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Sample records for battery german patent

  1. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  2. Battery separators. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning materials and methods used to manufacture battery separators. Microporous films and sheets, glass fibers, textile fabrics, and synthetic fibers are included. Coatings for improvement of battery performance and life are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 241 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...,172,834 B1). 4. ARL 02-27 D1--Non-aqueous solvent electrolyte battery with additive alkali metal salt..., Less Expensive Lithium Ion Batteries (US 7,629,080). 6. ARL 05-18--High Capacity Metal/Air Battery...

  4. Patenting inventions in the field of biology and chemistry: German and European patent law and case law.

    PubMed

    Vossius, V

    1997-10-01

    Patent law is intended to provide protection for new and inventive achievements in technology. Technical progress is considered to be the purpose and aim of patent law. The main objective of patent law is to protect patentable results according to the latest state of science and research. It is most important to encourage the inventor to completely publish his knowledge. As a reward for this the inventor is granted a right of exclusion which is limited in time: the patent. It is not the purpose of patent law to enrich mere theory but to create industrially applicable knowledge for the public. This contribution deals with important problems to be considered by inventors in the patenting of inventions in the field of biology and chemistry. Such questions are related particularly to the accessibility of inventions and discoveries to patent protection, the various kinds (categories) of patents, the requirement of novelty, complete disclosure of the invention, patentability of DNA sequences and proteins, as well as inventive step.

  5. Development of a Test Battery for Assessing Phonological Awareness in German-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Blanca; Fricke, Silke; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Fox-Boyer, Annette V.; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The development of phonological awareness (PA), the ability to reflect on the sound structure of words independent of their meaning, has been extensively explored in English-speaking children. However, this is not the case for other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive PA test battery for German-speaking preschool…

  6. Development of a Test Battery for Assessing Phonological Awareness in German-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Blanca; Fricke, Silke; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Fox-Boyer, Annette V.; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The development of phonological awareness (PA), the ability to reflect on the sound structure of words independent of their meaning, has been extensively explored in English-speaking children. However, this is not the case for other languages. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive PA test battery for German-speaking preschool…

  7. 76 FR 3118 - Notice of Availability of Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... USPTO on 10/27/10 (S/N 61/407,153). 12. ARL 09-41--Longer Lasting Lithium/Oxygen Battery. Provisional... for Next Generation 5V Li-ion Batteries. Provisional filed with USPTO on 7/6/2010 (S/N 61/ 361,625...

  8. 'Recharge my exhausted batteries': Overbeck's Rejuvenator, Patenting, and Public Medical Consumers, 1924-37.

    PubMed

    Stark, James F

    2014-10-01

    Although historians have shown that there has been a complex and multi-layered relationship between the body, medicine and the force of electricity, many avenues remain to be explored. One of the most prominent of these is the way in which electrotherapy technologies were marketed to a wide variety of different end users and intermediaries. This paper offers the first historical analysis of one such device - the Overbeck Rejuvenator - a 1920s electrotherapy machine designed for use by the general public. Its inventor, Otto Overbeck, was not a medical man and this enabled him to use aggressive strategies of newspaper advertising, using testimonials to market his product alongside appeals to his own scientific authority. He commissioned the prestigious Ediswan Company to manufacture the Rejuvenator on a large scale, and took out patents in eleven countries to persuade users of the efficacy of the device. In response to Overbeck's activities, the British Medical Association enlisted an electrical engineer to examine the Rejuvenator, contacted practitioners whose endorsements were being used in publicity material, and denied Overbeck permission to advertise in the British Medical Journal. Despite this, the Rejuvenator brought its inventor wealth and notoriety, and helped redefine the concept of 'rejuvenation', even if the professional reception of such a device was almost universally hostile. This paper shows how the marketing, patenting and publishing of Overbeck combined to persuade members of the laity to try the Rejuvenator as an alternative form of therapy, bypassing the medical profession in the process.

  9. Investigations on sediment toxicity of German rivers applying a standardized bioassay battery.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christoph; Gartiser, Stefan; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Schiwy, Sabrina; Hercher, Christoph; Meyer, Wiebke; Achten, Christine; Larsson, Maria; Engwall, Magnus; Keiter, Steffen; Hollert, Henner

    2015-11-01

    River sediments may contain a huge variety of environmental contaminants and play a key role in the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Contaminants adsorbed to sediments and suspended solids may contribute directly or after remobilization to an adverse ecological and chemical status of surface water. In this subproject of the joint research project DanTox, acetonic Soxhlet extracts from three German river sediments from the River Rhine (Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein with moderate contamination) and River Elbe (Veringkanal Hamburg heavily contaminated) were prepared and redissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). These extracts were analyzed with a standard bioassay battery with organisms from different trophic levels (bacteria, algae, Daphnia, fish) as well as in the Ames test and the umuC test for bacterial mutagenicity and genotoxicity according to the respective OECD and ISO guidelines. In total, 0.01% (standard) up to 0.25% (only fish embryo test) of the DMSO sediment extract was dosed to the test systems resulting in maximum sediment equivalent concentrations (SEQ) of 2 up to 50 g l(-1). The sediment of Veringkanal near Hamburg harbor was significantly more toxic in most tests compared to the sediment extracts from Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein from the River Rhine. The most toxic effect found for Veringkanal was in the algae test with an ErC50 (72 h) of 0.00226 g l(-1) SEQ. Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples were about factor 1,000 less toxic. In the Daphnia, Lemna, and acute fish toxicity tests, no toxicity at all was found at 2 g l(-1) SEQ. corresponding to 0.01% DMSO. Only when increasing the DMSO concentration the fish embryo test showed a 22-fold higher toxicity for Veringkanal than for Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples, while the toxicity difference was less evident for the Daphnia test due to the overlaying solvent toxicity above 0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The higher toxicities observed with the Veringkanal sample are supported by the PAH and PCB

  10. Modern evaluation of patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  11. A new test battery to assess aphasic disturbances and associated cognitive dysfunctions -- German normative data on the aphasia check list.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, Elke; Reinhold, Nadine; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J; Kessler, Josef

    2005-10-01

    Aphasia, defined as an acquired impairment of linguistic abilities, can be accompanied by a diversity of neuropsychological dysfunction. Accordingly, the necessity to include cognitive testing in the diagnosis of aphasia is increasingly recognized. Here we present the Aphasia Check List (ACL), a new test battery for the assessment of aphasic and associated cognitive disorders. The language part of the battery provides a differentiated profile of important linguistic abilities. In addition, the ACL includes nonverbal screening tests for three neuropsychological domains: memory, attention, and reasoning. Dysfunctions in these domains have been observed in aphasic patients and can have an impact on language function. The ACL is applicable to patients with language disturbances of different etiologies, different stages of disease, and to patients with mild to severe aphasia. As the entire test duration is only about 30 minutes, the ACL is also economically valuable. It thus presents an adequate starting point in aphasia diagnosis for a wide range of patients. Here we describe the construction of the ACL, and the normative study of its original German version with 154 aphasic patients and 106 healthy comparison subjects. The ACL cognition part revealed additional neuropsychological dysfunction in the aphasia group. We present the patterns of these dysfunctions and their correlations with language deficits.

  12. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  13. Software Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  14. Long-term impacts of battery electric vehicles on the German electricity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrichs, H. U.; Jochem, P.

    2016-05-01

    The emerging market for electric vehicles gives rise to an additional electricity demand. This new electricity demand will affect the electricity system. For quantifying those impacts a model-based approach, which covers long-term time horizons is necessary in order to consider the long lasting investment paths in electricity systems and the market development of electric mobility. Therefore, we apply a bottom-up electricity system model showing a detailed spatial resolution for different development paths of electric mobility in Germany until 2030. This model is based on a linear optimization which minimizes the discounted costs of the electricity system. We observe an increase of electricity exchange between countries and electricity generated by renewable energy sources. One major result turns out to be that electric vehicles can be integrated in the electricity system without increasing the system costs when a controlled (postponing) charging strategy for electric vehicles is applied. The impact on the power plant portfolio is insignificant. Another important side effect of electric vehicles is their substantial contribution to decreasing CO2 emissions of the German transport sector. Hence, electric mobility might be an integral part of a sustainable energy system of tomorrow.

  15. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  16. Patents - An Information Resource.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    and control, from the 4ndividual states to the union , to the Federal government. The U.S, Constitution of 1787 gave the Congress the power to "promote...major industrial nations--Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union --just compensation to the employee for his invention...t Office, the aternt inforiation system of the 6oviet Union . Also at the German Patent Office suchA an active search srvice is beino at the first

  17. In-situ One-step Hydrothermal Synthesis of a Lead Germanate-Graphene Composite as a Novel Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Feng, Chuan-qi; Sun, Zi-qi; Chou, Shu-lei; Liu, Hua-Kun; Wang, Jia-zhao

    2014-01-01

    Lead germanate-graphene nanosheets (PbGeO3-GNS) composites have been prepared by an efficient one-step, in-situ hydrothermal method and were used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The PbGeO3 nanowires, around 100–200 nm in diameter, are highly encapsulated in a graphene matrix. The lithiation and de-lithiation reaction mechanisms of the PbGeO3 anode during the charge-discharge processes have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical characterization. Compared with pure PbGeO3 anode, dramatic improvements in the electrochemical performance of the composite anodes have been obtained. In the voltage window of 0.01–1.50 V, the composite anode with 20 wt.% GNS delivers a discharge capacity of 607 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1600 mA g−1, a capacity of 406 mAh g−1 can be achieved. Therefore, the PbGeO3-GNS composite can be considered as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries. PMID:25391220

  18. Patenting DNA.

    PubMed

    Bobrow, Martin; Thomas, Sandy

    2002-12-01

    The protection of inventions based on human DNA sequences has been achieved mainly through application of the patent system. Over the past decade, there has been continuing debate about whether this use of intellectual property rights is acceptable. Companies and universities have been active during this period in filing thousands of patent applications. Although many have argued that to claim a DNA sequence in a patent is to claim a discovery, patent law allows discoveries that are useful to be claimed as part of an invention. As the technology to isolate DNA sequences has advanced, the criterion for inventiveness, necessary for any invention to be eligible for filing, has become more difficult to justify in the case of claims to DNA sequences. Moreover, the discovery that a gene is associated with a particular disease is, it is argued, to discover a fact about the world and undeserving of the status of an invention. Careful examination of the grounds for allowing the patenting of DNA sequences as research tools suggests such rewards will rarely be justified. The patenting of DNA sequences as chemical intermediates necessary for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins is, however, reasonable given that the information within the sequence is applied to produce a tangible substance which has application as a medicine. Despite the legal, technical and political complexities of applying the flexibilities with the current law, it is argued that much could be achieved in the area of patenting DNA by raising the thresholds for patentability.

  19. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  20. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  1. Lithium Germanate (Li2 GeO3 ): A High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Sultana, Irin; Yang, Tianyu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Sharma, Neeraj; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Chen, Ying

    2016-12-23

    A simple, cost-effective, and easily scalable molten salt method for the preparation of Li2 GeO3 as a new type of high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries is reported. The Li2 GeO3 exhibits a unique porous architecture consisting of micrometer-sized clusters (secondary particles) composed of numerous nanoparticles (primary particles) and can be used directly without further carbon coating which is a common exercise for most electrode materials. The new anode displays superior cycling stability with a retained charge capacity of 725 mAh g(-1) after 300 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) . The electrode also offers excellent rate capability with a capacity recovery of 810 mAh g(-1) (94 % retention) after 35 cycles of ascending steps of current in the range of 25-800 mA g(-1) and finally back to 25 mA g(-1) . This work emphasizes the importance of exploring new electrode materials without carbon coating as carbon-coated materials demonstrate several drawbacks in full devices. Therefore, this study provides a method and a new type of anode with high reversibility and long cycle stability.

  2. Battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, C.V.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a battery charger for a storage battery having circuitry including a primary charging path consisting of means to reduce the voltage of a power source to a level to be applied to a battery to be charged. It also includes a means to convert power from the power source to a pulsating direct current applied to an SCR and gating it on at the beginning of each selected half cycle and passing the current to the positive terminal of the battery. The improvement in circuitry in the charging path consists of voltage control and time control means of a battery charger, the voltage control means comprises a voltage low pass filter and sensing means, the same being connected to the leads of a battery as a charging input voltage source and having as its output a filtered voltage proportional to the Vmin voltage of a battery, the Vmin voltage being applied to a voltage comparator, means feeding a fixed reference voltage to the comparator, the reference voltage being proportional to an equalization voltage to be impressed upon the battery, whereby when the reference voltage is exceeded by the Vmin voltage from the battery, current flow through the SCR ceases and the voltage in the battery decreases, and when the Vmin voltage is less than the fixed reference voltage, the SCR resumes charging the battery to maintain the battery at its equalization level voltage, and means causing the time control means to run for the time of the equalization charge and to pause and hold its time setting in the event equalization charging ceases prior to the completion of the equalization charging cycle.

  3. US photovoltaic patents, 1951--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This document contains 2195 US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1951 through 1987; no patents were found in 1950. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ''Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,'' and the subclasses ''Photoelectric,'' ''Testing,'' and ''Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words ''photovoltaic(s)'' or ''solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  4. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table…

  5. Patenting of University and Non-University Public Research Organisations in Germany: Evidence from Patent Applications for Medical Research Results

    PubMed Central

    Tinnemann, Peter; Özbay, Jonas; Saint, Victoria A.; Willich, Stefan N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47%) of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. Conclusions We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases. Internationally mounting

  6. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  7. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  8. Patent and product piracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  9. Recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ehtezazi, Touraj

    2012-04-01

    In this paper recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers have been reviewed. The patents are related to novel valves, dose-counters, formulations, add-on devices, reduction of propellant leakage and inkjet technology. Recently patented dose-counters provide mechanisms that are less susceptible to inaccuracy, and are battery-less electronic dose-counters with the help of miniature electromechanical generators. Regarding the formulation aspect, recent patents provide methods for combinational pMDIs and more stable products. Advantages of recently patented valves are being spring-free and less subject to loss of prime. Recent developments in micromachining have allowed patents that incorporate inkjet technology to develop inhalers that are similar to pMDIs, but produce uniform aerosol droplets. Coating canisters with suitable polymers has reduced need for excipients. Recently patented add-on devices reduce aerosol deposition in the spacer by creating turbulence on the walls of the chamber. Blockage of nozzles in actuators is prevented by providing tapered nozzle channels. In conclusion, these patents show better understanding of pMDIs and provide methods to achieve products with much improved reliability, aerosol performance and stability.

  10. Recent progress and patents in silicon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Li Z; Wang, Shang B; Fan, Chuan G

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanotubes, as a novel kind of silicon nanomaterials, exhibit good application prospect in lithium ion battery, field effect transistors, magnetic nanodevices, hydrogen storage, nanoscale electron and field emitting devices. This article reviews the recent progress and patents in silicon nanotubes. The progress and corresponding patents for the synthesis of silicon nanotubes using different templates, hydrothermal method, electrochemical deposition, plasma method and laser ablation method are demonstrated. The experimental application and patents of silicon nanotubes as field effect transistors and lithium ion battery are discussed. The application potential of silicon nanotubes in magnetic devices, hydrogen storage, nanoscale electron and field-emitting devices is demonstrated. Finally, the future development of silicon nanotubes for the synthesis and practice application is also discussed.

  11. Are There Enduring Patents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noma, Elliot; Olivastro, Dominic

    1985-01-01

    A study comparing citations received by patents in given year to number received in subsequent years found that, even though influential patents remain influential, both highly and infrequently cited patents age at same rate. Distribution of patents by number of citations received is stable over time. (17 references) (EJS)

  12. Do Military Personnel Patent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    inventors and other correlates of patenting. 14. SUBJECT TERMS innovation, creativity , patent, patents, inventor 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87...18 Figure 4. Three Components of Creativity . Adapted from Adams (2005). .... 21 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...TIROS Television and Infrared Observations Satellite TTCT Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking USPTO United States Patent and Trademark Office WWII

  13. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  14. Development of attention functions in 5- to 11-year-old Arab children as measured by the German Test Battery of Attention Performance (KITAP): a pilot study from Syria.

    PubMed

    Sobeh, Jamal; Spijkers, Will

    2012-01-01

    We administered the German Test-battery of Attention Performance (KITAP) to Arab children living in Syria (N=143, 5-11 years) in order to assess the influence of age and gender on different dimensions of attention. The results demonstrate the validity of cross-cultural application of KITAP with Syrian school-aged children. The influence of age was more evident on speed of performance than on quality of performance, with rapid, general improvement until the age of 9 years. Some attention functions like alertness and inhibitory control seemed to be developed earlier than other functions like, flexibility, distractibility, and divided attention. Gender-related differences were observed in some subtests: Boys had faster reaction times but made more errors than girls. Interestingly, Arab-Syrian children showed better performance on some attention tests compared with German norms. The present study provides support for the use of cross-cultural studies for better understanding of the development of attention in school-aged children.

  15. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT...

  16. Patent foramen ovale

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001113.htm Patent foramen ovale To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a hole between the left and ...

  17. Whole-genome patenting.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Bostanci, Adam; Calvert, Jane

    2005-06-01

    Gene patenting is now a familiar commercial practice, but there is little awareness that several patents claim ownership of the complete genome sequence of a prokaryote or virus. When these patents are analysed and compared to those for other biological entities, it becomes clear that genome patents seek to exploit the genome as an information base and are part of a broader shift towards intangible intellectual property in genomics.

  18. [Patenting human genes].

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    2002-05-10

    The problem of patenting of human genes, which was discussed at the Workshop organized by OECD, has become very actual due to granted patents that concern testing of genetic disposition for breast cancer. Companies that had made large investments into this research clearly support patenting of their discoveries. But such patents can reduce general accessibility of genetic testing. Existing laws, and namely the Directive of the European Council unfortunately are not unambiguous and allow rather free explanation.

  19. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  20. Patent Foramen Ovale

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Patent foramen ovale By Mayo Clinic Staff A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a hole in the heart that didn' ... foramen ovale doesn't close, it's called a patent foramen ovale. Although it's not uncommon to have ...

  1. Universities That Litigate Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooksby, Jacob H.

    2012-01-01

    American research universities frequently obtain and license patents to their faculty members' inventions. While university licensing is carefully tracked and thoroughly studied, little is known about university decisions to assertively litigate their patents through filing patent infringement lawsuits in federal court. Which universities…

  2. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  3. [Patents on life? No patent on life!].

    PubMed

    van Raden, L

    1998-03-01

    Inventions related to living material are in principle patentable as well as inventions in the "classical" fields of technology as long as they are new, industrially applicable and involve an inventive step. A patent gives to its owner for a limited period of time the exclusive right to prevent others from using his patented new technical know-how. Starting point of patent protection in the field of genetic engineering is a genetic information or a genetically induced characteristic of an organism; there is no such thing as a "Patent on Life". As far as inventions relate to genetically modified organisms, patents give to their owners no additional property rights that might exclude the applicability e.g. of the laws on animal protection. Intellectual property like any other property is subject to the limits set up by law. It is neither scientifically correct nor does it help in finding a solution for the conflict within society to shift the--undoubtedly necessary--discussion about research and application in the field of genetic engineering to a discussion about patent law.

  4. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio. PMID:26098313

  5. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  6. Organic cathode for a secondary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Bugga, R.V.; Distefano, S.; Williams, R.M.; Bankston, C.P.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes a battery system. It comprises: a first body of liquid meal anode comprising a Group I metal; a record body of liquid cathode comprising a combination of Group I metal salt and Group III metal salt molten at the temperature of operation of the battery containing a minor amount of an organic carbonitrile depolarizer containing at least one adjacent ethylenic bond.

  7. Patents and nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs.

  8. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  9. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  10. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  11. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  12. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of ...

  13. Patent Law's Reproducibility Paradox.

    PubMed

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical research faces a reproducibility crisis. Many recent clinical and preclinical studies appear to be irreproducible--their results cannot be verified by outside researchers. This is problematic for not only scientific reasons but also legal ones: patents grounded in irreproducible research appear to fail their constitutional bargain of property rights in exchange for working disclosures of inventions. The culprit is likely patent law’s doctrine of enablement. Although the doctrine requires patents to enable others to make and use their claimed inventions, current difficulties in applying the doctrine hamper or even actively dissuade reproducible data in patents. This Article assesses the difficulties in reconciling these basic goals of scientific research and patent law. More concretely, it provides several examples of irreproducibility in patents on blockbuster drugs--Prempro, Xigris, Plavix, and Avastin--and discusses some of the social costs of the misalignment between good clinical practice and patent doctrine. Ultimately, this analysis illuminates several current debates concerning innovation policy. It strongly suggests that a proper conception of enablement should take into account after-arising evidence. It also sheds light on the true purpose--and limits--of patent disclosure. And lastly, it untangles the doctrines of enablement and utility.

  14. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  15. A Patent Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  16. A Patent Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  17. Problem Solving with Patents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

  18. University Patent Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachs, Phyllis S.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of problems relating to university patents today is presented, and a policy for the institution which addresses the issues that these problems present is suggested. Patenting the results of university research would not delay the publication of research and would provide a needed source of funding. (Author/MLW)

  19. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  20. Flywheel batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Siuru, B.

    1993-04-01

    American flywheel Systems of Seattle has patented a system that uses twin lightweight, counter-rotating rim wheels (200,000 rpm) that revolve on frictionless, magnetic bearings. The device is enclosed in an evacuated housing. AFS has completed a computer comparison of a GM Inpact electric vehicle fitted with 32 lead acid batteries against the same vehicle with 20 AFS flywheel storage devices.

  1. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation.

  2. Internet Patent Databases: Everyone Is a Patent Searcher Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohrley, Andrew A.; Mitchell, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    Patent information has never been so available, at such low cost, to so many people. Describes patent databases accessible on the Web (Micropatent, Source Translation and Optimization Questel-Orbit QPAT, Internet Patents/Community of Science, and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office), lists their strengths and weaknesses, and recommends the best…

  3. Internet Patent Databases: Everyone Is a Patent Searcher Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohrley, Andrew A.; Mitchell, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    Patent information has never been so available, at such low cost, to so many people. Describes patent databases accessible on the Web (Micropatent, Source Translation and Optimization Questel-Orbit QPAT, Internet Patents/Community of Science, and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office), lists their strengths and weaknesses, and recommends the best…

  4. Patenting malarial vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is an important tropical infection affecting millions of world population each year. Malarial vaccine development is the hope for successful control of malaria. Knowledge on malaria vaccine has been considered patentable subject for decades. Due to the present advance biotechnology, the number of patent applications related to malarial vaccine is growing exponentially. Several malarial vaccine candidates have been recently identified and the genetic manipulation of these candidates is becoming more efficient with the advancement of new biotechnologies. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on malarial vaccines covering antigens, candidate epitopes and recombinant processing.

  5. FTTA Hightlighted Patents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page highlights patented EPA-developed technologies that are available for licensing. FTTA staff contacts (link) can provide more information on any of these technologies, as well as information on licensing.

  6. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePlus

    Patent urachal tube repair ... belly. Next, the surgeon will find the urachal tube and remove it. The bladder opening will be ... surgeon uses the tools to remove the urachal tube and close off the bladder and area where ...

  7. Patent Foramen Ovale

    MedlinePlus

    ... have it. A patent foramen ovale is often discovered during tests for other problems. Learning that you ... atrium. The upper right chamber (right atrium) receives oxygen-poor blood from your body and pumps it ...

  8. Retrieving Patent Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses patent information retrieval from online files in terms of types of questions, file contents, coverage, timeliness, and other file variations. CLAIMS, Derwent, WPI, APIPAT and Chemical Abstracts Service are described. (KP)

  9. Trends in Nanopharmaceutical Patents

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Adelaide; Fierro, Iolanda; Guerrante, Rafaela; Mendes, Flavia; Alencar, Maria Simone de M.

    2013-01-01

    Investment in nanotechnology is now a given constant by governments, research centers and companies in both more developed countries and emerging markets. Due to their characteristics, such as high stability, ability to enable antigen identification on specific cells in the human body and controlling the release of drugs and, therefore, improving therapies, nanoparticles have been the subject of research and patent applications in the pharmaceutical field. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE), patent data can be used as a source of information in order to measure science and technology activities. Thereby, this paper presents an analysis based on patent documents related to nanotechnology in the pharmaceutical sector. As a result, the analysis of patents demonstrate primarily that nanobiotechnology attracts high levels of R&D investments, including nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutic agents/drugs, monoclonal antibody nanoparticle complexes and their role in drug delivery or contrast agents with non-toxic effects. PMID:23535336

  10. Retrieving Patent Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses patent information retrieval from online files in terms of types of questions, file contents, coverage, timeliness, and other file variations. CLAIMS, Derwent, WPI, APIPAT and Chemical Abstracts Service are described. (KP)

  11. Patent law for the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Mei, Dan Feng; Liu, Josephine

    2013-12-01

    An exciting discovery in the laboratory may translate to a commercial product. How does the patent system fit into the picture? We first discuss the circumstances under which an invention is granted a patent. What is the purpose of a patent and what are the functions of the patent system? Who can apply for a patent? What makes an invention patentable? A patent does not automatically grant a right to make or sell a product. This is because multiple patents can cover a single pharmaceutical product. Understanding the patent landscape covering a product of interest is key to evaluating the risk of infringing another's exclusivity rights. We use a hypothetical example relating to skin cancer to guide a discussion of patent law.

  12. Patent disclosure requirements for therapeutic antibody patents.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Carmela; Trifonova, Anastassia

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies have grown to become an important product class within the biopharmaceutical market. A prerequisite to their commercialization is adequate patent protection. Disclosure requirements and the types of claims available in different jurisdictions can impact the scope of protection available for antibodies. Areas covered: A comparative review of statutory bases, patent office practices and selected decisions in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom related to disclosure requirements is provided. Expert opinion: Differences in disclosure requirements exist in different jurisdictions which can impact the type of claims obtained and their survival when attacked in litigation. Including a wide variety of claim types is a key strategy to ensuring therapeutic antibodies are adequately protected. Method of use claims may provide advantages and broader protection in some circumstances and should also be considered.

  13. Testing Communicative Competence: Notes on a Battery of English Language Tests for Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Antonio

    1979-01-01

    This article consists of a battery of tests designed to evaluate the communicative competence of German students studying English in Volkshochschule. The battery includes tests of reading comprehension, written production, listening comprehension, vocabulary and structures, and oral production. (CFM)

  14. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  15. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  16. Controlled battery charging system

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, D.B.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes a controlled battery charging system for charging a battery having terminals. It comprises: a transformer having a primary coil connected to a source of alternating current, and a secondary coil having output leads and a center tap, full wave rectifier means connected to the output leads to the secondary coil, the rectifier means including a pair of gate controlled rectifiers having direct current output leads, a battery charging circuit connected to the output leads to the rectifiers and having output means electrically contacting the terminals of a battery to be charged, a unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit connected to the rectifiers to trigger the gate controlled rectifiers into conduction to produce a DC charging current in the charging circuit, an electronic current limiting control circuit comprising a current limiting amplifier having a positive input, a negative input, and an output, a resistive line connected to center tap, a negative input lead connecting the center tap to the negative input of the current limiting amplifier, voltage input means connected to the positive input for supplying a voltage to the current limiting amplifier more positive than a voltage supplied to the negative input, voltage supply means connecting the current limiting amplifier to the battery charging circuit, and control means connecting the output of the current limiting amplifier to the unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit operative to turn off the DC charging circuit when the charging current exceeds a predetermined current value.

  17. Patents on Endophytic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, M; Gupta, D; Gupta, U; Faraz, R; Sandhu, S S

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of organisms, mainly belonging to the Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Endophytes usually produce the enzymes necessary for the colonization of plant tissues. Endophytes are able to utilize components of plant cells without disturbing host metabolism, which is confirmed by isozyme analysis and studies on substrate utilization. The patents related to enzymes and metabolites produced by endophytic fungi are associated with their ecological significance. Application of metabolites and growth promoting factors produced from endophytic fungi, in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, is now well established. The patents on secretion of extracellular enzymes in vitro by endophytic fungi needed for cell wall degradation, support the hypothesis that fungal endophytes represent a group of organisms specialized to live within plant tissue. This review presents the patents granted on different aspects of endophytic fungi for the last 11 years. This expresses the scenario and impact of these patents regarding significance in human society. In the last few years, research and inventions regarding the different aspects of endophytic fungi beneficial for host plant as well as for human beings have been carried out, which is supported by the increasing number of patents granted on endophytic fungi. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Are biosimilars patentable?

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Damian; Parker, Jayson; Morgan, Max

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores whether, and under what circumstances, a biosimilar approved in the United States under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (hereafter 'BPCIA') can be patented. The possibility that a biosimilar product could have meaningful patent protection arises from specific requirements for biosimilarity under the BPCIA, which account for the fact that manufacturing processes of biologics are inherently imprecise. The requirements for biosimilar approval may provide sufficient leeway to a biosimilar applicant to patent structural or formulation differences that provide non-clinical but business-relevant advantages over the reference molecule, such as improved shelf-life or ease of manufacture, without compromising clinical biosimilarity. Examination of the BPCIA and related Acts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance papers, case law, patent database searching, and relevant scholarly articles. Legislative and regulatory requirements for the approval of a biosimilar under the BPCIA are focused on clinical results and allow a degree of leeway for differences to exist between a biosimilar's structure and non-clinical components and those of the biosimilar's reference molecule. This leeway can be exploited to provide the biosimilar with potentially patentable business-relevant advantages over its reference product while maintaining clinical biosimilarity to the reference product.

  19. TVA fertilizer patents

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.J.; Aldridge, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Fertilizer research has been an important function of the Tennessee Valley Authority from the time it was established in 1933 to the present. During this period there have been extensive changes in the fertilizer industry. New and improved products have been developed and more efficient manufacturing methods have emerged. Products and processes developed by TVA are in widespread use today in the fertilizer industry. This bulletin is a collection of abstracts of patents granted to TVA on fertilizer technology and related topics over about 45 years. It contains 200 abstracts of patents. The abstracts have been divided into 13 major sections. Each section reflects the improved technology through this period of time. Abstracts of some of the patents issued to TVA since 1968 have already appeared in Fertilizer Abstracts, a journal published monthly since 1968. Inventor and subject indexes are provided in this bulletin.

  20. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  1. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  2. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  3. Biotechnology patents: new move confuses US patents world.

    PubMed

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1983-03-17

    Patent attorneys are perplexed and dismayed over a surprise decision by the U.S. Patent Office to drop its earlier objections to the second Cohen-Boyer patent application, covering basic processes in recombinant DNA technology. The patent proceedings, which were closed to public access at the request of Stanford University, have resulted in confusion over the meaning of the patent law's disclosure requirement as it applies to new organisms. Meanwhile, evidence of a prior Ph.D. thesis has called into question the originality of the Cohen-Boyer process.

  4. Biotools: Patenting DNA sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, M.D.; Hone, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    The decision, known as In re Deuel{sup 2}, rejects the PTO`s interpretation of a previous decision of the Federal Circuit and makes it more possible that a {open_quotes}nucleic acid of a particular sequence{close_quotes} - commonly known as a gene sequence - may be patentable. 15 refs.

  5. Patent Documents as a Resource for Studies and Education in Geophysics - An Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Patents are a highly neglected source of information in geophysics, although they supply a wealth of technical and historically relevant data and might be an important asset for researchers and students. The technical drawings and descriptions in patent documents provide insight into the personal work of a researcher or a scientific group and give detailed technical background information, show interdisciplinary solutions for similar problems, help to learn about inventions too advanced for their time but maybe useful now, and to explore the historical background and timelines of inventions and their inventors. It will be shown how to get access to patent documents and how to use them for research and education purposes. Exemplary inventions by well-known geoscientists or scientists in related fields will be presented to illustrate the usefulness of patent documents. The data pool used is the International Patent Classification (IPC) class G01V that the United Nations' World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has set up mainly for inventions with key aspects in geophysics. This class contains approximately 235,000 patent documents (July 2016) for methods, apparatuses or scientific instruments developed during scientific projects or by geophysical companies. The patent documents can be accessed via patent databases. The most important patent databases are for free, search functionality is self-explanatory and the amount of information to be extracted is enormous. For example, more than 90 million multilingual patent documents are currently available online (July 2016) in DEPATIS database of the German Patent and Trade Mark Office or ESPACENET of the European Patent Office. To summarize, patent documents are a highly useful tool for educational and research purposes to strengthen students' and scientists' knowledge in a practically orientated geophysical field and to widen the horizon to adjacent technical areas. Last but not least, they also provide insight

  6. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  7. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  8. A Teacher's Notebook: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This guide for teachers of German at independent schools is a result of a collective effort of a number of experienced German teachers during the year 1973. It is directed mainly toward the new teacher as a quick source of reference for all aspects of instruction of German at the secondary level. Contents include: (1) "Why Study German?," (2)…

  9. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  10. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to a...

  11. 78 FR 52939 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License: Use of Scopolamine to Treat Depression

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... 25, 2005, titled ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety'' [HHS Ref. No. E-175-2004... Treatment of Depression and Anxiety'' [HHS Ref. No. E-175-2004/0-EP-03]; 3. German Patent 1896025, issued December 28, 2011, titled ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety'' [HHS Ref. No....

  12. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    FOR TIlE MULTIPURPOSE 4.122,675 10/1978 Polyak ........................... 60/641 X UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 1761 Inventor...contained in Ohio 40"menf .of em W arat thot such use be fro* ffe Pivately owned riht. A 00300 AFSC ar*P7 79c R&LD RECORD (PatentI Abet...., lv PATENT

  13. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection. (a...

  14. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c) of...

  15. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. PMID:25280901

  16. Rubella (German Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  17. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

    The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

  18. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  19. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  20. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  1. Basics of US patents and the patent system.

    PubMed

    Elliott, George

    2007-08-24

    The patent system plays an important role in stimulating the economy and advancing the quality of life in the United States. It serves as an incentive for innovation by giving inventors an exclusive right to their inventions for a limited period of time. It also increases and hastens the publication of useful knowledge by requiring inventors to disclose their invention to the public. Patents are particularly important in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries because they provide a mechanism by which the extremely high product development costs may be recouped. The United States Patent and Trademark Office acts as a gatekeeper in the patent system to prevent patents that do not meet the legal requirements from being thrust on the public. The legal requirements for obtaining a patent are discussed, particularly as they relate to pharmaceutical and biotechnological inventions. The process of examining an application for a patent is briefly described, along with some of the burdens faced by examiners when deciding the patentability of therapy-related inventions.

  2. Grant v Commissioner of Patents and patenting knowledge inventions.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Charles

    2008-02-01

    This article reviews the Full Federal Court decision in Grant v Commissioner of Patents (2006) 154 FCR 62; 69 IPR 221; [2006] FCAFC 120 denying patentability to a method for structuring a financial transaction so as to protect an individual's assets from a loss of ownership as a result of a legal liability. The article challenges the distinctions drawn by the Full Federal Court and argues that the decision marks a new development in setting a boundary for the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) "manner of manufacture". The article concludese that important questions now arise in assessing the possible application of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) to promoting some inventions (and innovations) and not others, and whether there are other classes of inventions that also do not require the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) incentives.

  3. Patenting genome research tools and the law.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Patenting genes encoding therapeutic proteins was relatively uncontroversial in the early days of biotechnology. Controversy arose in the era of high-throughput DNA sequencing, when gene patents started to look less like patents on drugs and more like patents on scientific information. Evolving scientific and business strategies for exploiting genomic information raised concerns that patents might slow subsequent research. The trend towards stricter enforcement of the utility and disclosure requirements by the patent offices should help clarify the current confusion.

  4. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a…

  5. Obsolescence of the Patent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. V.

    1976-01-01

    Here the year by year issue of U.S. patents since 1836 is used to correct for growth their apparent aging, as obtained by a synchronous study of citations made by (a) U.S. patent examiners and (b) periodicals. Apparent and corrected aging are treated in terms of conditional probabilities. (Author)

  6. Proteasome inhibitor patents (2010 - present).

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Rainer; Scott, Latanya M; Daniel, Kenyon G; Dou, Q Ping

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 3 years, numerous patents and patent applications have been submitted and published involving compounds designed to inhibit the proteasome. Proteasome inhibition has been of great interest in cancer research since disruption of proteolysis leads to a significant buildup of cytotoxic proteins and activation of apoptotic pathways, particularly in rapidly proliferating cells. The current standards in proteasome inhibition are the only FDA-approved inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib. Although these drugs are quite effective in treating multiple myeloma and other blood tumors, there are shortcomings, including toxicities and resistance. Most of the current patents attempt to improve on existing compounds, by increasing bioavailability and selectivity, while attempting to reduce toxicity. A general categorization of similar compounds was employed to evaluate and compare drug design strategies. This review focuses on novel compounds and subsequent analogs developed for proteasome inhibition, used in preventing and treating human cancers. A comprehensive description and categorization of patents related to each type of compound and its derivatives, as well as their uses and efficacies as anticancer agents is included. A review of combination therapy patents has also been included. Although there are many diverse chemical scaffolds being published, there are few patented proteasome inhibitors whose method of inhibition is genuinely novel. Most patents utilize a destructive chemical warhead to attack the catalytic threonine residue of the proteasome active sites. Few patents try to depart from this, emphasizing the need for developing new mechanisms of action and specific targeting.

  7. [CERAD-NP battery: Age-, gender- and education-specific reference values for selected subtests. Results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)].

    PubMed

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G; Wiese, B; Stein, J; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Kaduszkiewicz, H; Wagner, M; Mösch, E; Zimmermann, T; Maier, W; Bickel, H; van den Bussche, H; Jessen, F; Fuchs, A; Pentzek, M

    2009-10-01

    The CERAD-NP battery represents well-established tests for the neuropsychological diagnosis of characteristic cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's dementia. However, the use of neuropsychological tests requires reliable standard values for the population under consideration, taking sociodemographic characteristics like age, education and gender into account. This report presents age-, education- and gender-specific reference values for the subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, word list recall and word list recognition as well as the word list savings score of the CERAD-NP battery. The study sample consists of 2891 general practitioners' patients from Germany aged 75 years and older. The study participants had a mean age of 80.2 years (SD=3.6); thus, this report provides reliable reference values for the neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia in older age groups.

  8. Preferred supplier contracts in post-patent prescription drug markets.

    PubMed

    Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-02-22

    In recent years, the expiration of patents for large drug classes has increased the importance of post-patent drug markets. However, previous research has focused solely on patent drug markets. In this study, the authors evaluate the influence of preferred supplier contracts, the German approach to tendering, in post-patent drug markets using a hierarchical market share attraction model. The authors find that preferred supplier contracts are a powerful strategic instrument for generic manufacturers in a highly competitive environment. They quantify the effects of signing a preferred supplier contract and show that brand-name manufacturers are vulnerable to tendering. Therefore, brand-name manufacturers should readjust their strategies and consider including preferred supplier contracts in their marketing mix. In addition, the authors employ a simulation to demonstrate that a first-mover advantage might be gained from signing a preferred supplier contract. Furthermore, their results can be used as a blueprint for decision makers in the pharmaceutical industry to assess the market share effects of different contracting strategies regarding preferred supplier contracts.

  9. [Patent rights and biotechnological inventions].

    PubMed

    Lobato García-Miján, M

    1998-01-01

    In spite of all the controversy surrounding it and the problems encountered in the process leading to its adoption, the Directive on the legal protection of biotechnology inventions does not feature anything substantially new compared to the criteria used by patent offices in determining whether inventions of this type can be patented. The Directive's originality stems not so much from the interpretation given of patenting requirements but rather from the legal importance attached to issues of public policy or morality. It sets out and interprets for the member states of the European Union what is meant by the term. However, in our opinion this regulation of morality reflects above all else an attempt to satisfy the views of sectors opposed to the Directive. Clearly, there is some doubt as to whether in practice patents for genetic material can be turned down because they run counter to morality, except in blatant cases of immorality (applications for patents for human embryos, etc).

  10. Recent patents on molecular cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    The questions surrounding patenting of DNA sequences encoding specific proteins are relatively well reviewed in the available literature. However, neither applications nor molecular cytogenetic techniques, which use these sequences as a probe, have been reviewed in the light of the patenting. Furthermore, the patenting of the use of numerous probes, which are produced on different types of repetitive genome elements (i.e. satellite DNA or telomeric DNA sequences) and those generated by chromosome microdissection has not been reviewed. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are one of the most applied in current bioscience (as to June 2007, over 40,000 papers in browseable scientific databases mention one or several molecular cytogenetic techniques). Therefore, reviewing recent patents in this field is of general interest for numerous researchers in different areas of biology and medicine. Here, we address world-wide patents on DNA sequences used as molecular cytogenetic probes and molecular cytogenetic techniques to define current state and perspectives of this biomedical direction.

  11. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  12. Automated mapping system patented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A patent on a satellite system dubbed Mapsat, which would be able to map the earth from space and would thereby reduce the time and cost of mapping on a smaller scale, has been issued to the U.S. Geological Survey.The Mapsat concept, invented by Alden F. Colvocoresses, a research cartographer at the USGS National Center, is based on Landsat technology but uses sensors that acquire higher-resolution image data in either a stereo or monoscopic mode. Stereo data can be processed relatively simply with automation to produce images for interpretation or to produce maps. Monoscopic and multispectral data can be processed in a computer to derive information on earth resources. Ground control, one of the most expensive phases of mapping, could be kept to a minimum.

  13. Patenting the Life Sciences at the European Patent Office

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The European patent system is very much like those of the United States and other major countries. Patent applications can be filed as a first filing, as a priority application, or as a national phase of a Patent Cooperation Treaty application. The applications are searched, rigorously examined, and ultimately granted, with the time periods varying somewhat depending on the application type. The object of this article is to highlight some of the differences between the U.S. and European systems, particularly as they relate to life sciences. PMID:25342060

  14. 75 FR 56059 - Patent Examiner Technical Training Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent Examiner Technical Training Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is seeking public assistance in providing technical training to patent...

  15. Patent controversies and court cases

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Arsenio M.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

    2012-01-01

    Patents are issued essentially by all countries on inventions that are deemed novel, non-obvious, clearly described and of significant utility or industrial application. The only exceptions to patenting an invention are abstract ideas, laws of nature and natural phenomena, although the exceptions vary depending on countries where moral, public order or human rights considerations are also taken into account. Although patent laws are updated over decades, the rapid progress of science creates situations that the patent laws on the book cannot address, leading to contentious legal issues. This is often true for life saving drugs, particularly drugs for cancers or HIV/AIDS, which are expensive and beyond the reach of poor people because of the proprietary positions of these patented drugs. Another contentious issue is the patent eligibility of human genes and mutations that are often thought of nature's contribution to human health and propagation and should be beyond the reach of patentability. In this review, we address some of these current legal issues and their implications for the development of diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions and even prevention for cancer, a scourge of mankind. PMID:22954683

  16. THERMAL BATTERY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMAL BATTERIES, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING)), DESIGN, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, CHLORINE, LITHIUM, ELECTRODES, GAS ANALYSIS , CALIBRATION, IMPURITIES, PRESSURE, POLARIZATION, GRAPHITE, DIFFUSION, CONTROL SYSTEMS.

  17. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  18. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    AD-AITA 672 AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND VASH4ZN6T4 OC F /6 -5/2PATENT ABSTRACT DIGST. VOLUME 1.4W) APR 79 F A LUKASIK UNECLASSIFIlED AFSC-T-61-65 NL... f ...............1 50/1ŝ 9 Oladin. 3 Drawinlg Piguras Copies of this patent are available from the Commissioner oft Patents and Trademarks, Washington...the probability of ignition. [58] FIeld . ........................ 60/39.67, 39.82 S: 431/258.263,264; 361/253 3 Claim, 4 Drawlog F Requests for

  19. German Measles (Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Vaccine Preventable Diseases > German Measles (Rubella) Health Issues ...

  20. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in which the Secretary of the interior has transferable interests, and under which he may issue licenses or sublicenses, are classified as follows: (...

  1. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in which the Secretary of the interior has transferable interests, and under which he may issue licenses or sublicenses, are classified as follows: (...

  2. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in which the Secretary of the interior has transferable interests, and under which he may issue licenses or sublicenses, are classified as follows: (...

  3. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal: http...

  4. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and...

  5. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  6. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  7. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  8. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  9. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal...

  10. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  11. Annual patents review, January-December 2004

    Treesearch

    Roland Gleisner; Karen Scallon; Michael Fleischmann; Julie Blankenburg; Marguerite Sykes

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that first appeared in patent databases during the 2004. Two on-line databases, Claims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index, were searched for this review. This feature is intended to inform readers about recent developments in equipment design, chemicals, and process technologies for recycling...

  12. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for Recording § 3.21 Identification of...

  13. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for Recording § 3.21 Identification of...

  14. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for Recording § 3.21 Identification of...

  15. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for Recording § 3.21 Identification of...

  16. Embryonic stem cell patents and human dignity.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells.

  17. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  18. Are DNA patents bad for medicine?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2003-08-01

    This paper considers the potential benefits and harms of DNA patenting for biomedical research and medical practice. It argues that, all things considered, the benefits of patenting DNA outweigh the harms, although societies should adopt policies designed to prevent or mitigate the harms associated with patenting. Some of these policies include: (1) reinforcing the research exemption for academic researchers, (2) raising the "bar" for the criteria of patentability, (3) restricting the scope of patents, (4) disclosing conflicts of interest related to DNA patents, (5) sharing the economic benefits of patenting with patients, and (6) providing insurance coverage for some types of genetic tests.

  19. The patenting of novel biotech products.

    PubMed

    Webber, Philip M

    2007-07-01

    Patent laws covering NCEs are well established in most developed countries. For such entities to be patentable, they must be novel, inventive and have some practical use. Furthermore, the patent applications must describe how to make the entities, and provide data to support the patent claims. The same criteria are being applied by Patent Offices to the patenting of the new generation of biotech products: genes, proteins, microorganisms, transgenic plants and transgenic animals. This feature review focuses on the patenting of these novel products.

  20. Patenting drought tolerance in organisms.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, Vishal S

    2009-01-01

    Dehydration is a major form of osmotic stress in cells. Physiological and molecular basis of dehydration stress responses in cells and organisms has been intensively researched over past years. Almost all of the patented dehydration stress tolerance genes from different organisms were used in engineering drought tolerance in crop plants. In spite of the moral, religious and ethical controversies surrounding use of foreign DNA sequences in crop plants, the numbers of such patents has grown tremendously in recent years. In future, we might witness another rise in patents on use of dehydration stress related gene sequences in creating environmental stress tolerant biological control agents for plant disease and insect pest management in agriculture. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents related to drought tolerance genes and their use.

  1. Rightpollex: From Patent To Startup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leba, Monica; Ionica, Andreea Cristina; Dobra, Remus

    2015-07-01

    RightPollex is an innovative product patented and developed by a multidisciplinary team from the University of Petrosani. The paper presents not only the idea and implementation possibilities of this patent, but also the current stage on the path towards the development of startups, an initiative of our university together with a private investor. The result of this initiative is JV Sensor Ventures that supports several startups.

  2. Recent patents in food nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Esteve, Edgar; Bernardos, Andrea; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Barat, José M

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of current interest. The huge possibilities in most industries are making nanoscience grow at a rapid pace, but what is the real impact of nanotechnology in a traditional industry such as food? The study of patents published in the last 20 years provides the answer, and the results are quite surprising; the food industry is the fifth largest sector in terms of patents related to nanotechnology.

  3. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  4. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  5. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  6. Universities and Patent Demands.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  7. Universities and Patent Demands

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Andrew K.; Feldman, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. ‘The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.’ The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose. PMID:27774221

  8. Patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Homma, Shunichi; Messé, Steven R; Rundek, Tatjana; Sun, Yee-Ping; Franke, Jennifer; Davidson, Karina; Sievert, Horst; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2016-01-21

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is the most common congenital heart abnormality of fetal origin and is present in approximately ∼25% of the worldwide adult population. PFO is the consequence of failed closure of the foramen ovale, a normal structure that exists in the fetus to direct blood flow directly from the right to the left atrium, bypassing the pulmonary circulation. PFO has historically been associated with an increased risk of stroke, the mechanism of which has been attributed to the paradoxical embolism of venous thrombi that shunt through the PFO directly to the left atrium. However, several studies have failed to show an increased risk of stroke in asymptomatic patients with a PFO, and the risk of stroke recurrence is low in patients who have had a stroke that may be attributed to a PFO. With the advent of transoesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography, as well as transcranial Doppler, a PFO can be routinely detected in clinical practice. Medical treatment with either antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy is recommended. At the current time, closure of the PFO by percutaneous interventional techniques does not appear to reduce the risk of stroke compared to conventional medical treatment, as shown by three large clinical trials. Considerable controversy remains regarding the optimal treatment strategy for patients with both cryptogenic stroke and PFO. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening, management and effects on quality of life of PFO.

  9. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  10. [Sample German LAPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Bianca

    Four learning activity packages (LAPS) for use in secondary school German programs contain instructional materials which enable students to improve their basic linguistic skills. The units include: (1) "Grusse," (2) "Ich Heisse...Namen," (3) "Tune into Your Career: Business Correspondence 'Auf Deutch'," and (4) "Understanding German Culture."…

  11. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

  12. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  13. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Patent § 1.315 Delivery of patent. The patent will be delivered or mailed upon issuance to...

  14. 37 CFR 1.42 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A Patent § 1.42 Applicant for patent. (a) The...

  15. 37 CFR 1.42 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.42 Section 1.42 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A Patent § 1.42 Applicant for patent. (a) The...

  16. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.315 Delivery of patent. The...

  17. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.314 Issuance of patent. If...

  18. Considerations on patent valuation based on patent classification and citation in biotechnological field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, Kenji

    Regarding innovation measurement utilizing patent information, a number of researchers are making great efforts to measure a "patent value (patent quality)." For patent valuation, patent classification and citation are often utilized as patent information. Also, biotechnological field is attracting attention from the viewpoint of application to environmental or medical study, and considerable researches on patent valuation are ongoing in this technical field. However, it is not enough recognized that researchers cannot be too careful when they deal with classification information in the biotech field because patent classification structure in this field is not well-established. And also, it is not known enough that citation patterns of both academic papers and patent documents are so complicated that the patterns cannot be easily generalized. In this article, the issues above were verified from a position based on working experiences of biotech patent examiner at Japan Patent Office, and considerations and implications were given on what patent valuation should be.

  19. Lithium battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasetty, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of lithium in electric batteries. Topics considered include solvents for lithium battery technology, transport properties and structure of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions, primary lithium batteries, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries, lithium oxyhalide batteries, medical batteries, ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium cells, high-temperature lithium batteries, and lithium ion-conducting solid electrolytes.

  20. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  1. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide

  2. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stomach and intestines without causing any serious damage. How well someone does depends on the type of battery they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery.

  3. Ethics and patentability in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Witek, Rafał

    2005-01-01

    The systems of patent rights in force in Europe today, both at the level of national law and on the regional level, contain general clauses prohibiting the patenting of inventions whose publication and exploitation would be contrary to "ordre public" or morality. Recent years have brought frequent discussion about limiting the possibility of patent protection for biotechnological inventions for ethical reasons. This is undoubtedly a result of the dynamic development in this field in the last several years. Human genome sequencing, the first successful cloning of mammals, and the progress in human stem cell research present humanity with many new questions of an ethical nature. Directive 98/44 of the European Parliament and of the Council of July 6, 1998, on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions created a new basis for patent protection in this field of technology. Based on the European experience to now, however, it must be said that patent law is not the right place to legislate the consequences of the morality of an invention.

  4. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  5. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  6. German for Business and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Anne-Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Argues that units on regular subjects should be taught in the German language classroom. Outlines a three-week thematic unit for a high school German class on German for business and economics. Notes resources for German language teaching materials, and ideas for interdisciplinary collaboration among high school teachers. (SR)

  7. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  8. Percutaneous catheter-based treatment of pulmonic stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bussadori, Claudio; Domenech, Oriol; Longo, Antonio; Pradelli, Danitza; Bussadori, Roberto

    2002-11-01

    A 6-months old female German shepherd dog was referred for management of congenital heart disease. A diagnosis of pulmonic stenosis (PS) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation. The conditions were treated during a single cardiac catheterisation procedure using percutaneous techniques. Gianturco coil embolisation was used to close the PDA, and the PS was relieved using a balloon valvuloplasty technique.

  9. Recent Patents in Oncolytic Virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tauqeer; Venkataraman, Srividhya; AbouHaidar, Mounir; Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2016-01-01

    Recent innovative and advanced developments in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases as well as enhanced in-depth understanding of virus molecular biology have opened novel avenues with respect to the patent landscape. Included are viruses utilized in the development of anticancer agents, agents that are employed against the spread of infectious viral diseases, RNA silencing agents and virus-derived expression vectors that can be used for over-expression of therapeutic proteins or as gene therapy vehicles. The current review describes several recent patents pertaining to virus sequences and their medical and biotechnological applications.

  10. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered income...

  11. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses. ...

  12. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses. ...

  13. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  14. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses. ...

  15. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses. ...

  16. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  17. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  18. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  19. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  20. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  1. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  2. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  3. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  4. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  5. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  6. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  7. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  8. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  9. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  10. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  11. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Vishwas H

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage.

  12. 43 CFR 2544.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands... contest is pending, issue patent, such patent to contain a stipulation that all the minerals in the lands...

  13. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  14. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent applications. 92.72 Section 92.72 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of...

  15. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent applications. 92.72 Section 92.72 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of...

  16. The patentability of human beings: the effect of a proposed exclusion in the Patents Act 1953.

    PubMed

    MacBean, Alexandra

    2002-11-01

    The author critically examines the debate over whether "human beings" ought to be patentable. The article outlines the choices between excluding just the patenting of whole organisms or parts of organisms. After considering New Zealand, Canadian, and European Union Patent law, the author concludes that at very least New Zealand must statutorily prevent the patenting of whole organisms.

  17. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in which the Secretary of the interior has transferable interests, and under which he may issue licenses or sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a...

  18. Patentability aspects of computational cancer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishchuk, Iryna

    2017-07-01

    Multiscale cancer models, implemented in silico, simulate tumor progression at various spatial and temporal scales. Having the innovative substance and possessing the potential of being applied as decision support tools in clinical practice, patenting and obtaining patent rights in cancer models seems prima facie possible. What legal hurdles the cancer models need to overcome for being patented we inquire from this paper.

  19. Semiannual patents review, January-June 1999

    Treesearch

    Marguerite Sykes; Julie Blankenburg

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that were issued during the first 6 months of 1999. The two on-line databases used for this search were C1aims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about the latest developments in equipment design, chemicals, and process technology for...

  20. Semiannual patents review, January — June 2001.

    Treesearch

    Marguerite S. Sykes; Julie. Blankenburg

    2001-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that were issued during the first 6 months of 2001. Two online databases, Claims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index, were searched for this review. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about recent developments in equipment design, chemicals, and process technology for...

  1. Semiannual patents review, July 2001-December 2001

    Treesearch

    Roland Gleisner; Marguerite Sykes; Julie Blankenburg

    2002-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling that were issued during the last six months of 2001. Two on-line databases, Claims/U.S. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index, were searched for this review. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about recent developments in equipment design, chemicals and process technology for...

  2. Semiannual patents review, July-December 1998

    Treesearch

    Matthew. Stroika; Marguerite. Sykes; Julie. Blankenburg

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes patents related to paper recycling issued during the last 6 months of 1998. The two online databases used for this search are Claim/US. Patents Abstracts and Derwent World Patents Index. This semiannual feature is intended to inform readers about the latest developments in equipment, chemicals, and technology in the field of paper recycling. This...

  3. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see...

  4. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see...

  5. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  6. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  7. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  8. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  9. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patent rights. 1274.911 Section 1274.911... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002 (a... through 121.911 will be used.) (8) Subject Invention means any invention of a Recipient and/or Government...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1274.911 Section 1274.911... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002 (a... through 121.911 will be used.) (8) Subject Invention means any invention of a Recipient and/or Government...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Patent rights. 1274.911 Section 1274.911... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002 (a... through 121.911 will be used.) (8) Subject Invention means any invention of a Recipient and/or Government...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patent rights. 1274.911 Section 1274.911... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.911 Patent rights. Patent Rights July 2002 (a... through 121.911 will be used.) (8) Subject Invention means any invention of a Recipient and/or Government...

  13. Patents and human rights: a heterodox analysis.

    PubMed

    Gold, E Richard

    2013-01-01

    Much international debate over access to medicines focuses on whether patent law accords with international human rights law. This article argues that this is the wrong question to ask. Following an analysis of both patent and human rights law, this article suggests that the better approach is to focus on national debates over the best calibration of patent law to achieve national objectives.

  14. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted to...

  15. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights. ...

  16. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent applications. 734.10 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.10 Patent applications. The information referred to in § 734.3(b)(3)(iv) of this part is: (a) Information contained in a patent application prepared wholly from...

  17. Understanding Patenting Decisions: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, John C.; Yiannaka, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Although many students have some knowledge of patents, it can be difficult for them to understand the components of an innovator's decision-making process. Key issues, such as whether to patent or to use trade secrecy, how broad a scope to claim, and what to do in the event of patent infringement, can be difficult to grasp from a standard lecture.…

  18. Understanding Patenting Decisions: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, John C.; Yiannaka, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Although many students have some knowledge of patents, it can be difficult for them to understand the components of an innovator's decision-making process. Key issues, such as whether to patent or to use trade secrecy, how broad a scope to claim, and what to do in the event of patent infringement, can be difficult to grasp from a standard lecture.…

  19. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see agency regulations and part 27...

  20. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see agency regulations and part 27...

  1. The US patent system is broken.

    PubMed

    Pieczenik, George

    2013-08-01

    In discussions in this issue of RBM Online relating to a patent granted to Auxogyn, Professor Renee Reijo Pera claims this is not about a "broken patent system". I shall demonstrate how dysfunctional the patent system has become and how much in denial 'inventor' Renee Reijo Pera is about her invention differing from a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  2. Semiannual patents review, January-June 1998

    Treesearch

    Marguerite. Sykes; Julie J. Blankenburg

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes patents in the area of paper recycling that appeared during the first half of 1998 in either of two on-line data bases: Derwent World Patent Index or Claims/U.S.Patents Abstracts. The information in these data bases is intended to keep readers informed about the latest equipment, chemicals, and technology in this field. The abstracts provide only...

  3. PATENT FORAMEN OVALE AND STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The presence of a patent foramen ovale has been found to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke of otherwise unknown origin (cryptogenic stroke). The present article will review the evidence regarding this association, the technical aspects of PFO detection, and the preventive options to decrease the risk of recurrent cerebral events. PMID:20591626

  4. [Gene and gene sequence patenting].

    PubMed

    Bergel, S D

    1998-01-01

    According to the author, the patenting of elements isolated or copied from the human body boils down to the issue of genes and gene sequences. He describes the current situation from the comparative law standpoint (U.S. and Spanish law mainly) and then esamines the biotechnology industry's position.

  5. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent Term Due to Examination Delay § 1.705 Patent term adjustment determination. (a) The... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patent term adjustment...

  6. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term...

  7. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  8. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing...

  9. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing...

  10. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing...

  11. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  12. Gene patents: a broken incentives system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Han

    2013-12-01

    The proliferation of patents on human genes has raised important ethical questions centered on the conflict of patient rights and intellectual property rights. With the Supreme Court's June 2013 decision that altered the patent eligibility of genetic material, it is important to reexamine the ethical implications of gene patents as a concept. Such patents suggest an ownership of genetic material that may hinder access to healthcare and inhibit medical progress. The application of the current patent system to genetic material thus violates patients' rights without fulfilling the system's goal of promoting innovation, suggesting a need for a revised incentives infrastructure.

  13. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    PubMed

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-07-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Of patents and patent disputes: The TNFα patent files. Part 1: Humira.

    PubMed

    Storz, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the patent strategy underlying the world's best selling drug, AbbVie's Humira®. Despite a non-optimal starting position, AbbVie has established an extensive portfolio to fend off biosimilar competition. This article is the first part of a trilogy that discusses IP issues related to anti-Tumor Necrosis factor α (TNFα) biologics.

  15. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  16. DNA patenting: implications for public health research.

    PubMed Central

    Dutfield, Graham

    2006-01-01

    I weigh the arguments for and against the patenting of functional DNA sequences including genes, and find the objections to be compelling. Is an outright ban on DNA patenting the right policy response? Not necessarily. Governments may wish to consider options ranging from patent law reforms to the creation of new rights. There are alternative ways to protect DNA sequences that industry may choose if DNA patenting is restricted or banned. Some of these alternatives may be more harmful than patents. Such unintended consequences of patent bans mean that we should think hard before concluding that prohibition is the only response to legitimate concerns about the appropriateness of patents in the field of human genomics. PMID:16710549

  17. DNA patenting: implications for public health research.

    PubMed

    Dutfield, Graham

    2006-05-01

    I weigh the arguments for and against the patenting of functional DNA sequences including genes, and find the objections to be compelling. Is an outright ban on DNA patenting the right policy response? Not necessarily. Governments may wish to consider options ranging from patent law reforms to the creation of new rights. There are alternative ways to protect DNA sequences that industry may choose if DNA patenting is restricted or banned. Some of these alternatives may be more harmful than patents. Such unintended consequences of patent bans mean that we should think hard before concluding that prohibition is the only response to legitimate concerns about the appropriateness of patents in the field of human genomics.

  18. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  19. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  20. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  1. Inventions, Patents, and Related Matters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-02-06

    in mantaining research records. Notel;ooks.12 DO Entries will be made in an officially authorized bound notebook. Entries will be made in ink. All...specialized laboratory tool , it is inadvisable to ap- ply for patent, particularly if a number of equiva- lent prior-art ways of satisfactorily...of materials, plant layout and tooling , to the extent-that such information is not readily disclosed by inspection or analysis of the product

  2. Tubulin inhibitors: a patent survey.

    PubMed

    Nepali, Kunal; Ojha, Ritu; Sharma, Sahil; Bedi, Preet M S; Dhar, Kanaya L

    2014-05-01

    Tubulin is one of the most useful and strategic molecular targets for anticancer drugs. The dynamic process of microtubule assembly and disassembly can be blocked by various agents that bind to distinct sites in the β-tubulin subunit. By interfering with microtubule function in vitro, these agents arrest cells in mitosis, eventually leading to cell death, by both apoptosis and necrosis. So far, three binding domains have been identified a) the colchicine site close to the α/β interface, b) the area where the vinca alkaloids bind, and c) the taxane-binding pocket. This review compiles the patent literature up to 2013 and offers a detailed account of all the advances on Tubulin inhibitors (lead molecules) along with in depth knowledge about the number of novel scaffolds, modified analogs and derivatives of the lead molecules. Colchicine binding site remains the most explored site indicated by the patent survey as majority of the patents revolves around phenstatin and combretastatin based molecules where the key structural feature for tubulin inhibition is an appropriate arrangement of the two aromatic rings at an appropriate distance and optimal dihedral angle maximizing interactions with tubulin. A brief account of promising tubulin inhibitors in stages of clinical development and some strategies for the development of potent molecules overcoming the problem of drug resistance have also been discussed.

  3. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  4. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  5. Storytelling and German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  6. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  7. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  8. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  9. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  10. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  11. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  12. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  13. Patents in Nanobiotechnology: A Cross Jurisdictional Approach.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Padmavati; Uppala, Shailaja; Bonta, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Bionanomaterials create new opportunities for advancing medical sciences and diseases treatment in relation to human health care. Innovations in the use of such nanomaterials and nanodevices can lead to significant improvements in the use of drugs/devices. The present study attempts to analyse patenting trends in different areas and compare the patentability criteria and the disclosure norms for nanobiotechnology inventions in countries such as US, EU and India in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanobiotechnology patents were identified based on the search using IPC/CPC as well as keywords conducted on Relecura (a web-based patent and portfolio analysis platform). Growth of filing/ grants and by area was analysed. Comparative analysis of the patentability criteria was done to identify challenges in prosecution of nanobiotechnology applications. US, China, followed by Europe are top patent filing countries in nanobiotechnology. Topic maps indicate medicinal preparations to be the major area of patenting. There is an increase in patenting in BRIC since 2000. The assessment of novelty, inventive step and specific disclosure norms in different jurisdictions related to nanobiotechnology inventions reveal challenges in patent prosecution. 79% of the overall nanobiotechnology patents are from the medicinal preparation area followed by a significant number in case of diagnostic and surgical applications. The upward trend in patenting indicates to the potential of inventions in the field of diagnostics. The development of objective and subjective criteria with respect to patentability indicates to elaborate patent office practice and prosecution in this area. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  15. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  16. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  17. Inventions and patents: a practical tutorial.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, J Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and costly clinical testing necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, nonobviousness, and usefulness. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions of technology transfer: inventions, inventorship, and patent filing, which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  18. Are Patents Impeding Medical Care and Innovation?

    PubMed Central

    Gold, E. Richard; Kaplan, Warren; Orbinski, James; Harland-Logan, Sarah; N-Marandi, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    Background to the debate: Pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers argue that the current patent system is crucial for stimulating research and development (R&D), leading to new products that improve medical care. The financial return on their investments that is afforded by patent protection, they claim, is an incentive toward innovation and reinvestment into further R&D. But this view has been challenged in recent years. Many commentators argue that patents are stifling biomedical research, for example by preventing researchers from accessing patented materials or methods they need for their studies. Patents have also been blamed for impeding medical care by raising prices of essential medicines, such as antiretroviral drugs, in poor countries. This debate examines whether and how patents are impeding health care and innovation. PMID:20052274

  19. PATENTS IN GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Heaney, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Genomics and human genetics are scientifically fundamental and commercially valuable. These fields grew to prominence in an era of growth in government and nonprofit research funding, and of even greater growth of privately funded research and development in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Patents on DNA technologies are a central feature of this story, illustrating how patent law adapts---and sometimes fails to adapt---to emerging genomic technologies. In instrumentation and for therapeutic proteins, patents have largely played their traditional role of inducing investment in engineering and product development, including expensive postdiscovery clinical research to prove safety and efficacy. Patents on methods and DNA sequences relevant to clinical genetic testing show less evidence of benefits and more evidence of problems and impediments, largely attributable to university exclusive licensing practices. Whole-genome sequencing will confront uncertainty about infringing granted patents but jurisprudence trends away from upholding the broadest and potentially most troublesome patent claims. PMID:20590431

  20. [Global patent overview of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin-Min; Lei, Hai-Min; Liu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    With related global patent data as analysis samples, worldwide patent overview of Ginkgo biloba preparation is analyzed in application, applicant, technical distribution and so on. This research shows that the most important areas of G. biloba preparation are Europe and China. The European applicants start earliest along with developing smoothly, moreover, their patents have best quality. The Chinese applicants start late along with the fastest growing, and have already certain research capabilities, moreover, their patents' quality needs to be improved. This research result provides reference for development of G. biloba preparation. The author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other's patents fully to enhance the level of new drug development and patent protection.

  1. Patentability of Self-Replicating Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shear, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Patents provide an incentive to inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs to conduct research and development, especially in risky (i.e., unpredictable) fields of technology. This review discusses whether self-replicating technologies are patentable within the United States and the issues surrounding them. Self-replicating technologies discussed include plants, bacteria, and genetic technology and the historical legal precedents that have led to the current status of the patent law. To clearly understand these issues, the review also discusses various U.S. Supreme Court cases that, although not related to self-replicating technologies, have an impact on these patentability issues. Finally, some thoughts regarding patent strategy are presented so as to maximize patent protection for these technologies. PMID:25256175

  2. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (2) Use of permanent ink. All papers which will become a part of a patent application filed in the United States Patent Office must be legibly written or printed in permanent ink. (Rule 52, Rules of...

  3. Patentability of Parthenogenic Stem Cells: International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents.

    PubMed

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-06-01

    The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has recently issued a ruling in Case C-364/13 International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents Designs and Tademarks (Case) that aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/EC (Biotech Patent Directive) in respect of patentability of human parthenogenic stem cells (hpSCs). The Case alters the patenting regime for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) applications, by stating that moral restrictions against hESC-patents are only applicable to such cells derived from embryos that had the potential to develop into a human being. Consequently, hpSC-based inventions may be patentable in Europe. This Case represents a leap forward to striking a balance between protecting human dignity and integrity whilst granting patent incentives for biomedical research.

  4. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  5. Patenting inventions arising from biological research

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, Matthew T

    2005-01-01

    Patents are the most important way in which researchers can protect the income that might come from ideas or technologies they have developed. This article describes the steps involved and the considerations needed for successful granting of a patent. For instance, inventions must be novel and not obvious, adequately described, and useful, and they should not be disclosed publicly before a patent is applied for. PMID:15642107

  6. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... “funding Federal agency” is used in the “Patent Rights” clause, the term shall be replaced by the term “NASA.” (c) The following item is added to the end of paragraph (f) of the “Patent Rights” clause: “(5... “subcontract” in paragraph (g) of the “Patent Rights” clause shall include purchase orders. (e) The NASA...

  7. Patenting human genetic material: refocusing the debate

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; Gold, E. Richard; Cho, Mildred K.

    2008-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the patent authorities’ response to them, and ways in which to address these issues and to move the debate forward using current legal structures. PMID:11252752

  8. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  9. Towards harmonization: the European biotechnology patent directive.

    PubMed

    Curley, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Having first been proposed over a decade ago to harmonize European patent law for the benefit of Europe's fledgling biotechnology industry, the Biotechnology Patent Directive underwent a somewhat tortured introduction to adolescence when its adoption was challenged by a legal annulment action from the Governments of the Netherlands, Italy and Norway. This article explores the nature of the legal challenge to the Directive, which to an extent typify European concerns about biotechnological inventions, particularly the "patenting of life."

  10. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  11. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings...

  12. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  13. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication...

  14. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A...

  15. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of the...

  16. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues § 1...

  17. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  18. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  19. 21 CFR 314.53 - Submission of patent information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of patent information. 314.53 Section... of patent information. (a) Who must submit patent information. This section applies to any applicant...)(2) of this section. (b) Patents for which information must be submitted and patents for...

  20. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  1. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues § 1.177 Issuance of multiple reissue...

  2. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues § 1.177 Issuance of multiple reissue...

  3. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.81 Drawings required in...

  4. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.81 Drawings required in...

  5. Inventions and Patents: A Practical Tutorial.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hina; Tidwell, Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and capital-intensive drug development and clinical trials necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, non-obviousness, and usefulness. Recent changes to US patent law limit the scope of patentable material. Products of nature such as nucleic acids and proteins, or steps used to observe natural events, are no longer patent eligible. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions for inventions, inventorship, and patent filing which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  6. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-11-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an interesting and potentially lucrative career as a patent examiner, a patent agent, or a patent attorney. This information may be of interest to physics students as well as those who recruit or counsel physics students.

  7. Patenting and licensing in genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Aymé, S; Matthijs, G; Soini, S

    2008-04-01

    Patents for inventions can be beneficial for society, if they drive innovation and promote progress. In most areas, the patenting system works satisfactorily. However, it must be recognized that in some instances it can also be problematic; this is the case in the field of genetics, and particularly in the area of genetic testing. As patents should serve their original purpose (promoting innovation through a fair reward system for the inventors), the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) suggests ways to improve the mechanisms that already form part of the patents system as a whole. In brief, the ESHG recommends limiting the breadth of the claims in genetic patents and, more practically, to reduce the number of patents by limiting the patentable subject matter, thereby improving the quality of the patents that will eventually be granted. There is also a suggestion to redefine the concept of utility in patent law, by taking account of downstream clinical experience. The ESHG sees no harm in the patenting of novel technical tools for genetic testing (eg PCR or chip technologies), as they can promote investment and still allow for invention around them. Many disputes between supporters of the patenting system and the public revolve around ethical issues. The European Patent Office should consider the benefit of having an ethics committee to consider issues of major interest, such as patents applied to genes. The problem of licensing should also be addressed. Practically, this means supporting the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, which prescribe that licenses should be non-exclusive and easily obtainable, both in practical and in financial terms. To promote this, the practical exploration of alternative models for licensing, like patent pools and clearinghouses, is a prerequisite. To better track developments in this field, the establishment of a voluntary reporting system, whereby geneticists could report on any issues related to

  8. Patent law in dentistry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem A

    2011-01-01

    Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR) and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  9. The History of Patenting Genetic Material.

    PubMed

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Greely, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. declared, for the first time, that isolated human genes cannot be patented. Many have wondered how genes were ever the subjects of patents. The answer lies in a nuanced understanding of both legal and scientific history. Since the early twentieth century, "products of nature" were not eligible to be patented unless they were "isolated and purified" from their surrounding environment. As molecular biology advanced, and the capability to isolate genes both physically and by sequence came to fruition, researchers (and patent offices) began to apply patent-law logic to genes themselves. These patents, along with other biological patents, generated substantial social and political criticism. Myriad Genetics, a company with patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, two genes critical to assessing early-onset breast and ovarian cancer risk, and with a particularly controversial business approach, became the antagonist in an ultimately successful campaign to overturn gene patents in court. Despite Myriad's defeat, some questions concerning the rights to monopolize genetic information remain. The history leading to that defeat may be relevant to these future issues.

  10. Patenting Stem Cell Technologies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sheard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    European patent law as it applies to stem cell technologies is complex. The complexities have developed from different supranational sources of law during the last 50 years and from the various levels of exceptions to patentability embodied in the law. In relation to stem cells of human embryonic origin, the definition of a human embryo, although broad, is still in some respects unclear; and the definition of what constitutes the use of a human embryo for industrial or commercial purposes, which is excluded from patentability in Europe, is also remarkably broad. Further clarification is awaited from the courts and from the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office. PMID:25395376

  11. Enhancing the DNA Patent Database

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, LeRoy B.

    2008-02-18

    Final Report on Award No. DE-FG0201ER63171 Principal Investigator: LeRoy B. Walters February 18, 2008 This project successfully completed its goal of surveying and reporting on the DNA patenting and licensing policies at 30 major U.S. academic institutions. The report of survey results was published in the January 2006 issue of Nature Biotechnology under the title “The Licensing of DNA Patents by US Academic Institutions: An Empirical Survey.” Lori Pressman was the lead author on this feature article. A PDF reprint of the article will be submitted to our Program Officer under separate cover. The project team has continued to update the DNA Patent Database on a weekly basis since the conclusion of the project. The database can be accessed at dnapatents.georgetown.edu. This database provides a valuable research tool for academic researchers, policymakers, and citizens. A report entitled Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health was published in 2006 by the Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy at the National Academies. The report was edited by Stephen A. Merrill and Anne-Marie Mazza. This report employed and then adapted the methodology developed by our research project and quoted our findings at several points. (The full report can be viewed online at the following URL: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11487&page=R1). My colleagues and I are grateful for the research support of the ELSI program at the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  13. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  14. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence respecting... Attorney Or Agent § 1.33 Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. (a) Correspondence address and daytime telephone number. When filing...

  15. 37 CFR 1.33 - Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence respecting... Attorney Or Agent § 1.33 Correspondence respecting patent applications, patent reexamination proceedings, and other proceedings. (a) Correspondence address and daytime telephone number. When filing...

  16. Patently Obvious: The Place for Patents in Information Literacy in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Don

    2005-01-01

    Patents are an underutilized source of scientific information, particularly in the life and health sciences. Patents and patent applications usually contain the first disclosure of new technologies and processes and serve to link theory with practice, providing "real world" examples of the application of scientific research. Increasingly,…

  17. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  18. Patently Obvious: The Place for Patents in Information Literacy in the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Don

    2005-01-01

    Patents are an underutilized source of scientific information, particularly in the life and health sciences. Patents and patent applications usually contain the first disclosure of new technologies and processes and serve to link theory with practice, providing "real world" examples of the application of scientific research. Increasingly,…

  19. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  20. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT...

  1. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF...

  2. 78 FR 68422 - Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) Actions (Formerly Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) Actions (Formerly Board of Patent... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to reduce paperwork... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal: http...

  3. 37 CFR 1.702 - Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee Act of 1999 (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after May 29, 2000). 1.702 Section 1.702 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  4. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for...

  5. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for...

  6. 37 CFR 1.702 - Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee Act of 1999 (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after May 29, 2000). 1.702 Section 1.702 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  7. 37 CFR 1.702 - Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee Act of 1999 (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after May 29, 2000). 1.702 Section 1.702 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  8. 37 CFR 1.702 - Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounds for adjustment of patent term due to examination delay under the Patent Term Guarantee Act of 1999 (original applications, other than designs, filed on or after May 29, 2000). 1.702 Section 1.702 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  9. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for...

  10. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Requirements for...

  11. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  12. Neglected knowledge in geophysics: Patents - how to find them, how to use them and how to apply for them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical departments of universities or major geophysical research institutes around the world hardly ever file for a patent, even if pioneering and marketable work is done - this is what research in patent databases shows. Patents for methods, apparatuses or scientific instruments developed during scientific projects are mostly filed by companies, i.e. more than 90% of approximately 185,000 patent documents added by May 2013 to the International Patent Classification (IPC) class G01V, which the United Nations' World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) has set up mainly for inventions with key aspects in geophysics. Even inventions born of cooperations between research institutes or universities and well-known geophysical companies where both act as equal partners almost never make it to the G01V. University departments responsible for intellectual property management explain that geoscientists prefer to publish their results in journals rather than in the form of patent applications even if these departments support them and parallel publication is protected legally. This means geoscientists miss the opportunity to protect their intellectual work and to tap its economic potential. But even if scientists don't want to apply for patents, patent documents constitute a wealth of knowledge that should be used much more frequently in research e.g. to stay on top of developments in one's own scientific field. Most important databases are for free, search functionality is self-explanatory and the amount of information to be extracted is enormous. All in all, about 80 million multilingual patent documents are currently available online e.g. in DEPATIS database from the German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA) or ESPACENET from the European Patent Office (EPO). From a researcher's perspective, they might also be interesting for detailed technical background information, interdisciplinary solutions for similar problems, to learn about inventions too advanced for

  13. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  14. 37 CFR 42.120 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Review After Institution of Inter Partes Review § 42.120 Patent owner response. (a) Scope. A patent owner may file a...

  15. 37 CFR 42.220 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review After Institution of Post-Grant Review § 42.220 Patent owner response. (a) Scope. A patent owner may file a response...

  16. 37 CFR 42.220 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review After Institution of Post-Grant Review § 42.220 Patent owner response. (a) Scope. A patent owner may file a response...

  17. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  18. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods:...

  19. 9. Photocopy of Charles H. Parkers Patent (Original in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of Charles H. Parkers Patent (Original in possession of United States Patent Office) PATENT DRAWING OF C. H. PARKER TRUSS BRIDGE - Elm Street Bridge, Spanning Ottauquechee River, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  20. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  1. Acetaminophen for patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Le, Jennifer; Gales, Mark A; Gales, Barry J

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the literature describing acetaminophen use in treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Searches were conducted in MEDLINE with full text (EBSCOhost; 1946 to September 2014) using the search terms acetaminophen, paracetamol, and patent ductus arteriosus. The references of identified articles were reviewed to identify other relevant articles. Human clinical trials and case reports limited to the English language were reviewed. In all, 12 case reports and 2 randomized, controlled clinical trials explored the use of acetaminophen in treating PDA. The case reports described the use of oral or intravenous acetaminophen in patients with contraindications to or who had previously failed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy for PDA. More than 76% of patients achieved successful PDA closure in reported cases. The clinical trials compared the efficacy of oral acetaminophen versus oral ibuprofen in preterm infants. Acetaminophen was noninferior to ibuprofen, with closure rates from 72.5% to 81.2%. The acetaminophen dose used in most case series and trials was 15 mg/kg dose every 6 hours for 3 days. Acetaminophen therapy was well tolerated, with only a few incidents of elevated liver enzymes being reported. Oral acetaminophen is an alternative to PDA therapy in preterm infants when indomethacin/ibuprofen is not effective or is contraindicated, and it may be considered before surgical ligation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  3. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully with the provisions of his contract and...

  4. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully with the provisions of his contract and...

  5. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully with the provisions of his contract and...

  6. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully with the provisions of his contract and...

  7. Patents and access to essential drugs.

    PubMed

    Loff, Bebe

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of historical developments in patent law including its recent incorporation into world trade law. The impact of patents on access to essential drugs will be discussed. The relationship between intellectual property rights and the right to health will be considered.

  8. Patent Office Hands Blackboard a Setback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In March the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a preliminary decision that could have significant ramifications for universities that use course-management software, as well as for the companies that make it. The "nonfinal" decision rejects all 44 claims Blackboard Inc. made for its controversial patent of an online-learning system.…

  9. Investigation of At-Risk Patent Filings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livne, O.

    2003-01-01

    The author presents an investigation of patent-application filings made without external financial support, or "at-risk", based on inventions disclosed to the University of California from fiscal years 1991 to 2000. The success of the at-risk patent applications filed on these invention disclosures is examined from the perspective of…

  10. How to successfully patent therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lahrtz, Fritz

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic antibodies have become an established class of drugs for the treatment of a variety of diseases, especially cancer and autoimmune/inflammatory disorders, and a sufficient patent protection is a prerequisite for their successful commercialization. As monoclonal antibodies and their therapeutic potential have been well known for decades, the mere production of yet another therapeutic antibody is in many jurisdictions not considered a patentable invention. In contrast, antibodies with novel structural features and/or improved properties may be patentable. When drafting the claims, care should be taken to obtain a broad patent scope that protects both the antibody of interest and related antibodies having the same functional features, thereby preventing competitors from marketing a functionally equivalent antibody. Furthermore, the application should contain experimental evidence showing the improved properties of the claimed antibody. After the filing of a priority patent application, patent protection should be initiated at least in countries that are of particular commercial importance. Subsequent inventions relating to novel uses, formulations, dosage regimens, and combinations with other treatment modalities should be protected by further patent applications to extend patent term. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Investigation of At-Risk Patent Filings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livne, O.

    2003-01-01

    The author presents an investigation of patent-application filings made without external financial support, or "at-risk", based on inventions disclosed to the University of California from fiscal years 1991 to 2000. The success of the at-risk patent applications filed on these invention disclosures is examined from the perspective of…

  12. Patent Office Hands Blackboard a Setback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In March the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a preliminary decision that could have significant ramifications for universities that use course-management software, as well as for the companies that make it. The "nonfinal" decision rejects all 44 claims Blackboard Inc. made for its controversial patent of an online-learning system.…

  13. Patent protection and licensing in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R

    2014-07-07

    Microfluidic devices offer control over low-volume samples in order to achieve high-throughput analysis, and reduce turnaround time and costs. Their efficient commercialisation has implications for biomedical sciences, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. In particular, market diffusion of microfluidic laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic devices can contribute to the improvement of global health. In their commercialisation, consultancy and patent protection are essential elements that complement academic publishing. The awareness of knowledge transfer strategies can help academics to create value for their research. The aim of this article is to provide a guidance to (1) overview the terminology in patent law, (2) elucidate the process of filing a patent in the US, EU, Japan and internationally, (3) discuss strategies to licence a patent, and (4) explain tactics to defend a patent in a potential infringement. Awareness of the patent law and rights allows obtaining optimised, valid and valuable patents, while accelerating implementation to market route. Striking a balance between academic publishing, consultancy to industry and patent protection can increase commercial potential, enhance economic growth and create social impact.

  14. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4...

  15. 43 CFR 2562.7 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 2562.7 Section 2562.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Trade and Manufacturing Sites § 2562.7 Patent. The application and proofs file...

  16. 43 CFR 2544.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 2544.5 Section 2544.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands: Louisiana § 2544.5 Patent. Upon the...

  17. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent. (a) To enable an Indian allottee to...

  18. 43 CFR 2562.7 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent. 2562.7 Section 2562.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Trade and Manufacturing Sites § 2562.7 Patent. The application and proofs file...

  19. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent. (a) To enable an Indian allottee to...

  20. 43 CFR 2543.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent. 2543.5 Section 2543.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands: Arkansas § 2543.5 Patent. Upon submission...

  1. 43 CFR 2543.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent. 2543.5 Section 2543.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands: Arkansas § 2543.5 Patent. Upon submission...

  2. 43 CFR 2631.4 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents. 2631.4 Section 2631.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RAILROAD GRANTS Patents for Lands Sold by Railroad Carriers (Transportation Act of 1940) § 2631.4...

  3. 43 CFR 2544.5 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent. 2544.5 Section 2544.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands: Louisiana § 2544.5 Patent. Upon the...

  4. The Work of a Patent Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Chemistry, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the meanings of patents for inventions and registered designs and trade marks and the training and duties of a patent agent. Indicates that harmonization of the industrial property is taking place with Britain's entry into the European Economic Cooperation. (CC)

  5. Recognizing chemicals in patents: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maryam; Wiegandt, David Luis; Schmedding, Florian; Leser, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data. Here, we evaluate the two state-of-the-art chemical NER tools, tmChem and ChemSpot, on four different annotated patent corpora, two of which consist of full texts. We study the overall performance of the tools, compare their results at the instance level, report on high-recall and high-precision ensembles, and perform cross-corpus and intra-corpus evaluations. Our findings indicate that full patents are considerably harder to analyze than patent abstracts and clearly confirm the common wisdom that using the same text genre (patent vs. scientific) and text type (abstract vs. full text) for training and testing is a pre-requisite for achieving high quality text mining results.

  6. Patent information retrieval: approaching a method and analysing nanotechnology patent collaborations.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Sercan; Islam, Nazrul

    2017-01-01

    Many challenges still remain in the processing of explicit technological knowledge documents such as patents. Given the limitations and drawbacks of the existing approaches, this research sets out to develop an improved method for searching patent databases and extracting patent information to increase the efficiency and reliability of nanotechnology patent information retrieval process and to empirically analyse patent collaboration. A tech-mining method was applied and the subsequent analysis was performed using Thomson data analyser software. The findings show that nations such as Korea and Japan are highly collaborative in sharing technological knowledge across academic and corporate organisations within their national boundaries, and China presents, in some cases, a great illustration of effective patent collaboration and co-inventorship. This study also analyses key patent strengths by country, organisation and technology.

  7. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  8. Patent foramen ovale: clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gautam; Tobis, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    A persistent patent foramen ovale produces an intermittent intra-atrial right-to-left shunt and occurs in approximately 25% of the general population. Although the vast majority of people with patent foramen ovale are asymptomatic, a patent foramen ovale is believed to act as a pathway for chemicals or thrombus that can result in a variety of clinical manifestations, including stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The optimal management of patients with patent foramen ovale who experience cryptogenic stroke is unclear. Percutaneous closure appears to have a low risk profile and has been considered in high-risk patients who are not candidates for randomized clinical trials. Randomized clinical trials that are underway should help define the best management of patent foramen ovale, as well as the true safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure devices.

  9. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    PubMed

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  10. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  11. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  12. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  13. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  14. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  15. Migraine and patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Ailani, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    Migraine is a widespread disorder with a large impact on society. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common occurrence, affecting about 25 % of the population. Observational studies report PFO to be more prevalent in patients with migraine with aura, and patients with migraine with aura have a higher incidence of PFO. The only population-based study does not support this link. It is possible that an association exists between large-sized PFO and migraine. This association may explain how migraine with aura can be triggered. Numerous studies have reported improved migraine with PFO closure, but the only prospective placebo-controlled trial aimed at closure of PFO in patients with migraine with aura did not support this. At this time, evidence does not support the routine detection and closure of PFO in patients with migraine.

  16. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2011-11-01

    Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called 'gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing.

  18. Teaching Chemistry Students How To Use Patent Databases and Glean Patent Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, Margy; Shaw, Lawton

    2008-07-01

    Patent literature is an important source of chemical information that is often neglected by chemical educators. This paper describes an effort to teach chemistry students how to use patent databases to search for information on applied chemical technology related to the manufacture of industrial and specialty chemicals. Students in a second-year-level organic chemistry class were shown how to search patent literature as part of a group research paper assignment that involved determining the feasibility of starting an industrial chemical operation to manufacture a given industrial chemical. Students who were assigned high value or specialty chemicals were most likely to cite patent literature in their final papers. Students who were assigned plastics or bulk commodity chemicals were less likely to cite patents. It is suggested that students made choices about the usefulness of patent literature and that patents were most useful when current patents existed and provided the patent owner a competitive advantage. For plastics or commodity chemicals, manufacturing technologies tend to be mature and are well described by more accessible information sources. Suggestions are made for effective introduction of patent literature instruction into upper-level chemistry courses.

  19. Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called ‘gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing. PMID:21811306

  20. Patents, medicine, and the interests of patients: applying general principles to gene patenting.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    New technologies and the translation of research into clinical medicine are essential to patient care. Those who develop useful drugs, diagnostic and screening tests, and medical technologies have the right to expect a fair return for their efforts and risks. Current interpretations of patent law (particularly regarding gene patenting), however, have the potential to impede both medical advances and patient care. Patenting policies must balance the open exchange and use of information with making the pursuit of such knowledge financially rewarding. The Committee on Ethics and the Committee on Genetics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists maintain that patents on medical or surgical procedures are ethically unacceptable. Physicians may obtain patents on surgical and diagnostic instruments that they have developed, but such instruments should be made available to others at a fair and reasonable cost. Patents for genes as "compositions of matter" enable patent holders to control future applications of the genes and should not be granted. Patents should be granted only for specified uses or applications of genes or sequences. If composition-of-matter patents on genes continue to be enforceable, such patents on genes with clinical applications should be subject to federal regulation and oversight to ensure availability on reasonable terms for research and clinical use.

  1. Congenital Extrahepatic Abdominal Arteriovenous Fistula and Apparent Patent Ductus Venosus in a Dog.

    PubMed

    White, Robert N; Murphy, Kate; Renfrew, Helen; Shales, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A 3 mo old male German shepherd dog presented with a 2 wk history of diarrhea with possible melena followed by inappetence and progressive abdominal distension. Clinical findings, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominal ultrasound were highly suggestive of an extrahepatic abdominal arteriovenous fistula and concurrent patent ductus venosus, which were confirmed during an abdominal exploratory surgery. Renal biopsies taken at the time of surgery confirmed a chronic glomerulopathy. The dog made a good initial recovery from the procedure but was euthanatized 6 wk postoperatively for medically unresponsive renal disease.

  2. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  3. Summary of trends in photovoltaic patent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, L. C.

    1984-06-01

    Information on patent activity for inventions concerning photovoltaic cell technology is given. Such information can aid in the assessment of the status and direction of technological development. A total of 729 US patents that issued between mid-1962 and the end of 1982, were individually examined and classified into several technical categories. Computerized analysis of trends in patent activity among major technical categories was performed. The level of inventive activity increased dramatically in the mid-1970's. It appears to have peaked in 1978 and remained steady through 1980. The data indicates that, beginning in 1978, an increasing proportion of inventions were among approaches other than the conventional Cz type cells, specifically thin film and concentrator cells. Thin film and Cz type photovoltaic cells represent two thirds of the patents analyzed. Among thin film patents, silicon and cadmium containing cells represent about two thirds of the patents analyzed. Further insight into recent trends could be obtained by adding more recently issued patents to the data base.

  4. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Lawrence A.

    2005-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  5. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  6. Whither ink jet? Current patent trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Stephen F.; Karz, Robert S.

    1995-04-01

    The status and potential of ink jet technology is discernible in its major technical literature forum: worldwide patents. Most ink jet technical activity is focused in commercial research and development laboratories where proprietary considerations make patents the norm for publication. Currently there are about 2,000 ink jet disclosures issued annually with over 200 enterprises represented. Ink jet patent activity is increasing about 25% per year driven by a rapidly expanding base of products, applications, and revenue. An analysis of the ink jet patent literature reveals a few major themes (i.e. continuous ink jet, piezoelectric drop-on-demand, and thermal ink jet) and numerous minor ones (i.e. electrohydro-dynamic extraction, magnetic drop-on-demand, Hertz continuous, acoustic ink printing). Patents bear witness to transformations in the industry as dominant players of the 1970's have given way to new leaders in the 1990's. They also foretell important commercial developments in ink jet's near term future. When studied in aggregate, the patent record reveals patterns for the industry in general as well as for individual companies. It becomes possible to use the patent data base not only to identify technical approaches and problems for specific firms, but also to track progress and monitor changing strategies. In addition, international filing patterns can provide insights into industry priorities. This paper presents an overview of ink jet technology as revealed by the patent literature. It will include a 25 year perspective, a review of trends over the past five years, and a survey of today's most active companies and their technical approaches. With this analysis, it will be shown that the information inherent in the patent record is more than the sum of its individual disclosures. Indeed, by using it, we can outlook whither goes ink jet.

  7. A new model for gene patents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-02

    When the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed for patents on thousands of gene fragments in 1991, it created a furor because it was attempting to assert broad rights to sequences whose functions were unknown. The cDNA fragments NIH researchers had discovered were simply short stretches of presumably expressed genes, yet the patent the agency was seeking would give it rights both to the full genes themselves and to all their possible future uses. If NIH prevailed, researchers argued, it would potentially discourage further work on those genes. Now the head of the genome project at the Department of Energy (DOE) - NIH's partner in the program - has proposed an alternative approach to gene patenting. At a meeting last week of a congressional Office of Technology Assessment panel that is preparing a report on this issue, DOE's David Galas revealed that University of Washington genome researcher Leroy Hood is preparing to file a patent application that could serve as a model for such patents in the future. Hood's team has been sequencing the genes encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor. Mutations in the T cell receptor genes may lead to any of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. A broad patent on the genes could therefore conceivably cover not only techniques for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but also of therapies for the conditions, and indeed anything involving T cell activity. But Hood's patent application won't make such broad claims. Instead, Hood, with DOE's support, will not seek to patent the genes but will claim only the specific uses of developing the diagnostic and therapeutic tools for dealing with specific autoimmune diseases. By restricting patents just to known uses the problems of gene ownership are neatly avoided.

  8. Headstart German Program. Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the eighth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. This module deals with a single situation, visiting a German family in their home. The exercises are intended to…

  9. German as a Business Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Brian J.; Hahn, Martin

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the subject of Business German. Aspects covered include the rising general significance of business languages and concomitant increase in demand for Business German from employers, commerce-students and humanities students, the historical development of academic courses, integration of language skills with…

  10. Exploring French, German, and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Jacob

    This text- and workbook serves as an introduction to French, German, and Spanish as second languages. An introductory chapter discusses the relatedness of languages and the interrelationships of the Indo-European language families. The relationships of French, German, and Spanish to English are demonstrated in cognate exercises. In the second…

  11. Thermal batteries: A technology review and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    Thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. This technology was developed by the Germans as a power source for their V2 rockets. It was obtained by the Allies by interrogation of captured German scientists after the war. The technology developed rapidly from the initial primitive systems used by the Germans to one based on Ca/CaCrO{sub 4}. This system was used very successfully into the late 1970s, when it was replaced by the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. This paper describes the predominant electrochemical couples that have been used in thermal batteries over the years. Major emphasis is placed on the chemistry and electrochemistry of the Ca/CaCrO{sub 4} and Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} systems. The reason for this is to give the reader a better appreciation for the advances in thermal-battery technology for which these two systems are directly responsible. Improvements to date in the current Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} and related systems are discussed and areas for possible future research and development involving anodes, cathodes, electrolytes, and insulations are outlined. New areas where thermal-battery technology has potential applications are also examined.

  12. [Bioartificiality thresholds: oscillations of genetic patenting].

    PubMed

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara

    2003-01-01

    The legal interpretations that both patent offices and courts in the US and in Europe have applied to biotechnological inventions seem to go back an forth in defining to what extent DNA sequences can be patented. This process has given rise to the creation of different thresholds of bioartificiality, and to the blurring of boundaries between what can and cannot be patented. The different legal rules established in both systems during the last decade have been also oscillating between increased international harmonization and concern for the internal regulatory framework.

  13. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    DOEpatents

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  14. Earth Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphillmore » into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  15. Earth Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphill into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  16. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention. PMID:21654725

  17. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    PubMed

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  18. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    PubMed

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  19. Are life patents ethical? Conflict between Catholic social teaching and agricultural biotechnology's patent regime.

    PubMed

    Warner, K D

    2001-09-01

    Patents for genetic material in the industrialized North have expanded significantly over the past twenty years, playing a crucial role in the current configuration of the agricultural biotechnology industries, and raising significant ethical issues. Patents have been claimed for genes, gene sequences, engineered crop species, and the technical processes to engineer them. Most critics have addressed the human and ecosystem health implications of genetically engineered crops, but these broad patents raise economic issues as well. The Catholic social teaching tradition offers guidelines for critiquing the economic implications of this new patent regime. The Catholic principle of the universal destination of goods implies that genes, gene sequences, and engineered crop varieties are ineligible for patent protection, although the processes to engineer these should be eligible. Religious leaders are likely to make a more substantive contribution to debates about agricultural biotechnology by addressing these life patents than by speculating that genetic engineering is "playing God."

  20. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  1. Report of the AD HOC Committee on Patent Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbach, Peter; And Others

    The Committee was established in September 1967 to study and make recommendations on Recommendation XXIX and XXX of the Report of the President's Commission on the Patent System. Based on interviews with Patent Office officials, patent examiners and classifiers and a review of Patent Office studies and documents, the Committee concluded that the…

  2. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and... for A Patent § 1.46 Assigned inventions and patents. In case the whole or a part interest in the invention or in the patent to be issued is assigned, the application must still be made or authorized to be...

  3. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... patent term adjustment period is measured, and clarifies the date from which the three-year patent term adjustment period is measured, with respect to international applications filed under the Patent Cooperation... adjustment period and the three-year patent term adjustment period will be measured from the same date: the...

  4. 77 FR 14686 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... history of each patent, if it is available to the claimant. Indicate whether the patent has been the... corresponding foreign patents and patent applications and full copies of the same. (11) Pertinent prior art known to the claimant not contained in the USPTO file, for example, publications and foreign prior art...

  5. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  6. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  7. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  8. 43 CFR 3862.8 - Patents for mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents for mining claims. 3862.8 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Lode Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8 Patents for mining claims....

  9. 43 CFR 3864.1-1 - Application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for patent. 3864.1-1 Section 3864.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Millsite Patents § 3864.1-1 Application for patent. (a) Land...

  10. 43 CFR 3864.1 - Millsite patents: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Millsite patents: General. 3864.1 Section 3864.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Millsite Patents § 3864.1 Millsite patents: General...

  11. 43 CFR 3864.1-1 - Application for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for patent. 3864.1-1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Millsite Patents § 3864.1-1 Application for patent. (a) Land entered as a millsite must be shown to be...

  12. 43 CFR 3862.8-1 - Land descriptions in patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land descriptions in patents. 3862.8-1 Section 3862.8-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Claim Patent Applications § 3862.8-1 Land descriptions in patents. The land description in a patent...

  13. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.215 Patent application publication. (a) The publication of an application...

  14. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication of Applications § 1.215 Patent application publication. (a) The publication of an application...

  15. Common Sense and the Uncommon Bacterium--Is "Life" Patentable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiley, Thomas D.

    1978-01-01

    The Supreme Court is faced with some difficult issues with a common origin in disagreement between the Patent and Trademark Office and the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals over the code that defines what things are and are not patentable. The patent concerns of the computer software and molecular biology fields are addressed. (JMD)

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b) General...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and...

  18. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and...

  19. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent rights...

  20. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal: http...

  1. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a) Patent...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts to...

  3. 76 FR 11206 - Proposed Collection; Patent Examiner Employment Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Proposed Collection; Patent Examiner Employment Application ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal...

  4. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses. ...

  5. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... following methods: E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``Patent and Trademark Resource Centers...

  6. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals...

  7. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  8. 78 FR 17102 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 41 RIN 0651-AC86 Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is correcting...

  9. 77 FR 29340 - Intent To Grant Patent License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... AGENCY Intent To Grant Patent License AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Intent to Grant Co-Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 207 (Patents) and 37 CFR part 404 (U.S. Government patent licensing regulations), EPA hereby gives notice of its intent to grant...

  10. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  11. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Patent and Trademark Office United States Patent Applicant Survey ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort.... Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office,...

  12. 45 CFR 650.4 - Standard patent rights clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard patent rights clause. 650.4 Section 650.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.4 Standard patent rights clause. (a) The following Patent Rights clause will be used in...

  13. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  14. 76 FR 3128 - Intent to Grant Patent License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... AGENCY Intent to Grant Patent License AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Intent to Grant Co-Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 207 (Patents) and 37 CFR part 404 (U.S. Government patent licensing regulations), EPA hereby gives notice of its intent to grant...

  15. 37 CFR 401.14 - Standard patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard patent rights clauses. 401.14 Section 401.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY... FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.14 Standard patent...

  16. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  17. Stem cell patents after the america invents act.

    PubMed

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Scott, Christopher Thomas

    2015-05-07

    Under the newly passed Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA), the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office may hear new challenges to stem cell patents. Here, we explore how the new law affects challenges to stem cell patents, focusing on two recent cases, and discuss the future of stem cell patent disputes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 43 CFR 3864.1 - Millsite patents: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Millsite patents: General. 3864.1 Section 3864.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Millsite Patents § 3864.1 Millsite patents: General...

  19. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 27.305 Section 27.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights...

  20. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 1227.305 Section 1227.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent...

  1. 43 CFR 2612.1 - Lists for patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lists for patents. 2612.1 Section 2612.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CAREY ACT GRANTS Issuance of Patents § 2612.1 Lists for patents. When patents are desired fo...

  2. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 1327.305 Section 1327.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights...

  3. 43 CFR 3864.1 - Millsite patents: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Millsite patents: General. 3864.1 Section 3864.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Millsite Patents § 3864.1 Millsite patents: General...

  4. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 27.305 Section 27.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights...

  5. Patents and University Research in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Brad

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of evolving patent issues in university research in the United Kingdom focuses on three points: (1) attitudes within universities toward ownership and management of patents; (2) who has the right to patent inventions generated during university research; and (3) the impact patenting will have on research in the future. (MSE)

  6. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assigned inventions and... for A Patent § 1.46 Assigned inventions and patents. In case the whole or a part interest in the invention or in the patent to be issued is assigned, the application must still be made or authorized to be...

  7. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assigned inventions and... for A Patent § 1.46 Assigned inventions and patents. In case the whole or a part interest in the invention or in the patent to be issued is assigned, the application must still be made or authorized to be...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  15. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... application is filed as provided in PCT Art. 49, Rule 90 and § 1.455 of this subchapter, or before...

  16. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... office with which the international application is filed as provided in PCT Art. 49, Rule 90 and §...

  17. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... office with which the international application is filed as provided in PCT Art. 49, Rule 90 and §...

  18. Report of the AD HOC Committee on Patent Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbach, Peter; And Others

    The Committee was established in September 1967 to study and make recommendations on Recommendation XXIX and XXX of the Report of the President's Commission on the Patent System. Based on interviews with Patent Office officials, patent examiners and classifiers and a review of Patent Office studies and documents, the Committee concluded that the…

  19. 78 FR 61185 - Patent and Trademark Office Acquisition Guidelines (PTAG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... acquisition process and that can be more easily cited. Clarifying language was added to more fully explain the... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I Patent and Trademark Office Acquisition... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has updated the Patent and Trademark Office Acquisition...

  20. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century.

  1. Application and Effects of Linguistic Functions on Information Retrieval in a German Language Full-Text Database: Comparison between Retrieval in Abstract and Full Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauchert, Wolfgang; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the PADOK-II project in Germany, which was designed to give information on the effects of linguistic algorithms on retrieval in a full-text database, the German Patent Information System (GPI). Relevance assessments are discussed, statistical evaluations are described, and searches are compared for the full-text section versus the…

  2. Pharmaceutical patenting and the transformation of American medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph M

    2016-12-01

    The attitudes of physicians and drug manufacturers in the US toward patenting pharmaceuticals changed dramatically from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth. Formerly, physicians and reputable manufacturers argued that pharmaceutical patents prioritized profit over the advancement of medical science. Reputable manufactures refused to patent their goods and most physicians shunned patented products. However, moving into the early twentieth century, physicians and drug manufacturers grew increasingly comfortable with the idea of pharmaceutical patents. In 1912, for example, the American Medical Association dropped the prohibition on physicians holding medical patents. Shifts in wider patenting cultures therefore transformed the ethical sensibilities of physicians.

  3. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  4. Patent Ethics: The Misalignment of Views Between the Patent System and the Wider Society.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Hanssen, Anders Braarud; Nielsen, Hanne Marie; Olesen, Ingrid

    2017-08-15

    Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system. As sources of our analyses we will use literature and document studies and a survey with important stakeholders and experts related to Norwegian patenting in the aquacultural biotechnology sector. We will structure the analyses with an ethical matrix, developed for this purpose. Showing the misalignment of the discussions within and outside the patent system, we suggest that an important reason for the ethical controversy still surrounding patenting is that ethical questions keep being framed in a narrow way within the system. Until a richer set of ethical considerations is addressed head-on within the patent system, the patent system will continue to evoke academic and interest group criticism, potentially contributing to a legitimacy crisis of the whole system.

  5. Ethico-legal issues in biomedicine patenting: a patent professional viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Crespi, R Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the ethical implications of patents for biological materials and processes have been the subject of spirited public debate between the many individuals and groups on which the patent system impacts. Whereas copyright, trade marks, and other species of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are widely acceptable, the patent system evokes criticism from many quarters, especially in relation to the legal protection of inventions in the Life Sciences. Some of these criticisms expressed by prestigious public organisations are addressed here from the patent professional standpoint.

  6. Managing the patent thicket and maximizing patent lifetime in vaccine technology.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Maria M M; Stötter, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Patents are exclusive rights for a limited period of time that are granted to provide an incentive for innovation and in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. Patenting in the medical field, especially in the field of human vaccine technologies, is full of pitfalls, because the products that finally access the market are often covered by a multitude of exclusive IP rights. This commentary gives an overview on obstacles in vaccine patenting and how to overcome them, and intends to provide a patenting guideline for researchers.

  7. ACTA Technology Presents EPA with Patent Copy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA SBIR awardee, ACTA Technology, presented James H. Johnson, Director of the US EPA National Center for Environmental Research, and April Richards, Program Manager of the US EPA's SBIR Program, with a copy of their Red Ribbon patent.

  8. Commercialization, patenting and genomics: researcher perspectives.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Cj; Caulfield, Timothy

    2009-02-19

    The impact of commercialization and patenting pressure on genomics research is still a topic of considerable debate in academic, policy and popular literature. We interviewed genomic researchers to see if their perspectives offered fresh insights. Regional Genome Canada centers provided us with relevant researcher contact information, and in-depth structured interviews were conducted. Researcher perspectives were sharply divided, with both support and concern for commercialization regimes surfacing in interviews. Data withholding and publication delays were commonly reported, but the aggressive enforcement of patents was not. There are parallels to the Stem Cell community in Canada in these respects. Genomic researchers, as individuals directly implicated in the field of controversy, have developed varied and often novel insights which should be incorporated into the ongoing debates surrounding commercialization and patenting. Many researchers continue to raise concerns, particularly in relation to data withholding, thus emphasizing the need for a continued exploration of the complex issues associated with commercialization and patenting.

  9. Classifying patents based on their semantic content

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we extend some usual techniques of classification resulting from a large-scale data-mining and network approach. This new technology, which in particular is designed to be suitable to big data, is used to construct an open consolidated database from raw data on 4 million patents taken from the US patent office from 1976 onward. To build the pattern network, not only do we look at each patent title, but we also examine their full abstract and extract the relevant keywords accordingly. We refer to this classification as semantic approach in contrast with the more common technological approach which consists in taking the topology when considering US Patent office technological classes. Moreover, we document that both approaches have highly different topological measures and strong statistical evidence that they feature a different model. This suggests that our method is a useful tool to extract endogenous information. PMID:28445550

  10. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rights as are specified in § 501.6(a)(2), but this shall be without prejudice to acquiring the rights... filing of an application for patent, take the rights specified in that paragraph without prejudice to...

  11. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Trademark Office, 37 CFR part 5; 1 or 1 Regulations issued by the Patent and Trademark Office in 37 CFR part 5 provide for the export to a foreign country of unclassified technical data in the form...

  12. When biotech proteins go off-patent.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, H

    2004-08-01

    The patents of the first generation of biopharmaceuticals derived from recombinant DNA such as interferons, growth hormone and epoietins are expiring, opening up the possibility for competitors to introduce biosimilar products. The concept of generics that applies to classical drugs and allows market admission on limited documentation cannot be extrapolated to these "off-patent biologics". Physicochemical characterization, bioassays and animals studies do not predict completely the efficacy and safety of therapeutic proteins. Clinical studies will nearly always be necessary to obtain marketing authorization for off-patent biologics. Immunogenicity is considered to be the main problem with therapeutic proteins. The recent upsurge of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), a severe form of anemia associated with the use of epoietin-alpha, highlights both the unpredictability and the severe consequences of immunogenicity. A risk-based approach can be used to evaluate the potential induction of antibodies by off-patent biologics.

  13. Recent patents on electrophoretic displays and materials.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard F

    2010-11-01

    Electrophoretic displays (EPDs) have made their way into consumer products. EPDs enable displays that offer the look and form of a printed page, often called "electronic paper". We will review recent apparatus and method patents for EPD devices and their fabrication. A brief introduction into the basic display operation and history of EPDs is given, while pointing out the technological challenges and difficulties for inventors. Recently, the majority of scientific publications and patenting activity has been directed to micro-segmented EPDs. These devices exhibit high optical reflectance and contrast, wide viewing angle, and high image resolution. Micro-segmented EPDs can also be integrated with flexible transistors technologies into flexible displays. Typical particles size ranges from 200 nm to 2 micrometer. Currently one very active area of patenting is the development of full-color EPDs. We summarize the recent patenting activity for EPDs and provide comments on perceiving factors driving intellectual property protection for EPD technologies.

  14. Patenting genes: a fast and furious primer.

    PubMed

    Askland, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Patents have been issued in the United States for genes and gene sequences since 1980. Patent protection has provided incentives to aggressively probe the genome of humans and non-humans alike in search of profitable applications. Yet it is not clear that patent protection should have been afforded to genes and gene sequences and it is increasingly clear that patent protection, as currently formulated, is not an appropriate means to realize the full benefits of genetic research. As we stand on the threshold of a genetically enhanced future, in which we shall have the power to consciously steer our evolution as a species, we need to carefully consider how to shape the benefits of genetic research and how to recognize and contain its detriments.

  15. Genomic patenting and the utility requirement.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Jane

    2004-12-01

    This paper analyses the ways in which genomic knowledge is portrayed as useful knowledge in gene patenting in order to fulfil the 'utility'/'industrial applicability' requirement for patentability. It gives examples of utility claims in gene patents and asks whether genomics (as opposed to genetics) changes our ideas about what is useful and what can be patented. It puts forward a provisional classification of different types of utility and argues that merely identifying the physiological function of a gene diverges radically from our commonsense understanding of what it is for an invention to be useful. Furthermore, social, political and ethical issues inevitably arise when discussing the utility requirement, because an invention cannot be useful in isolation from a social context.

  16. 43 CFR 2542.4 - Patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Color-of-Title Claims: New Mexico... minerals in the land so patented, together with the right of the United States or its permittees, lessees...

  17. Classifying patents based on their semantic content.

    PubMed

    Bergeaud, Antonin; Potiron, Yoann; Raimbault, Juste

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we extend some usual techniques of classification resulting from a large-scale data-mining and network approach. This new technology, which in particular is designed to be suitable to big data, is used to construct an open consolidated database from raw data on 4 million patents taken from the US patent office from 1976 onward. To build the pattern network, not only do we look at each patent title, but we also examine their full abstract and extract the relevant keywords accordingly. We refer to this classification as semantic approach in contrast with the more common technological approach which consists in taking the topology when considering US Patent office technological classes. Moreover, we document that both approaches have highly different topological measures and strong statistical evidence that they feature a different model. This suggests that our method is a useful tool to extract endogenous information.

  18. International patent families: from application strategies to statistical indicators.

    PubMed

    Dechezleprêtre, Antoine; Ménière, Yann; Mohnen, Myra

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of international patent families, including their domestic component. We exploit a relatively under-studied feature of patent families, namely the number of patents covering the same invention within a given jurisdiction. Using this information, we highlight common patterns in the structure of international patent families, which reflect both the patenting strategies of innovators and the peculiarities of the different patent systems. While the literature has extensively used family size, i.e. the number of countries in which a given invention is protected, as a measure of patent value, our results suggest that the number of patent filings in the priority country within a patent family as well as the timespan between the first and last filings within a family are other insightful indicators of the value of patented innovations.

  19. The morality of human gene patents.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses the morality of patenting human genes and genetic technologies. After examining arguments on different sides of the issue, the paper concludes that there are, at present, no compelling reasons to prohibit the extension of current patent laws to the realm of human genetics. However, since advances in genetics are likely to have profound social implications, the most prudent course of action demands a continual reexamination of genetics laws and policies in light of ongoing developments in science and technology.

  20. 43 CFR 2541.3 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patents. 2541.3 Section 2541.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Color-of-Title Act § 2541.3 Patents. (a) Any applicant who satisfied...

  1. 43 CFR 2541.3 - Patents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patents. 2541.3 Section 2541.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Color-of-Title Act § 2541.3 Patents. (a) Any applicant who satisfied...

  2. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  3. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  4. Patent Foramen Ovale and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yee-Ping; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-07-25

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is common and found in nearly 25% of healthy individuals. The majority of patients with PFO remain asymptomatic and they are not at increased risk for developing a stroke. The presence of PFO, however, has been found to be higher in patients with cryptogenic stroke, suggesting there may be a subset of patients with PFO who are indeed at risk for stroke. Paradoxical embolization of venous thrombi through the PFO, which then enter the arterial circulation, is hypothesized to account for this relationship. Although aerated-saline transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis, aerated-saline transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial Doppler are often used as the initial diagnostic tests for detecting PFO. Patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO are generally treated with antiplatelet therapy in the absence of another condition for which anticoagulation is necessary. Based on the findings of 3 large randomized clinical trials, current consensus guidelines do not recommend percutaneous closure, though this is an area of controversy. The following review discusses the relationship of PFO and cryptogenic stroke, focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic tools, associated clinical/anatomic factors and treatment. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1665-1673).

  5. [Migraine and patent foramen ovale].

    PubMed

    Lucas, C

    2013-05-01

    Observational studies indicate an increased prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in migraineurs with aura and an increased prevalence of migraine and migraine with aura in patients with PFO but a recent stratified meta-analysis does not support pairwise association between PFO and migraine. There are conflicting data regarding causal relationship between these two conditions. According to recent studies, microembolization might provoke a decrease in cerebral oxygen saturation, thus triggering cortical spreading depression and, thereafter, migraine with aura attack. Release of vasoactive substances by activated platelets or atrial natriuretic factor are other pathophysiological explanations. Retrospective analyses of PFO closure suggest clinically significant improvements in migraine patterns. The MIST study is the only prospective study available with a good design but this study gave a negative response about cure of migraine with aura and revealed a high morbidity for such a benign condition. Although PFO closure sometimes appears to affect migraine patterns favorably, the very low grade of available evidence to support this association precludes definitive conclusions. To date, PFO closure in migraineurs with aura is not recommended in daily practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Patent ductus arteriosus: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dice, James E; Bhatia, Jatinder

    2007-07-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most common congenital heart defects, accounting for 5%-10% of all congenital heart disease in term infants. The occurrence of PDA is inversely related to gestational age and weight, with an even greater incidence in preterm infants. The maintenance of ductal patency is essential for the normal development of the fetus. In the neonate, however, persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Normally, at birth, the DA constricts, resulting in intraluminal ischemic hypoxia, which eventually leads to closure and remodeling of the ductus. PDA in term infants is usually associated with a functional defect, whereas in preterm infants it is associated with immaturity. Normal physiologic mechanisms contributing to closure - oxygen tension and decreased prostaglandins-are altered in prematurity. Clinical signs of ductal patency include murmur, tachycardia, bounding peripheral pulses, and congestive heart failure and associated symptoms. Symptoms are not always present; therefore, diagnostic imaging is critical if a PDA is suspected on clinical grounds. Three management strategies are currently available for PDA: fluid restriction and diuretics (as clinically appropriate), medical intervention, and surgical ligation. Pharmacologic closure can be achieved via administration of intravenous indomethacin or ibuprofen lysine. While both agents have shown similar efficacy, ibuprofen lysine has demonstrated an improved safety profile, particularly in terms of renal effects, compared to indomethacin.

  7. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Lawrence A.

    2004-11-01

    MPEG LA, LLC recently announced terms of a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10: Information technology -- Coding of audio-visual objects -- Part 10: Advanced Video Coding | ITU-T Rec. H.264: Series H: Audiovisual and Multimedia Systems: Infrastructure of audiovisual services -- Coding of moving video: Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services). Like MPEG LA"s other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by Columbia Innovation Enterprises; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Télécom, société anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Sony Corporation; Toshiba Corporation; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. MPEG LA"s objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  8. Patenting human genes and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Rendon, Enca; Blake, Derek J

    2007-01-01

    Cell lines and genetically modified single cell organisms have been considered patentable subjects for the last two decades. However, despite the technical patentability of genes and stem cell lines, social and legal controversy concerning their 'ownership' has surrounded stem cell research in recent years. Some granted patents on stem cells with extremely broad claims are casting a shadow over the commercialization of these cells as therapeutics. However, in spite of those early patents, the number of patent applications related to stem cells is growing exponentially. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have the ability to differentiate into several cell lineages in an organism as a result of specific genetic programs that direct their commitment and cell fate. Genes that control the pluripotency of stem cells have been recently identified and the genetic manipulation of these cells is becoming more efficient with the advance of new technologies. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on pluripotency genes, gene transfer into stem cells and genetic reprogramming and takes the hematopoietic and embryonic stem cell as model systems.

  9. Genetic engineering and the patent office

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, J.G.; Anderson, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    Higher life forms created through genetic engineering are now recognized as potentially patentable. On 7 April 1987, the US Patent and Trademark Office announced that it now considers non-naturally occurring non-human multi-cellular living organisms, including animals, to be patentable subject matter. The response to this announcement has been an emotion controversy centering on the patent office. The announcement has become the lightning rod for all of the practical and moral questions surrounding the overwhelming potential of genetic engineering. Environmentalists claim that genetic engineering will ruin the ecology. The Humane Society of the US, headquartered in Washington, DC, claims that genetic engineering will cause undo suffering to animals produced through genetic experiments and may ultimately lead to the demise of overly engineered animal species. Religious fundamentalists claim that genetic engineering is wrongfully tinkering with the handiwork of the Almighty. While it may be good that such questions are being raised, the patent office is being wrongly singled out as the source of the problem. This paper discusses the legal problems that patents on new lifeforms have caused.

  10. 37 CFR 1.530 - Statement by patent owner in ex parte reexamination; amendment by patent owner in ex parte or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; inventorship change in ex parte or inter partes reexamination. 1.530 Section 1.530 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES Ex Parte Reexamination of Patents Ex Parte Reexamination § 1.530 Statement by patent owner...

  11. 37 CFR 1.530 - Statement by patent owner in ex parte reexamination; amendment by patent owner in ex parte or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; inventorship change in ex parte or inter partes reexamination. 1.530 Section 1.530 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES Ex Parte Reexamination of Patents Ex Parte Reexamination § 1.530 Statement by patent owner...

  12. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  13. … but You Are Not German." -- Afro-German Culture and Literature in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenker, Theresa; Munro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Units and classes dedicated to multiculturalism in Germany have predominantly focused on Turkish-German literature and culture. Afro-Germans have been a minority whose culture and literature have only marginally been included in German classes, even though Afro-Germans have been a part of Germany for centuries and have undergone efforts at…

  14. Evidence for germane in Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Knacke, R. F.; Geballe, T. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1988-01-01

    Observations in Saturn have prompted the development of an 0.4 + or - 0.2 ppb mole fraction for germane (GeH4) on the basis of the P- and R-branch lines' spectra. The presence of germane in Saturn implies a disequilibrium of the upper atmosphere by rapid vertical convection. It is suggested that future, more realistic radiative transfer models that include the effects of scattering within a cloud layer will probably only reduce the mole fraction presently derived for germane, by increasing the effective path length in a given atmospheric layer.

  15. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  16. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  17. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  18. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  19. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the battery to spill through the vents. Use a battery carrier when available and always handle with extreme care. This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be ... reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of ...

  20. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  1. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  2. 37 CFR 1.704 - Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjustment of patent term. 1.704 Section 1.704 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent Term Due to Examination Delay § 1.704 Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term. (a) The period of adjustment of the term of a patent under §§ 1.703(a) through...

  3. 37 CFR 1.704 - Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent Term Due to Examination Delay § 1.704 Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term. (a) The period of adjustment of the term of a patent under §§ 1.703(a) through (e... adjustment of patent term. 1.704 Section 1.704 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND...

  4. 37 CFR 1.780 - Certificate or order of extension of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate or order of extension of patent term. 1.780 Section 1.780 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term...

  5. 37 CFR 1.704 - Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reduction of period of adjustment of patent term. 1.704 Section 1.704 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Adjustment of Patent Ter...

  6. 37 CFR 1.780 - Certificate or order of extension of patent term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certificate or order of extension of patent term. 1.780 Section 1.780 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term...

  7. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  9. Asian Battery Forecast Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-12-31

    A forecast of battery production in Asia is described. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market, Asian economic growth has the potential to result in the battery market matching or possibly exceeding that of North America.

  10. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  12. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described.…

  13. German Letters and World Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durr, Volker

    1977-01-01

    Reminds us that the concept of World Literature as literary study contributing to the humanistic goal of universal tolerance was first expressed by Goethe, and indicates several ways of teaching German literature with that goal in mind. (Editor)

  14. Patents on plant transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Arce, Agustin L; Cabello, Julieta V; Chan, Raquel L

    2008-01-01

    Transcription factors are clue elements in the regulation of signal transduction pathways in living organisms. These proteins are able to recognize and bind specific sequences in the promoter regions of their targets and subsequently activate or repress entire metabolic or developmental processes. About 1500 TFs were informatically identified in plants, analysis mainly based in the presence of DNA-binding domains in the translated sequences. However, only a few of these 1500 were functionally characterized and clearly classified as TFs. Among these, several seem to be powerful biotechnological tools in order to improve agronomic crops via the obtaining of transgenic plants or as molecular markers. Such TFs have become the objects of patents presentations in the whole world. The assigned uses present a variety of purposes including the improvement in yield, abiotic and biotic stresses tolerances as well as a combination of them. Some examples are commented in the present overview. Most of these TFs confer to transgenic plants complex phenotypes due to a combination of different regulated pathways. In this sense, the use of inducible promoters instead of constitutive ones seems in some cases to be useful to limit the changed phenotype to the desired one, avoiding lateral effects. None of these TFs was converted up to now in a market product since time-consuming experiments and regulation permits are required to arrive to such point. Moreover, a considerable money investment must be done, not justified in all cases. However, it is likely that these molecules will become in the near future the first choice for breeders since it was demonstrated that TFs are very efficient conferring desired traits to transgenic plants. Additionally, for the public perception the over or ectopic expression of a plant gene should be more accepted than the use of molecules from other species.

  15. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    PubMed

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  16. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  17. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  18. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  19. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION...

  20. 43 CFR 3815.8 - Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notation required in application for patent; conditions required in patent. 3815.8 Section 3815.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION...