article include development of the battery, the impetus for development in California environmental law, battery performance, packaging for the battery's hazardous materials, and the solid electrolyte battery.

  11. Verification and transparency in future arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

  12. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  13. Teardown analysis of a ten cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.; Herzau, J. S.; Scaglione, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Design studies have identified bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries as an attractive storage option for high power, high voltage applications. A pre-prototype Ni-H2 battery was designed, assembled and tested in the early phases of a concept verification program. The initial stack was built with available hardware and components from past programs. The stack performed well. After 2000 low-earth-orbit cycles the stack was dismantled in order to allow evaluation and analysis of the design and components. The results of the teardown analysis and recommended modifications are discussed.

  14. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  15. Regression Verification Using Impact Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, John; Person, Suzette J.; Rungta, Neha; Thachuk, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Regression verification techniques are used to prove equivalence of syntactically similar programs. Checking equivalence of large programs, however, can be computationally expensive. Existing regression verification techniques rely on abstraction and decomposition techniques to reduce the computational effort of checking equivalence of the entire program. These techniques are sound but not complete. In this work, we propose a novel approach to improve scalability of regression verification by classifying the program behaviors generated during symbolic execution as either impacted or unimpacted. Our technique uses a combination of static analysis and symbolic execution to generate summaries of impacted program behaviors. The impact summaries are then checked for equivalence using an o-the-shelf decision procedure. We prove that our approach is both sound and complete for sequential programs, with respect to the depth bound of symbolic execution. Our evaluation on a set of sequential C artifacts shows that reducing the size of the summaries can help reduce the cost of software equivalence checking. Various reduction, abstraction, and compositional techniques have been developed to help scale software verification techniques to industrial-sized systems. Although such techniques have greatly increased the size and complexity of systems that can be checked, analysis of large software systems remains costly. Regression analysis techniques, e.g., regression testing [16], regression model checking [22], and regression verification [19], restrict the scope of the analysis by leveraging the differences between program versions. These techniques are based on the idea that if code is checked early in development, then subsequent versions can be checked against a prior (checked) version, leveraging the results of the previous analysis to reduce analysis cost of the current version. Regression verification addresses the problem of proving equivalence of closely related program

  16. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-06-01

    Many papers have dealt with the political difficulties and ramifications of deep nuclear arms reductions, and the issues of “Going to Zero”. Political issues include extended deterrence, conventional weapons, ballistic missile defense, and regional and geo-political security issues. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 . Further reductions will include stepping stones at1000 warheads, 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national laboratory complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  17. Electrochemical model parameter identification of a lithium-ion battery using particle swarm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Ashiqur; Anwar, Sohel; Izadian, Afshin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a gradient-free optimization technique, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, is utilized to identify specific parameters of the electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion battery with LiCoO2 cathode chemistry. Battery electrochemical model parameters are subject to change under severe or abusive operating conditions resulting in, for example, over-discharged battery, over-charged battery, etc. It is important for a battery management system to have these parameter changes fully captured in a bank of battery models that can be used to monitor battery conditions in real time. Here the PSO methodology has been successfully applied to identify four electrochemical model parameters that exhibit significant variations under severe operating conditions: solid phase diffusion coefficient at the positive electrode (cathode), solid phase diffusion coefficient at the negative electrode (anode), intercalation/de-intercalation reaction rate at the cathode, and intercalation/de-intercalation reaction rate at the anode. The identified model parameters were used to generate the respective battery models for both healthy and degraded batteries. These models were then validated by comparing the model output voltage with the experimental output voltage for the stated operating conditions. The identified Li-Ion battery electrochemical model parameters are within reasonable accuracy as evidenced by the experimental validation results.

  18. An optimal control strategy for standalone PV system with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Lee Wai; Wong, Yee Wan; Rajkumar, Rajprasad Kumar; Isa, Dino

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes an optimal control strategy for a standalone PV system with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System to prolong battery lifespan by reducing the dynamic stress and peak current demand of the battery. Unlike the conventional methods which only use either filtration based controller (FBC) or fuzzy logic controller (FLC), the proposed control strategy comprises of a low-pass filter (LPF) and FLC. Firstly, LPF removes the high dynamic components from the battery demand. FLC minimizes the battery peak current demand while constantly considering the state-of-charge of the supercapacitor. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm optimizes the membership functions of the FLC to achieve optimal battery peak current reduction. The proposed system is compared to the conventional system with battery-only storage and the systems with conventional control strategies (Rule Based Controller and FBC). The proposed system reduces the battery peak current, battery peak power, maximum absolute value of the rate of change of power and average absolute value of the rate of change of power by 16.05%, 15.19%, 77.01%, and 95.59%, respectively as compared to the conventional system with battery-only storage. Moreover, he proposed system increases the level of supercapacitor utilization up to 687.122% in comparison to the conventional control strategies.

  19. Circulating current battery heater

    DOEpatents

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  20. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  1. AUTOMATED, HIGHLY ACCURATE VERIFICATION OF RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    George L Mesina; David Aumiller; Francis Buschman

    2014-07-01

    Computer programs that analyze light water reactor safety solve complex systems of governing, closure and special process equations to model the underlying physics. In addition, these programs incorporate many other features and are quite large. RELAP5-3D[1] has over 300,000 lines of coding for physics, input, output, data management, user-interaction, and post-processing. For software quality assurance, the code must be verified and validated before being released to users. Verification ensures that a program is built right by checking that it meets its design specifications. Recently, there has been an increased importance on the development of automated verification processes that compare coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions[2]. For the first time, the ability exists to ensure that the data transfer operations associated with timestep advancement/repeating and writing/reading a solution to a file have no unintended consequences. To ensure that the code performs as intended over its extensive list of applications, an automated and highly accurate verification method has been modified and applied to RELAP5-3D. Furthermore, mathematical analysis of the adequacy of the checks used in the comparisons is provided.

  2. Verification of heterogeneous multi-agent system using MCMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Kim, Seungkeun; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2015-03-01

    The focus of the paper is how to model autonomous behaviours of heterogeneous multi-agent systems such that it can be verified that they will always operate within predefined mission requirements and constraints. This is done by using formal methods with an abstraction of the behaviours modelling and model checking for their verification. Three case studies are presented to verify the decision-making behaviours of heterogeneous multi-agent system using a convoy mission scenario. The multi-agent system in a case study has been extended by increasing the number of agents and function complexity gradually. For automatic verification, model checker for multi-agent systems (MCMAS) is adopted due to its novel capability to accommodate the multi-agent system and successfully verifies the targeting behaviours of the team-level autonomous systems. The verification results help retrospectively the design of decision-making algorithms improved by considering additional agents and behaviours during three steps of scenario modification. Consequently, the last scenario deals with the system composed of a ground control system, two unmanned aerial vehicles, and four unmanned ground vehicles with fault-tolerant and communication relay capabilities.

  3. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-01

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  4. Fork truck battery charging system

    SciTech Connect

    Ducharme, R.L.; Taylor, R.

    1983-11-01

    A battery charging system includes a highrise storage rack system for holding a plurality of battery chargers and defining a plurality of battery locations. Each battery to be charged is placed on a pallet which has a connection block with a cable connectable to the battery and a male connector. A load carrier carries the pallet and the battery to a selected battery location in the rack and deposits it thereat in a charging position, thereby connecting the male connector to a female connector on the rack connected to one of the chargers. The load carrier also retrieves charged batteries on their pallets from the rack, the retrieval motion effecting disconnection of the pallet from the charger. Each pallet has a fluid receiving trough provided with a drain which cooperates with fluid inlets of a fluid collection system on the rack for collecting fluids emitted during the charging process.

  5. Latin American Battery Forecast Report

    SciTech Connect

    Malacon, S.

    1995-12-31

    A forecast of battery production in Latin America is described. The economic influence and political difficulties which have influenced the market are discussed. Data is presented for original equipment shipments and replacement batteries.

  6. Gender verification in competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L; Ljungqvist, A; de la Chapelle, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ehrhardt, A A; Ferris, E

    1993-11-01

    The possibility that men might masquerade as women and be unfair competitors in women's sports is accepted as outrageous by athletes and the public alike. Since the 1930s, media reports have fuelled claims that individuals who once competed as female athletes subsequently appeared to be men. In most of these cases there was probably ambiguity of the external genitalia, possibly as a result of male pseudohermaphroditism. Nonetheless, beginning at the Rome Olympic Games in 1960, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) began establishing rules of eligibility for women athletes. Initially, physical examination was used as a method for gender verification, but this plan was widely resented. Thus, sex chromatin testing (buccal smear) was introduced at the Mexico City Olympic Games in 1968. The principle was that genetic females (46,XX) show a single X-chromatic mass, whereas males (46,XY) do not. Unfortunately, sex chromatin analysis fell out of common diagnostic use by geneticists shortly after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began its implementation for gender verification. The lack of laboratories routinely performing the test aggravated the problem of errors in interpretation by inexperienced workers, yielding false-positive and false-negative results. However, an even greater problem is that there exist phenotypic females with male sex chromatin patterns (e.g. androgen insensitivity, XY gonadal dysgenesis). These individuals have no athletic advantage as a result of their congenital abnormality and reasonably should not be excluded from competition. That is, only the chromosomal (genetic) sex is analysed by sex chromatin testing, not the anatomical or psychosocial status. For all the above reasons sex chromatin testing unfairly excludes many athletes. Although the IOC offered follow-up physical examinations that could have restored eligibility for those 'failing' sex chromatin tests, most affected athletes seemed to prefer to 'retire'. All

  7. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  8. Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-02-01

    When a pair of images is compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This report evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitations of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair of otherwise identical images. Results show an optimal three-stage procedure: first, establish congruence of the two images; second, use the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives; and, third, qualify a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These three algorithmic stages would be especially useful in application to arms control treaty verification, particularly for comparison of unique identifiers (tags or seals). This is illustrated by comparing scanning-electron microscope topographical images for an intrinsic-surface tag.

  9. Critical review of the methods for monitoring of lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Wladislaw; Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Lithium-ion battery packs in hybrid and pure electric vehicles are always equipped with a battery management system (BMS). The BMS consists of hardware and software for battery management including, among others, algorithms determining battery states. The continuous determination of battery states during operation is called battery monitoring. In this paper, the methods for monitoring of the battery state of charge, capacity, impedance parameters, available power, state of health, and remaining useful life are reviewed with the focus on elaboration of their strengths and weaknesses for the use in on-line BMS applications. To this end, more than 350 sources including scientific and technical literature are studied and the respective approaches are classified in various groups.

  10. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  11. A hybrid framework for verification of satellite precipitation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Hsu, K.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sorooshian, S.

    2011-12-01

    Advances in satellite technology have led to the development of many remote-sensing algorithms to estimate precipitation at quasi-global scales. A number of satellite precipitation products are provided at high spatial and temporal resolutions that are suitable for short-term hydrologic applications. Several coordinated validation activities have been established to evaluate the accuracy of satellite precipitation. Traditional verification measures summarize pixel-to-pixel differences between observation and estimates. Object-based verification methods, however, extend pixel based validation to address errors related to spatial patterns and storm structure, such as the shape, volume, and distribution of precipitation rain-objects. In this investigation, a 2D watershed segmentation technique is used to identify rain storm objects and is further adopted in a hybrid verification framework to diagnose the storm-scale rainfall objects from both satellite-based precipitation estimates and ground observations (radar estimates). Five key scores are identified in the objective-based verification framework, including false alarm ratio, missing ratio, maximum of total interest, equal weight and weighted summation of total interest. These scores indicate the performance of satellite estimates with features extracted from the segmented storm objects. The proposed object-based verification framework was used to evaluate PERSIANN, PERSIANN-CCS, CMORPH, 3B42RT against NOAA stage IV MPE multi-sensor composite rain analysis. All estimates are evaluated at 0.25°x0.25° daily-scale in summer 2008 over the continental United States (CONUS). The five final scores for each precipitation product are compared with the median of maximum interest (MMI) of the Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE). The results show PERSIANN and CMORPH outperform 3B42RT and PERSIANN-CCS. Different satellite products presented distinct features of precipitation. For example, the sizes of

  12. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  13. Ordnance thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1993-04-01

    This invention pertains to thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode, e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy, a cathode, e.g., composed of iron disulfide, and an electrolyte, e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, the electrolyte being inactive at ambient temperature but being activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices, in system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components, to vent an ordnance case, preventing its explosion in a fire.

  14. Microfluidic redox battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications. PMID:23712370

  15. Microfluidic redox battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  16. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  17. Intelligent battery charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  18. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  19. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  20. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  1. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. 40 CFR 1065.920 - PEMS calibrations and verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PEMS calibrations and verifications....920 PEMS calibrations and verifications. (a) Subsystem calibrations and verifications. Use all the applicable calibrations and verifications in subpart D of this part, including the linearity verifications...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.920 - PEMS calibrations and verifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PEMS calibrations and verifications....920 PEMS calibrations and verifications. (a) Subsystem calibrations and verifications. Use all the applicable calibrations and verifications in subpart D of this part, including the linearity verifications...

  4. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF STORMWATER TREATMENT DEVICES UNDER EPA�S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program was created to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The program�s goal is to further environmental protection by a...

  5. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF ANIMAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to further environmental protection by accelerating the commercialization of new and innovative technology through independent performance verification and dissemination of in...

  6. Magnetic cleanliness verification approach on tethered satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messidoro, Piero; Braghin, Massimo; Grande, Maurizio

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic cleanliness testing was performed on the Tethered Satellite as the last step of an articulated verification campaign aimed at demonstrating the capability of the satellite to support its TEMAG (TEthered MAgnetometer) experiment. Tests at unit level and analytical predictions/correlations using a dedicated mathematical model (GANEW program) are also part of the verification activities. Details of the tests are presented, and the results of the verification are described together with recommendations for later programs.

  7. Cure for the AA battery blues. Six-volt battery pack from previously discarded Polaroid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, G D; Riddick, L

    1988-09-01

    The Polaroid Polapulse batteries obtained from exhausted Polaroid 600 or Polaroid SX-70 film cassettes can be used to power a 6-V camera flash. A method for attaching these previously discarded batteries is described.

  8. Concepts and Practice of Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberkampf, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the numerical and physics modeling accuracy, respectively, in computational simulation. Code verification assesses the reliability of the software coding and the numerical algorithms used in obtaining a solution, while solution verification addresses numerical error estimation of the computational solution of a mathematical model for a specified set of initial and boundary conditions. Validation assesses the accuracy of the mathematical model as compared to experimentally measured response quantities of the system being modeled. As these experimental data are typically available only for simplified subsystems or components of the system, model validation commonly provides limited ability to assess model accuracy directly. Uncertainty quantification (UQ), specifically in regard to predictive capability of a mathematical model, attempts to characterize and estimate the total uncertainty for conditions where no experimental data are available. Specific sources of uncertainty that can impact the total predictive uncertainty are: the assumptions and approximations in the formulation of the mathematical model, the error incurred in the numerical solution of the discretized model, the information available for stochastic input data for the system, and the extrapolation of the mathematical model to conditions where no experimental data are available. This presentation will briefly discuss the principles and practices of VVUQ from both the perspective of computational modeling and simulation, as well as the difficult issue of estimating predictive capability. Contrasts will be drawn between weak and strong code verification testing, and model validation as opposed to model calibration. Closing remarks will address what needs to be done to improve the value of information generated by computational simulation for improved decision-making.

  9. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  10. Recycle of battery components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemsler, J. P.; Spitz, R. A.

    The recycle disposal scenario for the batteries nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, zinc/bromine, sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/metal sulfide was considered. Flowsheets are presented which include disassembly, materials handling, melting or solubization, liquid/solid separations, purifications and waste handling. Material and energy balances are provided for all major streams and capital and operating costs for typical plant sizes are presented. Recycle is a a viable option in all cases. Recommendations are made for the best process options and for additional studies on the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/metal sulfide batteries.

  11. Hydrologic data-verification management program plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Data verification refers to the performance of quality control on hydrologic data that have been retrieved from the field and are being prepared for dissemination to water-data users. Water-data users now have access to computerized data files containing unpublished, unverified hydrologic data. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques and systems whereby the computer can perform some data-verification functions before the data are stored in user-accessible files. Computerized data-verification routines can be developed for this purpose. A single, unified concept describing master data-verification program using multiple special-purpose subroutines, and a screen file containing verification criteria, can probably be adapted to any type and size of computer-processing system. Some traditional manual-verification procedures can be adapted for computerized verification, but new procedures can also be developed that would take advantage of the powerful statistical tools and data-handling procedures available to the computer. Prototype data-verification systems should be developed for all three data-processing environments as soon as possible. The WATSTORE system probably affords the greatest opportunity for long-range research and testing of new verification subroutines. (USGS)

  12. Input apparatus for dynamic signature verification systems

    DOEpatents

    EerNisse, Errol P.; Land, Cecil E.; Snelling, Jay B.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to signature verification input apparatus comprising a writing instrument and platen containing piezoelectric transducers which generate signals in response to writing pressures.

  13. Guide to good practices for independent verification

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Independent Verification, Chapter X of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing independent verification activities. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Independent Verification is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for coordinated independent verification activities to promote safe and efficient operations.

  14. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  15. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  16. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.550 - Gas analyzer range verification and drift verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cycles § 1065.550 Gas analyzer range verification and drift verification. (a) Range verification. If an... with a CLD and the removed water is corrected based on measured CO2, CO, THC, and NOX concentrations...-specific emissions over the entire duty cycle for drift. For each constituent to be verified, both sets...

  18. Power management of remote microgrids considering battery lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Currently, 20% (1.3 billion) of the world's population still lacks access to electricity and many live in remote areas where connection to the grid is not economical or practical. Remote microgrids could be the solution to the problem because they are designed to provide power for small communities within clearly defined electrical boundaries. Reducing the cost of electricity for remote microgrids can help to increase access to electricity for populations in remote areas and developing countries. The integration of renewable energy and batteries in diesel based microgrids has shown to be effective in reducing fuel consumption. However, the operational cost remains high due to the low lifetime of batteries, which are heavily used to improve the system's efficiency. In microgrid operation, a battery can act as a source to augment the generator or a load to ensure full load operation. In addition, a battery increases the utilization of PV by storing extra energy. However, the battery has a limited energy throughput. Therefore, it is required to provide balance between fuel consumption and battery lifetime throughput in order to lower the cost of operation. This work presents a two-layer power management system for remote microgrids. First layer is day ahead scheduling, where power set points of dispatchable resources were calculated. Second layer is real time dispatch, where schedule set points from the first layer are accepted and resources are dispatched accordingly. A novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for a dispatch layer, which considers the battery lifetime in optimization and is expected to reduce the operational cost of the microgrid. This method is based on a goal programming approach which has the fuel and the battery wear cost as two objectives to achieve. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated through a simulation study of a PV-diesel hybrid microgrid using deterministic and stochastic approach of optimization.

  19. Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been in routine use for more than a quarter of a century. It is currently employed not only for basic research in fluid dynamics, but also for the analysis and design processes in many industries worldwide, including aerospace, automotive, power generation, chemical manufacturing, polymer processing, and petroleum exploration. A key feature of RANS CFD is the turbulence model. Because the RANS equations are unclosed, a model is necessary to describe the effects of the turbulence on the mean flow, through the Reynolds stress terms. The turbulence model is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in RANS CFD, and most models are known to be flawed in one way or another. Alternative methods such as direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) rely less on modeling and hence include more physics than RANS. In DNS all turbulent scales are resolved, and in LES the large scales are resolved and the effects of the smallest turbulence scales are modeled. However, both DNS and LES are too expensive for most routine industrial usage on today's computers. Hybrid RANS-LES, which blends RANS near walls with LES away from walls, helps to moderate the cost while still retaining some of the scale-resolving capability of LES, but for some applications it can still be too expensive. Even considering its associated uncertainties, RANS turbulence modeling has proved to be very useful for a wide variety of applications. For example, in the aerospace field, many RANS models are considered to be reliable for computing attached flows. However, existing turbulence models are known to be inaccurate for many flows involving separation. Research has been ongoing for decades in an attempt to improve turbulence models for separated and other nonequilibrium flows. When developing or improving turbulence models, both verification and validation are important

  20. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  1. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  2. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  3. A Scala DSL for RETE-Based Runtime Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Runtime verification (RV) consists in part of checking execution traces against formalized specifications. Several systems have emerged, most of which support specification notations based on state machines, regular expressions, temporal logic, or grammars. The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has for an even longer period of time studied rule-based production systems, which at a closer look appear to be relevant for RV, although seemingly focused on slightly different application domains, such as for example business processes and expert systems. The core algorithm in many of these systems is the Rete algorithm. We have implemented a Rete-based runtime verification system, named LogFire (originally intended for offline log analysis but also applicable to online analysis), as an internal DSL in the Scala programming language, using Scala's support for defining DSLs. This combination appears attractive from a practical point of view. Our contribution is in part conceptual in arguing that such rule-based frameworks originating from AI may be suited for RV.

  4. Conformance Verification of Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiang

    Web applications are both the consumers and providers of information. To increase customer confidence, many websites choose to publish their privacy protection policies. However, policy conformance is often neglected. We propose a logic based framework for formally specifying and reasoning about the implementation of privacy protection by a web application. A first order extension of computation tree logic is used to specify a policy. A verification paradigm, built upon a static control/data flow analysis, is presented to verify if a policy is satisfied.

  5. Structural dynamics verification facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J.; Hirchbein, M. S.; Mcaleese, J. M.; Fleming, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a structural dynamics verification facility to support structures programs was studied. Most of the industry operated facilities are used for highly focused research, component development, and problem solving, and are not used for the generic understanding of the coupled dynamic response of major engine subsystems. Capabilities for the proposed facility include: the ability to both excite and measure coupled structural dynamic response of elastic blades on elastic shafting, the mechanical simulation of various dynamical loadings representative of those seen in operating engines, and the measurement of engine dynamic deflections and interface forces caused by alternative engine mounting configurations and compliances.

  6. Approaches to wind resource verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barchet, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Verification of the regional wind energy resource assessments produced by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory addresses the question: Is the magnitude of the resource given in the assessments truly representative of the area of interest? Approaches using qualitative indicators of wind speed (tree deformation, eolian features), old and new data of opportunity not at sites specifically chosen for their exposure to the wind, and data by design from locations specifically selected to be good wind sites are described. Data requirements and evaluation procedures for verifying the resource are discussed.

  7. Why do verification and validation?

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Kenneth T.; Paez, Thomas L.

    2016-02-19

    In this discussion paper, we explore different ways to assess the value of verification and validation (V&V) of engineering models. We first present a literature review on the value of V&V and then use value chains and decision trees to show how value can be assessed from a decision maker's perspective. In this context, the value is what the decision maker is willing to pay for V&V analysis with the understanding that the V&V results are uncertain. As a result, the 2014 Sandia V&V Challenge Workshop is used to illustrate these ideas.

  8. Batteries: Sieving the ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The major obstacle in the development of Li–S batteries is the undesired dissolution of polysulfide intermediates produced during electrochemical reactions. Now, a metal–organic framework-based separator is shown to mitigate the problem, leading to stable long cycles.

  9. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  10. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  11. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  12. Microgrid management architecture considering optimal battery dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Tim George

    Energy management and economic operation of microgrids with energy storage systems at the distribution level have attracted significant research interest in recent years. One of the challenges in this area has been the coordination of energy management functions with decentralized and centralized dispatch. In this thesis a distributed dispatch algorithm for a microgrid consisting of a photovoltaic source with energy storage which can work with a centralized dispatch algorithm that ensure stability of the microgrid is proposed. To this end, first a rule based dispatch algorithm is formulated which is based on maximum resource utilization and can work in both off grid and grid connected mode. Then a fixed horizon optimization algorithm which minimizes the cost of power taken from the grid is developed. In order to schedule the battery based on changes in the PV farm a predictive horizon methodology based optimization is designed. Further, the rule based and optimization based dispatch methodologies is linked to optimize the voltage deviations at the microgrid Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The main advantage of the proposed method is that, an optimal active power dispatch considering the nominal voltage bandwidth can be initiated for the microgrid in both grid connected or off grid mode of operation. Also, the method allows the grid operator to consider cost based optimal renewable generation scheduling and/or the maximum power extraction based modes of operation simultaneously or separately based on grid operating conditions and topologies. Further, the methods allows maintaining PCC voltage within the limits during these modes of operation and at the same time ensure that the battery dispatch is optimal.

  13. Simulation-Based Verification of Autonomous Controllers via Livingstone PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, A. E.; Pecheur, Charles

    2004-01-01

    AI software is often used as a means for providing greater autonomy to automated systems, capable of coping with harsh and unpredictable environments. Due in part to the enormous space of possible situations that they aim to addrs, autonomous systems pose a serious challenge to traditional test-based verification approaches. Efficient verification approaches need to be perfected before these systems can reliably control critical applications. This publication describes Livingstone PathFinder (LPF), a verification tool for autonomous control software. LPF applies state space exploration algorithms to an instrumented testbed, consisting of the controller embedded in a simulated operating environment. Although LPF has focused on NASA s Livingstone model-based diagnosis system applications, the architecture is modular and adaptable to other systems. This article presents different facets of LPF and experimental results from applying the software to a Livingstone model of the main propulsion feed subsystem for a prototype space vehicle.

  14. A Methodology for Evaluating Artifacts Produced by a Formal Verification Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.; Miner, Paul S.; Person, Suzette

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to produce a methodology for evaluating the claims and arguments employed in, and the evidence produced by formal verification activities. To illustrate the process, we conduct a full assessment of a representative case study for the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program. We assess the model checking and satisfiabilty solving techniques as applied to a suite of abstract models of fault tolerant algorithms which were selected to be deployed in Orion, namely the TTEthernet startup services specified and verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) by TTTech. To this end, we introduce the Modeling and Verification Evaluation Score (MVES), a metric that is intended to estimate the amount of trust that can be placed on the evidence that is obtained. The results of the evaluation process and the MVES can then be used by non-experts and evaluators in assessing the credibility of the verification results.

  15. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  16. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  17. A Verification Method for MASOES.

    PubMed

    Perozo, N; Aguilar Perozo, J; Terán, O; Molina, H

    2013-02-01

    MASOES is a 3agent architecture for designing and modeling self-organizing and emergent systems. This architecture describes the elements, relationships, and mechanisms, both at the individual and the collective levels, that favor the analysis of the self-organizing and emergent phenomenon without mathematically modeling the system. In this paper, a method is proposed for verifying MASOES from the point of view of design in order to study the self-organizing and emergent behaviors of the modeled systems. The verification criteria are set according to what is proposed in MASOES for modeling self-organizing and emerging systems and the principles of the wisdom of crowd paradigm and the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) theory. The verification method for MASOES has been implemented in a tool called FCM Designer and has been tested to model a community of free software developers that works under the bazaar style as well as a Wikipedia community in order to study their behavior and determine their self-organizing and emergent capacities.

  18. Video-based fingerprint verification.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Yin, Yilong; Liu, Lili

    2013-09-04

    Conventional fingerprint verification systems use only static information. In this paper, fingerprint videos, which contain dynamic information, are utilized for verification. Fingerprint videos are acquired by the same capture device that acquires conventional fingerprint images, and the user experience of providing a fingerprint video is the same as that of providing a single impression. After preprocessing and aligning processes, "inside similarity" and "outside similarity" are defined and calculated to take advantage of both dynamic and static information contained in fingerprint videos. Match scores between two matching fingerprint videos are then calculated by combining the two kinds of similarity. Experimental results show that the proposed video-based method leads to a relative reduction of 60 percent in the equal error rate (EER) in comparison to the conventional single impression-based method. We also analyze the time complexity of our method when different combinations of strategies are used. Our method still outperforms the conventional method, even if both methods have the same time complexity. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed video-based method can lead to better accuracy than the multiple impressions fusion method, and the proposed method has a much lower false acceptance rate (FAR) when the false rejection rate (FRR) is quite low.

  19. Video-Based Fingerprint Verification

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Yin, Yilong; Liu, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fingerprint verification systems use only static information. In this paper, fingerprint videos, which contain dynamic information, are utilized for verification. Fingerprint videos are acquired by the same capture device that acquires conventional fingerprint images, and the user experience of providing a fingerprint video is the same as that of providing a single impression. After preprocessing and aligning processes, “inside similarity” and “outside similarity” are defined and calculated to take advantage of both dynamic and static information contained in fingerprint videos. Match scores between two matching fingerprint videos are then calculated by combining the two kinds of similarity. Experimental results show that the proposed video-based method leads to a relative reduction of 60 percent in the equal error rate (EER) in comparison to the conventional single impression-based method. We also analyze the time complexity of our method when different combinations of strategies are used. Our method still outperforms the conventional method, even if both methods have the same time complexity. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed video-based method can lead to better accuracy than the multiple impressions fusion method, and the proposed method has a much lower false acceptance rate (FAR) when the false rejection rate (FRR) is quite low. PMID:24008283

  20. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ROW AND FIELD CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV program generic verification protocol was prepared and reviewed for the Verification of Pesticide Drift Reduction Technologies project. The protocol provides a detailed methodology for conducting and reporting results from a verification test of pesticide drift reductio...

  1. An online model-based method for state of energy estimation of lithium-ion batteries using dual filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai; Wei, Jingwen; Zhang, Chenbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-energy of lithium-ion batteries is an important evaluation index for energy storage systems in electric vehicles and smart grids. To improve the battery state-of-energy estimation accuracy and reliability, an online model-based estimation approach is proposed against uncertain dynamic load currents and environment temperatures. Firstly, a three-dimensional response surface open-circuit-voltage model is built up to improve the battery state-of-energy estimation accuracy, taking various temperatures into account. Secondly, a total-available-energy-capacity model that involves temperatures and discharge rates is reconstructed to improve the accuracy of the battery model. An extended-Kalman-filter and particle-filter based dual filters algorithm is then developed to establish an online model-based estimator for the battery state-of-energy. The extended-Kalman-filter is employed to update parameters of the battery model using real-time battery current and voltage at each sampling interval, while the particle-filter is applied to estimate the battery state-of-energy. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments conducted on a LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery under different operating currents and temperatures. Experimental results indicate that the battery model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy, and the estimates of the dual filters converge to the real state-of-energy within an error of ±4%.

  2. Students' Verification Strategies for Combinatorial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashiach Eizenberg, Michal; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2004-01-01

    We focus on a major difficulty in solving combinatorial problems, namely, on the verification of a solution. Our study aimed at identifying undergraduate students' tendencies to verify their solutions, and the verification strategies that they employ when solving these problems. In addition, an attempt was made to evaluate the level of efficiency…

  3. IMPROVING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program in 1995 as a means of working with the private sector to establish a market-based verification process available to all environmental technologies. Under EPA's Office of R...

  4. 14 CFR 460.17 - Verification program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.17 Verification... software in an operational flight environment before allowing any space flight participant on board during... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Verification program. 460.17 Section...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  6. 24 CFR 4001.112 - Income verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income verification. 4001.112... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.112 Income verification. The mortgagee shall use FHA's procedures to verify the mortgagor's income and shall comply with the following additional requirements:...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  8. The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-05-09

    This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

  9. 29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abatement verification. 1903.19 Section 1903.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.19 Abatement verification. Purpose. OSHA's inspections are intended to result in...

  10. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  11. Guidelines for qualifying cleaning and verification materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is intended to provide guidance in identifying technical issues which must be addressed in a comprehensive qualification plan for materials used in cleaning and cleanliness verification processes. Information presented herein is intended to facilitate development of a definitive checklist that should address all pertinent materials issues when down selecting a cleaning/verification media.

  12. CFE verification: The decision to inspect

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1990-01-01

    Verification of compliance with the provisions of the treaty on Conventional Forces-Europe (CFE) is subject to inspection quotas of various kinds. Thus the decision to carry out a specific inspection or verification activity must be prudently made. This decision process is outlined, and means for conserving quotas'' are suggested. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  13. New method of verificating optical flat flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Xueyuan; Han, Sen; Zhu, Jianrong; Guo, Zhenglai; Fu, Yuegang

    2014-11-01

    Optical flat is commonly used in optical testing instruments, flatness is the most important parameter of forming errors. As measurement criteria, optical flat flatness (OFF) index needs to have good precision. Current measurement in China is heavily dependent on the artificial visual interpretation, through discrete points to characterize the flatness. The efficiency and accuracy of this method can not meet the demand of industrial development. In order to improve the testing efficiency and accuracy of measurement, it is necessary to develop an optical flat verification system, which can obtain all surface information rapidly and efficiently, at the same time, in accordance with current national metrological verification procedures. This paper reviews current optical flat verification method and solves the problems existing in previous test, by using new method and its supporting software. Final results show that the new system can improve verification efficiency and accuracy, by comparing with JJG 28-2000 metrological verification procedures method.

  14. Working memory mechanism in proportional quantifier verification.

    PubMed

    Zajenkowski, Marcin; Szymanik, Jakub; Garraffa, Maria

    2014-12-01

    The paper explores the cognitive mechanisms involved in the verification of sentences with proportional quantifiers (e.g., "More than half of the dots are blue"). The first study shows that the verification of proportional sentences is more demanding than the verification of sentences such as: "There are seven blue and eight yellow dots". The second study reveals that both types of sentences are correlated with memory storage, however, only proportional sentences are associated with the cognitive control. This result suggests that the cognitive mechanism underlying the verification of proportional quantifiers is crucially related to the integration process, in which an individual has to compare in memory the cardinalities of two sets. In the third study we find that the numerical distance between two cardinalities that must be compared significantly influences the verification time and accuracy. The results of our studies are discussed in the broader context of processing complex sentences. PMID:24374596

  15. Space transportation system payload interface verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everline, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers STS payload-interface verification requirements and the capability provided by STS to support verification. The intent is to standardize as many interfaces as possible, not only through the design, development, test and evaluation (DDT and E) phase of the major payload carriers but also into the operational phase. The verification process is discussed in terms of its various elements, such as the Space Shuttle DDT and E (including the orbital flight test program) and the major payload carriers DDT and E (including the first flights). Five tools derived from the Space Shuttle DDT and E are available to support the verification process: mathematical (structural and thermal) models, the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory, the Shuttle Manipulator Development Facility, and interface-verification equipment (cargo-integration test equipment).

  16. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  17. Time domain simulation of Li-ion batteries using non-integer order equivalent electrical circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riu, D.; Montaru, M.; Bultel, Y.

    2013-06-01

    For electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid EV (HEV) development and integration of renewables in electrical networks, battery monitoring systems have to be more and more precise to take into account the state-of-charge and the dynamic behavior of the battery. Some non-integer order models of electrochemical batteries have been proposed in literacy with a good accuracy and a low number of parameters in the frequential domain. Nevertheless, time simulation of such models required to approximate this non-integer order system by an equivalent high integer order model. An adapted algorithm is then proposed in this article to simulate the non-integer order model without any approximation, thanks to the construction of a 3-order generalized state-space system. This algorithm is applied and validated on a 2.3 A.h Li-ion battery.

  18. Battery analyzer for electric golf carts

    SciTech Connect

    Sharber, J.M.

    1982-02-09

    A battery tester for testing individual batteries on an electrically driven vehicle such that as the vehicle is in motion , the condition of each battery in a series connected power source maybe analyzed. The device briefly comprises indicator device such as the meter and connection devices to isolate individual battery to determine the voltage of each battery as the vehicle is being driven.

  19. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  20. Online state-of-health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiwei; Gao, Mingyu; Ma, Guojin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanxin

    2014-12-01

    Li-ion batteries are widely used in energy storage systems, electric vehicles, communication systems, etc. The State of Health (SOH) of batteries is of great importance to the safety of these systems. This paper presents a novel online method for the estimation of the SOH of Lithium (Li)-ion batteries based on Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs). The structure of the DBN model is built according to the experience of experts, with the state of charges used as hidden states and the terminal voltages used as observations in the DBN. Parameters of the DBN model are learned based on training data collected through Li-ion battery aging experiments. A forward algorithm is applied for the inference of the DBN model in order to estimate the SOH in real-time. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient in estimating the SOH of Li-ion batteries.

  1. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  2. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context.

    PubMed

    Kroese, E Dinant; Bosgra, Sieto; Buist, Harrie E; Lewin, Geertje; van der Linden, Sander C; Man, Hai-yen; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Schulpen, Sjors H W; Schwarz, Michael; Uibel, Frederik; van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M A; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; van der Burg, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false negative [7]. Here we report on applying this battery within the context of grouping and read across, put forward as a potential tool to fill data gaps and avoid animal testing, to distinguish in vivo non- or weak developmental toxicants from potent developmental toxicants within groups of structural analogs. The battery correctly distinguished 2-methylhexanoic acid, monomethyl phthalate, and monobutyltin trichloride as non- or weak developmental toxicants from structurally related developmental toxicants valproic acid, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, and tributyltin chloride, respectively, and, therefore, holds promise as a biological verification model in grouping and read across approaches. The relevance of toxicokinetic information is indicated.

  3. The mechanisms of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E; Engelhard, Mark H; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-09-01

    A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries is essential for the further development of these batteries. In this work, we systematically investigate the mechanisms of the ORR/OER reactions in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap. The study provides direct verification of the formation of the superoxide radical anion (O2(˙-)) as an intermediate in the ORR during the discharge process, while no O2(˙-) was detected in the OER during the charge process. These findings provide insight into, and an understanding of, the fundamental reaction mechanisms involving oxygen and guide the further development of this field.

  4. Development and Implementation of a Hardware In-the-Loop Test Bed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  6. 14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the northeast. The original battery charger is the center cabinet on the left side of photograph, with the new charger on the far left of photograph and a circuit breaker unit for the chargers is visible in the center of the photograph. The batteries are visible on three racks through the open doorway. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  7. Standardized verification of fuel cycle modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, B.; Dixon, B.; Sunny, E.; Cuadra, A.; Jacobson, J.; Brown, N. R.; Powers, J.; Worrall, A.; Passerini, S.; Gregg, R.

    2016-04-05

    A nuclear fuel cycle systems modeling and code-to-code comparison effort was coordinated across multiple national laboratories to verify the tools needed to perform fuel cycle analyses of the transition from a once-through nuclear fuel cycle to a sustainable potential future fuel cycle. For this verification study, a simplified example transition scenario was developed to serve as a test case for the four systems codes involved (DYMOND, VISION, ORION, and MARKAL), each used by a different laboratory participant. In addition, all participants produced spreadsheet solutions for the test case to check all the mass flows and reactor/facility profiles on a year-by-yearmore » basis throughout the simulation period. The test case specifications describe a transition from the current US fleet of light water reactors to a future fleet of sodium-cooled fast reactors that continuously recycle transuranic elements as fuel. After several initial coordinated modeling and calculation attempts, it was revealed that most of the differences in code results were not due to different code algorithms or calculation approaches, but due to different interpretations of the input specifications among the analysts. Therefore, the specifications for the test case itself were iteratively updated to remove ambiguity and to help calibrate interpretations. In addition, a few corrections and modifications were made to the codes as well, which led to excellent agreement between all codes and spreadsheets for this test case. Although no fuel cycle transition analysis codes matched the spreadsheet results exactly, all remaining differences in the results were due to fundamental differences in code structure and/or were thoroughly explained. As a result, the specifications and example results are provided so that they can be used to verify additional codes in the future for such fuel cycle transition scenarios.« less

  8. The nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

    The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

  9. Composite battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A composite battery separator comprises a support element (10) having an open pore structure such as a ribbed lattice and at least one liquid permeable sheet (20,22) to distribute the compressive force evenly onto the surfaces of the layers (24, 26) of negative active material and positive active material. In a non-flooded battery cell the compressible, porous material (18), such as a glass mat which absorbs the electrolyte, is compressed into a major portion of the pores or openings (16) in the support element. The unfilled pores in the material (18) form a gas diffusion path as the channels (41) formed between adjacent ribs in the lattice element (30,36). Facing two lattice elements (30, 31) with acute angled cross-ribs (34, 38) facing each other prevents the elements from interlocking and distorting a porous, separator (42) disposed between the lattice elements.

  10. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  11. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  12. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  13. Verification of NASA Emergent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy K. C. S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. This mission, the prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission, will comprise of 1,000 autonomous robotic agents designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration. The emergent properties of swarm type missions make them powerful, but at the same time are more difficult to design and assure that the proper behaviors will emerge. We are currently investigating formal methods and techniques for verification and validation of future swarm-based missions. The advantage of using formal methods is their ability to mathematically assure the behavior of a swarm, emergent or otherwise. The ANT mission is being used as an example and case study for swarm-based missions for which to experiment and test current formal methods with intelligent swam. Using the ANTS mission, we have evaluated multiple formal methods to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring swarm behavior.

  14. MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.

    1993-11-01

    In pursuit of commercialization, efforts are underway to: (1) advance the technology base by enhancing performance and demonstrating endurance, (2) scale up stack to the full area and height, (3) acquire stack manufacturing capability and experience, (4) establish capability as well as gain experience for power plant system testing of the full-height carbonate fuel cell stack, (5) and define power plant design and develop critical subsystem components. All the major project objectives have already been attained. Over the last year, significant progress has been achieved in establishing the full-height stack design, gaining stack manufacturing and system integrated testing experience, and verifying the major equipment design in power plant system tests. In this paper, recent progresses on stack scaleup, demonstration testing, BOP verification, and stack endurance are presented.

  15. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  16. A polyoxometalate flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.; Fang, Xikui; Anderson, Travis M.

    2013-08-01

    A redox flow battery utilizing two, three-electron polyoxometalate redox couples (SiVV3WVI9O407–/SiVIV3WVI9O4010- and SiVIV3WVI9O4010-/SiVIV3WV3WVI6O4013-) was investigated for use in stationary storage in either aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. The aqueous battery had coulombic efficiencies greater than 95% with relatively low capacity fading over 100 cycles. Infrared studies showed there was no decomposition of the compound under these conditions. The non-aqueous analog had a higher operating voltage but at the expense of coulombic efficiency. The spontaneous formation of these clusters by self-assembly facilitates recovery of the battery after being subjected to reversed polarity. Polyoxometalates offer a new approach to stationary storage materials because they are capable of undergoing multi-electron reactions and are stable over a wide range of pH values and temperatures.

  17. Button Battery Ingestion in Children: A Paradigm for Management of Severe Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestions.

    PubMed

    Leinwand, Kristina; Brumbaugh, David E; Kramer, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal injuries secondary to button battery ingestions in children have emerged as a dangerous and difficult management problem for pediatricians. Implementation of a multidisciplinary team approach, with rapid and coordinated care, is paramount to minimize the risk of negative outcomes. In addition to providing a comprehensive review of the topic, this article outlines the authors' referral center's experience with patients with severe battery ingestion, highlighting the complications, outcomes, and important lessons learned from their care. The authors also propose an algorithm for clinical care that may be useful for guiding best management of pediatric button battery ingestion.

  18. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  19. Predictive performance estimation for a dual-battery system in mild-hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Daniel; Jansen, Patrick; Vergossen, David; John, Werner; Frei, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Continuously increasing requirements for on-board system performances lead to new topologies for the energy distribution in vehicles. One promising concept is the usage of a dual-battery system instead of the conventional lead-acid "starting lightening ignition" battery. As this system is not able to control the current share between the two batteries, its performance depends on the actual battery specific operating points.The initial conditions of state of charge, voltage level and temperature influence the current share and lead to a different voltage drop of the system. This paper yields to, the basic understanding of the current share between the two batteries. The conventional performance estimation method for standalone lead-acid batteries can no longer be applied to this system. Therefore, a new algorithm for the voltage drop calculation of the dual-battery system is proposed. Measurements at different temperatures, states of charge and voltage levels show the system behavior and prove the functionality of the algorithm.

  20. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  2. Numerical modeling of an all vanadium redox flow battery.

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Jonathan R.; Brunini, Victor E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a capability to simulate reduction-oxidation (redox) flow batteries in the Sierra Multi-Mechanics code base. Specifically, we focus on all-vanadium redox flow batteries; however, the capability is general in implementation and could be adopted to other chemistries. The electrochemical and porous flow models follow those developed in the recent publication by [28]. We review the model implemented in this work and its assumptions, and we show several verification cases including a binary electrolyte, and a battery half-cell. Then, we compare our model implementation with the experimental results shown in [28], with good agreement seen. Next, a sensitivity study is conducted for the major model parameters, which is beneficial in targeting specific features of the redox flow cell for improvement. Lastly, we simulate a three-dimensional version of the flow cell to determine the impact of plenum channels on the performance of the cell. Such channels are frequently seen in experimental designs where the current collector plates are borrowed from fuel cell designs. These designs use a serpentine channel etched into a solid collector plate.

  3. Requirements, Verification, and Compliance (RVC) Database Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainwater, Neil E., II; McDuffee, Patrick B.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development, design, and implementation of the Requirements, Verification, and Compliance (RVC) database used on the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) project managed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The RVC is a systems engineer's tool for automating and managing the following information: requirements; requirements traceability; verification requirements; verification planning; verification success criteria; and compliance status. This information normally contained within documents (e.g. specifications, plans) is contained in an electronic database that allows the project team members to access, query, and status the requirements, verification, and compliance information from their individual desktop computers. Using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) database software that contains networking capabilities, the RVC was developed not only with cost savings in mind but primarily for the purpose of providing a more efficient and effective automated method of maintaining and distributing the systems engineering information. In addition, the RVC approach provides the systems engineer the capability to develop and tailor various reports containing the requirements, verification, and compliance information that meets the needs of the project team members. The automated approach of the RVC for capturing and distributing the information improves the productivity of the systems engineer by allowing that person to concentrate more on the job of developing good requirements and verification programs and not on the effort of being a "document developer".

  4. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... horizontal plane of the battery top surface as installed must be shielded with dielectric material. (d) Each... released by the battery. (f) (g) Each battery terminal connector must not depend on spring tension for...

  5. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... horizontal plane of the battery top surface as installed must be shielded with dielectric material. (d) Each... released by the battery. (f) (g) Each battery terminal connector must not depend on spring tension for...

  6. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... horizontal plane of the battery top surface as installed must be shielded with dielectric material. (d) Each... released by the battery. (f) (g) Each battery terminal connector must not depend on spring tension for...

  7. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... horizontal plane of the battery top surface as installed must be shielded with dielectric material. (d) Each... released by the battery. (f) (g) Each battery terminal connector must not depend on spring tension for...

  8. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... horizontal plane of the battery top surface as installed must be shielded with dielectric material. (d) Each... released by the battery. (f) (g) Each battery terminal connector must not depend on spring tension for...

  9. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  10. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N.Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  11. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  12. Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  13. Signature verification by only single genuine sample in offline and online systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamski, Marcin; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents innovatory methods and algorithms with experimental results on signature verification. It is mainly focused on applications where there is only one reference signature available for comparison. Such restriction is often present in practice and requires selection of specific methods. In this context, both offline and online approaches are investigated. In offline approach, binary image of the signature is initially thinned to obtain a one pixel-wide line. Then, a sampling technique is applied in order to form the signature feature vector. The identification and verification processes are based on comparing the reference feature vector with the questioned samples using Shape Context algorithm. In the case of online data, the system makes use of dynamic information such as trajectory, pen pressure, pen azimuth and pen altitude collected at the time of signing. After further preprocessing, these functional features are verified by means of Dynamic Time Warping method.

  14. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  15. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  16. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  17. Rule Systems for Runtime Verification: A Short Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus; Rydeheard, David; Groce, Alex

    In this tutorial, we introduce two rule-based systems for on and off-line trace analysis, RuleR and LogScope. RuleR is a conditional rule-based system, which has a simple and easily implemented algorithm for effective runtime verification, and into which one can compile a wide range of temporal logics and other specification formalisms used for runtime verification. Specifications can be parameterized with data, or even with specifications, allowing for temporal logic combinators to be defined. We outline a number of simple syntactic extensions of core RuleR that can lead to further conciseness of specification but still enabling easy and efficient implementation. RuleR is implemented in Java and we will demonstrate its ease of use in monitoring Java programs. LogScope is a derivation of RuleR adding a simple very user-friendly temporal logic. It was developed in Python, specifically for supporting testing of spacecraft flight software for NASA’s next 2011 Mars mission MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). The system has been applied by test engineers to analysis of log files generated by running the flight software. Detailed logging is already part of the system design approach, and hence there is no added instrumentation overhead caused by this approach. While post-mortem log analysis prevents the autonomous reaction to problems possible with traditional runtime verification, it provides a powerful tool for test automation. A new system is being developed that integrates features from both RuleR and LogScope.

  18. A Tool for Automatic Verification of Real-Time Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traylor, B.; Schwuttke, U.; Quan, A.

    1994-01-01

    The creation of an automated, user-driven tool for expert system development, validation, and verification is curretly onoging at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In the new age of faster, better, cheaper missions, there is an increased willingness to utilize embedded expert systems for encapsulating and preserving mission expertise in systems which combine conventional algorithmic processing and artifical intelligence. The once-questioned role of automation in spacecraft monitoring is now becoming one of increasing importance.

  19. Power System Test and Verification at Satellite Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, Giulio; Mourra, Olivier; Tonicello, Ferdinando

    2008-09-01

    Most of the articles on Power Systems deal with the architecture and technical solutions related to the functionalities of the power system and their performances. Very few articles, if none, address integration and verification aspects of the Power System at satellite level and the related issues with the Power EGSE (Electrical Ground Support Equipment), which, also, have to support the AIT/AIV (Assembly Integration Test and Verification) program of the satellite and, eventually, the launch campaign. In the last years a more complex development and testing concept based on MDVE (Model Based Development and Verification Environment) has been introduced. In the MDVE approach the simulation software is used to simulate the Satellite environment and, in the early stages, the satellites units. This approach changed significantly the Power EGSE requirements. Power EGSEs or, better, Power SCOEs (Special Check Out Equipment) are now requested to provide the instantaneous power generated by the solar array throughout the orbit. To achieve that, the Power SCOE interfaces to the RTS (Real Time Simulator) of the MDVE. The RTS provides the instantaneous settings, which belong to that point along the orbit, to the Power SCOE so that the Power SCOE generates the instantaneous {I,V} curve of the SA (Solar Array). That means a real time test for the power system, which is even more valuable for EO (Earth Observation) satellites where the Solar Array aspect angle to the sun is rarely fixed, and the power load profile can be particularly complex (for example, in radar applications). In this article the major issues related to integration and testing of Power Systems will be discussed taking into account different power system topologies (i.e. regulated bus, unregulated bus, battery bus, based on MPPT or S3R…). Also aspects about Power System AIT I/Fs (interfaces) and Umbilical I/Fs with the launcher and the Power SCOE I/Fs will be addressed. Last but not least, protection strategy

  20. Systolic temporal arithmetic: A new formalism for specification, verification, and synthesis of systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, N.

    1989-01-01

    A novel formalism, termed Systolic Temporal Arithmetic (STA), is introduced. It provides necessary constructs to describe arithmetic operations in dynamic environments. The motivation behind the development of STA is to use it for systolic array design at the array architecture level. It is particularly useful for formally specifying systolic array designs, and for formally verifying their correctness with respect to the algorithm specifications. Besides providing value and operation abstractions from the lower level, the formalism exploits unique systolic features such as synchrony, regularity, repeatability, modularity, pipelinability, parallel processing ability, as well as spatial and temporal locality, to provide constructs and verification techniques for simple, efficient, and effective systolic array specification verification. STA overcomes many limitations of current specification and verification techniques. It can be used with lower level formalism for multilevel reasoning of systolic arrays. Application examples are given to show how STA can be applied to specify and verify several different systolic arrays. To present a more unified design environment, STA is also extended to describe systolic array synthesis process. A synthesis procedure for systolic arrays is presented which also includes an algorithm transformation technique developed that can improve the computation time of resulting arrays for suitable algorithms, without much increase in area requirement. Several systolic array synthesis examples are also provided in this dissertation.

  1. A feasibility study of treatment verification using EPID cine images for hypofractionated lung radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Steve

    2009-09-01

    We propose a novel approach for potential online treatment verification using cine EPID (electronic portal imaging device) images for hypofractionated lung radiotherapy based on a machine learning algorithm. Hypofractionated radiotherapy requires high precision. It is essential to effectively monitor the target to ensure that the tumor is within the beam aperture. We modeled the treatment verification problem as a two-class classification problem and applied an artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the cine EPID images acquired during the treatment into corresponding classes—with the tumor inside or outside of the beam aperture. Training samples were generated for the ANN using digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) with artificially added shifts in the tumor location—to simulate cine EPID images with different tumor locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the training samples and cine EPID images acquired during the treatment. The proposed treatment verification algorithm was tested on five hypofractionated lung patients in a retrospective fashion. On average, our proposed algorithm achieved a 98.0% classification accuracy, a 97.6% recall rate and a 99.7% precision rate. This work was first presented at the Seventh International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, San Diego, CA, USA, 11-13 December 2008.

  2. MAMA Software Features: Quantification Verification Documentation-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    This document reviews the verification of the basic shape quantification attributes in the MAMA software against hand calculations in order to show that the calculations are implemented mathematically correctly and give the expected quantification results.

  3. Engineering drawing field verification program. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ulk, P.F.

    1994-10-12

    Safe, efficient operation of waste tank farm facilities is dependent in part upon the availability of accurate, up-to-date plant drawings. Accurate plant drawings are also required in support of facility upgrades and future engineering remediation projects. This supporting document establishes the procedure for performing a visual field verification of engineering drawings, the degree of visual observation being performed and documenting the results. A copy of the drawing attesting to the degree of visual observation will be paginated into the released Engineering Change Notice (ECN) documenting the field verification for future retrieval and reference. All waste tank farm essential and support drawings within the scope of this program will be converted from manual to computer aided drafting (CAD) drawings. A permanent reference to the field verification status will be placed along the right border of the CAD-converted drawing, referencing the revision level, at which the visual verification was performed and documented.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: STORMWATER TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  6. 9 CFR 417.8 - Agency verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.8 Agency verification. FSIS will verify the... plan or system; (f) Direct observation or measurement at a CCP; (g) Sample collection and analysis...

  7. 9 CFR 417.8 - Agency verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.8 Agency verification. FSIS will verify the... plan or system; (f) Direct observation or measurement at a CCP; (g) Sample collection and analysis...

  8. PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF WATER SECURITY - RELATED TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) Center has been charged by EPA to verify the performance of commercially available monitoring technologies for air, water, soil. Four categories of water security technologies (most of whi...

  9. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

  10. U.S. Environmental Technology Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview of the U.S. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV), the ETV Greenhouse Gas Technology Center, and energy-related ETV projects. Presented at the Department of Energy's National Renewable Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado on June 23, 2008.

  11. Verification and Validation of KBS with Neural Network Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Wu; Callahan, John

    1996-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) play an important role in developing robust Knowledge Based Systems (KBS). The ANN based components used in these systems learn to give appropriate predictions through training with correct input-output data patterns. Unlike traditional KBS that depends on a rule database and a production engine, the ANN based system mimics the decisions of an expert without specifically formulating the if-than type of rules. In fact, the ANNs demonstrate their superiority when such if-then type of rules are hard to generate by human expert. Verification of traditional knowledge based system is based on the proof of consistency and completeness of the rule knowledge base and correctness of the production engine.These techniques, however, can not be directly applied to ANN based components.In this position paper, we propose a verification and validation procedure for KBS with ANN based components. The essence of the procedure is to obtain an accurate system specification through incremental modification of the specifications using an ANN rule extraction algorithm.

  12. A verification library for multibody simulation software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Frisch, Harold P.

    1989-01-01

    A multibody dynamics verification library, that maintains and manages test and validation data is proposed, based on RRC Robot arm and CASE backhoe validation and a comparitive study of DADS, DISCOS, and CONTOPS that are existing public domain and commercial multibody dynamic simulation programs. Using simple representative problems, simulation results from each program are cross checked, and the validation results are presented. Functionalities of the verification library are defined, in order to automate validation procedure.

  13. The NPARC Alliance Verification and Validation Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Dudek, Julianne C.; Tatum, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    The NPARC Alliance (National Project for Applications oriented Research in CFD) maintains a publicly-available, web-based verification and validation archive as part of the development and support of the WIND CFD code. The verification and validation methods used for the cases attempt to follow the policies and guidelines of the ASME and AIAA. The emphasis is on air-breathing propulsion flow fields with Mach numbers ranging from low-subsonic to hypersonic.

  14. GPS on-orbit battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, J. L.

    1982-03-01

    Three batteries designed for the GPS system were evaluated. The batteries were wired together, and during the eclipse period were discharged through parallel diodes into a boost converter which then boosted the battery voltage up to the totally regulated bus voltage. Each battery, with a system life of approximately five years, had its own charger. During testing the battery was maintained or used on trickle charge. Data are presented for the battery capacity during the reconditioning. Raw data for each eclipse period and calculations for the average discharge voltage for each battery are given. Thermal cycling for one of the batteries and reconditioning cycles and regimes for all of the batteries are discussed. A reconditioning discharge curve is also given. The problem of temperature cycling in one of the batteries was resolved by redesigning the battery radiator system.

  15. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  16. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  17. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, Laszlo

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl2 primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future.

  18. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  19. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  20. What Do Battery Testers Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities to determine whether it is better to test dry cells with an ammeter than with a voltmeter and how best to test alkaline batteries. Discusses classification of disposable testers as instruments. Concludes that a laboratory voltmeter gives a good indication of the condition of an alkaline cell while carbon batteries are best…

  1. Household-battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.; Antenen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Batrec operates a plant for the recycling of used dry batteries with a capacity of 3,000 tons per year. The plant is situated in a tourist area of Switzerland and has complied with all the strict emission restrictions. The process yields four products: FeMn, Zn, Hg and slag. No hazardous waste is produced. All types of batteries can be treated.

  2. EXAFS studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1991-12-31

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.

  3. EXAFS studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.

  4. Batteries: Converting to long stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seongmin; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-05-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries are attractive energy storage technologies owing to their low cost and high safety, but suffer from poor electrochemical performance. Now, an aqueous mild-acid-based Zn/MnO2 battery that operates via a conversion mechanism is shown to have a long-term cycling stability.

  5. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    SciTech Connect

    Redey, L.

    1990-01-01

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The R D and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50--300 kW/kg specific power and 80--130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1--10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl{sub 2} primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Space shuttle propulsion estimation development verification, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the Propulsion Estimation Development Verification are summarized. A computer program developed under a previous contract (NAS8-35324) was modified to include improved models for the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) internal ballistics, the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) power coefficient model, the vehicle dynamics using quaternions, and an improved Kalman filter algorithm based on the U-D factorized algorithm. As additional output, the estimated propulsion performances, for each device are computed with the associated 1-sigma bounds. The outputs of the estimation program are provided in graphical plots. An additional effort was expended to examine the use of the estimation approach to evaluate single engine test data. In addition to the propulsion estimation program PFILTER, a program was developed to produce a best estimate of trajectory (BET). The program LFILTER, also uses the U-D factorized algorithm form of the Kalman filter as in the propulsion estimation program PFILTER. The necessary definitions and equations explaining the Kalman filtering approach for the PFILTER program, the models used for this application for dynamics and measurements, program description, and program operation are presented.

  7. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  8. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  9. An Integrated Environment for Efficient Formal Design and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The general goal of this project was to improve the practicality of formal methods by combining techniques from model checking and theorem proving. At the time the project was proposed, the model checking and theorem proving communities were applying different tools to similar problems, but there was not much cross-fertilization. This project involved a group from SRI that had substantial experience in the development and application of theorem-proving technology, and a group at Stanford that specialized in model checking techniques. Now, over five years after the proposal was submitted, there are many research groups working on combining theorem-proving and model checking techniques, and much more communication between the model checking and theorem proving research communities. This project contributed significantly to this research trend. The research work under this project covered a variety of topics: new theory and algorithms; prototype tools; verification methodology; and applications to problems in particular domains.

  10. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies, respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-yr DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  11. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    DOE PAGES

    Jarvis, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SVmore » data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.« less

  12. Development of advanced seal verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kosten, Susan E.; Abushagur, Mustafa A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technique to monitor and insure seal integrity with a sensor that has no active elements to burn-out during a long duration activity, such as a leakage test or especially during a mission in space. The original concept proposed is that by implementing fiber optic sensors, changes in the integrity of a seal can be monitored in real time and at no time should the optical fiber sensor fail. The electrical components which provide optical excitation and detection through the fiber are not part of the seal; hence, if these electrical components fail, they can be easily changed without breaking the seal. The optical connections required for the concept to work does present a functional problem to work out. The utility of the optical fiber sensor for seal monitoring should be general enough that the degradation of a seal can be determined before catastrophic failure occurs and appropriate action taken. Two parallel efforts were performed in determining the feasibility of using optical fiber sensors for seal verification. In one study, research on interferometric measurements of the mechanical response of the optical fiber sensors to seal integrity was studied. In a second study, the implementation of the optical fiber to a typical vacuum chamber was implemented and feasibility studies on microbend experiments in the vacuum chamber were performed. Also, an attempt was made to quantify the amount of pressure actually being applied to the optical fiber using finite element analysis software by Algor.

  13. Visual inspection for CTBT verification

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-03-01

    On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

  14. Biometric verification in dynamic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Susan E.

    2002-03-01

    Pen-tablet devices capable of capturing the dynamics of writing record temporal and pressure information as well as the spatial pattern. This paper explores biometric verification based upon the dynamics of writing where writers are distinguished not on the basis of what they write (ie the signature), but how they write. We have collected samples of dynamic writing from 38 Chinese writers. Each writer was asked to provide 10 copies of a paragraph of text and the same number of signature samples. From the data we have extracted stroke-based primitives from the sentence data utilizing pen-up/down information and heuristic rules about the shape of the character. The x, y and pressure values of each primitive were interpolated into an even temporal range based upon a 20 msec sampling rate. We applied the Daubechies 1 wavelet transform to the x signal, y signal and pressure signal using the coefficients as inputs to a multi-layer perceptron trained with back-propagation on the sentence data. We found a sensitivity of 0.977 and specificity of 0.990 recognizing writers based on test primitives extracted from sentence data and measures of 0.916 and 0.961 respectively, from test primitives extracted from signature data.

  15. Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: Report of AAPM Task Group 114

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Robin L.; Heaton, Robert; Fraser, Martin W.; and others

    2011-01-15

    The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the ''independent second check'' for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

  16. Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: report of AAPM Task Group 114.

    PubMed

    Stern, Robin L; Heaton, Robert; Fraser, Martin W; Goddu, S Murty; Kirby, Thomas H; Lam, Kwok Leung; Molineu, Andrea; Zhu, Timothy C

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the "independent second check" for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

  17. Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

  18. National Verification System of National Meteorological Center , China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinyan; Wei, Qing; Qi, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Product Quality Verification Division for official weather forecasting of China was founded in April, 2011. It is affiliated to Forecast System Laboratory (FSL), National Meteorological Center (NMC), China. There are three employees in this department. I'm one of the employees and I am in charge of Product Quality Verification Division in NMC, China. After five years of construction, an integrated realtime National Verification System of NMC, China has been established. At present, its primary roles include: 1) to verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China; 2) to verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau; 3) to evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China. To verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China, we have developed : • Grid QPF Verification module ( including upascale) • Grid temperature, humidity and wind forecast verification module • Severe convective weather forecast verification module • Typhoon forecast verification module • Disaster forecast verification • Disaster warning verification module • Medium and extend period forecast verification module • Objective elements forecast verification module • Ensemble precipitation probabilistic forecast verification module To verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau, we have developed : • City elements forecast verification module • Public heavy rain forecast verification module • City air quality forecast verification module. To evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China, we have developed : • Off-duty forecaster QPF practice evaluation module • QPF evaluation module for forecasters • Severe convective weather forecast evaluation module • Typhoon track forecast evaluation module for forecasters • Disaster warning evaluation module for forecasters • Medium and extend period forecast evaluation module The further

  19. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  20. Battery Life Data Analysis

    2008-07-01

    The FreedomCar Partnership has established life goals for batteries. Among them is a 15 year calendar life. The software and the underlying methodology attempt to predict cell and battery life using, at most, two years of test data. The software uses statistical models based on data from accelerated aging experiments to estimate cell life. The life model reflects the average cell performance under a given set of stress conditions with time. No specific form ofmore » the life model is assumed. The software will fit the model to experimental data. An error model, reflecting the cell-to-cell variability and measurement errors, is included in the software. Monte Carlo simulations, based on the developed models, are used to assess Lack-of-fit and develop uncertainty limis for the average cell life. The software has three operating modes: fit only, fit and simulation and simulation only. The user is given these options by means of means and alert boxes.« less

  1. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  2. Dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide in sodium–oxygen batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsoo; Park, Hyeokjun; Lee, Byungju; Seong, Won Mo; Lim, Hee-Dae; Bae, Youngjoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Won Keun; Ryu, Kyoung Han; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-01-01

    With the demand for high-energy-storage devices, the rechargeable metal–oxygen battery has attracted attention recently. Sodium–oxygen batteries have been regarded as the most promising candidates because of their lower-charge overpotential compared with that of lithium–oxygen system. However, conflicting observations with different discharge products have inhibited the understanding of precise reactions in the battery. Here we demonstrate that the competition between the electrochemical and chemical reactions in sodium–oxygen batteries leads to the dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide, liberating superoxide anion and triggering the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2·2H2O). On the formation of Na2O2·2H2O, the charge overpotential of sodium–oxygen cells significantly increases. This verification addresses the origin of conflicting discharge products and overpotentials observed in sodium–oxygen systems. Our proposed model provides guidelines to help direct the reactions in sodium–oxygen batteries to achieve high efficiency and rechargeability. PMID:26892931

  3. Dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide in sodium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Park, Hyeokjun; Lee, Byungju; Seong, Won Mo; Lim, Hee-Dae; Bae, Youngjoon; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Won Keun; Ryu, Kyoung Han; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-02-01

    With the demand for high-energy-storage devices, the rechargeable metal-oxygen battery has attracted attention recently. Sodium-oxygen batteries have been regarded as the most promising candidates because of their lower-charge overpotential compared with that of lithium-oxygen system. However, conflicting observations with different discharge products have inhibited the understanding of precise reactions in the battery. Here we demonstrate that the competition between the electrochemical and chemical reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries leads to the dissolution and ionization of sodium superoxide, liberating superoxide anion and triggering the formation of sodium peroxide dihydrate (Na2O2.2H2O). On the formation of Na2O2.2H2O, the charge overpotential of sodium-oxygen cells significantly increases. This verification addresses the origin of conflicting discharge products and overpotentials observed in sodium-oxygen systems. Our proposed model provides guidelines to help direct the reactions in sodium-oxygen batteries to achieve high efficiency and rechargeability.

  4. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held July 16-18, 2013, from...

  5. Battery resource assessment. Subtask 2.5: Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, zinc/bromine, sodium/sulfur, and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes were developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process was designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs were developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year.

  6. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  7. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  8. NASA/Marshall's lithium battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschal, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    A general lithium battery is described and a summary of lithium battery applications is presented. Four aspects of a particular lithium battery, the inducement environmental contamination monitoring battery, are discussed-design and construction details, thermal vacuum tests, projection tests, and acceptance tests.

  9. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  10. Battery Council International 107th convention

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contain papers which were presented at the 1995 Battery Council International Meeting. Topics include forecast reports for industrial batteries, Asia, Europe, and Latin America, electric vehicles, failure modes of batteries removed from service, and a 1994 battery shipment review and five year forecast.

  11. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of...

  12. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of...

  13. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  14. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  15. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of...

  16. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  17. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installations. 183.354 Section 183.354 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box...

  18. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  19. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installations. 183.354 Section 183.354 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box...

  20. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...