Science.gov

Sample records for battery investigation quarterly

  1. Investigation of Lithium Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    AD-0129 301 INVESTIGATION OF LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIE BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS(U) GTE COMMUNICATIONS PRODUCTS CORP WALTHAM MA POWER SYSTEMS OPERATION R... THIONYL CHLORIDE J ~ BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS Prepared under. Contract N60921-81.C-0229 for Naval Surface Weapons Center[Silver Spring, Maryland 20910...OF STAMMMOAMCS1-A ~J. at1 II. :j.4 I K CDRL A002 Quarterly Technical Progress Report Period 1 April 1982 - 30 June 1982 INVESTIGATION OF I . LITHIUM

  2. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  3. Field and laboratory investigations of selenium transformation. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-12-01

    This quarterly report discusses the preparation and results of a field investigation of a selected coal mine site in Oklahoma. The field investigation has been on-going since July 1990. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se mobility from a coal mine site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of reclaimed land. Also, included is the investigation and preliminary results of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption and desorption using different soil media, including coal mine spoils (overburden).

  4. Investigation of Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS(U) GOULD RESEARCH CENTER ROLLING MEADOWS IL MATERIALS LAB A I ATTIA ET...838-012 7 ontract No. 60921-81-C-0363 6// Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards AD A 1 T 2 , Alan I. Attia Gould Research...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final Report Battery Safety Hazards 9/28/81 - 12/31/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  5. Investigations of the Safety of Li/SOCl2 Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SAFETY OF LI/SOCL2 BATTERIES . CU) _ SS FEB 80 K M ABRAHAM, R M MANK, 6 L HOLLECK DAABO?-78-C-0564 UNCLASSIFIED C-536 DELETTR-78...Research and Development Technical Report DELET-TR-78-054-F 0 INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SAFETY OF Li/SOC12 BATTERIES 0 Kuzhikalail M. Abraham Richard M...formed from the reaction of Li2S, produced in the cell under these operational modes, with LiAlCl4. It has been found that the lithium thioalminum

  6. Investigation of electrode materials for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcand, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    A number of amalgam electrode systems were investigated for possible use as high rate anodes and cathodes. The systems examined include: lithium, sodium, and potassium in Group 1, magnesium, calcium, and barium in Group 2, aluminum in Group 3, lead in Group 4, copper in Group 1b, and zinc and cadmium in Group 2b. The K(Hg) and Na(Hg) anodes in 10 VF and 15 VF (an unambiguous expression of concentration that indicates the number of formula weights of solute dissolved in a liter of solution) hydroxide solutions have proven satisfactory; some of these have produced current densities of more than 8 A/sq cm. None of the amalgam cathodes have approached this performance although the TI(Hg) has delivered 1 A/sq cm. Se(Hg) and Te(Hg) cathodes have given very stable discharges. Zn(Hg) and Cd(Hg) electrodes did not show good high rate characteristics, 200 to 300 mA/sq cm being about the maximum current densities obtainable. Both anodes are charged through a two-step process in which M(Hg) is first formed electrochemically and subsequently reduces Zn(II or Cd(II) to form the corresponding amalgam. The second step is extremely rapid for zinc and very slow for cadmium.

  7. Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Li, Liyu; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Yang, Zhenguo; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2013-05-01

    Recently invented Fe/V redox flow battery (IVBs) system has attracted more and more attentions due to its long-term cycling stability. In this paper, the factors (such as compositions, state of charge (SOC) and temperatures) influencing the stability of electrolytes in both positive and negative half-cells were investigated by an extensive matrix study. Thus an optimized electrolyte, which can be operated in the temperature ranges from -5oC to 50oC without any precipitations, was identified. The Fe/V flow cells using the optimized electrolytes and low-cost membranes exhibited satisfactory cycling performances at different temperatures. The efficiencies, capacities and energy densities of flow batteries with varying temperatures were discussed in detail.

  8. Investigation into key interfacial reactions within lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, Daniel Richard

    Given the concern of global climate change and the understanding that carbon dioxide emissions are driving this change, much effort has been invested into lowering carbon dioxide emissions. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles through the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. Today, lithium cobalt oxide materials are widely used in consumer electronic applications, yet these materials are cost prohibitive for larger scale vehicle applications. As a result, alternative materials with higher energy densities and lower costs are being investigated. One key alternative to cobalt that has received much attention is manganese. Manganese is of interest for its lower cost and favorable environmental friendliness. The use of manganese has led to numerous cathode materials such as Li 1-deltaMn2O4 (4V spinel), Li1-deltaMn 1.5Ni0.25O4 (5V spinel), Li1-(Mn 1-x-yNiyCox)O2 (layered), Li2MnO 3-Li1-delta(Mn1-x-yNiyCox)O 2 (layered-layered), and Li2MnO3-Li1-delta (Mn1-x-yNiyCox)1O2 -Li1-deltaMn2O4 (layered-layered-spinel). The work disclosed in the dissertation focuses on two topics associated with these manganese based cathodes. The first topic is the exceptional cyclic-ability of a high power, high energy density, 5V spinel cathode material (Li 1-deltaMn1.5Ni0.25O4) with a core-shell architecture, and the second is the severe capacity fade associated with manganese dissolution from cathodes at elevated operating temperatures. Both topics are of interest to the Li-ion battery industry. For instance, a 5V spinel cathode represents a viable path to increase both the power and energy density of Li-ion batteries. As its name implies, the 5V spinel operates at 5V that is higher than the conventional 4V lithium ion batteries. Since power and energy are directly proportional to the potential, moving from an operating potential of 4V to 5V represents an increase

  9. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R&D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  10. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  11. Investigation of the Performance of Commercial Batteries; Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Arthur; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that involves determining, by coulometry, the energy output of different types and makes of 1.5-volt AA cells as a function of EMF and time. Involves measuring the volume of hydrogen gas collected at the cathode from the reduction of hydrogen ions in aqueous sulfuric acid by a current produced by the discharge of an AA battery.…

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Lithium Ion Battery Micro-Cycling Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakermanji, George; Lee, Leonine; Spitzer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by NASA and JAXA. It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s by 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. During instrument integration with the spacecraft, large current transients were observed in the battery. Investigation into the matter traced the cause to the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) phased array radar which generates cyclical high rate current transients on the spacecraft power bus. The power system electronics interaction with these transients resulted in the current transients in the battery. An accelerated test program was developed to bound the effect, and to assess the impact to the mission.

  13. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  14. Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations. Quarterly report, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) are investigating and determining whether specific underground rock masses are suitable for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes, studying and determining whether the Nevada Test Site (NTS) would qualify as a suitable repository site, and developing and demonstrating the capability to safely handle and store commercial spent reactor fuel and high-level waste. This document is a compilation of the technical progress of the principal project participants of the NNWSI in meeting the objectives described in the draft FY 1982 NNWSI Project Plan and revised planning documentation during the first quarter of FY 1982. The NNWSI Project Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for FY 1982 is comprised of eight tasks which form the main sections of this document. They are: systems; waste package; site; repository; regulatory and institutional; test facilities; land acquisition; and program management. Scenarios for the release of radionuclide from a repository in alternate rock types occuring in the southwest NTS area were ranked by probabilities. Analysis of data from 60 wells in and around NTS are nearing completion. A computerized data recording and earthquake detection system that is more efficient was made operational. A series of 55 evaluations of repository locations in the screening area was performed. A review has been completed covering the likelihood of creep failure in a tuff repository. (DMC)

  15. First principles investigation of zinc-anode dissolution in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Siahrostami, Samira; Tripković, Vladimir; Lundgaard, Keld T; Jensen, Kristian E; Hansen, Heine A; Hummelshøj, Jens S; Mýrdal, Jón S G; Vegge, Tejs; Nørskov, Jens K; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-05-07

    With surging interest in high energy density batteries, much attention has recently been devoted to metal-air batteries. The zinc-air battery has been known for more than a hundred years and is commercially available as a primary battery, but recharging has remained elusive, in part because the fundamental mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. Here, we present a density functional theory investigation of the zinc dissolution (oxidation) on the anode side in the zinc-air battery. Two models are envisaged, the most stable (0001) surface and a kink surface. The kink model proves to be more accurate as it brings about some important features of bulk dissolution and yields results in good agreement with experiments. From the adsorption energies of hydroxyl species and experimental values, we construct a free energy diagram and confirm that there is a small overpotential associated with the reaction. The applied methodology provides new insight into computational modelling and design of secondary metal-air batteries.

  16. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  17. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  18. Investigating the variability of active galactic nuclei using combined multi-quarter Kepler data

    SciTech Connect

    Revalski, Mitchell; Nowak, Dawid; Wiita, Paul J.; Wehrle, Ann E.; Unwin, Stephen C.

    2014-04-10

    We used photometry from the Kepler satellite to characterize the variability of four radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on timescales from years to minutes. The Kepler satellite produced nearly continuous high precision data sets which provided better temporal coverage than possible with ground based observations. We have now accumulated 11 quarters of data, eight of which were reported in our previous paper. In addition to constructing power spectral densities (PSDs) and characterizing the variability of the last three quarters, we have linked together the individual quarters using a multiplicative scaling process, providing data sets spanning ∼2.8 yr with >98% coverage at a 30 minute sampling rate. We compute PSDs on these connected data sets that yield power law slopes at low frequencies in the approximate range of –1.5 to –2.0, with white noise seen at higher frequencies. These PSDs are similar to those of both the individual quarters and to those of ground-based optical observations of other AGNs. We also have explored a PSD binning method intended to reduce a bias toward shallow slope fits by evenly distributing the points within the PSDs. This tends to steepen the computed PSD slopes, especially when the low frequencies are relatively poorly fit. We detected flares lasting several days in which the brightness increased by ∼15%-20% in one object, as well a smaller flare in another. Two AGNs showed only small, ∼1%-2%, fluctuations in brightness.

  19. Preliminary investigation of a sealed, remotely activated silver-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Methods necessary to provide a remotely activated, silver zinc battery capable of an extended activated stand while in a sealed condition were investigated. These requirements were to be accomplished in a battery package demonstrating an energy density of at least 35 watt hours per pound. Several methods of gas suppression were considered in view of the primary nature of this unit and utilized the electroplated dendritic zinc electrode. Amalgamation of the electrode provided the greatest suppression of gas at the zinc electrode. The approach to extending the activated stand capability of the remotely activated battery was through evaluation of three basic methods of remote, multi-cell activation; 1) the electrolyte manifold, 2) the gas manifold and 3) the individual cell. All three methods of activation can be incorporated into units which will meet the minimum energy density requirement.

  20. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has also been added directly to

  1. Investigation of non-quarter wave design on multilayer optical thin film coatings from a heat transfer point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocak, Mustafa; Sert, Cüneyt; Okutucu, Tuba Ö.

    2013-11-01

    In this study multilayer thin film optical coatings, which are indispensable parts of optical systems are investigated from a heat transfer point of view. Laser irradiation induced temperature distribution on a multilayer coating stack is obtained by discretizing the heat diffusion equation using the finite volume method. In order to obtain mathematical representation of the energy flow and Electric Field Intensity (EFI) through the stack, Maxwell equations are solved by using the commercial software MacLeod®. Laser energy, which is absorbed by the multilayer stack in terms of heat, is calculated as a function of space and time by using the computed EFI, coating materials' optical properties and Gaussian laser beam parameters. Computed heat load is used in the finite volume solver ANSYS FLUENT® through a user defined function. Temperature distribution on a 19 layer HR multilayer coating stack irradiated by 1064 nm laser beam are obtained for both quarter wave and non-quarter wave designed configurations. Results of numerical simulations show that maximum temperature rise is seen in the first high index layer for quarter wave design (QWD). In addition to that, high temperatures are also seen in film/film interfaces, which is associated to both EFI distribution on the stack and wide differences in material properties between high and low index film layers. Non-quarter wave design (NQWD) is seen to be successful in decreasing temperatures at high index layers and at film/film interfaces. But it also changes the EFI distribution inside the multilayer stack, increasing absorbed laser energy and resulting in higher temperatures at modified low index layers.

  2. Investigation of Lithium Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    S e Stratepc Systems Di ,son GTE Communicatons Products 15 Corporation I#~ ~ since no free sulfate absorbances are found. Other results in this...therefore surprising that the electrochemically produced LiCl produced systwfm StrategWc Systems Dision GTE Communicatons Prodicts 25 Corporation Iv...N60921-81-C-0229 I INVESTIGATION OF LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTVIERY SAFETY HAZARDS GTE COMMUNICATIONS PRODUCTS CORPORATION STRATEGIC SYSTEMS

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  4. A vibrotactile behavioral battery for investigating somatosensory processing in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Puts, Nicolaas A J; Edden, Richard A E; Wodka, Ericka L; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Tommerdahl, Mark

    2013-08-15

    The cortical dynamics of somatosensory processing can be investigated using vibrotactile psychophysics. It has been suggested that different vibrotactile paradigms target different cortical mechanisms, and a number of recent studies have established links between somatosensory cortical function and measurable aspects of behavior. The relationship between cortical mechanisms and sensory function is particularly relevant with respect to developmental disorders in which altered inhibitory processing has been postulated, such as in ASD and ADHD. In this study, a vibrotactile battery consisting of nine tasks (incorporating reaction time, detection threshold, and amplitude- and frequency discrimination) was applied to a cohort of healthy adults and a cohort of typically developing children to assess the feasibility of such a vibrotactile battery in both cohorts, and the performance between children and adults was compared. These results showed that children and adults were both able to perform these tasks with a similar performance, although the children were slightly less sensitive in frequency discrimination. Performance within different task-groups clustered together in adults, providing further evidence that these tasks tap into different cortical mechanisms, which is also discussed. This clustering was not observed in children, which may be potentially indicative of development and a greater variability. In conclusion, in this study, we showed that both children and adults were able to perform an extensive vibrotactile battery, and we showed the feasibility of applying this battery to other (e.g., neurodevelopmental) cohorts to probe different cortical mechanisms.

  5. Theoretical Investigation of oxides for batteries and fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Lubimtsev, Andrew A.; Balachandran, Janakiraman

    I will present theoretical studies of Li-ion and proton-conducting oxides using a combination of theory and computations that involve Density Functional Theory based atomistic modeling, cluster-expansion based studies, global optimization, high-throughput computations and machine learning based investigation of ionic transport in oxide materials. In Li-ion intercalated oxides, we explain the experimentally observed (Nature Materials 12, 518-522 (2013)) 'intercalation pseudocapacitance' phenomenon, and explain why Nb2O5 is special to show this behavior when Li-ions are intercalated (J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013,1, 14951-14956), but not when Na-ions are used. In addition, we explore Li-ion intercalation theoretically in VO2 (B) phase, which is somewhat structurally similar to Nb2O5 and predict an interesting role of site-trapping on the voltage and capacity of the material, validated by ongoing experiments. Computations of proton conducting oxides explain why Y-doped BaZrO3 , one of the fastest proton conducting oxide, shows a decrease in conductivity above 20% Y-doping. Further, using high throughput computations and machine learning tools we discover general principles to improve proton conductivity. Acknowledgements: LDRD at ORNL and CNMS at ORNL

  6. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  7. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J.; Harrington, S.

    1993-07-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  8. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J. ); Harrington, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  9. Field investigation of the relationship between battery size and PV system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J.; Kratochvil, J.; Harrington, S.

    1993-05-01

    Four photovoltaic-powered lighting systems were installed in a National Forest Service campground in June of 1991. These systems have identical arrays, loads and charge controllers. The only difference was in the rated capacity of the battery bank for each system. The battery banks all use the same basic battery as a building block with the four systems utilizing either one battery, two batteries, three batteries or four batteries. The purpose of the experiment is to examine the effect of the various battery sizes on the ability of the system to charge the battery, energy available to the load, and battery lifetime. Results show an important trend in system performance concerning the impact of charge controllers on the relation between array size and battery size which results in an inability to achieve the days of battery storage originally designed for.

  10. In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Qingtao; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-27

    We will show a new method to differentiate the vanadium transport from concentration gradient and that from electric field. Flow batteries with vanadium and iron redox couples as the electro-active species were employed to investigate the transport behavior of vanadium ions in the presence of electric field. It was shown that electric field accelerated the positive-to-negative and reduced the negative-to-positive vanadium ions transport in charge process and affected the vanadium ions transport in an opposite way in discharge process. In addition, a method was designed to differentiate the concentration gradient-driven vanadium ions diffusion and electric field-driven vanadium ions migration. Simplified mathematical model was established to simulate the vanadium ions transport in real charge-discharge operation of flow battery. The concentration gradient diffusion coefficients and electric-migration coefficients of V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+ across Nafion membrane were obtained by fitting the experimental data.

  11. An investigation of lithium-ion battery thermal management using paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Angelo; Jiang, Xi; Cao, Dongpu

    2015-03-01

    The thermal management of a cylindrical battery cell by a phase change material (PCM)/compressed expanded natural graphite (CENG) is investigated in this study. The transient thermal behaviour of both the battery and the PCM/CENG is described with a simplified one-dimensional model taking into account the physical and phase change properties of the PCM/CENG composite. The 1D analytical/computational model yielded nearly identical results to the three-dimensional simulation results for various cooling strategies. Therefore, the 1D model is sufficient to describe the transient behaviour of the battery cooled by a PCM/CENG composite. Moreover, the maximum temperature reached by the PCM/CENG cooling strategy is much lower than that by the forced convection in the same configuration. In the test case studied, the PCM showed superior transient characteristics to forced convection cooling. The PCM cooling is able to maintain a lower maximum temperature during the melting process and to extend the transient time for temperature rise. Furthermore, the graphite-matrix bulk density is identified as an important parameter for optimising the PCM/CENG cooling strategy.

  12. Investigation of Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (Li/SO2) Battery Safety Hazards -- Chemical Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    ID-Alla 363 EIC LAOS INC NEWTON MA F/B 10/3 INVESTIGATION OF LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE ILI/SO2) BATTERY SAFETY-ETC(U) APR 82 K M ABRAHAM, H W RUPICH, L...Contract No. N60921-81-C-0084 0o Prepared by K. M. Abraham M. W. Rupich L. Pitts EIC Laboratories, Inc. 67 Chapel Street Newton , Massachusetts 02158...Chapel Street Newton , Massachusetts 02158 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Surface Weapons Center April 1982 Silver Spring

  13. Quantitative investigation of the gassing behavior in cylindrical Li4Ti5O12 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei; Xie, Xiaohua; Xia, Baojia

    2017-03-01

    The Li4Ti5O12 gassing behavior is a critical limitation for applications in lithium-ion batteries. The impact of electrode/electrolyte interface, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved during the gassing process, are still debated. Herein, a quantitative evolution of the internal pressure in 18650-type cylindrical Li4Ti5O12 batteries is investigated using a self-designed pressure testing device. The results indicate that the internal pressure significantly increases during the formation cycle and continues growing during the following cycles. After several charge and discharge cycles, the pressure finally reaches constant. Simultaneously, the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film is also investigated. The results suggest that the initial formed SEI film has a thickness of 24 nm, and is observed to shrink during the following cycles. Furthermore, no apparent increase in thickness accompanying the pressure rising is noticed. These comparative investigations reveal a possible mechanism of the gassing behavior. We suggest that the gassing behavior is associated with side reactions which are determined by the potential of the Li4Ti5O12 electrode, where the active sites of the electrode/electrolyte interface manage the extent of the reaction.

  14. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  15. Experimental investigation and model development of the Skylab ATM secondary nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of a Ni-Cd battery was evaluated and the cyclic battery controls to be used on the ATM batteries were determined. Cell and battery performance models were developed which to predict the performance of the secondary Ni-Cd batteries on the ATM. Capacity degradation and charge acceptance characteristics were considered. Mathematical models for each of these operating areas were developed based on data from two separate test programs. The capacity degradation model describes the expected usable battery capacity as a function of time, temperature, and depth-of-discharge. The charge acceptance model describes the cell charge acceptance as a function of charge rate, temperature, and state of charge. The models were designed for computer use and to facilitate possible battery modification. They can be used to predict expected performance or to compare real time performance during flight.

  16. Synthesis and investigation of novel cathode materials for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Monica

    Environmental pollution and eventual depletion of fossil fuels and lithium has increased the need for research towards alternative electrical energy storage systems. In this context, research in sodium ion batteries (NIBs) has become more prevalent since the price in lithium has increased due to its demand and reserve location. Sodium is an abundant resource that is low cost, and safe; plus its chemical properties are similar to that of Li which makes the transition into using Na chemistry for ion battery systems feasible. In this study, we report the effects of processing conditions on the electrochemical properties of Na-ion batteries made of the NaCrO2 cathode. NaCrO2 is synthesized via solid state reactions. The as-synthesized powder is then subjected to high-energy ball milling under different conditions which reduces particle size drastically and causes significant degradation of the specific capacity for NaCrO2. X-ray diffraction reveals that lattice distortion has taken place during high-energy ball milling and in turn affects the electrochemical performance of the cathode material. This study shows that a balance between reducing particle size and maintaining the layered structure is essential to obtain high specific capacity for the NaCrO2 cathode. In light of the requirements for grid scale energy storage: ultra-long cycle life (> 20,000 cycles and calendar life of 15 to 20 years), high round trip efficiency (> 90%), low cost, sufficient power capability, and safety; the need for a suitable cathode materials with excellent capacity retention such as Na2MnFe(CN)6 and K2MnFe(CN)6 will be investigated. Prussian blue (A[FeIIIFeII (CN)6]•xH2O, A=Na+ or K+ ) and its analogues have been investigated as an alkali ion host for use as a cathode material. Their structure (FCC) provides large ionic channels along the direction enabling facile insertion and extraction of alkali ions. This material is also capable of more than one Na ion insertion per unit formula

  17. Lithium plating in lithium-ion batteries investigated by voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lüders, Christian; Zinth, Veronika; Erhard, Simon V.; Osswald, Patrick J.; Hofmann, Michael; Gilles, Ralph; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, lithium plating is investigated by means of voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction in commercial lithium-ion batteries. We can directly correlate the voltage curve after the lithium plating with the ongoing phase transformation from LiC12 to LiC6 according to the neutron diffraction data during the relaxation. Above a threshold current of C/2 at a temperature of -2 °C, lithium plating increases dramatically. The results indicate that the intercalation rate of deposited lithium seems to be constant, independent of the deposited amount. It can be observed that the amount of plating correlates with the charging rate, whereas a charging current of C/2 leads to a deposited amount of lithium of 5.5% of the charge capacity and a current of 1C to 9.0%.

  18. Reversible and irreversible dilation of lithium-ion battery electrodes investigated by in-situ dilatometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerteig, Daniel; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Reinshagen, Holger; Bund, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The technique of electrochemical in-situ dilatometry is applied to study the intercalation induced macroscopic expansion of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. A full cell setup is used to investigate the expansion under real conditions. This method enables in-situ measurement of expansion under defined pressure, using conventional electrodes, separators and electrolytes. To understand the influence of the microstructure, the swelling behavior of different LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) positive electrodes and graphite negative electrodes is measured and systematically analyzed. A theoretical approach for assessment of reversible electrode displacement in a full cell is developed, by using a low number of material specific input parameters. Electrochemical in-situ dilatometry is able to show differences in irreversible dilation depending on electrode design and therefore it is a powerful technique for stability and lifetime assessment.

  19. Recent progress in theoretical and computational investigations of Li-ion battery materials and electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Mahesh Datt; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-02-21

    There is an increasing worldwide demand for high energy density batteries. In recent years, rechargeable Li-ion batteries have become important power sources, and their performance gains are driving the adoption of electrical vehicles (EV) as viable alternatives to combustion engines. The exploration of new Li-ion battery materials is an important focus of materials scientists and computational physicists and chemists throughout the world. The practical applications of Li-ion batteries and emerging alternatives may not be limited to portable electronic devices and circumventing hurdles that include range anxiety and safety among others, to their widespread adoption in EV applications in the future requires new electrode materials and a fuller understanding of how the materials and the electrolyte chemistries behave. Since this field is advancing rapidly and attracting an increasing number of researchers, it is crucial to summarise the current progress and the key scientific challenges related to Li-ion batteries from theoretical point of view. Computational prediction of ideal compounds is the focus of several large consortia, and a leading methodology in designing materials and electrolytes optimized for function, including those for Li-ion batteries. In this Perspective, we review the key aspects of Li-ion batteries from theoretical perspectives: the working principles of Li-ion batteries, the cathodes, anodes, and electrolyte solutions that are the current state of the art, and future research directions for advanced Li-ion batteries based on computational materials and electrolyte design.

  20. Investigation of Lithium-Air Battery Discharge Product Formed on Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

    Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, high thermal conductivities, large surface-to-volume ratios, and considerable electrical conductivities, which are attributable to a quantum mechanical ability to conduct electrons ballistically, have continued to motivate interest in this material system. While a variety of synthesis techniques exist, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are most often conveniently synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which involves their catalyzed growth from transition metal nanoparticles. Vertically-aligned nanotube and nanofiber carpets produced using CVD have been utilized in a variety of applications including those related to energy storage. Li-air (Li-O2) batteries have received much interest recently because of their very high theoretical energy densities (3200 Wh/kgLi2O2 ). which make them ideal candidates for energy storage devices for future fully-electric vehicles. During operation of a Li-air battery O2 is reduced on the surface a porous air cathode, reacting with Li-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li-O2). Unlike the intercalation reactions of Li-ion batteries, discharge in a Li-air cell is analogous to an electrodeposition process involving the nucleation and growth of the depositing species on a foreign substrate. Carbon nanofiber electrodes were synthesized on porous substrates using a chemical vapor deposition process and then assembled into Li-O2 cells. The large surface to volume ratio and low density of carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to yield a very high gravimetric energy density in Li-O 2 cells, approaching 75% of the theoretical energy density for Li 2O2. Further, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to be excellent platforms for conducting ex situ electron microscopy investigations of the deposition Li2O2 phase

  1. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  2. Investigation of lead dendrite growth in the formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for electric bicycle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yanzhen; Hu, Jingcheng; Ye, Wenmei; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Gang; Guo, Yonglang

    2015-07-01

    The battery temperature, H2SO4 distribution, Pb2+ ion concentration and composition of the plates during the plate soaking of the 12 V 12 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery are studied. A simulated cell composed by two pure Pb plates and the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator is used to investigate the growth of the lead dendrite in the separator, which is verified by analyzing the faulty batteries after the formation and the failure batteries after the usage. It is found that the H2SO4 is exhausted very quickly after filling and the separator near the plates can become neutral during soaking. Low acidity, high temperature and small PbSO4 particle size will increase the Pb2+ ion concentration. Higher Pb2+ ion concentration makes more PbSO4 tend to deposit on the coarse glass fibers, develop along them and even enwrap the entire fiber. And the fine PbSO4 crystals are continually transformed into large PbSO4 crystals via dissolution-deposition. In the subsequent charge, these PbSO4 crystals will be reduced to the club-shaped lead dendrites and may lead to short circuit of the battery.

  3. Investigation of coal structure. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The goal of the present work is to conduct multi-stage sequences of extraction experiments and direct solvent swelling measurements of raw and extracted coal to study in a greater depth the role of intra- and intermolecular interactions in the structure of coal. One of the possible ways to investigate the structure of coal is to extract it with a series of procedures. The individual extraction step chosen will be such that it weaken or disrupt intra- and intermolecular interactions that are particular to the rank of the test coal. To date, we attempted to extract raw and pyridine extracted (PI) DECS 16 coal with two solvents; 1:1 volume percent carbon disulfide & 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMEP) mixed solvent and 1:3 volume percent 1M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) in methanol & pyridine. Also, raw DECS 16 coal was o-butylated followed by pyridine extraction in a soxhlet apparatus and the ultimate extraction yields were compared with o-butylated pyridine extracted coal.

  4. Nevada Nuclear-Waste-Storage Investigations. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) are studying the Nevada Test Site (NTS) area to establish whether it would qualify as a licensable location for a commercial nuclear waste repository; determining whether specific underground rock masses in the NTS area are technically acceptable for permanently disposing of highly radioactive solid wastes; and developing and demonstrating the capability to safely handle and store commercial spent reactor fuel and high-level waste. Progress reports for the following eight tasks are presented: systems; waste package; site; repository; regulatory and institutional; test facilities; land acquisition; and program management. Some of the highlights are: A code library was established to provide a central location for documentation of repository performance assessment codes. A two-dimensional finite element code, SAGUARO, was developed for modeling saturated/unsaturated groundwater flow. The results of an initial experiment to determine canister penetration rates due to corrosion indicate the expected strong effect of toxic environmental conditions on the corrosion rate of carbon steel in tuff-conditioned water. Wells USW-H3 and USW-H4 at Yucca Mountain have been sampled for groundwater analysis. A summary characterizing and relating the mineralogy and petrology of Yucca Mountain tuffs was compiled from the findings of studies of core samples from five drill holes.

  5. In Situ Radiographic Investigation of (De)Lithiation Mechanisms in a Tin-Electrode Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu; Markötter, Henning; Zhou, Dong; Alrwashdeh, Saad Sabe Sulaiman; Hilger, Andre; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Manke, Ingo; Banhart, John

    2016-05-10

    The lithiation and delithiation mechanisms of multiple-Sn particles in a customized flat radiography cell were investigated by in situ synchrotron radiography. For the first time, four (de)lithiation phenomena in a Sn-electrode battery system are highlighted: 1) the (de)lithiation behavior varies between different Sn particles, 2) the time required to lithiate individual Sn particles is markedly different from the time needed to discharge the complete battery, 3) electrochemical deactivation of originally electrochemically active particles is reported, and 4) a change of electrochemical behavior of individual particles during cycling is found and explained by dynamic changes of (de)lithiation pathways amongst particles within the electrode. These unexpected findings fundamentaly expand the understanding of the underlying (de)lithiation mechanisms inside commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and would open new design principles for high-performance next-generation LIBs.

  6. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  7. Investigations of oxygen reduction reactions in non-aqueous electrolytes and the lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Laoire, Cormac Micheal

    -air battery. Towards this end, using either tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) or lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) electrolyte solutions in four different solvents, namely, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile (MeCN), dimethoxyethane (DME), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME), possessing a range of properties, we have determined that the solvent and the supporting electrolyte cations in the solution act in concert to influence the nature of reduction products and their rechargeability. In solutions containing TBA +, O2 reduction is a highly reversible one-electron process involving the O2/O2- couple in all of the electrolytes examined with little effect on the nature of the solvent. On the other hand, in Li+-containing electrolytes relevant to the Li-air battery, O2 reduction proceeds in a stepwise fashion to form O2-, O22- and O2- as products. These reactions in presence of Li+ are irreversible or quasi-reversible electrochemical processes and the solvents have significant influence on the kinetics, and reversibility or lack thereof, of the different reduction products. Reversible reduction of O2 to long-lived superoxide in a Li+-conducting electrolyte in DMSO has been shown for the first time here. Chapter 5 is the culmination of the thesis where the practical application of the work is demonstrated. We designed electrolytes that facilitate Li-Air rechargeability, by applying the knowledge gained from chapters 2-4. A rechargeable Li-air cell utilizing an electrolyte composed of a solution of LiPF6 in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, CH3O(CH2CH 2O)4CH3 was designed, built and its performance studied. It was shown that the cell yields high capacity and can be recharged in spite the absence of catalyst in the carbon cathode. The application of X-ray diffraction to identify these products formed in a porous carbon electrode is shown here for the first time. The rechargeability of the cell was investigated by repeated charge/discharge cycling

  8. Investigation of film solidification and binder migration during drying of Li-Ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiser, Stefan; Müller, Marcus; Baunach, Michael; Bauer, Werner; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    The property determining micro-structure of battery electrodes essentially evolves during drying, appointing it a paramount, yet insufficiently understood processing step in cell manufacturing. The distribution of functional additives such as binder or carbon black throughout the film strongly depends on the drying process. A representative state-of-the-art model system comprising graphite, polymeric binder, carbon black and solvent is investigated to gain an insight into the underlying processes. A new experimental approach is introduced that allows for revelation of the evolution of binder concentration gradients throughout the film during drying. Binder is detected by means of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) at the top and bottom surface. Drying kinetics is investigated and the impact of the drying process on electrochemical performance is disclosed. The enrichment of binder at the surface, which is observed while applying high drying rates, is shown to depend on two fundamental processes, namely capillary action and diffusion. The findings reveal characteristic drying stages that provide fundamental insights into film solidification. Based on that, a top-down consolidation mechanism capable of explaining the experimental findings is disclosed. Adhesion of the active layer to the substrate is shown to strongly depend on the local binder concentration in the vicinity of the substrate.

  9. A cross-battery, reference variable, confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the CHC taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Keith, Timothy Z; Flanagan, Dawn P; Alfonso, Vincent C

    2013-08-01

    The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy has been used to classify and describe human cognitive abilities. The ability factors derived from the CHC taxonomy are often assumed to be invariant across multiple populations and intelligence batteries, which is an important assumption for research and assessment. In this study, data from five different test batteries that were collected during separate Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004) concurrent validity studies were factor-analyzed jointly. Because the KABC-II was administered to everyone in the validity studies, it was used as a reference battery to link the separate test batteries in a "cross-battery" confirmatory factor analysis. Some findings from this analysis were that CHC-based test classifications based on theory and prior research were straightforward and accurate, a first-order Fluid/Novel Reasoning (Gf) factor was equivalent to a second-order g factor, and sample heterogeneity related to SES and sex influenced factor loadings. It was also shown that a reference variable approach, used in studies that incorporate planned missingness into data collection, may be used successfully to analyze data from several test batteries and studies. One implication from these findings is that CHC theory should continue to serve as a useful guide that can be used for intelligence research, assessment, and test development.

  10. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (< 300 °C), formation of an intermediate sarcopside Mn3(PO4)2 phase (350 -- 450 °C), and complete decomposition to Mn2P2O 7 on extended heating at 400 °C. Carbon protects MnPO4 from reacting with environmental water, which is detrimental to its structural stability. We not only studied the crystalline olivine MnPO4, but also investigated the amorphous products obtained from carbon-free LiMnPO 4. We have revealed the Mn dissolution phenomenon during chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4, which causes the amorphization of olivine MnPO 4. Properties of crystalline-MnPO4 obtained from carbon-coated LiMnPO4 and of amorphous product resulting from the delithiation of pure LiMnPO4 were studied and compared. The P-rich amorphous phases in the latter are considered to be MnHP2O7 and MnH2P

  11. Experimental investigation of thermal characteristics of lithium ion battery using phase change materials combined with metallic foams and fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. C.; Zhang, H. Y.; Xia, X.

    2016-08-01

    Phase change materials are of great interest in energy storage and energy management applications due to their high latent heat and excellent cycling stability. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of phase change materials (PCM) for thermal management of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery (LIB) were experimentally investigated. A commercial paraffin wax with a melting temperaturerange between 47 - 53.8oC was used in this study. A metal cylinder with a heater was used to emulate the heat generation from a battery, which was surrounded with the paraffin PCM and containted in a metal housing. The experiment was conducted in an environmental test chamber with controlled ambient temperatures and power inputs. Both the battery temperature and the housing wall temperature were measured during steady-state heating and cyclic heating conditions. Since PCM has low thermal conductivity, thermal enhancement techniques were investigated by adding metal foams (MFs) or combining metallic foam and fins into the PCM to enhance the thermal conductivity. The battery temperatures were measured for all the cases and the results were analyzed and discussed.

  12. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  13. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  14. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic efficiency of three planar elliptical wings with curvature of quarter-chord line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

    1993-01-01

    Three planar, untwisted wings with the same elliptical chord distribution but with different curvatures of the quarter-chord line were tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-ft TPT) and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST). A fourth wing with a rectangular planform and the same projected area and span was also tested. Force and moment measurements from the 8-ft TPT tests are presented for Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 and angles of attack from -4 degrees to 7 degrees. Sketches of the oil-flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings and some force and moment measurements from the 7 x 10 HST tests are presented at a Mach number of 0.5. Increasing the curvature of the quarter-chord line makes the angle of zero lift more negative but has little effect on the drag coefficient at zero lift. The changes in lift-curve slope and in the Oswald efficiency factor with the change in curvature of the quarter-chord line (wingtip location) indicate that the elliptical wing with the unswept quarter-chord line has the lowest lifting efficiency and the elliptical wing with the unswept trailing edge has the highest lifting efficiency; the crescent-shaped planform wing has an efficiency in between.

  15. Investigation of electrolyte wetting in lithium ion batteries: Effects of electrode pore structures and solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yangping

    Beside natural source energy carriers such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, the lithium ion battery is a promising man-made energy carrier for the future. This is a similar process evolved from horse-powered era to engine driven age. There are still a lot of challenges ahead like low energy density, low rate performance, aging problems, high cost and safety etc. In lithium ion batteries, investigation about manufacturing process is as important as the development of material. The manufacturing of lithium ion battery, including production process (slurry making, coating, drying etc.), and post-production (slitting, calendering etc.) is also complicated and critical to the overall performance of the battery. It includes matching the capacity of anode and cathode materials, trial-and-error investigation of thickness, porosity, active material and additive loading, detailed microscopic models to understand, optimize, and design these systems by changing one or a few parameters at a time. In the manufacturing, one of the most important principles is to ensure good wetting properties between porous solid electrodes and liquid electrolyte. Besides the material surface properties, it is the process of electrolyte transporting to fill the pores in the electrode after injection is less noticed in academic, where only 2-3 drops of electrolyte are needed for lab coin cell level. In industry, the importance of electrolyte transport is well known and it is considered as part of electrolyte wetting (or initial wetting in some situations). In consideration of practical usage term, electrolyte wetting is adopted to use in this dissertation for electrolyte transporting process, although the surface chemistry about wetting is not covered. An in-depth investigation about electrolyte wetting is still missing, although it has significant effects in manufacturing. The electrolyte wetting is determined by properties of electrolyte and electrode microstructure. Currently, only viscosity

  16. Synthesis, investigation and practical application in lithium batteries of some compounds based on vanadium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shembel, E.; Apostolova, R.; Nagirny, V.; Aurbach, D.; Markovsky, B.

    In this paper, we investigate the inter-relationship between the conditions of the electrochemical synthesis of vanadium oxide compounds, their structural and morphological characteristics, kinetic parameters of the redox processes, and charge-discharge performance of lithium batteries with vanadium oxide cathodes. The materials studied were V 2O 5- y oxides and those with inserted sodium ions (Na-vanadium oxide compounds, Na-VOC) obtained electrochemically in the form of compact deposits on a metal substrate. The electrochemical synthesis of the oxides has been performed from aqueous vanadyl sulphate solutions. Optimal synthesis conditions (current density, pH, temperature, vanadyl sulphate and sodium sulphate concentrations), and subsequent optimal thermal treatment of the oxides, which provide high electrochemical activity of the cathode material and good adhesion of the oxide to the metal substrate, have been elucidated. A correlation between the structure of the vanadium oxides and Na-VOC, their morphology, impedance characteristics of the cathode, and lithium-ion solid state diffusion in the host cathode bulk has been established and discussed. A combination of analytical techniques (XRD, IR spectroscopy, TGA, BET, SEM) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, GITT, EIS) has been used in this study.

  17. Investigation of crossover processes in a unitized bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    grosse Austing, Jan; Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the losses in coulombic efficiency are investigated for a vanadium/air redox flow battery (VARFB) comprising a two-layered positive electrode. Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy is used to monitor the concentrations cV2+ and cV3+ during operation. The most likely cause for the largest part of the coulombic losses is the permeation of oxygen from the positive to the negative electrode followed by an oxidation of V2+ to V3+. The total vanadium crossover is followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the positive electrolyte after one VARFB cycle. During one cycle 6% of the vanadium species initially present in the negative electrolyte are transferred to the positive electrolyte, which can account at most for 20% of the coulombic losses. The diffusion coefficients of V2+ and V3+ through Nafion® 117 are determined as DV2+ ,N 117 = 9.05 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and DV3+ ,N 117 = 4.35 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and are used to calculate vanadium crossover due to diffusion which allows differentiation between vanadium crossover due to diffusion and migration/electroosmotic convection. In order to optimize coulombic efficiency of VARFB, membranes need to be designed with reduced oxygen permeation and vanadium crossover.

  18. Investigation of mineral transformations and ash deposition during staged combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Harb, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    Progress during the tenth quarter of a three-year study of ash formation and deposition was made in several areas. One of the key contributions this quarter was the development of an algorithm to distinguish between ash particles that are associated with char particles (included) and ash particles which are excluded. This algorithm was used to determine the extent to which pyrite transformations are influenced by whether the pyrite grains are included or excluded. The results indicate that pyrite oxidation is slower for included pyrite grains. Replicate experiments were also performed for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal (washed) under both staged and conventional conditions. An objective of these experiments was to validate the effect of staged combustion on the size distribution of ash particles as reported for the previous quarter. Analysis of the new samples and repeat analyses of previous samples showed no significant difference in the ash particle size for samples collected at stoichiometric ratios of 0.75 (before the stage) and 1.04. The number of points in the new analyses was considerably higher than in previous analyses, resulting in greater confidence. The similarity in the ash composition for samples collected under staged and conventional conditions was also verified this quarter with replicate samples and analyses. The net result is that staged combustion does not appear to have a significant impact on either ash size or composition for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Finally, numerical simulations of the temperature distribution in the laboratory combustor were performed and evaluated. Also, a paper documenting the classification algorithm developed last quarter was presented at the March ACS meeting in New Orleans and published in the ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry Preprints.

  19. An investigation of the mechanism of IGA/SCC of alloy 600 in corrosion accelerating heated crevice environments. Quarterly Technical Progress Report No. 4 for the period May 1, 2000 through July 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Jesse Lumsden

    2000-07-31

    OAK-B135 An investigation of the mechanism of IGA/SCC of alloy 600 in corrosion accelerating heated crevice environments. Quarterly Technical Progress Report No. 4 for the period May 1, 2000 through July 31, 2000

  20. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  1. Investigation of mineral transformations and ash deposition during staged combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Harb, J.N.

    1996-02-07

    Progress during the ninth quarter of a three-year study of ash formation and deposition was made in several areas. One of the key contributions this quarter was the development of an enhanced method for classification of CCSEM data. This classification algorithm permits grouping and comparison of particles previously labeled as ``unclassifiable.`` A second analytical advancement, also made this quarter, provides more detailed information on the distribution of minerals in the coal and the potential for coalescence. This new multiple analysis technique is also applicable to ash and will permit identification of heterogeneous ash particles. Additional analyses of ash samples were also performed and it was found that the firing of Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 under staged combustion conditions yields an ash with a significantly larger particle size distribution than that obtained under conventional firing conditions, but without a significant change in composition. the size difference was noted previously, but the new classification algorithm allowed a detailed comparison of all composition groups, including unclassifiable particles, in the ashes. A mechanistic explanation for this behavior has been developed and is provided in the report. Finally, a paper documenting the new classification algorithm has been prepared and is scheduled for presentation at the March ACS meeting in New Orleans.

  2. Mapping the anode surface-electrolyte interphase: investigating a life limiting process of lithium primary batteries.

    PubMed

    Bock, David C; Tappero, Ryan V; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-03-11

    Cathode solubility in batteries can lead to decreased and unpredictable long-term battery behavior due to transition metal deposition on the negative electrode such that it no longer supports high current. Analysis of negative electrodes from cells containing vanadium oxide or phosphorus oxide based cathode systems retrieved after long-term testing was conducted. This report demonstrates the use of synchrotron based X-ray microfluorescence (XRμF) to map negative battery electrodes in conjunction with microbeam X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS) to determine the oxidation states of the metal centers resident in the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and at the electrode surface. Based on the empirical findings, a conceptual model for the location of metal ions in the SEI and their role in impacting lithium ion mobility at the electrode surfaces is proposed.

  3. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  4. Mass spectrometry investigations on electrolyte degradation products for the development of nanocomposite electrodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gireaud, Laurent; Grugeon, Sylvie; Pilard, Serge; Guenot, Pierre; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Laruelle, Stephane

    2006-06-01

    In the continuing challenge to find new routes to improve the performance of commercial lithium ion batteries cycling in alkyl carbonate-based electrolyte solutions, original designs, and new electrode materials are under active worldwide investigation. Our group has focused on the electrochemical behavior of a new generation of nanocomposite electrodes showing improved capacities (up to 3 times the capacity of conventional electrode materials). However, moving down to "nanometric-scale" active materials leads to a significant increase in electrolyte degradation, compared to that taking place within commercial batteries. Postmortem electrolyte studies on experimental coin cells were conducted to understand the degradation mechanisms. Structural analysis of the organic degradation products were investigated using a combination of complementary high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques: desorption under electron impact, electrospray ionization, and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer equipped with electron impact and chemical ionization ion sources. Numerous organic degradation products such as ethylene oxide oligomers (with methyl, hydroxyl, phosphate, and methyl carbonate endings) have been characterized. In light of our findings, possible chemical or electrochemical pathways are proposed to account for their formation. A thorough knowledge of these degradation mechanisms will enable us to propose new electrolyte formulations to optimize nanocomposite-based lithium ion battery performance.

  5. Investigating the Effects of Anisotropic Mass Transport on Dendrite Growth in High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jinwang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Ryan, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendrite formation on the electrode surface of high energy density lithium (Li) batteries causes safety problems and limits their applications. Suppressing dendrite growth could significantly improve Li battery performance. Dendrite growth and morphology is a function of the mixing in the electrolyte near the anode interface. Most research into dendrites in batteries focuses on dendrite formation in isotropic electrolytes (i.e., electrolytes with isotropic diffusion coefficient). In this work, an anisotropic diffusion reaction model is developed to study the anisotropic mixing effect on dendrite growth in Li batteries. The model uses a Lagrangian particle-based method to model dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte solution. The model is verified by comparing the numerical simulation results with analytical solutions, and its accuracy is shown to be better than previous particle-based anisotropic diffusion models. Several parametric studies of dendrite growth in an anisotropic electrolyte are performed and the results demonstrate the effects of anisotropic transport on dendrite growth and morphology, and show the possible advantages of anisotropic electrolytes for dendrite suppression.

  6. Investigation of metal hydride materials as hydrogen reservoirs for metal-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONISCHAK

    1976-01-01

    The performance and suitability of various metal hydride materials were examined for use as possible hydrogen storage reservoirs for secondary metal-hydrogen batteries. Lanthanum pentanickel hydride appears as a probable candidate in terms of stable hydrogen supply under feasible thermal conditions. A kinetic model describing the decomposition rate data of the hydride has been developed.

  7. Investigation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision with Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boliek-Uphoff, Carol; Obrzut, John E.

    Twenty-three learning disabled (LD) children (age 8-12 years) and 15 nondisabled children (age 8-12 years) were individually administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB). Means and standard deviations for each of the test's scales were computed by group, and individual T-tests were calculated for…

  8. Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-08-31

    Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ≥20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ≤4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children.

  9. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  10. Storage battery market: profiles and trade opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonfer, D.

    1985-04-01

    The export market for domestically produced storage batteries is a modest one, typically averaging 6 to 7% of domestic industry shipments. Exports in 1984 totalled about $167 million. Canada and Mexico were the largest export markets for US storage batteries in 1984, accounting for slightly more than half of the total. The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and the Netherlands round out the top five export markets. Combined, these five markets accounted for two-thirds of all US exports of storage batteries in 1984. On a regional basis, the North American (Canada), Central American, and European markets accounted for three-quarters of total storage battery exports. Lead-acid batteries accounted for 42% of total battery exports. Battery parts followed lead-acid batteries with a 29% share. Nicad batteries accounted for 16% of the total while other batteries accounted for 13%.

  11. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The ignition of Geokinetics first full-sized prototype retort (Retort 24) was completed on December 1, 1980. Recovery of oil from Retort No. 24 began about midway through December, and 531 barrels of oil had been recovered by the end of the quarter. A cold oil effect resulted in the accumulation of oil within the retort. Five thousand one ninety one barrels of oil were shipped to WESRECO, Salt Lake City, Utah during the quarter, and the shale oil was blended into No. 5 fuel oil, which was sold to industrial users. The Retort No. 25 post-blast core drilling program was completed in October. A total of seven core holes were drilled. Evaluation of the core samples was underway. Preliminary analysis indicated good breakage in the lower portion of Retort No. 25. A new technique for sealing retort surface fractures was designed and implemented on Retort No. 25. A layer of bentonite with gas and steam retention properties was applied to the retort surface and covered with a layer of topsoil.

  12. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.

    1982-10-01

    The Retort No. 25 burn was terminated on June 15, 1982. Total oil production for the second quarter was 6506 barrels during a 76 day production period. Final oil production for Retort No. 25 was 20,956 barrels. Final oil recovery was calculated to be 59% of the total in-place oil. Fugitive emissions, stack and process gas data indicated that all Retort No. 25 pollutants, except NO/sub x/, were below the allowable PSD limits. The Retort No. 25 process water characterization study was completed in April to determine the changes in retort produced water as the retort burn progressed. Results of the study are pending the completion of laboratory analysis. Retort No. 26 was prepared for ignition during the second quarter. Process manifolding and instrumentation were being completed so that ignition might occur shortly after the termination of the Retort No. 25 burn. Post blast core drilling and analysis was completed on Retort No. 27 during early April. The core samples indicated improved fracturing over previous retorts, especially near the bottom. Increasing the size of Retort No. 27 from one acre to two acres showed an increase in blast efficiency based on the criteria of fragmentation, quantity of explosives used per volume of void induced and percent void when compared with Retort No. 24. In June initial site preparation began on Retort No. 28 for blast hole drilling which will start in July. 17 figures, 16 tables.

  13. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    The ignition of Retort No. 25 took place on October 15, 1981. The operation was a success and the fire front remained uniform throughout the quarter. Production of crude shale oil from Retort No. 25 was 7153 barrels during the quarter. Stack gas analysis began on Retort No. 25 as part of normal air quality studies. The re-entry drilling program began on Retort No. 26 and all process wells were completed in December. Blasthole drilling began on the Retort No. 27 site in November. By the end of December, 16,416 feet had been drilled and an early February shot date is scheduled. Retort No. 27 will be twice the size of Retort No. 26. Lab personnel were involved in the testing of retort water for scrubbing purposes and the removal of H/sub 2/S gas. The new Kamp Kerogen water well was completed and put into service. Three mobile homes were relocated on the new mobile home park. Hook-ups were made and services provided.

  14. Diagnostics and Degradation Investigations of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes using Single Nanowire Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palapati, Naveen Kumar Reddy

    Portable energy storage devices, which drive advanced technological devices, are improving the productivity and quality of our everyday lives. In order to meet the growing needs for energy storage in transportation applications, the current lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology requires new electrode materials with performance improvements in multiple aspects: (1) energy and power densities, (2) safety, and (3) performance lifetime. While a number of interesting nanomaterials have been synthesized in recent years with promising performance, accurate capabilities to probe the intrinsic performance of these high-performance materials within a battery environment are lacking. Most studies on electrode nanomaterials have so far used traditional, bulk-scale techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. These approaches give an ensemble-average estimation of the electrochemical properties of a battery electrode and does not provide a true indication of the performance that is intrinsic to its material system. Thus, new techniques are essential to understand the changes happening at a single particle level during the operation of a battery. The results from this thesis solve this need and study the electrical, mechanical and size changes that take place in a battery electrode at a single particle level. Single nanowire lithium cells are built by depositing nanowires in carefully designed device regions of a silicon chip using Dielectrophoresis (DEP). This work has demonstrated the assembly of several NW cathode materials like LiFePO 4, pristine and acid-leached alpha-MnO2, todorokite - MnO2, acid and nonacid-leached Na0.44MnO2. Within these materials, alpha-MnO2 was chosen as the model material system for electrochemical experiments. Electrochemical lithiation of pristine alpha-MnO 2 was performed inside a glove box. The volume, elasticity and conductivity changes were measured at each state-of-charge (SOC) to

  15. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported by Geokinetics on the successful blasting of Retort No. 25. Preparations are described for the ignition of Retort No. 24 nearing completion. This will be the largest retort processing facility utilized to date. Meteorological data of the area was obtained for permit applications from the Utah Air Conservation Committee and the US EPA. These must be obtained before ignition of retort No. 24. Drilling for the post-burn core sampling program (Retorts No. 16 and No. 17) was completed during the quarter. Approval to inject effluent water into the Mesa Verde Formation through a deep well was obtained. Construction of a new 1 1/2 acre evaporating pond has begun. The DOE Oil Shale Task Force will aid in the environmental research program; its role is described. A new vibro-rotary hammer was tested. Drilling penetration rates increased by 35%. A patent on horizontal fracturing methods was obtained. (DMC)

  16. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    Oil production from Retort No. 23 began on April 6, 1981. The retort burn front remained uniform with good vertical distribution as it advanced through the retort. During the burn various amounts of recycled off gas were introduced into the inlet injection stream. This was done to observe the effect on the retort burn. Preliminary indications are that the gas recycling had no obvious effect on the burn. Further evaluation from Sandia National Laboratories will be forthcoming. After burning 106 days, Retort No. 23 shut in at 9:30 A.M. on June 30, 1981. Total production for the life of Retort No. 23 was 991 barrels of shale oil. Total shale oil production from Retort No. 24 to date is 11,233 barrels. Retort No. 24 produced a total of 4701 barrels during the second quarter, an average of 52 barrels per day. Retort No. 24 has now burned for 211 days. On June 26, a new production well was drilled on Retort No. 24. This well was drilled slightly outside the retort boundary on the off gas end. The purpose of this action was to increase production life of the retort. During June the fire front advanced to the far off gas wells. Shale oil production totaled 5523 barrels during the second quarter. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 26. By the end of June 202 blastholes had been drilled. Four additional instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 25. These wells will be used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel during electromagnetic testing which will assist in monitoring the burn front. Fabrication of the Retort No. 25 process equipment proceeded. Design of the Retort No. 25 instrumentation system was finalized and physical work began.

  17. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    At the end of March 1982, Retort No. 25 was in its 167th day of burning with a total oil production of 16,599 barrels, an average of 99 barrels per day for this five month burn period. Total oil production for the first quarter was 9187 barrels, an average of 3062 barrels per month or 102 barrels per day. Various environmental studies were carried out on Retort No. 25 during this burn period, as defined in the Environment Research Plan. Stack gas analyses show that the retort operated within the PSD established emission levels. Lab and field experiments continued on a wet scrubber to remove H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ from the process gas. Process and instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 26. All process holes were completed in February and all instrumentation holes were finished in March. Installment of process manifolding, surface piping and thermocouples is continuing. The Retort No. 27 site was prepared for blasting during January and February with detonation of the retort accomplished on February 25. Retort No. 27, the first 2 acre retort, used 283,000 pounds of Ireco explosive loaded into 354 blast holes. Important data concerning the effect of retort size increase, early overburden motion and the effects of blast design modifications upon shale fracturing characteristics were obtained from this blast. Preliminary indications show that the blast was a success and post blast analysis is presently in progress to evaluate the characteristics of the blast. During the quarter, the second and third suite of samples for the Retort No. 25 fugitive emissions study were gathered. From this study, it was concluded that more sampling will be required before fugitive emission rates can be properly characterized.

  18. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials. Fuel cells, battery, hydrogen storage and nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Boillat, Pierre; Kaestner, Anders; Vontobel, Peter; Mannes, David

    2015-10-01

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time.

  19. Investigations on sediment toxicity of German rivers applying a standardized bioassay battery.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christoph; Gartiser, Stefan; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Schiwy, Sabrina; Hercher, Christoph; Meyer, Wiebke; Achten, Christine; Larsson, Maria; Engwall, Magnus; Keiter, Steffen; Hollert, Henner

    2015-11-01

    River sediments may contain a huge variety of environmental contaminants and play a key role in the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Contaminants adsorbed to sediments and suspended solids may contribute directly or after remobilization to an adverse ecological and chemical status of surface water. In this subproject of the joint research project DanTox, acetonic Soxhlet extracts from three German river sediments from the River Rhine (Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein with moderate contamination) and River Elbe (Veringkanal Hamburg heavily contaminated) were prepared and redissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). These extracts were analyzed with a standard bioassay battery with organisms from different trophic levels (bacteria, algae, Daphnia, fish) as well as in the Ames test and the umuC test for bacterial mutagenicity and genotoxicity according to the respective OECD and ISO guidelines. In total, 0.01% (standard) up to 0.25% (only fish embryo test) of the DMSO sediment extract was dosed to the test systems resulting in maximum sediment equivalent concentrations (SEQ) of 2 up to 50 g l(-1). The sediment of Veringkanal near Hamburg harbor was significantly more toxic in most tests compared to the sediment extracts from Altrip and Ehrenbreitstein from the River Rhine. The most toxic effect found for Veringkanal was in the algae test with an ErC50 (72 h) of 0.00226 g l(-1) SEQ. Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples were about factor 1,000 less toxic. In the Daphnia, Lemna, and acute fish toxicity tests, no toxicity at all was found at 2 g l(-1) SEQ. corresponding to 0.01% DMSO. Only when increasing the DMSO concentration the fish embryo test showed a 22-fold higher toxicity for Veringkanal than for Ehrenbreitstein and Altrip samples, while the toxicity difference was less evident for the Daphnia test due to the overlaying solvent toxicity above 0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The higher toxicities observed with the Veringkanal sample are supported by the PAH and PCB

  20. Numerical investigation and thermodynamic analysis of the effect of electrolyte flow rate on performance of all vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaeli, Ali; Vatani, Ali; Tahouni, Nassim; Panjeshahi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-10-01

    In flow batteries, electrolyte flow rate plays a crucial role on the minimizing mass transfer polarization which is at the compensation of higher pressure drop. In this work, a two-dimensional numerical method is applied to investigate the effect of electrolyte flow rate on cell voltage, maximum depth of discharge and pressure drop a six-cell stack of VRFB. The results show that during the discharge process, increasing electrolyte flow rate can raise the voltage of each cell up to 50 mV on average. Moreover, the maximum depth of discharge dramatically increases with electrolyte flow rate. On the other hand, the pressure drop also positively correlates with electrolyte flow rate. In order to investigate all these effects simultaneously, average energy and exergy efficiencies are introduced in this study for the transient process of VRFB. These efficiencies give insight into choosing an appropriate strategy for the electrolyte flow rate. Finally, the energy efficiency of electricity storage using VRFB is investigated and compared with other energy storage systems. The results illustrate that this kind of battery has at least 61% storage efficiency based on the second law of thermodynamics, which is considerably higher than that of their counterparts.

  1. Using non-linear methods to investigate the criterion validity of traffic-psychological test batteries.

    PubMed

    Risser, R; Chaloupka, Ch; Grundler, W; Sommer, M; Häusler, J; Kaufmann, C

    2008-01-01

    In several countries in Europe (among others Germany and Austria) persons who have lost their drivers licence have to undergo a psychological test in order to regain their licence. The article discusses the validity of two test batteries of the Expert System Traffic using standardized driving tests [Schuhfried, G., 2005. Manual Expert System Traffic (XPSV). Schuhfried GmbH, Mödling]. A global evaluation of the respondents' performance in a standardized driving test was used as criterion measure in order to divide the subjects into drivers, who were classified as relatively safe or unsafe according to their performance in a standardized driving test. Artificial neural networks were used to calculate the criterion validity. This yielded superior classification rates and validity coefficients compared to classical multivariate methods such as a logistic regression. The stability and generalizability of the results was empirically demonstrated using a jack-knife validation, an internal bootstrap validation and an independent validation sample which completed the test batteries and the standardized driving test as part of a so-called traffic-psychological assessment which is compulsory in Austria in all cases, where the driver's licence has been withdrawn, e.g., when caught driving under the influence of alcohol. Moreover, the procedure allows calculating incremental validities which enable the assessment of the relative importance of the individual predictor variables. This contributes to the transparency of the results obtained with artificial neural networks. In summary it can be said that the results provide empirical evidence of the validity of the traffic-psychological tests batteries used in this study. The practical implications of the results for traffic-psychological assessment are described.

  2. Experimental investigation of internal short circuits in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poramapojana, Poowanart

    With outstanding performance of Lithium-ion batteries, they have been widely used in many applications. For hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles, customer concerns of battery safety have been raised as a number of car accidents were reported. To evaluate safety performance of these batteries, a nail penetration test is used to simulate and induce internal short circuits instantaneously. Efforts to explain failure mechanisms of the penetration using electrochemical-thermal coupled models have been proposed. However, there is no experimental validation because researchers lack of a diagnostic tool to acquire important cell characteristics at a shorting location, such as shorting current and temperature. In this present work, diagnostic nails have been developed to acquire nail center temperatures and shorting current flow through the nails during nail penetration tests. Two types of cylindrical wall structures are used to construct the nails: a double-layered stainless steel wall and a composite cylindrical wall. An inner hollow cylinder functions as a sensor holder where two wires and one thermocouple are installed. To study experimental reproducibility and repeatability of experimental results, two nail penetration tests are conducted using two diagnostic nails with the double-layered wall. Experimental data shows that the shorting resistance at the initial stage is a critical parameter to obtain repeatable results. The average shorting current for both tests is approximately 40 C-rate. The fluctuation of the shorting current is due to random sparks and fire caused loose contacts between the nail and the cell components. Moreover, comparative experimental results between the two wall structures reveal that the wall structure does not affect the cell characteristics and Ohmic heat generation of the nail. The wall structure effects to current measurements inside the nail. With the composite wall, the actual current redistribution into the inner wall is

  3. Investigating the use of porous, hollow glass microspheres in positive lead acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Matthew; Bean, Thomas; Woodland, Travis; Canning, John; Cheng, I. Frank; Edwards, Dean B.

    2014-11-01

    Porous, hollow, glass microspheres (PHGMs) can be used to increase porosity in lead acid battery electrodes to improve the battery's power and energy performance at higher discharge rates. As reported in this paper, the PHGM additives did improve electrolyte storage and porosity in the electrodes. However, the nonconductive PHGMs do reduce the critical volume fraction (CVF) of the electrodes as predicted from conductivity models. The increase in electrode performance due to increased porosity may therefore be partially offset by the drop in capacity due to a lower critical volume fraction. Empirical equations are developed that relate the CFV and porosity of an electrode to the amount, size, and porosity of the additives in that electrode. The porosity estimates made from the empirical equations compare favorably with the experimental data from plates fabricated with these additives. The performance of electrodes with additives is estimated from computer models using the electrode's CVF and porosity as provided by the equations. Tests were performed on plates having volume loadings of PHGMs from 11% to 44% of total solids in positive electrodes to determine their effect on active material utilizations. The results from these discharge tests are reported and compared with theoretical models.

  4. Theoretical investigation of pillar[4]quinone as a cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Huan, Long; Xie, Ju; Chen, Ming; Diao, Guowang; Zhao, Rongfang; Zuo, Tongfei

    2017-04-01

    The applicability of a novel macrocyclic multi-carbonyl compound, pillar[4]quinone (P4Q), as the cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) was assessed theoretically. The molecular geometry, electronic structure, Li-binding thermodynamic properties, and the redox potential of P4Q were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) at the M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The results of the calculations indicated that P4Q interacts with Li atoms via three binding modes: Li-O ionic bonding, O-Li···O bridge bonding, and Li···phenyl noncovalent interactions. Calculations also indicated that, during the LIB discharging process, P4Q could yield a specific capacity of 446 mAh g(-1) through the utilization of its many carbonyl groups. Compared with pillar[5]quinone and pillar[6]quinone, the redox potential of P4Q is enhanced by its high structural stability as well as the effect of the solvent. These results should provide the theoretical foundations for the design, synthesis, and application of novel macrocyclic carbonyl compounds as electrode materials in LIBs in the future. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the proposed charge-discharge mechanism of Pillar[4]quinone as cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Investigation into the role of silica in lithium polysulfide adsorption for lithium sulfur battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Miso; Kang, Sung-Hwan; Manuel, James; Zhao, Xiaohui; Cho, Kwon Koo; Ahn, Jou Hyeon

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN) were prepared. • Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out with silica nanoparticles and AFSN. • Sulfur cathodes were prepared with SN and AFSN for Li–S batteries. • AFSN showed excellent polysulfide adsorption. - Abstract: A new type of sulfur electrodes with the ability for polysulfide adsorption was prepared by incorporating silica nanoparticles (SN) or amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN). AFSN was synthesized by a simple and cost-effective method. The functionalization and surface morphology of silica were confirmed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out using UV–vis spectrometer, which confirmed the excellent adsorption of polysulfides by AFSN. Interaction of polysulfides with SN or AFSN was studied using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The effective polysulfide adsorption by SN and AFSN leads to good and stable cycle performance of lithium sulfur cells. The results show that the incorporation of SN or AFSN with sulfur is a promising method to prepare cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries.

  6. Investigation of a novel ternary electrolyte based on dimethyl sulfite and lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiODFB) has been used as a novel lithium salt for battery in recent studies. In this study, a series of novel electrolytes has been prepared by adding 30 vol% dimethyl sulfite (DMS) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent into an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + LiX mixture, in which the LiX could be LiClO4, LiODFB, LiBOB, LiTFSI, or LiCF3SO3. These ternary electrolytes have been investigated for use in lithium ion batteries. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis shows that characteristic functional groups (-CO3, -SO3) undergo red-shift or blue-shift with the addition of different lithium salts. The LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, which is mainly because of the low melting point of DMS, and LiODFB possessing high solubility. The Li/MCMB cells containing this novel electrolyte exhibit high capacities, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. These performances are probably because both LiODFB and DMS can assist in the formation of SEI films by reductive decomposition. Additionally, the discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 half cell containing LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte is 130.9 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and it is very comparable with the standard-commercial electrolyte. The results show that this study produces a promising electrolyte candidate for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Investigation of the Geokinetics Horizontal In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported on developing an in-situ process for recovering shale oil. On July 23, Retort No. 24 was shut-in. Production for the life of Retort No. 24 totaled 12,741 barrels of crude shale oil. A contract was made with the United States Defense Fuel Supply Center to furnish them with 5000 barrels of crude shale oil. Shipments were made by tanker trucks to the Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility near Rifle, Colorado to fulfill this contractual agreement. A shipment of 120 barrels of crude shale oil was made to Mobil Research Company. Retort No. 26 was loaded with explosives on August 5 and 6. This operation was carried out totally by Geokinetics' personnel. On August 7, Retort No. 26 was detonated. Again all blasting operations were carried out by Geokinetics personnel. According to initial indications the Retort No. 26 blast was highly successful. Following the blast of Retort No. 26 all efforts were turned to the ignition of Retort No. 25. Equipment and piping were set in place and the instrumentation systems were wired in. Ignition for Retort No. 25 is scheduled for mid to late October. The Retort No. 26 Post-blast Coring Program continued through the end of this quarter. With the ignition of Retort No. 25 the analytical lab began constant monitoring of the retort burn.

  8. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  9. Investigation of binder distribution in graphite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marcus; Pfaffmann, Lukas; Jaiser, Stefan; Baunach, Michael; Trouillet, Vanessa; Scheiba, Frieder; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm; Bauer, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is evaluated regarding its applicability for revealing the binder distribution in lithium-ion battery electrode films. Graphite anodes comprising carbon black and PVDF binder are subject to varying drying conditions during solvent removal in order to adjust different binder distributions; fluorine is used as a marker for the presence of PVDF. For electrodes of about 70 μm thickness the fluorine concentration is detected at the surface of the electrode film as well as at the interface between electrode film and current collector foil. It is clearly visible by EDS that increasing drying temperatures (and drying rates) result in an accumulation of binder at the surface and a corresponding depletion at the interface. It is demonstrated on the basis of ion-milled cross-sections of thick electrodes (ca. 400 μm) that a quantitative mapping of the binder distribution delivers additional information about concentration gradients in dependence of the drying parameters.

  10. Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Sivakumar, Bhuvaneswari M.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Nafion-117 membrane used in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface due to their low diffusivity. On the other hand, the 17O NMR spectrum explores the diffused vanadium cation from the bulk part of Nafion and shows the chemical bonding of cation and the host membrane. The 19F NMR shows the basic Nafion structure is not altered due to the presence of diffused vanadium cation. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of diffused vanadium cation in the Nafion membrane is discussed. This study also shed light into the possible cause for the high diffusivity of certain vanadium cations inside the Nafion membranes.

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigations of functionalized boron nitride as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Nemeth, Karoly; Bareno, Javier; Dogan, Fulya; Bloom, Ira D.; Shaw, Leon L.

    2016-03-03

    The feasibility of synthesizing functionalized h-BN (FBN) via the reaction between molten LiOH and solid h-BN is studied for the first time and its first ever application as an electrode material in Li-ion batteries is evaluated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to provide mechanistic understanding of the possible electrochemical reactions derived from the FBN. Various materials characterizations reveal that the melt-solid reaction can lead to exfoliation and functionalization of h-BN simultaneously, while electrochemical analysis proves that the FBN can reversibly store charges through surface redox reactions with good cycle stability and coulombic efficiency. As a result, the DFT calculations have provided physical insights into the observed electrochemical properties derived from the FBN.

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigations of functionalized boron nitride as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fan; Nemeth, Karoly; Bareno, Javier; ...

    2016-03-03

    The feasibility of synthesizing functionalized h-BN (FBN) via the reaction between molten LiOH and solid h-BN is studied for the first time and its first ever application as an electrode material in Li-ion batteries is evaluated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to provide mechanistic understanding of the possible electrochemical reactions derived from the FBN. Various materials characterizations reveal that the melt-solid reaction can lead to exfoliation and functionalization of h-BN simultaneously, while electrochemical analysis proves that the FBN can reversibly store charges through surface redox reactions with good cycle stability and coulombic efficiency. As a result, the DFTmore » calculations have provided physical insights into the observed electrochemical properties derived from the FBN.« less

  13. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; ...

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmore » a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.« less

  14. Preliminary results: Root cause investigation of orbital anomalies and failures in NASA standard 50 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toft, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Two lots of NASA standard 50 A.H. Ni-Cd battery cells, manufactured by Gates Aerospace Batteries and built into batteries by McDonnell Douglas, have experienced significant performance problems. The two lots were used on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Both of these satellites are Low Earth Orbital (LEO) satellites containing batteries on a parallel bus charged to NASA standard V/T curves using a NASA standard power regulator. The following preliminary conclusions were reached: (1) several plate and cell parameters have migrated within their spec limits over the years (in some cases, from one extreme to the other); (2) several parametric relationships, not generally monitored and therefore not under specification control, have also migrated over the years; (3) many of these changes appear to have taken place as a natural consequence of changes in GE/GAB materials and processes; (4) several of these factors may be 'conspiring' to aggravate known cell failure mechanisms (factors such as heavier plate, less teflon and/or less-uniform teflon, and less electrolyte) but all are still in spec (where specs exist); (5) the weight of the evidence collected to characterize the anomalies and to characterize the negative electrode itself, strongly suggests that alterations to the structure, composition, uniformity, and efficiency of the negative electrode are at the heart of the battery performance problems currently being experienced; and (6) further investigation at all levels (plate, cell, battery, and system) continues to be warranted.

  15. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The kinetics study which is investigating hydration reactions of the ADM by-product (Subtask 2.2) was continued this quarter. This study further aided in gaining information on mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions during hydration of the ADM materials. The information is of importance for a comprehensive understanding of the factors that control strength and long-term stability during aging of FGD materials. The decision was made by Addington, Inc., DOE, and the University of Kentucky that the originally selected mine site for the emplacement demonstration must be changed, mainly for safety reasons. Mine selection will be a priority for the next quarter (Jul--Sep, 1995). Another activity during this reporting period was related to Subtask 4.3, the selection and testing of the transport system for the FGD material. A laboratory-scale pneumatic emplacement test unit (ETU) for dry FGD materials was built at the CAER to generate data so that a final selection of the field demonstration technology can be made. A dry pneumatic system was chosen for laboratory testing because the equipment and expertise available at the CAER matched this sort of technology best. While the design of the laboratory system was based on shotcrete technology, the physical properties of the emplaced FGD material is expected to be similar for other transport techniques, either pneumatic or hydraulic. In other words, the selection of a dry pneumatic transport system for laboratory testing does not necessarily imply that a scaled-up version will be used for the field demonstration. The ETU is a convenient means of producing samples for subsequent chemical and physical testing by a representative emplacement technology. Ultimately, the field demonstration technology will be chosen based on the laboratory data and the suitability of locally available equipment.

  16. A systematic investigation of polymer binder flexibility on the electrode performance of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yuca, Neslihan; Zhao, Hui; Song, Xiangyun; Dogdu, Murat Ferhat; Yuan, Wen; Fu, Yanbao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao

    2014-10-08

    The mechanical failure at the electrode interfaces (laminate/current collector and binder/particle interfaces) leads to particle isolation and delamination, which has been regarded as one of the main reasons for the capacity decay and cell failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Polymer binder provides the key function for a good interface property and for maintaining the electrode integrity of LIBs. Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEG) moieties were incorporated into polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) to different extents at the molecular level. Microscratch tests of the graphite electrodes based on these binders indicate that the electrode is more flexible with 5 or 10% TEG in the polymer binders. Crack generation is inhibited by the flexible TEG-containing binder, compared to that of the unmodified PMAA-based electrode, leading to the better cycling performance of the flexible electrode. With a 10% TEG moiety in the binder, the graphite half-cell reaches a reversible capacity of >270 mAh/g at the 1C rate, compared to a value of ∼190 mAh/g for the unmodified PMAA binder.

  17. Investigating the all-solid-state batteries based on lithium garnets and a high potential cathode - LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Christian; Afyon, Semih; Rupp, Jennifer L M

    2016-11-03

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on lithium garnets give new prospects for safer battery operations avoiding liquids, and could enable the integration of high energy density electrode materials. Herein, we critically investigate the structural and chemical stability of the high voltage cathode material, LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, based on the solid lithium garnet electrolyte LLZO (c-Li6.4Ga0.2La3Zr2O12) for all-solid Li-ion batteries. We manufacture battery cells based on nano-grained synthesized LLZO and composite cathodes (LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4/LLZO/C) fabricated via direct slurry casting of the cathode material and additives on sintered LLZO pellets against metallic Li anodes. The galvanostatic tests of such all-solid-state batteries up to 4.9 V at 95 °C reveal the incompatibility of the solid electrolyte and the cathode material under given conditions. Post-mortem analyses of the all-solid-state batteries demonstrate the formation of new inactive phases at the LLZO/LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 interfacial region through an irreversible reaction starting at ∼3.8 V during charging. The discovered limited chemical stability under the investigated conditions raises the question if LLZO could be a promising solid-electrolyte for future all-solid-state Li-ion batteries especially at higher operation potentials and demanding operation conditions.

  18. DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

    2005-12-01

    The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical investigation of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Tracy Alexandra

    2002-08-01

    As the demand for better energy storage devices increases, finding new materials capable of improvement on existing technology becomes essential. Within this body of work, several new electrode materials of different structure type have been synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their lithium insertion/deinsertion behavior in lithium ion batteries. Nanocomposites of novel alloy, and convertible oxide anode materials have been studied. Nanoparticles of Ge and Sn that are able to form lithium rich alloys have been synthesized, and their low potential lithium insertion behavior studied. In order to inhibit agglomeration of the tiny particles, a novel synthesis route was designed to attach ionically conducting polymers to their surfaces. Characterization by a combination of techniques (XRD, TEM, SEM and FTIR spectroscopy) verified the existence of nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix, albeit with some impurities. Electrochemical data show that even when the lithium insertion capacity within these materials is high, the process is extremely irreversible as lithium ions become trapped within the matrix, and only a very small anodic capacity is realized. The first convertible polymer/oxide nanocomposite (poly(para-phenylene)/MoO 3) to be evaluated as an anode material was synthesized using a novel surfactant mediated method. XRD data indicated a 5.2 A increase in the MoO3 layer spacing to 12.1 A after polymer incorporation. Low potential electrochemical insertion properties show that the polymer/oxide nanocomposite behaves in a similar manner to the host MoO3 material. A variety of cathode materials were also synthesized and evaluated for their high potential lithium insertion properties. A comparative study on the effect that synthetic procedure may have on the electrochemical properties of the poly(aniline)/MoO3 cathode material have been studied. Poly(aniline)/MoO 3 nanocomposites have been synthesized from a solution insertion route and via hydrothermal

  20. Investigation of the Storage Behavior of Shredded Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Recycling Purposes.

    PubMed

    Grützke, Martin; Krüger, Steffen; Kraft, Vadim; Vortmann, Britta; Rothermel, Sergej; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-10-26

    Shredding of the cells is often the first step in lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling. Thus, LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC)/graphite lithium-ion cells from a field-tested electric vehicle were shredded and transferred to tinplate or plastic storage containers. The formation of hazardous compounds within, and being released from, these containers was monitored over 20 months. The tinplate cans underwent fast corrosion as a result of either residual charge in the active battery material, which could not fully be discharged because of contact loss to the current collector, or redox reactions between the tinplate surface and metal parts of the shredded material. The headspace compositions of the containers were investigated at room temperature and 150 °C using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Samples of the waste material were also collected using microwave-assisted extraction and the extracts were analyzed over a period of 20 months using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS). LiPF6 was identified as a conducting salt, whereas dimethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were the main solvent components. Cyclohexylbenzene was also detected, which is an additive for overcharge protection. Diethyl carbonate, fluoride, difluorophosphate and several ionic and non-ionic alkyl (fluoro)phosphates were also identified. Importantly, dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were quantified using HS-GC-MS through the use of an internal standard. DMFP, DEFP, and related compounds are known as chemical warfare agents, and the presence of these materials is of great interest. In the case of this study, these hazardous materials are present but in manageable low concentrations. Nonetheless, the presence of such compounds and their potential release during an accident that may occur during shredding or recycling of large amounts of LIB waste should be considered.

  1. Aging investigations of a lithium-ion battery electrolyte from a field-tested hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützke, Martin; Kraft, Vadim; Hoffmann, Björn; Klamor, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Kwade, Arno; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The electrolyte of a used lithium-ion battery from a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) was investigated. The liquid electrolyte was collected through the pressure valve of these 5 Ah cells. It consists of (29.8 ± 0.2) wt.% dimethyl carbonate (DMC), (21.7 ± 0.1) wt.% ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), (30.3 ± 0.3) wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC) and (2.2 ± 0.1) wt.% cyclohexyl benzene (CHB) which were identified with GC-MS and quantified with GC-FID. Li+ (1.29 ± 0.04) mol L-1 and PF6- were determined with IC as the main ionic species in the solution. Furthermore, BF4- was clearly identified with IC-ESI-MS, IC-ICP-MS and 11B NMR and quantified to a concentration of (120.8 ± 8.3) mg L-1 with ICP-OES. The presence of POF3 (detected with GC-MS), F-, PO2F2-, HPO3F- and H2PO4- (determined with IC-ESI-MS) can be attributed to the reaction of the conducting salt LiPF6 via PF5 with traces of water. HPO3F- and H2PO4- could only be observed in cells which were opened in a laboratory hood under exposure of air humidity. This experiment was done to simulate escaping electrolyte from an HEV battery pack. Furthermore, several alkyl phosphates (identified with GC-MS and IC-ESI-MS) are present in the solution due to further reaction of the different fluorinated phosphates with organic carbonates.

  2. Solar flares and magnetospheric particles: Investigations based upon the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.

    1993-02-15

    This performance report covers work related to the radiation environment in near-Earth space. The goal of the research is to measure and describe, quantitatively, the Geospace radiation environment in which men and spacecraft must survive and function. The tools for this investigation are the data returned by the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments and augmented by correlative databases of both space-based and ground-based data. The investigation involves data analysis, modeling and applications to a variety of space equipment and environments.

  3. Solar flares and magnetospheric particles: Investigations based upon the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments. Quarterly report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-05-03

    This performance report covers work related to the radiation environment in near-Earth space. The goal of the research is to measure and describe, quantitatively, the Geospace radiation environment in which men and spacecraft must survive and function. The tools for this investigation are the data returned by the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments, augmented by correlative databases of both space-based and ground-based data. The investigation involves data analysis, modeling and applications to a variety of space equipment and environments.

  4. Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Akundi, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Work is described on the investigations of the interaction of syngas in the preparation of alcohols. The analysis of work performed on copper/cobalt/chromium catalysts and the effect of the method of preparation on magnetic properties of the catalysts is discussed.

  5. Solar flares and magnetospheric particles: Investigations based upon the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments. Quarterly report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-11-30

    This performance report covers work accomplished under ONR Grant N00014-90-J-1466 related to the radiation environment in near-Earth space. The goal of the research is to measure and describe, quantitatively, the Geospace radiation environment in which men and spacecraft must survive and function. The tools for this investigation are the data returned by the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments, both flown under the auspices of ONR and the Air Force Space Test Program, augmented by correlative databases of both space-based and ground-based data. The investigation involves data analysis, modeling and applications to a variety of space equipment and environments. This report builds upon the detailed Technical Report (Fall, 1992) and the previous performance reports. For the current period, the principal effort was in modeling of the Anomalous Component, determining the modulation level during the CRRES Mission, and studying the quiet-time particle access to the magnetosphere.

  6. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet

  7. Investigation of pyrite as a contributor to slagging in eastern bituminous coals. Quarterly progress report 9, October 1-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bryers, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this program is to examine slags formed as a result of firing coals with varying concentration levels, size distribution, and orientation of pyrite with regard to mineral matter in the coal in a laboratory furnace. The program tasks are: (1) selection of eight candidate coals; (2) chemical characterization of the coal samples and identification of the pyrite size, distribution, and orientation with respect to other mineral matter and concentration levels; (3) testing of the candidate coals in a laboratory furnace; (4) chemical and physical characterization of the slag and fly ash samples created by the impurities in the coal sample; (5) influence of coal beneficiation on furnace slagging; and (6) analysis of data and identification of parameters influencing the contribution of pyrite to slagging problems. Washing of the Upper Freeport coal from Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was completed by the last quarter of 1983. The washed product was characterized for mineral content, and a combustion test was performed. Kentucky No. 9 from Henderson County, Kentucky, selected as the sixth coal to be investigated, was characterized using size and gravity fractionation techniques and was combusted in the laboratory furnace to evaluate its slagging and fouling potential. The remaining two coals to be characterized and combusted were identified as Illinois No. 5 and Lower Kittanning from Clarion County, Pennsylvania. 80 figures, 27 tables.

  8. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J.; Chang, R.

    1996-07-27

    The overall objective this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. During Phase 1, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed and will be integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will then be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase 11 effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology (technically and economically feasible) shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale. An extensive work plan has been developed for the project. Three sorbents will be selected for evaluation at the facility through investigation, presentation, and discussion among team members: PSCO, EPRI, ADA, and DOE. The selected sorbents will be tested in the five primary bench-scale configurations: pulse `et baghouse, TOXECON, reverse-gas baghouse, electrostatic precipitator, and an ESP or fabric filter `with no Comanche ash in the flue gas stream. In the EPRI TOXECON system, mercury sorbents will be injected downstream of a primary particulate control device, and collected in a pulse-jet baghouse operated at air-to-cloth ratios of 12 to 16 ft/min, thus separating the mercury and sorbent from the captured flyash. In the no-ash configuration, an external flyash sample will be injected into a clean gas stream to investigate possible variations in sorbent effectiveness in the presence of different ashes. The use of an existing test facility, a versatile design for the test fixture, and installation of a continuous mercury analyzer will allow for the completion of this ambitious test plan. The primary activity during the quarter was to complete fabrication and installation of the facility.

  9. Solar flares and magnetospheric particles: Investigations based upon the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments. Quarterly report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-09-03

    This performance report covers work accomplished under ONR Grant N00014-90-J-1466 related to the radiation environment in near-Earth space. The goal of the research is to measure and describe, quantitatively, the Geospace radiation environment in which men and spacecraft must survive and function. The tools for this investigation are the data returned by the ONR-602 and ONR-604 experiments, both flown under the auspices of ONR and the Air Force Space Test Program, augmented by correlative databases of both space-based and ground-based data. The investigation involves data analysis, modeling and applications to a variety of space equipment and environments. This report builds upon the detailed Technical Report (Fall, 1992) and the previous performance reports. For the current period, the principal effort was in the analysis of the solar energetic particle events that occurred during the CRRES mission, focusing upon the helium component. In addition, the authors have looked at the galactic quiet-time helium to help determine the modulation level during the CRRES Mission.

  10. Investigation of Tantalum Wet Slug Capacitor Failures in the Apollo Telescope Mount Charger Battery Regulator Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. F.; Wiedeman, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation describes the capacitor failures and to identify the cause of the failure mechanism. Early failures were thought to have happened because of age and/or abuse since the failed capacitors were dated 1967. It is shown that all 1967 capacitors were replaced with 1972 capacitors.

  11. Experimental investigation of vibration-induced bulk solids transport and segregation. Quarterly report ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.

    1996-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the motion of a single large sphere in a bed of dry granular material subjected to vertical vibration is presented. We have studied the rise time of the sphere as a function of vibration parameters, frequency and amplitude. While previous results report a decreasing rise time with increasing relative acceleration, we evidence the existence of a critical frequency where the rise time jumps to greater values before decreasing again. We also show that the rise time scales with the velocity amplitude of vibration and the transition corresponds approximately to a doubling of rise time. The results reported are over a rather narrow range of input accelerations, and generally involve gross phenomena of heaping and fluidization. Observations of the dynamic trajectory of the rising particle are also reported through the use of a novel non-intrusive particle tracking system. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  12. INVESTIGATION ON DURABILITY AND REACTIVITY OF PROMISING METAL OXIDE SORBENTS DURING SULFIDATION AND REGENERATION. QUARTERLY AND FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. KWON

    1998-08-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at high pressures and high temperatures. Metal oxides such as zinc titanate oxides, zinc ferrite oxide, copper oxide, manganese oxide and calcium oxide, were found to be promising sorbents in comparison with other removal methods such as membrane separations and reactive membrane separations. Some metal oxide sorbents exhibited the quite favorable performance in terms of attrition resistance and sulfur capacity. Experiments on removal reaction of H{sub 2}S from coal gas mixtures with formulated metal oxide sorbents were conducted in a batch reactor or a differential reactor. The objectives of this research project are to formulate promising metal oxide sorbents for removal of sulfur from coal gas mixtures, to find initial reaction kinetics for the metal oxide-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to obtain effects of hydrogen, nitrogen and moisture on dynamic absorption and equilibrium absorption at various absorption temperatures. Promising durable metal oxide sorbents with high-sulfur-absorbing capacity were formulated by mixing active metal oxide powders with inert metal oxide powders, and calcining these powder mixtures. The Research Triangle Institute (RTI), a sub-contractor of this research project, will also prepare promising metal oxide sorbents for this research project, plan experiments on removal of sulfur compounds from coal gases with metal oxide, and review experimental results.

  13. Lead exposure in starter battery production: investigation of the correlation between air lead and blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Kentner, M; Fischer, T

    1994-01-01

    The threshold limit value (TLV) for lead (in Germany, the MAK value) is based on a certain blood lead concentration (in Germany BAT value = biological tolerance value for working materials) that is not to be exceeded; thereby a statistically significant association between air lead (PbA) and blood lead (PbB) is assumed. On the basis of a 10-year period of (1982-1991) biological and ambient monitoring of 134 battery factory staff and their workplaces, a PbA/PbB correlation with the regression equation PbB = 62.183 + 21.242 x Log 10 (PbA) (n = 1089, r = 0.274, P < 0.001) was calculated. These results are in line with those of several other investigations. The shape of the regression curve and the wide scattering of values led to the assumption that PbA values above the MAK value (0.1 mg/m3) do not necessarily result in increased PbB values. Similarly, PbA values lower than the MAK value do not guarantee PbB levels below the BAT value in every case. These observations are influenced by numerous confounders and intervening variables. It is concluded that lowering MAK values as a consequence of lowering BAT values is not mandatory.

  14. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Eighteenth quarterly progress report, August 12-November 12, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Davis, M.

    1980-12-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. A survey was made of elastomers for use as gaskets for the photovoltaic module. Of the wide variety of materials examined EPDM offered the optimum combination of low compression set and low cost. The preference for EPDM is borne out by its long history of use as an automobile gasket. The commercial availability of materials that would be useful for sealants between the edge of the module and the gasket was investigated. Butyl sealants have the best combination of physical properties, low cost and a well-documented history of performance. A preferred composition has not yet been identified. One laminating type pottant ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), and two casting polymers, polybutyl acrylate and polyurethane, have been under investigation this past quarter. An EMA formulation has been developed which is easily extrudable and cures to a high gel content. So far only one commercial US source (Quinn) of aliphatic polyurethane has been located. Work is continuing to improve reaction rate as well as to eliminate source(s) of bubble formation during module fabrication. Considerable effort was spent in developing an improved polybutyl acrylate casting formulation providing high gel. Many viable curing systems are now available: however, the best formulation considering physical properties, freedom from bubbles as well as cure time utilizes Lupersol II (aliphatic peroxide) initiator. This initiator gives the desired gel after 20 minute cure at 45/sup 0/C or 12 minute cure at 55/sup 0/C.

  15. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2 -- Field investigations. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    During this quarter, the majority of activity focused on grout emplacement at the Lodestar Energy Inc. (formerly Costain Coal Co.) surface mine auger holes described in the previous report. Specifically, two different types of grout pumps were investigated: a piston pump used in previous demonstrations, and a progressive cavity pump. The latter is currently utilized for grouting in underground coal mines, is relatively small and portable, and is capable of receiving dry material (e.g., fly ash) and water, mixing it to produce a grout, and pumping the grout at high pressure. It is therefore worthwhile to investigate it`s potential use in auger mine filling. Several field demonstrations were conducted using the different pumps. Numerous problems were encountered when using the progressive cavity pump, all of which were related to its inability to handle the highly reactive and heterogeneous FBC fly ash. Even relatively small ash agglomerates (<1 in. in diameter), which were not a problem for the larger piston pump, caused blockages in the progressive cavity pump which not only proved extremely difficult to clear, but also resulted in significant mechanical failures. Furthermore, mixing of dry fly ash with water within the progressive cavity pump was inconsistent and difficult to control. Consequently, the pump was unable to completely fill even a single auger hole. It was found that a large proportion of bed ash in the grout generated a large amount of heat and caused early stiffening of the material. During the experiments, cylinders of grout were prepared for compressive strength testing, and moisture contents were determined on-site. A thermocouple assembly was also constructed to record grout temperatures within an auger hole.

  16. Investigation on durability and reactivity of promising metal oxide sorbents during sulfidation and regeneration. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at high pressures and high temperatures. Metal oxides such as zinc titanate oxides, zinc ferrite oxide, copper oxide, manganese oxide and calcium oxide, were found to be promising sorbents in comparison with other removal methods such as membrane separations and reactive membrane separations. Some metal oxide sorbents exhibited the quite favorable performance in terms of attrition resistance and sulfur capacity. Removal reaction of H{sub 2}S from coal gas mixtures with ZT-4 or other promising sorbents of fine solid particles, and regeneration reaction of sulfur-loaded sorbents will be carried on in a batch reactor or a continuous differential reactor. The objectives of this research project are to find intrinsic initial reaction kinetics for the metal oxide-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to obtain effects of concentrations of coal gas components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and moisture on equilibrium reaction rate constants of the reaction system at various reaction temperatures and pressures, to identify regeneration kinetics of sulfur-loaded metal oxide sorbents, and to formulate promising metal oxide sorbent for the removal of sulfur from coal gas mixtures. Promising durable metal oxide sorbents of high-sulfur-absorbing capacity will be formulated by mixing active metal oxide powders with inert metal oxide powders and calcining these powder mixtures, or impregnating active metal oxide sorbents on supporting metal oxide matrixes.

  17. Investigation on durability and reactivity of promising metal oxide sorbents during sulfidation and regeneration. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1995-03-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at high pressures and high temperatures. Metal oxides such as zinc titanate oxides, zinc ferrite oxide, copper oxide, manganese oxide and calcium oxide, were found to be promising sorbents in comparison with other removal methods such as membrane separations and reactive membrane separations. Some metal oxide sorbents exhibited the quite favorable performance in terms of attrition resistance and sulfur capacity. Removal reaction of H{sub 2}S from coal gas mixtures with ZT-4 or other promising sorbents of fine solid particles, and regeneration reaction of sulfur-loaded sorbents will be carried on in a batch reactor or a continuous differential reactor. The objectives of this research project are to find intrinsic initial reaction kinetics for the metal oxide-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to obtain effects of concentrations of coal gas components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and moisture on equilibrium reaction rate constants of the reaction system at various reaction temperatures and pressures, to identify regeneration kinetics of sulfur-loaded metal oxide sorbents, and to formulate promising metal oxide sorbents for the removal of sulfur from coal gas mixtures. Promising durable metal oxide sorbents of high-sulfur-absorbing capacity will be formulated by mixing active metal oxide powders with inert metal oxide powders and calcining these powder mixtures, or impregnating active metal oxide sorbents on supporting metal oxide matrixes.

  18. Experimental investigation on heat pipe cooling for Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Electric Vehicle lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thanh-Ha; Harmand, Souad; Sahut, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we explored the use of heat pipe as cooling device for a specific HEV lithium-ion battery module. The evaporator blocks of heat pipe modules were fixed to a copper plate which played the role of the battery cooling wall. A flat heater was glued to the other surface of the copper plate and reproduced heat generated by the battery. The temperature at the cooper plate/heater interface corresponds to that of the battery module wall. An AMESim model of the battery was developed to estimate the cells' temperature within the battery. In inclined positions, a very slender evolution of the cooper plate/heater interface temperature was noticed, which means heat pipe works efficiently under different grade road conditions. Even though natural convection and chimney effect are not enough, coupling heat pipes with a confined ventilation structure is an efficient way to keep cells' temperature within its optimal range with an even temperature distribution. Furthermore, only low rate ventilation is necessary, which helps avoid parasitic power consumption and noise level in the vehicle.

  19. Investigations on Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) - blend based solid polymer electrolytes for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koduru, H. K.; Iliev, M. T.; Kondamareddy, K. K.; Karashanova, D.; Vlakhov, T.; Zhao, X.-Z.; Scaramuzza, N.

    2016-10-01

    Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), complexed with NaIO4 salt and Graphene oxide (GO) are investigated in the present report. The electrolytes are prepared by a facile solution cast technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are employed to study the influence of ion-polymer interactions on the micro structural properties of blend electrolytes. Measurements of electrical conductivity of the blend polymer complexes have been performed by using complex impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 1 Hz - 1 MHz and within the temperature range 303 K - 343 K.A study on electrical conductivity properties of GO doped ‘salt complexed electrolyte’ systems is presented.

  20. Investigating autonomic control of the cardiovascular system: a battery of simple tests.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher D; Roe, Sean; Tansey, Etain A

    2013-12-01

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system constantly control the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions) and blood vessels (predominantly the sympathetic division) to maintain appropriate blood pressure and organ blood flow over sometimes widely varying conditions. This can be adversely affected by pathological conditions that can damage one or both branches of autonomic control. The set of teaching laboratory activities outlined here uses various interventions, namely, 1) the heart rate response to deep breathing, 2) the heart rate response to a Valsalva maneuver, 3) the heart rate response to standing, and 4) the blood pressure response to standing, that cause fairly predictable disturbances in cardiovascular parameters in normal circumstances, which serve to demonstrate the dynamic control of the cardiovascular system by autonomic nerves. These tests are also used clinically to help investigate potential damage to this control.

  1. Effects of Game Location, Quality of Opposition and Starting Quarter Score in the outcome of elite water polo quarters.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel A; Delaserna, Ana; Lupo, Corrado; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2014-02-12

    The notational analysis is used to investigate teams' performance in water polo, especially focused on the determinants of success. Recently, a new topic has emerged "the situational variables", this term includes the game conditions that may influence the performance at a behavioural level. Then, the aim of this study was to identify the interactive effects of Starting Quarter Score (i.e., score difference at the beginning of each quarter and at the final score) and Game Location (i.e., home and away teams) in relation to Quality of Opposition (i.e., positions of difference between opposing teams at the end-of-season rankings) in elite men's water polo games. Data comprised 528 games (n = 2,112 quarters) from the first Spanish water polo division. A linear regression analysis was applied to show the impact of Starting Quarter Score and Game Location in relation to Quality of Opposition (unbalanced and balanced) for quarter (all quarters, and second, third, and forth quarter). Results showed that SQS has an important effect for all quarters (0.16), and for the second (0.14) and third (0.14) quarters in balanced games (while the fourth quarter has an unpredictable outcome), and for each quarter (all quarters: 0.33; second quarter: 0.55; third quarter: 0.44; fourth quarter: 0.26) in unbalanced games. In addition, GL effects emerged for balanced (0.31) and unbalanced (0.45) games for all quarters, and specifically for the second quarter of the unbalanced games. Therefore, this study showed the elite water polo game dynamics, indirectly providing a reference for coaches (i.e., effective tactical approach) and physical trainers (i.e., high performance intensities) plans to improve their players' performance.

  2. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  3. Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels. Quarterly report No. 2, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments have been performed to simulate the effects of high viscosity and surface tension of CWS fuel on its atomization. Aqueous solutions of glycerol simulated the high viscosity condition of CWS fuels and ethanol solutions allowed to separately investigate the effect of surface tension. A Fraunhofer diffraction particle sizing technique measured the spatial distribution of Sauter mean diameters (SMDs) for the cross injecting sprays which were previously described in the Quarterly Report No. 1. Experimentally determined parametric correlations reveals the dependence of the spray SMDs on the liquid viscosity, surface tension, the air flow rate, the liquid flow rate, the orifice nozzle diameter, and the measurement locations. This simulated correlation will provide important guidelines for the actual CWS spray experiment to be performed in the successive quarter.

  4. Effects of Game Location, Quality of Opposition, and Starting Quarter Score in the Outcome of Elite Water Polo Quarters.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Miguel Á; Serna, Ana D; Lupo, Corrado; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2016-04-01

    The notational analysis is used to investigate teams' performance in water polo, especially focused on the determinants of success. Recently, a new topic has emerged "the situational variables," which includes the game conditions that may influence the performance at a behavioral level. The aim of this study was to identify the interactive effects of starting quarter score (SQS) (i.e., score difference at the beginning of each quarter and at the final score) and game location (GL) (i.e., home and away teams) in relation to quality of opposition (i.e., positions of difference between opposing teams at the end-of-season rankings) in elite men's water polo games. Data comprised 528 games (n = 2,112 quarters) from the first Spanish water polo division. A linear regression analysis was applied to show the impact of SQS and GL in relation to quality of opposition (unbalanced and balanced) for quarter (all quarters, and second, third, and fourth quarters). Results showed that SQS has an important effect for all quarters (0.16) and for the second (0.14) and third (0.14) quarters in balanced games (whereas the fourth quarter has an unpredictable outcome), and for each quarter (all quarters: 0.33; second quarter: 0.55; third quarter: 0.44; fourth quarter: 0.26) in unbalanced games. In addition, GL effects emerged for balanced (0.31) and unbalanced (0.45) games for all quarters and specifically for the second quarter of the unbalanced games. Therefore, this study showed that the elite water polo game dynamics, indirectly providing a reference for coaches (i.e., effective tactical approach) and physical trainers (i.e., high performance intensities), plans to improve their players' performance.

  5. Identification of alkylated phosphates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric investigations with different ionization principles of a thermally aged commercial lithium ion battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Weber, Waldemar; Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Wagner, Ralf; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-05-15

    The thermal aging process of a commercial LiPF6 based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of volatile phosphorus-containing degradation products. Aging products were analyzed by GC-MS. Structure determination of the products was performed by support of chemical ionization MS in positive and negative modes. A fraction of the discovered compounds belongs to the group of fluorophosphates (phosphorofluoridates) which are in suspect of potential toxicity. This is well known for relative derivatives, e.g. diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Another fraction of the identified compounds belongs to the group of trialkyl phosphates. These compounds may provide a positive impact on the thermal and electrochemical performance of Li-based batteries as repeatedly described in the literature.

  6. Investigation of Local Environments in Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes used in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2012-04-01

    The proton conducting polymer composite membranes are of technological interest in many energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries. In particular, the polymer composite membranes such as SiO2 incorporated Nafion membranes are recently reported as highly promising for the redox flow batteries. However, there is conflicting reports regarding the performance of this Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane in the redox flow cell. This paper presents results of the analysis of the Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane used in a vanadium redox flow battery by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface. On the other hand, the 19F and 29Si NMR measurement explores the nature of the interaction between the silica particles, Nafion side chains and diffused vanadium cations. The 29Si NMR shows that the silica particles interaction via hydrogen bonds to the sulfonic groups of Nafion and diffused vanadium cations. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of the silica particles inside the Nafion membrane and their interaction with diffusing vanadium cations during flow cell operations are discussed. This study discusses the origin of performance degradation of the Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane materials in vanadium redox flow batteries.

  7. Investigation on the fly ash thermal treatment on the performance of Lithium Ferriphosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) battery

    SciTech Connect

    Febiolita, Bella; Khoirunnissak, Dewi; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-08

    Addition of the fly ash can be used to improve the capacity of LiFePO{sub 4} battery. Fly ash was added in Acethylene Black (AB) as 2% of the total weight of Acetylene Black (AB). The effects of temperature variation and fly ash characteristics were analyzed. Fly ash was prepared by heating at 50, 100, 150, and 250°C in muffle furnace for 5 hours and passed in 200 mesh screen prior to mixing it with other compounds. Lithium Ferriphospat (LiFePO{sub 4}), fly ash, Acethylene Black (AB), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to be slurry. The slurry were coated, dried and hot pressed to make a cathode film. The performance of battery lithium was examined by eight channel battery analyzer. The composition of the fly ash was examined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Fourier Tansform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The excellent performance was shown in the fly ash addition which were treated by heating at 150°C. The capacity of fly ash added LiFePO{sub 4} battery is 94.373 mAh/g, which is higher than that of without fly ash addition, i.e. 67.998 mAh/g.

  8. Investigation on the fly ash thermal treatment on the performance of Lithium Ferriphosphate (LiFePO4) battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febiolita, Bella; Khoirunnissak, Dewi; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    Addition of the fly ash can be used to improve the capacity of LiFePO4 battery. Fly ash was added in Acethylene Black (AB) as 2% of the total weight of Acetylene Black (AB). The effects of temperature variation and fly ash characteristics were analyzed. Fly ash was prepared by heating at 50, 100, 150, and 250°C in muffle furnace for 5 hours and passed in 200 mesh screen prior to mixing it with other compounds. Lithium Ferriphospat (LiFePO4), fly ash, Acethylene Black (AB), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to be slurry. The slurry were coated, dried and hot pressed to make a cathode film. The performance of battery lithium was examined by eight channel battery analyzer. The composition of the fly ash was examined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Fourier Tansform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The excellent performance was shown in the fly ash addition which were treated by heating at 150°C. The capacity of fly ash added LiFePO4 battery is 94.373 mAh/g, which is higher than that of without fly ash addition, i.e. 67.998 mAh/g.

  9. Investigation of local environments in Nafion-SiO(2) composite membranes used in vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, M; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, S; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L; Hu, Jianzhi

    2012-04-01

    Proton conducting polymer composite membranes are of technological interest in many energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries. In particular, polymer composite membranes, such as SiO(2) incorporated Nafion membranes, are recently reported as highly promising for the use in redox flow batteries. However, there is conflicting reports regarding the performance of this type of Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane in the redox flow cell. This paper presents results of the analysis of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane used in a vanadium redox flow battery by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface. On the other hand, the (19)F and (29)Si NMR measurement explores the nature of the interaction between the silica particles, Nafion side chains and diffused vanadium cations. The (29)Si NMR shows that the silica particles interact via hydrogen bonds with the sulfonic groups of Nafion and the diffused vanadium cations. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of the silica particles inside the Nafion membrane and their interaction with diffusing vanadium cations during flow cell operations are discussed. This study discusses the origin of performance degradation of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane materials in vanadium redox flow batteries.

  10. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  11. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002764.htm Button batteries To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... in the United States. Where Found These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches Symptoms If ...

  12. In situ electrochemical investigations of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of nickel-metal hydride traction batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao Guang; Liaw, Bor Yann

    Although large ampere hour nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) traction batteries are in the stage of being commercialized for electric and hybrid vehicle applications, little is known about their performance characteristics. By using a standard Hg/HgO reference electrode in a commercial Ni-MH battery, we were able to conduct in situ measurements to determine both kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the system, including the characteristics of individual electrodes. Using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), we simultaneously and effectively determined the open-circuit voltage of the battery, the equilibrium electrode potentials, and the diffusion coefficient of proton and hydrogen in the nickel and metal hydride electrode, respectively, as a function of the states of charge (SOC). Using the current-step excitation technique, we found that the internal resistance of the battery primarily comes from the metal hydride electrode, which is greater by one order of magnitude than that of the Ni electrode. The cyclic linear micro-polarization experiments, on the other hand, showed that the charge-transfer resistance of the electrochemical reaction at the metal hydride electrode is about twice larger than that of the Ni counterpart above 20% SOC. In comparison, the internal resistance is an order of magnitude smaller than those of the electrochemical charge-transfer reactions. The micro-polarization technique also allowed us to calculate the exchange current densities of the respective electrode electrochemical reactions and the associated specific exchange current densities. These in situ, simple but detailed, characterizations of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the Ni-MH system provided valuable information for better understanding of the battery performance.

  13. 6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior of quarters (executive officer's quarters), living room, looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  14. 1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. North side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  15. 5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  16. 4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  17. 2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  18. 3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest side of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Quarters S, Essex Street, .45 mile South-Southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  19. Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  20. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  1. Degradation of all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) investigated by electrochemical impedance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Part 2 electrochemical degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derr, Igor; Bruns, Michael; Langner, Joachim; Fetyan, Abdulmonem; Melke, Julia; Roth, Christina

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical degradation (ED) of carbon felt electrodes was investigated by cycling of a flow through all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) and conducting half-cell measurements with two reference electrodes inside the test bench. ED was detected using half-cell and full-cell electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different states of charge (SOC). Reversing the polarity of the battery to recover cell performance was performed with little success. Renewing the electrolyte after a certain amount of cycles restored the capacity of the battery. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that the amount of surface functional increases by more than a factor of 3 for the negative side as well as for the positive side. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show a peeling of the fiber surface after cycling the felts, which leads to a loss of electrochemically active surface area (ECSA). Long term cycling shows that ED has a stronger impact on the negative half-cell [V(II)/V(III)] than the positive half-cell [V(IV)/V(V)] and that the negative half-cell is the rate-determining half-cell for the VRFB.

  2. [Investigating genes-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric diseases: an approach using a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice].

    PubMed

    Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    We have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.

  3. Investigating gene-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric disorders: the use of a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2006-11-01

    We have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.

  4. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  5. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  6. Atomic to Nanoscale Investigation of Functionalities of Al2O3 Coating Layer on Cathode for Enhanced Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Amine, Khalil; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2016-01-06

    Surface coating of cathode has been identified as an effective approach for enhancing the capacity retention of layered structure cathode. However, the underlying operating mechanism of such a thin layer of coating, in terms of surface chemical functionality and capacity retention, remains unclear. In this work, we use aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and high efficient spectroscopy to probe the delicate functioning mechanism of Al2O3 coating layer on Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 cathode. We discovered that in terms of surface chemical function, the Al2O3 coating suppresses the side reaction between cathode and the electrolyte upon the battery cycling. At the same time, the Al2O3 coating layer also eliminates the chemical reduction of Mn from the cathode particle surface, therefore avoiding the dissolution of the reduced Mn into the electrolyte. In terms of structural stability, we found that the Al2O3 coating layer can mitigate the layer to spinel phase transformation, which otherwise will initiate from the particle surface and propagate towards the interior of the particle with the progression of the battery cycling. The atomic to nanoscale effects of the coating layer observed here provide insight for optimized design of coating layer on cathode to enhance the battery properties.

  7. Polyacene (PAS) batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yata, Shizukuni

    1995-12-31

    Human activity has been recognized to seriously influence the earth`s environment. Therefore, a clean battery with long-life and safe-use is important and its demand has increased at present. Of the ``clean`` batteries proposed, polymer batteries are the best candidate for environment-friendly and highly-reliable because they do not contain a toxic heavy metal such as cadmium and mercury. The author has developed polyacenic semiconductor (PAS) materials prepared from pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. PAS is a conductive polymer which can be doped to either P-type or N-type quite successfully and is extremely resistant to oxidation, chemicals and heat. Because PAS can be doped with both electron acceptors and donors, it is possible to design an all polymer battery using PAS for both electrodes. By taking advantage of stability of PAS, PAS battery can embody greater and longer-lasting reliability than conventional secondary batteries. Usually, lithium metal, which is used in the lithium secondary batteries for an anode-active material, makes dendrites during charging/discharging cycles, which limits the life of the batteries to a few dozen cycles. Furthermore, the dendrites of lithium metal have a safety problem because of its reactivity with water. An investigation of a new anode-material aiming to replace the lithium metal with another safety electrode, is one of the major trend, in secondary batteries. In this paper, the author first describes the structure and the properties of the PAS material, and second its application as an electrode material for rechargeable batteries.

  8. English Leadership Quarterly. 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent the quarterly for 1991. Articles in number 1 deal with whole language and include: "CEL: Shorter and Better" (Myles D. Eley); "Toward a New Philosophy of Language Learning" (Kathleen Strickland); "Whole Language: Implications for Secondary Classrooms"…

  9. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1990. Articles in number 1 deal with student teachers and include: "Student Teaching: Smoothing Out the Rough Spots" (Susan B. Argyle and Fred C. Feitler); "A Partnership for Urban Student…

  10. CSSEDC Quarterly. 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    These four issues of the CSSEDC Quarterly (Conference for Secondary School English Department Chairpersons) represent the quarterly for 1989. Articles in number 1 deal with professional development, and include: "Sharing Expertise within a Department" (Martha R. Dolly); "Empowerment Develops a Computer Writing Center" (Norman…

  11. An investigation of zincite from spent anodic portions of alkaline batteries: An industrial mineral approach for evaluating stock material for recycling potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Heather A.; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    The mineralogy of anodic portions of spent alkaline batteries from a leading brand (Duracell) that had been equilibrated in ambient air for approximately 4 months was investigated to determine if material generated from this low energy process may be suitable stock material for recycling. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified the bulk of the ambient air oxidized anodic material as zincite (ZnO). Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures of zincite are present with euhedral hexagonal prisms being the most common crystal form. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicates that there are no minor amounts of Mn within the zincite. Transmission electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures exist in the <2 μm size fraction including near euhedral prismatic crystals, crystals with step-fashion terminations and indentations, heavily corroded zincite and near amorphous aggregates of anastomozing zinc oxide. Impurities in the <2 μm size fraction include minor amounts of unidentified mixed sulfate materials and are interpreted as dominantly occurring as thin coatings on zincite particles. Discrete submicrometer-sized spherical and rhomboid particles of Zn-Mn oxides are also common impurities in the <2 μm size fraction but occurr at abundance of <1% by volume. This study provides new baseline information that can be used to develop large scale recycling of zincite from spent alkaline batteries. A promising applications of zincite are numerous, including the development of new solar cell materials. The spent alkaline battery waste stream may serve as promising resource for driving further development of this sector of the economy.

  12. 4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Northeast corner of quarters (executive officer's quarters), looking onto Quarter R (commanding officer's quarters), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  13. Thermal aging of electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries - An investigation of the impact of protic impurities and different housing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Patricia; Fauler, Gisela; Kapper, Katja; Schmuck, Martin; Stangl, Christoph; Fischer, Roland; Uhlig, Frank; Koller, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Thermal degradation products in lithium-ion batteries result mainly from hydrolysis sensitivity of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). As organic carbonate solvents contain traces of protic impurities, the thermal decomposition of electrolytes is enhanced. Therefore, resulting degradation products are studied with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrolyte contains 1 M LiPF6 in a binary mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) in a ratio of 1:2 (v/v) and is aged at ambient and elevated temperature. The impact of protic impurities, either added as deionized water or incorporated in positive electrode material, upon aging is investigated. Further, the influence of different housing materials on the electrolyte degradation is shown. Difluorophosphoric acid is identified as main decomposition product by NMR-spectroscopy. Traces of other decomposition products are determined by headspace GC-MS. Acid-base and coulometric titration are used to determine the total amount of acid and water content upon aging, respectively. The aim of this investigation is to achieve profound understanding about the thermal decomposition of one most common used electrolyte in a battery-like housing material.

  14. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  15. Investigation of flushing and clean-out methods for refrigeration equipment to ensure system compatibility. Quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1994--December 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    Integral Sciences Incorporated is engaged in Part 2 of ARTI Contract No. 660-52502 assessing methods for removing residual mineral oil during retrofits of refrigeration systems. Part 2 focuses on a low side oil separator technique for removing mineral oil from systems being retrofitted to use HFC-134a. The method appears less expensive than the current practice of three lubricant changes with polyolester and may effect an accelerated transition to HFC`s. Testing and method verification has been performed using a refrigeration system located at ISI`s facility. Two HFC-134a field retrofits employing this method will be implemented during the first quarter of 1995. A third and final field retrofit will also be performed to evaluate the advanced method in an R-502 conversion.

  16. Investigation of test methods material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Fifteenth quarterly progress report, November 12, 1979-February 12, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1980-03-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Work performed during this quarter included the development of anti-blocking treatments for EVA sheet intended for use as a lamination pottant. Initial evaluation studies were begun on a new pottant compound, polybutyl acrylate, to assess its preparation and handling characteristics. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test wre conducted to determine the degree of protection afforded to a number of metals when encapsulated in candidate pottant compounds. Pottants and outer cover candidates were exposed to intervals of accelerated uv stress aging using the RS/4 fluorescent sunlamp. Results are discussed. (WHK)

  17. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; ...

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants aremore » 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.« less

  18. Structural investigation of SiSn/(reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposite powder for Li-ion battery anode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Laokawee, Viratchara; Sarakonsri, Thapanee; Hashizume, Takashi; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    We synthesized SiSn/(reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) nanocomposite powder for a Li-ion battery material and characterized the structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Graphene oxide was prepared by Hummers method. The graphene oxide powder processed by heat treatment was added together with Si powder into a solution of SnCl2 ṡ 2(H2O) dissolved in N2 bubbled ethylene glycol, and the solution was reacted with NaBH4. The product had a nominal atomic ratio of Si: Sn: C = 14: 3.5: 100. High-resolution TEM/STEM analysis revealed that the powder consisted of crystalline particles of Sn, Si, and SiO as well as thin reduced graphene oxide (rGO) lamellae of amorphous-like graphite with distorted lattices that were often found in areas as local as a few nm2. The aggregated Si and SiO particles grew up to several hundred nm across. Sn particles grew as large as a few tens of nm while those as small as a few nm were scattered on the (0001) rGO surface with some epitaxial relations. Si, SiO, and Sn particles were found hanging on at the edges of the rGO lamellae. An electrochemical test was performed for this nanocomposite powder. The result suggested that the SiSn/rGO powder would be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity.

  19. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  20. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  1. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-02-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  2. Computational and Experimental Investigation of Ti Substitution in Li1(NixMnxCo1-2x-yTiy)O2 for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Markus, Isaac M; Lin, Feng; Kam, Kinson C; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M

    2014-11-06

    Aliovalent substitutions in layered transition-metal cathode materials has been demonstrated to improve the energy densities of lithium ion batteries, with the mechanisms underlying such effects incompletely understood. Performance enhancement associated with Ti substitution of Co in the cathode material Li1(NixMnxCo1-2x)O2 were investigated using density functional theory calculations, including Hubbard-U corrections. An examination of the structural and electronic modifications revealed that Ti substitution reduces the structural distortions occurring during delithiation due to the larger cation radius of Ti(4+) relative to Co(3+) and the presence of an electron polaron on Mn cations induced by aliovalent Ti substitution. The structural differences were found to correlate with a decrease in the lithium intercalation voltage at lower lithium concentrations, which is consistent with quasi-equilibrium voltages obtained by integrating data from stepped potential experiments. Further, Ti is found to suppress the formation of a secondary rock salt phase at high voltage. Our results provide insights into how selective substitutions can enhance the performance of cathodes, maximizing the energy density and lifetime of current Li ion batteries.

  3. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  4. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  5. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  6. Kinetic investigation of catalytic disproportionation of superoxide ions in the non-aqueous electrolyte used in Li–air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Dong; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2014-10-28

    Superoxide reacts with carbonate solvents in Li–air batteries. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is found to catalyze a more rapid superoxide (O2-) disproportionation reaction than the reaction between superoxide and propylene carbonate (PC). With this catalysis, the negative impact of the reaction between the electrolyte and O2-produced by the O2 reduction can be minimized. A simple kinetic study using ESR spectroscopy was reported to determine reaction orders and rate constants for the reaction between PC and superoxide, and the disproportionation of superoxide catalyzed by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and Li ions. As a result, the reactions are found to be first order and the rate constants are 0.033 s-1 M-1, 0.020 s-1 M-1and 0.67 s-1M-1 for reactions with PC, Li ion and Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, respectively.

  7. Investigations on transfer of water and vanadium ions across Nafion membrane in an operating vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chenxi; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Huamin; Han, Xi; Luo, Qingtao

    Diffusion coefficients of the vanadium ions across Nafion 115 (Dupont) in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) are measured and found to be in the order of V 2+ > VO 2+ > VO 2 + > V 3+. It is found that both in self-discharge process and charge-discharge cycles, the concentration difference of vanadium ions between the positive electrolyte (+ve) and negative electrolyte (-ve) is the main reason causing the transfer of vanadium ions across the membrane. In self-discharge process, the transfer of water includes the transfer of vanadium ions with the bound water and the corresponding transfer of protons with the dragged water to balance the charges, and the transfer of water driven by osmosis. In this case, about 75% of the net transfer of water is caused by osmosis. In charge-discharge cycles, except those as mentioned in the case of self-discharge, the transfer of protons with the dragged water across the membrane during the electrode reaction for the formation of internal electric circuit plays the key role in the water transfer. But in the long-term cycles of charge-discharge, the net transfer of water towards +ve is caused by the transfer of vanadium ions with the bound water and the transfer of water driven by osmosis.

  8. Co3O4 negative electrode material for rechargeable sodium ion batteries: An investigation of conversion reaction mechanism and morphology-performances correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Fiore, Michele; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Do Kyung; Mari, Claudio M.; Ruffo, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Transition metal oxides have recently aroused a renewed and increasing interest as conversion anode materials for sodium ion batteries. Being their electrochemical performances strongly dependent on morphological aspects, has been here proposed a straightforward approach to modulate morphological characteristics of a transition metal oxide (Co3O4) using a low cost synthetic route. The as obtained optimized morphology allows the realization of high practical specific capacities, higher than 500 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and represents a valid candidate for further optimization. In addition to the morphology-performance correlations, the reaction mechanism beyond the electrochemical behavior was also investigated revealing the role of the CoO phase in the charge/discharge process. Finally, an electrode pre-sodiation treatment for conversion materials is presented: it has been indeed demonstrated that it sensibly decreases the irreversible capacity correlated to the first cycle and improves cycle ability.

  9. Investigation of the Decomposition Mechanism of Lithium Bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) Salt in the Electrolyte of an Aprotic Li–O2 Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Kah Chun; Lu, Jun; Low, John; Peng, Du; Wu, Huiming; Albishri, Hassan M.; Al-Hady, D. Abd; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2014-03-13

    The stability of the lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) salt against lithium peroxide (Li2O2) formation in an aprotic Li–O2 (Li–air) battery is investigated. From theoretical and experimental findings, we find that the chemical decomposition of LiBOB in electrolytes leads to the formation lithium oxalate during the discharge of a Li–O2 cell. According to density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the formation of lithium oxalate as the reaction product is exothermic and therefore is thermodynamically feasible. This reaction seems to be independent of solvents used in the Li–O2 cell, and therefore LiBOB is probably not suitable to be used as the salt in Li–O2 cell electrolytes.

  10. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  11. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 37 - Part 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    This volume contains detailed experimental data to accompany quarterly report, dated July 14, 1992, by this group entitled ``Investigation of Effects of 60-Hz Electric Fields on Operant and Social Behavior and on the Neuroendocrine System of Nonhuman Primates.`` This volume is a collection of Appendices which are entitled: Appendix A- Field Mapping Data Forms, Appendix B- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix C- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix D- Sham Area (West Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix E- Memoranda Concerning Field Onset During Experiment IV and the Crossover Experiment, Appendix F- Exposure Area (East Side) Electric Field Data, Appendix G- Exposure Area (East Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix H- Sham Area (west Side) Magnetic Field Data, Appendix I- Compiled Data and Anovas for Experiment III Social Data, Appendix J -Written Comments Provided by Statistician Dr. Robert Mason, and Appendix K- Reference Text Provided by Dr. Coelho.

  12. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  13. Analytical investigation of AlCl[3]/SO[2]Cl[2] catholyte materials for secondary fuze reserve batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Paul Charles; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Segall, Judith M.; Malizia, Louis A., Jr.; Cherry, Brian Ray; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Clark, Nancy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Ingersoll, David T.; Tallant, David Robert; Simpson, Regina Lynn; Boyle, Timothy J.; Garcia, Manuel Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Exploration of the fundamental chemical behavior of the AlCl{sub 3}/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} catholyte system for the ARDEC Self-Destruct Fuze Reserve Battery Project under accelerated aging conditions was completed using a variety of analytical tools. Four different molecular species were identified in this solution, three of which are major. The relative concentrations of the molecular species formed were found to depend on aging time, initial concentrations, and storage temperature, with each variable affecting the kinetics and thermodynamics of this complex reaction system. We also evaluated the effect of water on the system, and determined that it does not play a role in dictating the observed molecular species present in solution. The first Al-containing species formed was identified as the dimer [Al({mu}-Cl)Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2}, and was found to be in equilibrium with the monomer, AlCl{sub 3}. The second species formed in the reaction scheme was identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies as [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-O{sub 2}SCl)]{sub 2} (I), a scrambled AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot}SO{sub 2} adduct. The SO{sub 2}(g) present, as well as CL{sub 2}(g), was formed through decomposition of SO{sub 2}CL{sub 2}. The SO{sub 2}(g) generated was readily consumed by AlCl{sub 3} to form the adduct 1 which was experimentally verified when 1 was also isolated from the reaction of SO{sub 2}(g) and AlCl {sub 3}. The third species found was tentatively identified as a compound having the general formula {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}. This was based on {sup 27}Al NMR data that revealed a species with tetrahedrally coordinated Al metal centers with increased oxygen coordination and the fact that the precipitate, or gel, that forms over time was shown by Raman spectroscopic studies to possess a component that is consistent with SOCl{sub 2}. The precursor to the precipitate should have similar constituents, thus the assignment of {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2

  14. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  15. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2, Field investigations. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In this quarter, activity focused on the placement of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) grout into auger holes at the Sunny Ridge Mining Co. site. As discussed in previous reports, the grout was prepared using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-product obtained from the Costain Coal Company. The grout was thoroughly mixed with water and transferred to a concrete pumping truck. The nozzle on the pumper truck was attached to PVC pipe through which the grout was pumped into the auger holes. The first field test involved the placement of a very high slump, flowable grout into auger holes sing a simple, earthern bulkhead. These tests were conducted to explore the flowability of the grout. The second series of test was conducted with a lower-slump, higher-viscosity material pumped at high pressure and using sandbags as a bulkhead. The goal of these tests was to examine the feasibility of pressure grouting to completely fill auger holes with a material that will exhibit high long-term strength because of this low initial water content. Although there were many problems encountered during the field demonstration, these initial tests were, overall, successful. It was shown that a high-slump grout can be pumped the length of the auger holes, and can be successfully placed in holes containing standing water. Furthermore, this can be accomplished using available concrete emplacement equipment. In contrast, the pressure grouting proved more challenging than emplacement of the flowable grout mainly because of pipe-joint failures and difficulties in working the stiff, high-viscosity grout; the amount of water added to the mix is critical when placing this type of material. Cylinders of grout for compressive strength testing were prepared during field demonstration, and cores of the in situ hardened grout will be recovered after a minimum of 30 days. Additional field demonstration will focus on improving the procedure for placement of the flowable grout.

  16. Investigation of the impurity tolerance of semicrystalline silicon solar cells silicon impact program. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Storti, G; Regnault, W; Johnson, S; Lin, H C; Armstrong, R W

    1980-01-01

    Design modifications were made to incorporate thermocouples into the polysilicon casting furnace to allow for the constant monitoring of the temperature profile during the casting process. A source of metallurgical grade (MG) silicon was chosen and the material was prepared by grinding the large pieces into powder. The uniformity of the feedstock was ascertained by optical emission spectrograph analysis of three random samples of the feedstock. A total of sixteen casting runs were made this quarter; Union Carbide CMG graphite was found to be the most suitable crucible material. Solar cells were fabricated from the successful castings (five 100% SG, and two containing 1% and 5% MG silicon, respectively). The average efficiency from the first SG ingot was 10.4% AM0 (in excess of 12% AM1). In general, solar cells fabricated from the top and bottom of the ingots exhibited better overall characteristics. The addition of MG silicon to the casting caused a large degradation in both light and dark I-V characteristics. The dark current tended to be dominated almost entirely by the space-charge component in these castings. A new method was developed which eliminates temperature scanning in DLTS measurements by incorporating a spectrum analyzer into the system; results are in good agreement with published data. Efforts were directed toward decreasing the spot size of the scanning photoresponse system from 60 ..mu..m to 5 ..mu..m. Successful scans were made on a single crystal cell having a large shunt resistance. Electron channelling patterns were obtained for all crystallographic directions in polysilicon material and were assembled into a composite (001)-(111) standard triangle; measurement results are presented. Preliminary x-ray topographs were obtained for grains 1 and 2 in solar cell 1-1 using the asymmetrical crystal topography technique; results are discussed.

  17. Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents. The sulfation experiments indicated that 100% conversion of ceria could be attained. Activation energy for the sulfation reaction was found to be 19 kJ/mol. The rate of sulfation reaction is first order with respect to SO{sub 2} and solid reactant concentrations. For regeneration with hydrogen, the activation energy and the reaction order with respect to hydrogen was found to be 114 kJ/mol and 0.56, respectively. The ceria sorbent preserved its activity and structural stability after 6 cycles. The information obtained from these studies will be used to develop models for reactor-regenerator configurations. Subsequently, the SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal facility will be integrated into the power production process using a commercial process simulation software. In this quarter of the project, the main focus was on the performance of the experimental program for the regeneration of the ceria sorbent by hydrogen and evaluation of experimental results.

  18. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  19. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Suplido, M.L.; Ong, C.N.

    2000-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socio-economic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers when compared to radiator workers and unexposed adults. Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 {micro}g/dL for males and 30 {micro}g/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels compared to radiator shop children and unexposed children. For workers with PbB > 40 {micro}g/dL, 90% were anemic. Linear regression showed a correlation between Hb level and log{sub 10}PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children. The authors conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children.

  20. Trustee Quarterly, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sally, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" focus on current topics affecting community college trustees. Issue 1 focuses on the learning revolution and serves as a guide for community college trustees. It offers the following feature articles by Terry O'Banion: "Education Reform: Two Waves,""The Second Wave and the Community…

  1. Trustee Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The four issues of "Trustee Quarterly" combined here focus on topics of current concern to community college trustees. The winter 1994 issues offers these feature articles: "Honoring Retiring Presidents," by Terry O'Banion; "Trustees as Reluctant Leaders: The Board/CEO Relationship," Norma Jean Germond, John Keyser, and Vaughn A. Sherman; and…

  2. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  3. English Leadership Quarterly, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.; Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 16, published during 1994. Articles in number 1 deal with practical advice, and include: "The Law of Privacy and the Writing Teacher" (Ben T. Allen); Beware of Teachers Who Laminate Their Lesson Plans and Other Useful Suggestions about Teaching" (Robert Perrin);…

  4. English Leadership Quarterly, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1992. Articles in number 1 deal with testing assessing, and measuring student performance, and include: "Real Evaluation: Portfolios as an Effective Alternative to Standardized Testing" (Kate Kiefer); "No More Objective Tests, Ever" (Carol…

  5. English Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 17, published during 1995. Articles in number 1 deal with multicultural and multiethnic literature, and are, as follows: "Guidelines for Selecting European Ethnic Literature for Interdisciplinary Courses" (Sandra Stotsky); "Striving for Kinship within Diverse Communities" (Peter…

  6. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates: Neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV. Quarterly report No. 38

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    This quarterly report covers the neuroendocrine Portion of Experiment IV. Serum melatonin concentration was measured in individual baboons, each implanted with a chronically indwelling venous cannula. As in Experiment III the system of six automatic blood samplers was used to achieve undisturbed, 24 hr per day, simultaneous blood sampling from six individual subjects. The objective of the neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV was to determine if 30 kV/m electric and 1.0 G magnetic field (E/MF) exposure produced a 50% decline in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration. Other groups of subjects were tested concurrently during Experiment IV to assess E/MF effects on group social and individual operant behavior. The results of these experiments will be covered respectively in the next two quarterly reports. The results of Experiment IV, as was the case with the result of Experiments III and IIIA, provide little or no evidence that E/MF exposure, under the conditions of these experiments, affects nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations of nonhuman primates. Together the negative results of Experiments III, IIA and IV indicate that day-time exposure of primates to slow-onset/offset, regularly-scheduled E/MF does not produce melatonin suppression, strongly suggesting that such exposure would not affect human melatonin either. However, before concluding that E/MF exposure in general has no effect on primate melatonin, nightime exposure needs to be examined, and the possibility, suggested by the Pilot Experiment, that fast onset/offset, irregularly-scheduled E/MF can completely suppress melatonin needs to be investigated.

  7. Ion and gas chromatography mass spectrometry investigations of organophosphates in lithium ion battery electrolytes by electrochemical aging at elevated cathode potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Waldemar; Wagner, Ralf; Streipert, Benjamin; Kraft, Vadim; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical aging of commercial non-aqueous lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)/organic carbonate solvent based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of ionic and non-ionic alkylated phosphates. Subject was a solvent mixture of ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate EC:EMC (1:1, by wt.) with 1 M LiPF6 (LP50 Selectilyte™, BASF). The analysis was carried out by ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for ionic compounds and (headspace) gas chromatography mass spectrometry ((HS)-GC-MS) for non-ionic compounds. The electrochemical aging was performed by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and potentiostatic experiments with LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO) as cathode material at increased cut-off potentials (>4.5 V vs. Li/Li+). A strong dependence of the formation of organophosphates on the applied electrode potential was observed and investigated by quantitative analysis of the formed phosphates. In addition, new possible "fingerprint" compounds for describing the electrolyte status were investigated and compared to existing compounds.

  8. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  9. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  12. Automatic Tuning Matching Cycler (ATMC) in situ NMR spectroscopy as a novel approach for real-time investigations of Li- and Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Pecher, Oliver; Bayley, Paul M; Liu, Hao; Liu, Zigeng; Trease, Nicole M; Grey, Clare P

    2016-04-01

    We have developed and explored the use of a new Automatic Tuning Matching Cycler (ATMC) in situ NMR probe system to track the formation of intermediate phases and investigate electrolyte decomposition during electrochemical cycling of Li- and Na-ion batteries (LIBs and NIBs). The new approach addresses many of the issues arising during in situ NMR, e.g., significantly different shifts of the multi-component samples, changing sample conditions (such as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity) during cycling, signal broadening due to paramagnetism as well as interferences between the NMR and external cycler circuit that might impair the experiments. We provide practical insight into how to conduct ATMC in situ NMR experiments and discuss applications of the methodology to LiFePO4 (LFP) and Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathodes as well as Na metal anodes. Automatic frequency sweep (7)Li in situ NMR reveals significant changes of the strongly paramagnetic broadened LFP line shape in agreement with the structural changes due to delithiation. Additionally, (31)P in situ NMR shows a full separation of the electrolyte and cathode NMR signals and is a key feature for a deeper understanding of the processes occurring during charge/discharge on the local atomic scale of NMR. (31)P in situ NMR with "on-the-fly" re-calibrated, varying carrier frequencies on Na3V2(PO4)2F3 as a cathode in a NIB enabled the detection of different P signals within a huge frequency range of 4000 ppm. The experiments show a significant shift and changes in the number as well as intensities of (31)P signals during desodiation/sodiation of the cathode. The in situ experiments reveal changes of local P environments that in part have not been seen in ex situ NMR investigations. Furthermore, we applied ATMC (23)Na in situ NMR on symmetrical Na-Na cells during galvanostatic plating. An automatic adjustment of the NMR carrier frequency during the in situ experiment ensured on-resonance conditions for the Na metal and

  13. Automatic Tuning Matching Cycler (ATMC) in situ NMR spectroscopy as a novel approach for real-time investigations of Li- and Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecher, Oliver; Bayley, Paul M.; Liu, Hao; Liu, Zigeng; Trease, Nicole M.; Grey, Clare P.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed and explored the use of a new Automatic Tuning Matching Cycler (ATMC) in situ NMR probe system to track the formation of intermediate phases and investigate electrolyte decomposition during electrochemical cycling of Li- and Na-ion batteries (LIBs and NIBs). The new approach addresses many of the issues arising during in situ NMR, e.g., significantly different shifts of the multi-component samples, changing sample conditions (such as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity) during cycling, signal broadening due to paramagnetism as well as interferences between the NMR and external cycler circuit that might impair the experiments. We provide practical insight into how to conduct ATMC in situ NMR experiments and discuss applications of the methodology to LiFePO4 (LFP) and Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathodes as well as Na metal anodes. Automatic frequency sweep 7Li in situ NMR reveals significant changes of the strongly paramagnetic broadened LFP line shape in agreement with the structural changes due to delithiation. Additionally, 31P in situ NMR shows a full separation of the electrolyte and cathode NMR signals and is a key feature for a deeper understanding of the processes occurring during charge/discharge on the local atomic scale of NMR. 31P in situ NMR with "on-the-fly" re-calibrated, varying carrier frequencies on Na3V2(PO4)2F3 as a cathode in a NIB enabled the detection of different P signals within a huge frequency range of 4000 ppm. The experiments show a significant shift and changes in the number as well as intensities of 31P signals during desodiation/sodiation of the cathode. The in situ experiments reveal changes of local P environments that in part have not been seen in ex situ NMR investigations. Furthermore, we applied ATMC 23Na in situ NMR on symmetrical Na-Na cells during galvanostatic plating. An automatic adjustment of the NMR carrier frequency during the in situ experiment ensured on-resonance conditions for the Na metal and

  14. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  15. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  16. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  17. Close Quarters Combat Shooting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    1994.at the Palm Beach Community College Criminal Justice Institute ofLakeworth, Florida to the more dynamic force-on-force, realistic scenario...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC...Shooting is the Superior Method for Close Quarters Combat 5b. GRANT NUMBER Shooting" N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR( S ) Sd. PROJECT

  18. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  19. Investigation on preparation and performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with different microstructures for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuan; Wang, Zhenbo; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Fuda; Liu, Baosheng; Zhang, Yin; Ke, Ke

    2015-08-24

    The high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is a promising cathode material in next generation of lithium ion batteries. In this study, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with various particle microstructures are prepared by controlling the microstructures of precursors. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel samples with solid, hollow and hierarchical microstructures are prepared with solid MnCO3, hollow MnO2 and hierarchical Mn2O3 as precursor, respectively. The homemade spinel materials are investigated and the results show that the content of Mn(3+) and impurity phase differ much in these three spinel samples obtained under the same calcining and annealing conditions. It is revealed for the first time that an inhomogeneous migration of atoms may introduce Mn(3+) and impurity phase in the spinel. The hierarchical microstructure with the primary particles interconnected is optimal for electrode materials because this microstructure has a higher conductivity between the interconnected primary particles and appropriate specific surface area. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 in this microstructure has the best rate capability and also the best long-term cycling stability.

  20. Experimental investigation and simulation of temperature distributions in a 16Ah-LiMnNiCoO2 battery during rapid discharge rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, S.; Dincer, I.; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Fraser, R.; Fowler, M.

    2017-03-01

    It is very important to have quantitative data regarding the temperature distributions of lithium-ion batteries at different discharge rates in order to design thermal management systems and also for battery thermal modellers. In this paper, the surface temperature distributions on a superior lithium polymer battery (SLPB) with lithium manganese nickel cobalt oxide (LiMnNiCoO2) cathode material (16 Ah capacity) at C/8, C/4, C/2, 1C, 2C, and 3C discharge rates are presented. Additionally, a battery thermal model is developed for this battery using a neural network approach with the Bayesian Regularization method and the simulated results are compared with experimental results in terms of temperature and voltage profiles at C/8, C/4, C/2, 1C, 2C, and 3C discharge rates. Thermal images, which were also captured during experiments with an IR camera at various discharge rates, and are reported in the paper. The results of this study show that the increased discharge rates between C/8 and 3C results in increased surface temperature distributions on the principal surface of the battery and decreased discharge capacity.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  2. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  3. Investigations on Zr incorporation into Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Bin; Zhou, Ying-Xian; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Yang, Xue-Lin; Cao, Xing-Zhong; Arave, Hanu; Fang, Hui; Liang, Gan

    2017-02-15

    Li3V2(PO4)3/C (LVP/C) composites have been modified by different ways of Zr-incorporation via ultrasonic-assisted solid-state reaction. The difference in the effect on the physicochemical properties and the electrochemical performance of LVP between Zr-doping and ZrO2-coating has also been investigated. Compared with pristine LVP/C, Zr-incorporated LVP/C composites exhibit better rate capability and cycling stability. In particular, the LVP/C-Zr electrode delivers the highest initial capacity of 150.4 mA h g(-1) at 10C with a capacity retention ratio of 88.4% after 100 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performance of Zr-incorporated LVP/C samples (LVZrP/C and LVP/C-Zr) is attributed to the increased ionic conductivity and electronic conductivity, the improved stability of the LVP structure, and the decreased charge-transfer resistance.

  4. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  5. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  6. Systematic investigation on Cadmium-incorporation in Li₂FeSiO₄/C cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Lu; Duan, Song; Yang, Xue-Lin; Liang, Gan; Huang, Yun-Hui; Cao, Xing-Zhong; Yang, Jing; Ni, Shi-Bing; Li, Ming

    2014-05-27

    Cadmium-incorporated Li2FeSiO4/C composites have been successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction assisted with refluxing. The effect and mechanism of Cd-modification on the electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4/C were investigated in detail by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening spectrum, and electrochemical measurements. The results show that Cd not only exists in an amorphous state of CdO on the surface of LFS particles, but also enters into the crystal lattice of LFS. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening spectrum analyses verify that Cd-incorporation increases the defect concentration and the electronic conductivity of LFS, thus improve the Li(+)-ion diffusion process. Furthermore, our electrochemical measurements verify that an appropriate amount of Cd-incorporation can achieve a satisfied electrochemical performance for LFS/C cathode material.

  7. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  8. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  9. Investigation of battery-charged-capacitor pulsed-power systems for electromagnetic-launcher experiments. Final report, Jan 90-Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Cornette, J.B.

    1992-02-01

    Candidate pulsed power systems for electromagnetic launchers constitute two broad categories: rotating machinery and non-rotating devices. Rotating machinery for this purpose is under development at several industrial and educational institutions around the world. Non-rotating hardware includes capacitors, batteries, and inductors. These, too, are the subject of research programs, but as yet, are much larger than rotating supplies of equal power and energy capability. In 1988, system studies identified several attractive pulsed power systems for electromagnetic launchers. Battery charged capacitor pulsed power systems were among those identified as promising for electromagnetic launcher systems. The basic equations governing the battery charging capacitor sequence, and the capacitor discharge into an electromagnetic launcher are the subject of this report. A battery charged capacitor system powering an electromagnetic launcher has also been built and tested. This experiment not only validates the system concept with presently available hardware, but can be used to establish a baseline for evaluation of future systems when technology in capacitor and battery power and energy densities improve.

  10. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  11. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, July 1, 1996--September 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J.

    1996-11-06

    The overall objective of this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. This information is important to the utility industry in anticipation of pending regulations. During Phase I, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed, built and integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to and mercury concentration measurements will be made to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase II effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale.

  12. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly report, November 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.

    1996-02-05

    The overall objective to this two phase program is to investigate dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. During Phase I, a bench-scale field test device that can simulate an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse will be designed and integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at Public Service Company of Colorado`s (PSCo`s) Comanche station. Various sorbents will then be injected to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each. During Phase II effort, component integration of the most promising technologies shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale. The primary task currently underway is the facility design. The design is expected to be finished in January, 1996. The facility, regardless of the particulate control module configuration, will be fitted with supply line injection port, through which mercury sorbents and SO{sub 2} control sorbents can be added to the flue gas stream.

  13. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  14. Investigation of the Li-S Battery Mechanism by Real-Time Monitoring of the Changes of Sulfur and Polysulfide Species during the Discharge and Charge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Liu, Dan; Harris, Joshua B; Ding, Tianyao; Si, Jingyu; Andrew, Sergei; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2017-02-08

    The mechanism of the sulfur cathode in Li-S batteries has been proposed. It was revealed by the real-time quantitative determination of polysulfide species and elemental sulfur by means of high-performance liquid chromatography in the course of the discharge and recharge of a Li-S battery. A three-step reduction mechanism including two chemical equilibrium reactions was proposed for the sulfur cathode discharge. The typical two-plateau discharge curve for the sulfur cathode can be explained. A two-step oxidation mechanism for Li2S and Li2S2 with a single chemical equilibrium among soluble polysulfide ions was proposed. The chemical equilibrium among S5(2-), S6(2-), S7(2-), and S8(2-) throughout the entire oxidation process resulted for a single flat recharge curve in Li-S batteries.

  15. Investigation of the Li–S Battery Mechanism by Real-Time Monitoring of the Changes of Sulfur and Polysulfide Species during the Discharge and Charge

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Dong; Liu, Dan; Harris, Joshua B.; ...

    2016-09-09

    The mechanism of the sulfur cathode in Li-S batteries has been proposed. It was revealed by the real-time quantitative determination of polysulfide species and elemental sulfur by means of the high performance liquid chromatography in the course of the discharge and recharge of a Li-S battery. A three-step reduction mechanism including two chemical equilibrium reactions was proposed for the sulfur cathode discharge. The typical two-plateau discharge curve for sulfur cathode can be explained. A two-step oxidation mechanism for the Li2S and Li2S2 with a single chemical equilibrium among soluble polysulfide ions was proposed. In conclusion, the chemical equilibrium among S52-,more » S62-, S72- and S82- throughout the entire oxidation process resulted for the single flat recharge curve in Li-S batteries.« less

  16. Investigation of nano-CeO2 contents on the properties of polymer ceramic separator for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xueyi; Liao, Youhao; Zhu, Yunmin; Li, Minsui; Chen, Fangbing; Huang, Qiming; Li, Weishan

    2017-04-01

    Currently, the suitable proportion of inorganic particles in the ceramic separator has not been reported yet, due to the contradictory about the content of nano-particles in research papers (10 wt.%) and commercial application (large amount) [1,2]. In this paper, the nano-CeO2 contents on the properties of polyethylene (PE)-supported separator coating with poly (methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-acrylonitrile-styrene) (P(MMA-BA-AN-St)) copolymer is investigated systematically used in high voltage batteries for the first time. Since the copolymer contributes to high electrolyte uptake, and nano-CeO2 dedicates dimensional stability, the separator with 10 wt.% nano-CeO2 shows the highest ionic conductivity (2.5 × 10-3 S cm-1) at room temperature and the maximal electrolyte uptake (81.0 g m-2), while the separator with 100 wt.% nano-CeO2 exhibits better mechanical strength (52 MPa) and smaller shrinkage percentage (36%). Successively, cyclic performance of Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells indicates that the capacity retention of the cell using separator with 100 wt.% nano-CeO2 (72%) is second only to that with 10 wt.% nano-CeO2 (74%) after 200 cycles at 0.2 C between 3 V and 5 V, far larger than that without doping nano-CeO2 (51%) and PE (40%). By the consideration both of comprehensive performances and economic cost, 100 wt.% content is regarded as the most suitable appending proportion.

  17. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  18. Deployable Crew Quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    The deployable crew quarters (DCQ) have been designed for the International Space Station (ISS). Each DCQ would be a relatively inexpensive, deployable boxlike structure that is designed to fit in a rack bay. It is to be occupied by one crewmember to provide privacy and sleeping functions for the crew. A DCQ comprises mostly hard panels, made of a lightweight honeycomb or matrix/fiber material, attached to each other by cloth hinges. Both faces of each panel are covered with a layer of Nomex cloth and noise-suppression material to provide noise isolation from ISS. On Earth, the unit is folded flat and attached to a rigid pallet for transport to the ISS. On the ISS, crewmembers unfold the unit and install it in place, attaching it to ISS structural members by use of soft cords (which also help to isolate noise and vibration). A few hard pieces of equipment (principally, a ventilator and a smoke detector) are shipped separately and installed in the DCQ unit by use of a system of holes, slots, and quarter-turn fasteners. Full-scale tests showed that the time required to install a DCQ unit amounts to tens of minutes. The basic DCQ design could be adapted to terrestrial applications to satisfy requirements for rapid deployable emergency shelters that would be lightweight, portable, and quickly erected. The Temporary Early Sleep Station (TeSS) currently on-orbit is a spin-off of the DCQ.

  19. An investigation of the role of water on retrograde/condensation reactions and enhanced liquefaction yields. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objectives of this work are to conduct research that will provide the basis for an improved liquefaction process, and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. Changes in coal structure that occur during coal drying and steam pretreatments will be measured in order to determine what effect water has on retrograde/condensation reactions, and to determine the mechanism by which water enhances coal reactivity toward liquefaction. Different methods for coal drying will be investigated to determine if drying can be accomplished without destroying coal reactivity toward liquefaction, thereby making coal drying a relatively economical and efficient method for coal pretreatment. Coal drying methods will include conventional thermal drying, microwave drying, and chemical drying at low temperature. State-of-the-art solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques using combined rotation and multiple pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) and cross polarization with magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) will be employed: (1) to measures changes in coal structure brought about by the different methods of drying and by low temperature oxidation, and (2) to obtain direct measurements of changes in the aromatic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the solid/semi-solid material formed or remaining during pretreatment and the initial stages of liquefaction. The aromatic hydrogen-to-carbon ratios are difficult, if not impossible, to measure without the use of solid-state NMR, and as a result this ratio will be used to monitor the retrograde/condensation reactions that take place during coal liquefaction in the presence and absence of steam and various inert gases.

  20. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  1. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  2. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  3. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  4. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  5. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  6. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  7. 20 CFR 404.146 - When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter... Coverage § 404.146 When a calendar quarter cannot be a quarter of coverage. This section applies when we credit you with quarters of coverage (QCs) under § 404.141 for calendar years before 1978 and under §...

  8. Performance evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.; Kulaga, J. E.; Webster, C. E.; Gillie, K. R.; Hogrefe, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    At the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R&D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of two single cells and seven 3- to 960-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, lead-acid, and Zn/Br).

  9. Stanford Geothermal Program (quarterly technical progress reports, July--September 1990 and October--December 1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-18

    For the summer quarter, progress is summarized and data are presented on the following: well test analysis of finite-conductivity fractures, theoretical investigation of adsorption phenomena, and optimization of reinjection strategy. For the fall quarter, activity focused on the adsorption and well testing projects. A new project investigating reinjection at the Geysers was initiated. (MHR)

  10. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  11. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  12. Investigation of carbon-coated lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Mengjie; Zhang, Lin; Gong, Lijun; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Yuxi

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C with pre-stored active Li ions has been synthesized. • The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C is over 100%. • Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C displays excellent cyclic stability and capacity retention. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and carbon coating are necessary for formation of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C. - Abstract: Carbon-coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode materials have been synthesized using nanosized anatase TiO{sub 2} and commercial TiO{sub 2} with mixed structure as Ti sources, respectively. Microstructural investigation indicates that Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are covered by amorphous carbon layers with thickness of 2–3 nm. Their electrochemical performance has been evaluated, which indicates that an amount of active Li ions have been pre-stored in the Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} lattice during solid-state synthesis, resulting in its first-cycle coulombic efficiency over 100%. Further, Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C exhibits higher cyclic capacities than Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C at different current density. The reversible charge capacity retention of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C reaches 98.5% after 100 cycles, which indicates that Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C is promising candidate anode material for long lifetime lithium-ion batteries. The formation mechanism of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C has been discussed, in which the nanosized anatase TiO{sub 2} with high chemical activity and the carbon coating play key roles for the formation of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C.

  13. Battery Performance in Frequency Modulated Amplification Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, David J.; Swain, Graeme D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper investigates one characteristic of FM radio hearing-aid systems as used in the education of hearing impaired children: battery performance. While batteries studied performed according to manufacturer's specifications, the importance of monitoring the charging procedure cannot be overemphasized. (Author/PB)

  14. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  15. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  16. A polyoxometalate flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.; Fang, Xikui; Anderson, Travis M.

    2013-08-01

    A redox flow battery utilizing two, three-electron polyoxometalate redox couples (SiVV3WVI9O407–/SiVIV3WVI9O4010- and SiVIV3WVI9O4010-/SiVIV3WV3WVI6O4013-) was investigated for use in stationary storage in either aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. The aqueous battery had coulombic efficiencies greater than 95% with relatively low capacity fading over 100 cycles. Infrared studies showed there was no decomposition of the compound under these conditions. The non-aqueous analog had a higher operating voltage but at the expense of coulombic efficiency. The spontaneous formation of these clusters by self-assembly facilitates recovery of the battery after being subjected to reversed polarity. Polyoxometalates offer a new approach to stationary storage materials because they are capable of undergoing multi-electron reactions and are stable over a wide range of pH values and temperatures.

  17. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  18. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  19. Investigating lithium-ion battery materials during overcharge-induced thermal runaway: an operando and multi-scale X-ray CT study.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Donal P; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B; Tjaden, Bernhard; Di Michiel, Marco; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2016-11-16

    Catastrophic failure of lithium-ion batteries occurs across multiple length scales and over very short time periods. A combination of high-speed operando tomography, thermal imaging and electrochemical measurements is used to probe the degradation mechanisms leading up to overcharge-induced thermal runaway of a LiCoO2 pouch cell, through its interrelated dynamic structural, thermal and electrical responses. Failure mechanisms across multiple length scales are explored using a post-mortem multi-scale tomography approach, revealing significant morphological and phase changes in the LiCoO2 electrode microstructure and location dependent degradation. This combined operando and multi-scale X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique is demonstrated as a comprehensive approach to understanding battery degradation and failure.

  20. Investigation of the Li–S Battery Mechanism by Real-Time Monitoring of the Changes of Sulfur and Polysulfide Species during the Discharge and Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dong; Liu, Dan; Harris, Joshua B.; Ding, Tianyao; Si, Jingyu; Andrew, Sergei; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2016-09-09

    The mechanism of the sulfur cathode in Li-S batteries has been proposed. It was revealed by the real-time quantitative determination of polysulfide species and elemental sulfur by means of the high performance liquid chromatography in the course of the discharge and recharge of a Li-S battery. A three-step reduction mechanism including two chemical equilibrium reactions was proposed for the sulfur cathode discharge. The typical two-plateau discharge curve for sulfur cathode can be explained. A two-step oxidation mechanism for the Li2S and Li2S2 with a single chemical equilibrium among soluble polysulfide ions was proposed. In conclusion, the chemical equilibrium among S52-, S62-, S72- and S82- throughout the entire oxidation process resulted for the single flat recharge curve in Li-S batteries.

  1. Atomic to Nanoscale Investigation of Functionalities of an Al2O3 Coating Layer on a Cathode for Enhanced Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Amine, Khalil; Xiao, J; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min

    2016-02-09

    Surface coating has been identified as an effective approach for enhancing the capacity retention of layered structure cathode. However, the underlying operating mechanism of such a thin coating layer, in terms of surface chemical functionality and capacity retention, remains unclear. In this work, we use aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and high-efficiency spectroscopy to probe the delicate functioning mechanism of an Al2O3 coating layer on a Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 cathode. We discovered that in terms of surface chemical function, the Al2O3 coating suppresses the side reaction between the cathode and the electrolyte during battery cycling. At the same time, the Al2O3 coating layer also eliminates the chemical reduction of Mn from the cathode particle surface, therefore preventing the dissolution of the reduced Mn into the electrolyte. In terms of structural stability, we found that the Al2O3 coating layer can mitigate the layer to spinel phase transformation, which otherwise will be initiated from the particle surface and propagate toward the interior of the particle with the progression of battery cycling. The atomic to nanoscale effects of the coating layer observed here provide insight into the optimized design of a coating layer on a cathode to enhance the battery properties.

  2. Energy programs. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, is engaged in developing energy resource, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigation, reports on a neotectonic investigation in Connecticut. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains two articles, the first on OTEC core unit testing supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST), and the second on an analysis of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the US Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va.

  3. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  4. High Performance Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yangchuan

    2013-08-22

    The overall objective of this project was to develop and fabricate a multifunctional cathode with high activities in acidic electrolytes for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions for Li-air batteries. It should enable the development of Li-air batteries that operate on hybrid electrolytes, with acidic catholytes in particular. The use of hybrid electrolytes eliminates the problems of lithium reaction with water and of lithium oxide deposition in the cathode with sole organic electrolytes. The use of acid electrolytes can eliminate carbonate formation inside the cathode, making air breathing Li-air batteries viable. The tasks of the project were focused on developing hierarchical cathode structures and bifunctional catalysts. Development and testing of a prototype hybrid Li-air battery were also conducted. We succeeded in developing a hierarchical cathode structure and an effective bifunctional catalyst. We accomplished integrating the cathode with existing anode technologies and made a pouch prototype Li-air battery using sulfuric acid as catholyte. The battery cathodes contain a nanoscale multilayer structure made with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The structure was demonstrated to improve battery performance substantially. The bifunctional catalyst developed contains a conductive oxide support with ultra-low loading of platinum and iridium oxides. The work performed in this project has been documented in seven peer reviewed journal publications, five conference presentations, and filing of two U.S. patents. Technical details have been documented in the quarterly reports to DOE during the course of the project.

  5. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  6. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  7. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  8. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Suplido, M L; Ong, C N

    2000-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socioeconomic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers (54.23 microg/dL) when compared to radiator workers (20.04 microg/dL) and unexposed adults (12.56 microg/dL) (P<0.001). Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 microg/dL for males and 30 microg/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels (49.88 microg/dL) compared to radiator shop children (11.84 microg/dL) and unexposed children (9.92 microg/dL). For workers with PbB > 40 microg/dL, 90% were anemic (Hb < 13 g/dL for males and <11.5 g/dL for females). Linear regression showed a correlation (r=-0.214; P=0.03) between Hb level and log(10)PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children (r=-0.146). We conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children.

  9. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  10. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  11. Research and development for the declassification productivity initiative. Quarterly report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Highlights of the second quarter include a trip by one of the OCR investigators to UNLV to study preparation of test suites and to explore possible collaboration with ISRI. Results and recommendations are presented for Knowledge Representation and Inferencing. Methodological strategies have been identified for the Logical Analysis research component. Preliminary findings on Tipster Technology will be reported in the 3rd quarter.

  12. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  14. An insight into linear quarter car model accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Damien; Young, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The linear quarter car model is the most widely used suspension system model. A number of authors expressed doubts about the accuracy of the linear quarter car model in predicting the movement of a complex nonlinear suspension system. In this investigation, a quarter car rig, designed to mimic the popular MacPherson strut suspension system, is subject to narrowband excitation at a range of frequencies using a motor driven cam. Linear and nonlinear quarter car simulations of the rig are developed. Both isolated and operational testing techniques are used to characterise the individual suspension system components. Simulations carried out using the linear and nonlinear models are compared to measured data from the suspension test rig at selected excitation frequencies. Results show that the linear quarter car model provides a reasonable approximation of unsprung mass acceleration but significantly overpredicts sprung mass acceleration magnitude. The nonlinear simulation, featuring a trilinear shock absorber model and nonlinear tyre, produces results which are significantly more accurate than linear simulation results. The effect of tyre damping on the nonlinear model is also investigated for narrowband excitation. It is found to reduce the magnitude of unsprung mass acceleration peaks and contribute to an overall improvement in simulation accuracy.

  15. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  16. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  17. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  18. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  19. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the battery to spill through the vents. Use a battery carrier when available and always handle with extreme care. This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be ... reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of ...

  20. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  1. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  2. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  3. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  4. Quail Egg compared to a quarter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Quail eggs are small (shown here with a quarter for scale) and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels (below), one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, Development and function of the inner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and Skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  5. Laser cutting of graphite anodes for automotive lithium-ion secondary batteries: investigations in the edge geometry and heat-affected zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Benjamin

    2012-03-01

    To serve the high need of lithium-ion secondary batteries of the automobile industry in the next ten years it is necessary to establish highly reliable, fast and non abrasive machining processes. In previous works [1] it was shown that high cutting speeds with several meters per second are achievable. For this, mainly high power single mode fibre lasers with up to several kilo watts were used. Since lithium-ion batteries are very fragile electro chemical systems, the cutting speed is not the only thing important. To guarantee a high cycling stability and a long calendrical life time the edge quality and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are equally important. Therefore, this paper tries to establish an analytical model for the geometry of the cutting edge based on the ablation thresholds of the different materials. It also deals with the composition of the HAZ in dependence of the pulse length, generated by laser remote cutting with pulsed fibre laser. The characterisation of the HAZ was done by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and Raman microscopy.

  6. Three-dimensional investigation of cycling-induced microstructural changes in lithium-ion battery cathodes using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanshuo; Foster, Jamie M.; Gully, Adam; Krachkovskiy, Sergey; Jiang, Meng; Wu, Yan; Yang, Xingyi; Protas, Bartosz; Goward, Gillian R.; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2016-02-01

    For vehicle electrification, one of the biggest issues for lithium ion batteries is cycle life. Within this context, the mechanisms at the source of capacity degradation during cycling are not yet to be fully understood. In this work, we use state-of-the-art FIB-SEM serial sectioning and imaging techniques to determine the effect of cycling on lithium-ion battery cathodes. The three-dimensional (3D) microstructural study was performed on both pristine and cycled LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) and Li(Li0.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13)O2 (HE-NMC) cathodes. The spatial distribution of active material, carbon-doped binder and pore spaces were successfully reconstructed by appropriate image processing. Comparisons of NMC and HE-NMC cathodes after different number of cycles showed only minor increases in the number of smaller active particles, possibly negligible, considering the intrinsic microstructure variation within the cathodes. However, the connectivity between carbon-doped binder additives and active particles in NMC and HE-NMC cathodes, assessed using a "neighbor counting" method, showed an appreciable decrease after cycling which indicates a detachment of carbon-doped binder from active particles. This significant cycling-induced detachment effect between the two phases (e.g., ∼22% for HE-NMC) could indicate a loss in electrical connectivity, which may partially explain the capacity fade in the cells.

  7. Detailed investigation of Na2.24FePO4CO3 as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weifeng; Zhou, Jing; Li, Biao; Ma, Jin; Tao, Shi; Xia, Dingguo; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Na-ion batteries are gaining an increased recognition as the next generation low cost energy storage devices. Here, we present a characterization of Na3FePO4CO3 nanoplates as a novel cathode material for sodium ion batteries. First-principles calculations reveal that there are two paths for Na ion migration along b and c axis. In-situ and ex-situ Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) point out that in Na3FePO4CO3 both Fe2+/Fe3+ and Fe3+/Fe4+ redox couples are electrochemically active, suggesting also the existence of a two-electron intercalation reaction. Ex-situ X-ray powder diffraction data demonstrates that the crystalline structure of Na3FePO4CO3 remains stable during the charging/discharging process within the range 2.0–4.55 V. PMID:24595232

  8. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  9. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  10. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  11. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications

    SciTech Connect

    Posthumus, K.J.C.M.; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C.

    1996-11-01

    Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

  12. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  13. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  14. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  15. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  16. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  19. Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Ottermanns, Richard; Keiter, Steffen; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bluhm, Kerstin; Brack, Werner; Breitholtz, Magnus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Carere, Mario; Chalon, Carole; Cousin, Xavier; Dulio, Valeria; Escher, Beate I; Hamers, Timo; Hilscherová, Klára; Jarque, Sergio; Jonas, Adam; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Marneffe, Yves; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Pandard, Pascal; Schifferli, Andrea; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Tang, Janet; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Zounková, Radka; Zwart, Nick; Hollert, Henner

    2016-11-01

    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2

  20. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  1. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (quarterly supplement)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated December 31, 1992, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1993.

  2. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  3. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  4. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (Quarterly supplement)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  5. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  6. Statistical analysis for understanding and predicting battery degradations in real-life electric vehicle use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, Anthony; Suard, Frédéric; Gérard, Mathias; Montaru, Maxime; Riu, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the statistical analysis of recorded data parameters of electrical battery ageing during electric vehicle use. These data permit traditional battery ageing investigation based on the evolution of the capacity fade and resistance raise. The measured variables are examined in order to explain the correlation between battery ageing and operating conditions during experiments. Such study enables us to identify the main ageing factors. Then, detailed statistical dependency explorations present the responsible factors on battery ageing phenomena. Predictive battery ageing models are built from this approach. Thereby results demonstrate and quantify a relationship between variables and battery ageing global observations, and also allow accurate battery ageing diagnosis through predictive models.

  7. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  8. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  9. A comparative investigation on the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on enhancing the electrochemical performance of SnO2/graphene for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Su, Dawei; Zhang, Jinqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-02-21

    SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids have been synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal method, during which the formation of SnO2 nanocrystals and nitrogen doping of graphene occur simultaneously. The as-prepared SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance for sodium-ion batteries compared to SnO2/graphene nanocomposites. A systematic comparison between SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries has been conducted. The comparison is in a reasonable framework, where SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart have the same SnO2 ratio, similar SnO2 crystallinity and particle size, close surface area and pore size. The results clearly manifest that the improved electron transfer efficiency of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene due to nitrogen-doping plays a more important role than the increased electro-active sites within graphene network in enhancing the electro-activity of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids compared to the SnO2/graphene counterpart. In contrast to the previous reports which often ascribe the enhanced electro-activity of nitrogen-doped graphene based composites to two nitrogen-doping effects (improving the electron transfer efficiency and increasing electro-active sites within graphene networks) in one single declaration, this work is expected to provide more specific information for understanding the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on improving the electrochemical performance of graphene based composites.

  10. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  11. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  12. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Education Statistics Quarterly" gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released during a 3-month period. Each message also contains a…

  13. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the newsletter "Gifted Education Press Quarterly" published during 1995. This newsletter addresses issues in the education of gifted children and youth. The major articles are: (1) "Using Today's Technology: Parents Can Help Challenge Gifted Children" (Adrienne O'Neill); (2)…

  14. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four issues of this quarterly publications on gifted education include the following articles: "Unrecognized Giftedness: The Frustrating Case of the Gifted Adult" (Marylou Kelly Streznewski); "Shakespeare in the Classroom: The Bard is Back!" (Rosanna DiMillo Sandell); "What Teachers, Parents, and Administrators Need To…

  15. Writing: The Quarterly as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Lawrence F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how writing has shaped the nature of the Quarterly over 75 years. Here the author explores how stylistic elements have changed over time, how form has interacted with function and content, and how well the resulting text has served the several communities within physical education. He makes the following…

  16. Trustee Quarterly, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trustee Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This document contains 4 issues of the Trustee Quarterly: fall 2000, spring 2001, summer 2001, and fall 2001. The fall 2000 issue contains seven features and six departments. Among the features are: "The New Economy: Who Will Lead the Education Movement," by Rucker; "Community Colleges Tackle IT Staffing Challenges," by Matina; and "Looking at…

  17. JLTN Quarterly, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JLTN Quarterly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the "JLTN Quarterly" issued from December 1995 to October 1996. This journal for high school Japanese language teachers contain articles on class activities and classroom teaching techniques. These include: exercises in interpretation of a Toys "R" Us store map and advertising; a weather discussion…

  18. Apprentices & Trainees: September Quarter, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents estimates of apprentice and trainee activity in Australia for the September quarter 2012. The figures in this publication are derived from the National Apprentice and Trainee Collection no.74 (December 2012 estimates). The most recent figures in this publication are estimated (those for training activity from the March…

  19. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These four issues of a quarterly publication for gifted educators and parents of gifted children span winter 2002 through fall 2002. Featured articles include: (1) "Cultivating Courage, Creativity, and Caring" (James T. Webb), which discusses the need to encourage the development of courage and caring, as well as creativity in gifted students; (2)…

  20. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the four 1999 issues of a quarterly newsletter publication on gifted education. Issues regularly include major articles, book reviews, announcements, and letters. The major articles in these issues are: "The Mathematically Gifted: Bridging the Gender Gap" (Lynn H. Fox and Janet F. Soller); "Parenting for Education:…

  1. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maurice D., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These four issues of this quarterly publication on the education of gifted students contain the following featured articles: (1) "Reflections on China: Implications for Gifted Education" (Andrea I. Prejean and Lynn H. Fox); (2) "Differentiating Instruction for Gifted Middle School Students in Heterogeneous Science Classes"…

  2. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  3. Research on lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  4. Ocean thermal energy. Quarterly report, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-30

    This quarterly report summarizes work on the following tasks: OTEC methanol; approaches for financing OTEC proof-of-concept experimental vessels; investigation of OTEC-ammonia as an alternative fuel; review of electrolyzer development programs and requirements; hybrid geothermal-OTEC power plants: single-cycle performance; estimates; and hybrid geothermal-OTEC power plants: dual-cycle performance estimates.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  10. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  11. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  13. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  14. Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna

    1995-01-01

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.

  15. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  16. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-31

    prototp Fmr ectdc Vehicle uses nickel cadmium batteries PSA’s WEIT A uses nickel cadmium batteries Table 8-19. Nickel Cadmium Batteries in Electric...BMDO to develop a nickel oxidedhydrogen multilayer bipolar battery for pulsed power. These batteries will be used to operate directed energy weapons in

  17. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  18. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  19. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 54, 3rd Quarter 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    undergone over 40 surgeries and perseveres through an arduous regimen of therapy H ndupress .ndu.edu issue 54, 3 d quarter 2009 / JFQ 9 MULLEN...which there has never been an accounting. In addition to the extreme repression of its citizenry—no kites, no music , no female education, execu...that verdict as premature , yet it is interest- ing to note that the turnaround in Iraq involved the emergence of an admittedly unusual external

  20. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    core combat systems are interactive with one another, creating a synergistic outcome and capability rather than providing an additive- segmented tool ...J o i n t F o r c e Q u a r t e r l y issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012 Achieving Force Resilience Offensive Cyber Joint System Assessments Report...cross-pollination” of students on a large scale. At a joint-minded level, we need to rethink our Service personnel systems , which could enhance the

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  2. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  3. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB.

  4. Properties investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/polyacrylonitrile acid-base blend membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Yu, Lihong; Liu, Le; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-11-12

    Acid-base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-section morphology as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy images show. The acid-base interaction of ionic cross-linking and hydrogen bonding between SPEEK and PAN could effectively reduce water uptake, swelling ratio, and vanadium ion permeability, and improve the performance and stability of blend membrane. Because of the good balance of proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability, blend membrane with 20 wt % PAN (S/PAN-20%) showed higher Coulombic efficiency (96.2% vs 91.1%) and energy efficiency (83.5% vs 78.4%) than Nafion 117 membrane at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) when they were used in VRFB single cell. Besides, S/PAN-20% membrane kept a stable performance during 150 cycles at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) in the cycle life test. Hence the SPEEK/PAN acid-base blend membrane could be used as promising candidate for VRFB application.

  5. Investigation of the capacity retention mechanisms in novel composite sulfur copolymer-base cathodes for high-energy density Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir; Kim, Jenny; Masser, Kevin; Hudson, Steven; Soles, Christopher; Griebel, Jared; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Utilization of the active cathode material in high-energy density Li-S batteries limited by the insulating nature of sulfur and losses in the form of insoluble polysulfides was improved by the use of 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) copolymerized with molten sulfur. This approach termed, inverse vulcanization, transforms elemental sulfur into chemically stable processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties. According to dielectric spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements, composite sulfur-DIB copolymer cathodes exhibit a glassy-state beta relaxation related to short sulfur segments or to the DIB cross-linker. High-resolution AEM and FESEM studies down to the atomic scale reveal multiscale 3D-architectures created within the pristine and cycled composite cathodes with various contents of the electroactive copolymers. The morphology, structures, bonding and local compositional distributions of the constituents (sulfur, copolymers, aggregated conductive carbon nanoparticles) as well as extended pore structures and their transformations under cycling have been examined to provide insights into mechanisms of the enhanced capacity retention in the modified Li-S cells. NIST support under grant MML12-1053-N00

  6. A comparative investigation on the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on enhancing the electrochemical performance of SnO2/graphene for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Su, Dawei; Zhang, Jinqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-02-01

    SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids have been synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal method, during which the formation of SnO2 nanocrystals and nitrogen doping of graphene occur simultaneously. The as-prepared SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance for sodium-ion batteries compared to SnO2/graphene nanocomposites. A systematic comparison between SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries has been conducted. The comparison is in a reasonable framework, where SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids and the SnO2/graphene counterpart have the same SnO2 ratio, similar SnO2 crystallinity and particle size, close surface area and pore size. The results clearly manifest that the improved electron transfer efficiency of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene due to nitrogen-doping plays a more important role than the increased electro-active sites within graphene network in enhancing the electro-activity of SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids compared to the SnO2/graphene counterpart. In contrast to the previous reports which often ascribe the enhanced electro-activity of nitrogen-doped graphene based composites to two nitrogen-doping effects (improving the electron transfer efficiency and increasing electro-active sites within graphene networks) in one single declaration, this work is expected to provide more specific information for understanding the effects of nitrogen-doping into graphene on improving the electrochemical performance of graphene based composites.SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids have been synthesized by an in situ hydrothermal method, during which the formation of SnO2 nanocrystals and nitrogen doping of graphene occur simultaneously. The as-prepared SnO2/nitrogen-doped graphene nanohybrids exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance for sodium-ion batteries compared to SnO2/graphene nanocomposites. A systematic comparison

  7. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    At the beginning of the first quarter of 1982, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the planned 1981 to 1982 Winter Shutdown, initiated December 11, 1981. The station was in a cooldown condition at approximately 150/sup 0/F and 280 psig with a steam bubble maintained in the pressurizer and the reactor coolant pumps in slow speed. The reactor plant cooldown heat exchanger was in service to maintain coolant temperature. The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 18D purification loops remained in service. The 1A, 1B, and 1C 991 psig self-actuated steam relief valves remained gagged during the quarter to prevent leakage through the valve seats. The 1D steam relief valve was removed during the Spring 1980 Shutdown for repairs and a blind flange was installed in its place. Gagging and/or removing of redundant relief valves is permitted by ASME Code and approved operating procedures. During the first quarter of 1982, a total of 1028 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. The shipments contained 0.032 curies of radioactivity.

  8. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  9. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  10. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  11. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  12. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  13. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  14. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  15. Results from the testing and analysis of LDEF batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Steve; Dursch, Harry; Johnson, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Batteries were used on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) to provide power to both the active experiments and the experiment support equipment such as the Experiment Initiative System, Experiment Power and Data System (data acquisition system), and the Environment Exposure Control Canisters. Three different types of batteries were used: lithium sulfur dioxide (LiSO2), lithium carbon monofluoride (LiCF), and nickel cadmium (NiCd). A total of 92 LiSO2, 10 LiCF, and 1 NiCd batteries were flown on the LDEF. In addition, approximately 20 LiSO2 batteries were kept in cold storage at NASA LaRC. The various investigations and post-flight analyses of the flight and control batteries are reviewed. The primary objectives of these studies was to identify degradation modes (if any) of the batteries and to provide information useful to future spacecraft missions. Systems SIG involvement in the post-flight evaluation of LDEF batteries was two-fold: (1) to fund SAFT (original manufacturer of the LiSO2 batteries) to perform characterization of 13 LiSO2 batteries (10 flight and 3 control batteries); and (2) to integrate investigator results.

  16. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  17. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  18. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  19. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  20. Crew quarters for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, F. E.

    1989-01-01

    The only long-term U.S. manned space mission completed has been Skylab, which has similarities as well as differences to the proposed Space Station. With the exception of Skylab missions, there has been a dearth of experience on which to base the design of the individual Space Station Freedom crew quarters. Shuttle missions commonly do not have sleep compartments, only 'sleeping arrangements'. There are provisions made for each crewmember to have a sleep restraint and a sleep liner, which are attached to a bulkhead or a locker. When the Shuttle flights began to have more than one working shift, crew quarters became necessary due to noise and other disturbances caused by crew task-related activities. Shuttle missions that have planned work shifts have incorporated sleep compartments. To assist in gaining more information and insight for the design of the crew quarters for the Space Station Freedom, a survey was given to current crewmembers with flight experience. The results from this survey were compiled and integrated with information from the literature covering space experience, privacy, and human-factors issues.

  1. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  2. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  4. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  5. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  6. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  7. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  8. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  9. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  10. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  11. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  12. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  13. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  14. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  16. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. First Quarter FY-05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2005 (October - December 2005). Tasks reviewed include: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Stable Low Cloud Evaluation, (5) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (6) Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) and Legacy Wind Sensor Evaluation, (7) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension, and (8) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  18. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Hua Ma

    1998-03-16

    The temperature dependence of the oxygen flux across the BaCe0G03 dense membrane (BCG membrane) tube was investigated. In the temperature range of 688C to 955C, the increase in the oxygen flux with temperature obeyed the Arrhenius law. An increase in the helium sweep flow membrane tube. rate in the tube side resulted in an increase in the oxygen flux through the The oxygen fluxes through the BCG dense membrane tube were measured at different oxygen partial pressures in the shell side. The oxygen flux increased with the oxygen partial pressure in the shell side. The BCG dense membrane was tested in a membrane reactor for the catalytic oxidative coupling of methane. The BCG membrane is not a complete combustion catalyst, and the catalytic activity of the BCG membrane was found to be much higher than the Argonne dense membrane. As the oxygen partial pressure in the shell side increased, the C2 decreased while the C2 yield remained unchanged, indicating that non-selective, reactions still played a significant role in the membrane reactor.

  19. Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  20. Extraction of battery parameters of the equivalent circuit model using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Jonathan; Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-02-01

    A simple but reasonably accurate battery model is required for simulating the performance of electrical systems that employ a battery for example an electric vehicle, as well as for investigating their potential as an energy storage device. In this paper, a relatively simple equivalent circuit based model is employed for modeling the performance of a battery. A computer code utilizing a multi-objective genetic algorithm is developed for the purpose of extracting the battery performance parameters. The code is applied to several existing industrial batteries as well as to two recently proposed high performance batteries which are currently in early research and development stage. The results demonstrate that with the optimally extracted performance parameters, the equivalent circuit based battery model can accurately predict the performance of various batteries of different sizes, capacities, and materials. Several test cases demonstrate that the multi-objective genetic algorithm can serve as a robust and reliable tool for extracting the battery performance parameters.

  1. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  2. Environmental Biosciences Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2007-01-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  4. Experimenting with wires, batteries, bulbs and the induction coil: Narratives of teaching and learning physics in the electrical investigations of Laura, David, Jamie, myself and the nineteenth century experimenters. Our developments and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    Physics is conventionally taught as a fixed curriculum which students must master. This thesis changes that: curriculum emerges from what learners try and question in experiments they invent. The thesis narrates: three adult students exploring wires, batteries and bulbs with me as teacher; nineteenth century investigations of electromagnetism; my laboratory work replicating historic instruments. In each case, learning arose through activity with materials. Evidences of this are analyzed within narratives and reflections. I used teaching-research, a method developed by Duckworth from Piaget's clinical interviewing, to research and simultaneously extend students' evolving understandings. What I learned through questioning students informed my next interactions; what they learned extended their experimenting. Similarly, I researched historical accounts interactively: improvising experiments to develop my understandings. Studying my own learning deepened my interpretations of students' learning. My students Laura, David and Jamie experimented by: soldering bulbs to wires, making series and parallel circuits, inserting resistive wire that dimmed bulbs, conducting electricity through salt water They noticed bulb brightness and battery heat, compared electricity's paths, questioned how voltage and current relate. They inferred electricity's effects manifest magnitudes of material properties. They found their experiences while learning were inseparable from what they learned. I researched investigations connected with Cavendish's leather fish, Galvani's frogs, Schweigger's wire spiraled around a compass needle, Henry's electromagnets, Faraday's induction ring, induction devices of Page, Callan, Hearder. Experimentally, I made galvanometers, electromagnets, induction rings, induction coil. I observed effects of electromagnetism, internal resistance, induced sparking. Across these investigations, learning developed with instrumental innovations; confusions were productive

  5. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  6. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  7. 14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF TYPICAL SLEEPING QUARTERS, BUILDING 208, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Bachelor Airmen Quarters, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  8. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  9. Architectures for Nanostructured Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubloff, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Heterogeneous nanostructures offer profound opportunities for advancement in electrochemical energy storage, particularly with regard to power. However, their design and integration must balance ion transport, electron transport, and stability under charge/discharge cycling, involving fundamental physical, chemical and electrochemical mechanisms at nano length scales and across disparate time scales. In our group and in our DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (www.efrc.umd.edu) we have investigated single nanostructures and regular nanostructure arrays as batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and electrostatic capacitors to understand limiting mechanisms, using a variety of synthesis and characterization strategies. Primary lithiation pathways in heterogeneous nanostructures have been observed to include surface, interface, and both isotropic and anisotropic diffusion, depending on materials. Integrating current collection layers at the nano scale with active ion storage layers enhances power and can improve stability during cycling. For densely packed nanostructures as required for storage applications, we investigate both ``regular'' and ``random'' architectures consistent with transport requirements for spatial connectivity. Such configurations raise further important questions at the meso scale, such as dynamic ion and electron transport in narrow and tortuous channels, and the role of defect structures and their evolution during charge cycling. Supported as part of the Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DESC0001160

  10. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  11. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  12. RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A quarterly listing of RTO technical publications is presented. The topics include: Handbook on the Analysis of Smaller-Scale Contingency Operations in Long Term Defence Planning; 2) Radar Polarimetry and Interferometry; 3) Combat Casualty Care in Ground-Based Tactical Situations: Trauma Technology and Emergency Medical Procedures; and 4) RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

  13. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly reporting. 93.325 Section 93.325... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand..., within 30 days of the end of each calendar quarter, the total number of commercial SFRA...

  14. 40 CFR 75.64 - Quarterly reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... placed in long-term cold storage (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter), quarterly reports are not... the unit). For units placed into long-term cold storage during a reporting quarter, the exemption from... long-term cold storage. For any provisionally-certified monitoring system, § 75.20(a)(3) shall...

  15. 40 CFR 75.64 - Quarterly reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... placed in long-term cold storage (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter), quarterly reports are not... the unit). For units placed into long-term cold storage during a reporting quarter, the exemption from... long-term cold storage. For any provisionally-certified monitoring system, § 75.20(a)(3) shall...

  16. 40 CFR 75.64 - Quarterly reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... placed in long-term cold storage (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter), quarterly reports are not... the unit). For units placed into long-term cold storage during a reporting quarter, the exemption from... long-term cold storage. For any provisionally-certified monitoring system, § 75.20(a)(3) shall...

  17. Teaching Electric Circuits with Multiple Batteries: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated preservice science teachers' qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use…

  18. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  19. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  20. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  1. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  2. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  3. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  5. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 57, 2nd Quarter 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    years and is projected to rise another 1.5 percent annually through 2017 due to greater mechanization, remote expedition- ary conflict, rugged terrain...recent experience shows “a brigade will consume as much as seven tons of batteries in a 72-hour mission at a cost of $700,000.”8 Maxi - mizing the...of Atomflot, which manages the icebreakers, warned that Russia will face a “collapse” of these capacities in 2016– 2017 if a new genera- tion

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  7. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  8. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  9. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  10. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  11. Vibration control of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system by reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucak, İ. Ö.; Öz, H. R.

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the investigation of performance of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system with a stochastic real-valued reinforcement learning control strategy. As an example, a model of a quarter car with a nonlinear suspension spring subjected to excitation from a road profile is considered. The excitation is realised by the roughness of the road. The quarter-car model to be considered here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The experimental results indicate that the proposed active suspension system suppresses the vibrations greatly. A simulation of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and examine the performance of the learning control algorithm.

  12. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  13. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  14. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  15. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  16. First-cycle defect evolution of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 lithium ion battery electrodes investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidlmayer, Stefan; Buchberger, Irmgard; Reiner, Markus; Gigl, Thomas; Gilles, Ralph; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    In this study the structure and evolution of vacancy type defects in lithium ion batteries are investigated in respect of crystallographic properties. The relation between positron annihilation and electronic structure is discussed in terms of structural dynamics during the lithiation process. Samples of Li1-xNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC-111) electrodes with decreasing lithium content (x = 0-0.7) covering the whole range of state of charge were electrochemically prepared for the non-destructive analysis using positron coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). The positron measurements allowed us to observe the evolution of the defect structure caused by the delithiation process in the NMC-111 electrodes. The combination of CDBS with X-ray diffraction for the characterization of the lattice structures enabled the analysis of the well-known kinetic-hindrance-effect in the first charge-discharge cycle and possible implications of vacancy ordering. In particular, CDBS revealed the highest degree of relithiation after discharge to 3.0 V at 55 °C. For the first time, we report on the successful application of CDBS on NMC-111 electrodes yielding new insights in the important role of defects caused by the delithiation process and the kinetic hindrance effect.

  17. Where is the lithium? Quantitative determination of the lithium distribution in lithium ion battery cells: Investigations on the influence of the temperature, the C-rate and the cell type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vortmann-Westhoven, Britta; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-04-01

    With lithium being the capacity determining species in lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells, the local quantification is of enormous importance for understanding of the cell performance. The investigation of the lithium distribution in LIB full cells is performed with two different cell types, T-cells of the Swagelok® type and pouch bag cells with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide and mesocarbon microbead graphite as the active materials as well as a lithium hexafluorophosphate based organic carbonate solvent electrolyte. The lithium content of/at the individual components of the cells is analyzed for different states of charge (SOCs) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and the lithium distribution as well as the loss of active lithium within the cells is calculated after cycling. With increasing the SOC, the lithium contents decrease in the cathodes and simultaneously increase in the anodes. The temperature increase shows a clear shift of the lithium content in the direction of the anode for the T-cells. The comparison of the C-rate influence shows that the lower the C-rate, the more the lithium content on the electrodes is shifted into the direction of the anode.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1961 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1960 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1957 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1968 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1969 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1967 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1970 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1971 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1965 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  7. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1958 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1966 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1972 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1963 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  11. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1959 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  12. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1964 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1973 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1962 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Investigating the Mg-Si Binary System via Combinatorial Sputter Deposition As High Energy Density Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Schmuelling, Guido; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2015-09-16

    Mg-Si thin films with various elemental compositions ranging from 0≤x≤1 in MgxSi(1-x) were obtained via combinatorial magnetron sputter deposition of Si and Mg in order to improve the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation process of pure Si by embedding Si in an active Mg-Si matrix. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy methods were used to investigate the morphology, stoichiometry, and structure of the different thin film samples. Constant current charge/discharge cycling revealed significant electrochemical changes depending on the Mg content in comparison to the pure Si active material improving the capacity retention to 96% over 400 cycles.

  16. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  17. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  20. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  1. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  2. 18 CFR 35.10b - Electric Quarterly Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric Quarterly... Application § 35.10b Electric Quarterly Reports. Each public utility shall file an updated Electric Quarterly..., file by January 31. Electric Quarterly Reports must be prepared in conformance with the...

  3. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  5. Investigation of Co-incorporated pristine and Fe-doped Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Bin; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Yang, Xue-Lin; Liang, Gan; Li, Zhen

    2016-10-21

    Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3/C (LVP/C) and Li3V1.95Fe0.05(PO4)3/C (LVFP/C) composites were successfully modified by cobalt incorporation. The effects of cobalt incorporation on the structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the LVP/C and LVFP/C composites were systematically investigated. The results show that most Co exists in the form of CoO and forms a hybrid layer with the carbon coating on the surface of the LVP and LVFP particles; moreover, a small part of Co enters into the LVP or LVFP lattices due to atomic diffusion. Compared with LVP/C and LVFP/C, Co-incorporated samples exhibit better electrochemical performance. In particular, under the common effect of doping and a hybrid layer (carbon and metal oxides) coating, the LVFP/C-Co electrode displays a prominent initial capacity of 124.7 mA h g(-1) and a very low capacity fading of ∼0.04% per cycle even after 500 cycles at 20 C. This novel co-modification method with cation doping and a hybrid layer (carbon and metal oxide) coating is a highly effective way to improve the electrochemical performance and has great potential to be easily used to modify other cathode materials with poor electrical conductivity.

  6. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Thermal convection in a liquid metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuxin; Zikanov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    Generation of thermal convection flow in the liquid metal battery, a device recently proposed as a promising solution for the problem of the short-term energy storage, is analyzed using a numerical model. It is found that convection caused by Joule heating of electrolyte during charging or discharging is virtually unavoidable. It exists in laboratory prototypes larger than a few centimeters in size and should become much stronger in larger-scale batteries. The phenomenon needs further investigation in view of its positive (enhanced mixing of reactants) and negative (loss of efficiency and possible disruption of operation due to the flow-induced deformation of the electrolyte layer) effects.

  8. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  9. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  10. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  11. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  12. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  13. ESL batteries and multi-segment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, J. L.; Pearce, J. G.; Turnbull, L.; Owen, J. R.

    1987-06-01

    A simulation model for nickel cadmium battery cells operating in the environment of a low Earth orbit satellite; simulation applications to investigate the performance of the ESA Simulation Language (ESL) segment or multiprocessor emulation features; a double-precision version of ESL; and development of ESL in equation sorting, segmentation, character handling, and file input/output are described.

  14. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport ofmore » active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.« less

  15. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport of active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.

  16. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  17. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.325 Quarterly reporting. (a) Each certificate holder must submit in...

  18. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.325 Quarterly reporting. (a) Each certificate holder must submit in...

  19. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.325 Quarterly reporting. (a) Each certificate holder must submit in...

  20. 14 CFR 93.325 - Quarterly reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.325 Quarterly reporting. (a) Each certificate holder must submit in...

  1. Superfund Redevelopment Initiative Quarterly Webinar Series

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Superfund Redevelopment Initiative hosts a series of quarterly webinars on redevelopment of Superfund sites across the country that discuss the different types of reuse that are possible and share how particular sites have become reuse success stories.

  2. 76 FR 22910 - ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACHP Quarterly Business Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Notice... c. Southwest Renewable Energy Development and Historic Preservation Working Group IX. New Business...

  3. Circulating current battery heater

    DOEpatents

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  4. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-06

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  5. Screening Li-Ion Batteries for Internal Shorts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The extremely high cost of aerospace battery failures due to internal shorts makes it essential that their occurrence be very rare, if not eliminated altogether. With Li-ion cells/batteries, the potentially catastrophic safety hazard that some internal shorts present adds additional incentive for prevention. Prevention can be achieved by design, manufacturing measures, and testing. Specifically for NASA s spacesuit application, a Li-ion polymer pouch cell battery design is in its final stages of production. One of the 20 flight batteries fabricated and tested developed a cell internal short, which did not present a safety hazard, but has required revisiting the entire manufacturing and testing process. Herein are the details of the failure investigation that followed to get to root cause of the internal short and the corrective actions that will be taken. The resulting lessons learned are applicable to most Li-ion battery applications.

  6. Microbatteries for Combinatorial Studies of Conventional Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2003-01-01

    Integrated arrays of microscopic solid-state batteries have been demonstrated in a continuing effort to develop microscopic sources of power and of voltage reference circuits to be incorporated into low-power integrated circuits. Perhaps even more importantly, arrays of microscopic batteries can be fabricated and tested in combinatorial experiments directed toward optimization and discovery of battery materials. The value of the combinatorial approach to optimization and discovery has been proven in the optoelectronic, pharmaceutical, and bioengineering industries. Depending on the specific application, the combinatorial approach can involve the investigation of hundreds or even thousands of different combinations; hence, it is time-consuming and expensive to attempt to implement the combinatorial approach by building and testing full-size, discrete cells and batteries. The conception of microbattery arrays makes it practical to bring the advantages of the combinatorial approach to the development of batteries.

  7. Deep reconditioning of batteries during DSCS 3 flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierfelder, H. E.; Stearns, R. J.; Jones, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Deep reconditioning of batteries is defined as discharge below the 1.0 volt/cell level to a value of about 1.0 volt/battery. This type of reconditioning was investigated for use on the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) spacecraft, and has been used during the first year of orbital operation. Prior to launch of the spacecraft, the deep reconditioning was used during the battery life test, which has now complete fourteen eclipse periods. Reconditioning was performed prior to each eclipse period of the life test, and is scheduled to be used prior to each eclipse period in orbit. The battery data for discharge and recharge is presented for one of the life test reconditioning cycles, and for each of the three batteries during the reconditioning cycles between eclipse period no.1 and eclipse period no.2 in Earth orbit.

  8. An Experiment to Determine the Discharge Characteristics of Common Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2003-04-01

    An experiment is presented to investigate the discharge characteristics of common batteries using readily available equipment in an introductory physics laboratory. We used PASCO-750 science workshop interface, their two voltage sensors, and their DataStudio software to collect the data for some popular name brand AA and AAA batteries. The significant advantages are that it is relatively easy to carry out, the measurements are precise, and the topic is relevant to every day life with practical applications. It also serves as an experiment to introduce computer interfacing in data collection, as well as the Spread Sheet in data analysis and graphing. The spin off of this experiment is an accurate method to study the longevity of common batteries. Our results indicate that some of the popular name brand batteries don't last long as mentioned in their advertisements and some of the not so popular batteries are more cost effective.

  9. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.

  10. High energy density aluminum battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  11. Microfluidic redox battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  12. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  13. Ordnance thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1993-04-01

    This invention pertains to thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode, e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy, a cathode, e.g., composed of iron disulfide, and an electrolyte, e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, the electrolyte being inactive at ambient temperature but being activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices, in system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components, to vent an ordnance case, preventing its explosion in a fire.

  14. Intelligent battery charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  15. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  16. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  17. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  18. Magellan battery operations: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Glueck, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The Magellan Spacecraft's mission to map Venus's surface provides a unique application for Nickel-Cadmium batteries. An overview of the spacecraft, power subsystem, battery, and mission requirements are presented. The reliability and performance of the batteries were extensively studied with a comprehensive test and analysis program. Actual data for cruise and a limited number of mapping orbits is also presented.

  19. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  20. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  1. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  2. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  3. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  4. Parametric and cycle tests of a 40-AH bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 12 V, 40 ampere-hour bipolar battery during various charge current, discharge current, temperature, and pressure operating conditions is investigated. The cell voltages, temperatures, ampere-hours, and watt-hours derived from the charge/discharge cycle tests are studied. Consideration is given to battery voltage and discharge capacity as a function of discharge current, the correlation between energy delivered on a discharge and battery temperature, battery voltage response to pulse discharges, and the voltage-temperature relationship. The data reveal that the bipolar Ni-H battery is applicable to high power systems.

  5. Kurt Goldstein's test battery.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Kurt Goldstein was a founder of clinical neuropsychology. This thesis is illustrated with a description of Goldstein's test battery that he used as a screening instrument in a special clinic for soldiers in World War I. Parts of the battery were also used for neuropsychological rehabilitation. Goldstein's early work in Germany focused on both neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation. He was interested in how individuals go about compensating for their deficits, The notion of ecological validity (Lebenswahr vs Lebensfremd), only becoming widely popular in the nineteen-eighties, played an important role in Goldstein's selection of test procedures.

  6. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  7. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  8. Quarterly Environmental Radiological Survey Summary Third Quarter 1998, 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    1998-10-27

    This report provides a summary of the radiological surveys performed in support of near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. The Third Quarter 1998 survey results and the status of actions required are summarized: (1) All of the eighty-five environmental radiological surveys scheduled during July, August and September were performed as planned. Fifty-one of the surveys were conducted at Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) sites and thirty-four at Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) sites. Contamination above background levels was found at seventeen of the PHMC waste sites and two of the ERC waste sites. Contamination levels as high >1,000,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per 100 cm{sup 2} were reported. Of these contaminated surveys nine were in Underground Radioactive Material (URM) areas, three were in unposted areas and seven were in contamination areas. The contamination found within four of the URM and three of the CA areas was immediately cleaned up and no further action was required. The remaining five URM and two unposted sites were posted and along with the five CA sites will require remediation. Radiological Problem Reports (RPR's) were issued and the sites were turned over to the landlord for further action as required. (2) During the second quarter of 1998, 1.2 hectares (3.0 acres) were stabilized and radiologically down posted from Contamination Area (CA)/Soil Contamination (SC) to URM. (3) Four hectares (10 acres) located south and west of B-Plant were posted as a radiological buffer area as a result of a contamination spread. This off-normal occurrence is currently being investigated. (4) Four Surveillance Compliance Inspection Reports (SCIRs) remained open and had not been resolved. Tank Farms Operations has responsibility for the unresolved SCIRs.

  9. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  10. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis - 1st Quarter FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 74 reportable events (16 from the 1st Qtr FY-16 and 58 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 35 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (15 from this quarter and 20 from the prior three quarters).

  12. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 40, Operant behavior: Experiments 3, 4, and 4A

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-09-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF), using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus) as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, could be used to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. This report covers a series of three experiments (Experiments III, IV, and IVA) on the effect of combined 60-Hz E/MF on operant behavior. These experiments were a continuation of previous investigations of 60-Hz electric field exposure on baboons.

  13. Rechargeable zinc halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

    1980-01-01

    A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

  14. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  15. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  16. Secondary alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  17. Challenges for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Kim, Youngsik

    Strategies for Li-ion batteries that are based on lithium-insertion compounds as cathodes are limited by the capacities of the cathode materials and by the safe charging rates for Li transport across a passivating SEI layer on a carbon-based anode. With these strategies, it is difficult to meet the commercial constraints on Li-ion batteries for plug-in-hybrid and all-electric vehicles as well as those for stationary electrical energy storage (EES) in a grid. Existing alternative strategies include a gaseous O 2 electrode in a Li/air battery and a solid sulfur (S 8) cathode in a Li/S battery. We compare the projected energy densities and EES efficiencies of these cells with those of a third alternative, a Li/Fe(III)/Fe(II) cell containing a redox couple in an aqueous solution as the cathode. Preliminary measurements indicate proof of concept, but implementation of this strategy requires identification of a suitable Li +-ion electrolyte.

  18. Strong lightweight battery housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Unit holds fifteen cells weighing 1.3 kilogram each, withstands vibration continuously, can be pressurized to 25 psig (175 x 1000 N/M to the 2nd power). Unit offers potential of low-cost fabrication and increased accessibility to enclosed battery cells. Device may double as utility chest for tool storage and other items.

  19. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  20. Batteries: Sieving the ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The major obstacle in the development of Li-S batteries is the undesired dissolution of polysulfide intermediates produced during electrochemical reactions. Now, a metal-organic framework-based separator is shown to mitigate the problem, leading to stable long cycles.

  1. Solar batteries: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, M.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography with 621 references is presented on solar batteries. Listings are alphabetical according to the author's name and all types of solar cells (organic and inorganic) are considered as well as articles of general interest in the area. In addition, an author index and a journal index are included. (MJJ)

  2. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  3. Development of a Woven-Grid Quasi-Bipolar Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokumaru, P.; Rippel, W.; Zambrano, T.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes an analytical and experimental investigation of AeroVironment's Quasi-Bipolar battery concept. The modelling/battery design part of the study demonstrates that there is a trade-off between thermal and specified electrical performance. Even so, quasi-bipolar batteries can be designed, with ten times better thermal uniformity, that meet or exceed current state-of-the-art hybrid-electric vehicle battery pack performance, even using the same active materials. The thermal uniformity, power, and energy for these quasi-bipolar battery packs is projected to be very good. The experimental part of the investigation demonstrates the concept of the quasi-bipolar plate applied to a lead foil current collector wrapping around two sides of an inexpensive plastic film core. Approximately 50 quasi-biplate samples were fabricated using a hot laminating press. Hot lamination with "texture" between the plastic and lead shows some promise as a low cost method for fabricating the plates. Five of these plates were assembled into two cells plus one two-cell battery. Data from these test cells were compared with existing data for similar true bipolar batteries. The positive side of the plates exhibited corrosion where not protected by the active material.

  4. Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels. Quarterly report No. 3, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.

    1995-08-01

    Microscopic behavior of the bubble pressure has been investigated for selected aqueous solutions. The Kruss dynamic tensiometer has been modified so that the analog pressure readings of the instrument can be digitized through a computer interface for post data processing. Measurements of peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time are presented for DDBS-soft and 1840{minus}x aqueous solutions of surfactant concentrations of up to 1.0%. The implementation of the A-to-D data conversion also permits to examine the accuracy of the dynamic surface tension measurement which is based on the maximum bubble pressure principle.

  5. Performance of alkaline battery cells used in emergency locator transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, G. A.; Sokol, S.; Motley, W. R., III; Mcclelland, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of battery power supplies for emergency locator transmitters (ELT's) were investigated by testing alkaline zinc/manganese dioxide cells of the type typically used in ELT's. Cells from four manufacturers were tested. The cells were subjected to simulated environmental and load conditions representative of those required for survival and operation. Battery cell characteristics that may contribute to ELT malfunctions and limitations were evaluated. Experimental results from the battery cell study are discussed, and an evaluation of ELT performance while operating under a representative worst-case environmental condition is presented.

  6. Testing Batteries as a Student Project in Industrial Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, Jorge; Pheatt, C.

    2007-05-01

    Consumer product testing can be an appealing subject area for applications-oriented physics students. The students’ interests in destructive testing can be upgraded to a real-world investigation of industrial standards (e.g. ANSI standards). Battery lifetime testing represents one such subject area. A set of battery testing activities will be offered for use in the physics curriculum. These activities are implemented with a Vernier Digital Control Unit and specific battery monitoring software (BATMON). The software and project details are available at http://batmon.emporia.edu.

  7. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong

    1995-03-31

    In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two general tasks: Task 1, molecular organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Task 2, organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. With regards to Task 1, the biphase catalyst system, [1,5-HDRhCI]{sub 2}/buffer, was investigated in detail for the hydrogenation of naphthalene or tetralin to decalin under low pressure of H{sub 2} at room temperature. The influence of various factors such as the amount of the phase transfer regent, the volume ratio of the organic phase to the aqueous phase, the pH value and compositions of the buffer solution as well as the solvents on the reaction process was investigated systematically. It was found that the rhodium catalyst works well under biphase conditions rather than under phase transfer conditions. Apparently, the surfactant molecules negatively affect the catalytic activity of the rhodium catalyst. The pH values and the compositions of the buffers in the aqueous phase are critical in the system. The best buffer solution is composed of hydrion with its pH of 7.4--7.6. In addition to tetralin, the Rh catalyst is also effective for the hydrogenation of other unactivated aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, n-butylbenzene etc. In addition, the turnover numbers of the catalyst can reach 200, but its performance needs to be improved further for practical applications. The work on this issue is currently underway. Task 2 was focused on the hydrotreating of coal liquid (VSOH) catalyzed by Catalyst 2 and Catalyst 5. Good results were achieved on this issue. Catalyst 5 was found to be a more effective catalyst for the hydrotreating of coal liquid than Catalyst 2. The coal liquid was hydrotreated to give a clear yellow liquid under relative mild conditions (1000 psi of hydrogen and 200C) if only 16 mol% of the Catalyst 5 was employed.

  8. FY 80 heavy oil program. First quarterly report, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Wayland, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Evaluation testing of packers and computational analysis of well bore insulation for heavy oil steam recovery injection wells have been investigated this quarter. An experimental program to measure downhole steam quality is under development. Initial examination of the application of the DOE downhole steam generator program to heavy oil reservoirs has commenced. The examination of alternate extraction concepts of heavy oil has been initiated. An overburden replacement technique was evaluated both computationally and in a laboratory scale experiment. Microwave heating and in situ hydrogenation are being analyzed.

  9. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  10. High-power batteries for use in hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, Christian; Newman, John

    The idea of hybrid vehicles is not a recent development; as early as the 1960s, several have companies attempted to develop bipolar lead/acid batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles [J.L. Arias, J.J. Rowlett, E.D. Drake, Journal of Power Sources, 40 (1993) 63-73.]. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to increase fuel economy by using a primary engine operating at a constant power to supply average power requirements and a surge power unit for peak power demands and to recover braking energy. To date, no detailed system optimization analysis has been performed for hybrid vehicles. This study combines a simplified version of the lithium-ion battery model developed by Doyle [C.M. Doyle, Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries, Dissertation, Fall, 1995.] with a vehicle model that determines battery-power requirements for a given driving cycle. Batteries are designed for either the highest vehicle mileage or minimal acceptable battery dimensions. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to more than double mileage as compared to conventional vehicles, and have a limited electric vehicle range. The battery goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) are investigated and often found to be differing with actual requirements. Specifically, PNGV overstates power and especially energy requirements for load-leveling devices and calls for unnecessary demands on the development of alternate technologies. The role of the driving cycle was investigated and found to be relatively unimportant as long as it contains several essential features. The important parameters in the driving cycle are the time of discharge and the maximum current (or power) level. This study suggests that a combination of both a vehicle model and a battery model is required to determine the complex interaction between hybrid-vehicle weight and battery power.

  11. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  12. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth

    2014-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 60 reportable events (23 from the 4th Qtr FY14 and 37 from the prior three reporting quarters) as well as 58 other issue reports (including not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL from July 2013 through October 2014. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC07 051D14517.

  14. SMM parallel battery operation in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R.

    1982-01-01

    A parallel battery system for the SMM spacecraft is described. The battery system performance as a function of lifetime over orbit was evaluated. The following equipment performance specifications were examined during a typical orbit: battery current and discharges, voltage limitations, battery temperature variations, and current sensor performance. Tabulated battery performance data is also included.

  15. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates. Quarterly report 37 - Part 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this program is to investigate behavioral and neuroendocrine effects associated with exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields, using the baboon (Papio cynocephalus). Results from this program are used to estimate consequences of human exposure to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electric power transmission. Electric and magnetic field measurements for Experiment IIIA (Confirmatory), Experiment IV and Social Behavior portion of Experiment III are presented. The systems for the production and monitoring of the fields performed satisfactorily during Experiment IIIA and during all but the last part of Experiment IV. In Experiment III, two-way repeated analyses of variance revealed statistically significant Group (Exposed and Sham Exposed) and Period (Baseline. Exposure, and Post-Exposure) main effects. Two significant Period by Group interactions were also found. Seven of the ten behavioral categories showed a main effect of Period. Two-sample t-test comparisons of the two groups for each period indicated that performance rates in two behavioral categories (Stereotypy and Posture) were significantly lower in the Exposure Group. In general, the Exposed subjects exhibited a trend of progressively lower performance rates across the three periods. Specific accomplishments reported in this document were: measurement of electric and magnetic fields for Experiments IIIA and IV, completed analysis of the Social Behavioral data from Experiment III, and a detailed discussion of statistical methods employed on the Social Behavioral portion of Experiment III, and hematology data were collected and recorded for Operant and Social Behavioral subjects for Experiment IV.

  16. Liquid-free lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Balaish, Moran; Peled, Emanuel; Golodnitsky, Diana; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-01-07

    Non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries are considered as most advanced power sources, albeit they are facing numerous challenges concerning almost each cell component. Herein, we diverge from the conventional and traditional liquid-based non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries to a Li-O2 system based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE-) and operated at a temperature higher than the melting point of the polymer electrolyte, where useful and most applicable conductivity values are easily achieved. The proposed SPE-based Li-O2 cell is compared to Li-O2 cells based on ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (glyme) through potentiodynamic and galvanostatic studies, showing a higher cell discharge voltage by 80 mV and most significantly, a charge voltage lower by 400 mV. The solid-state battery demonstrated a comparable discharge-specific capacity to glyme-based Li-O2 cells when discharged at the same current density. The results shown here demonstrate that the safer PEO-based Li-O2 battery is highly advantageous and can potentially replace the contingent of liquid-based cells upon further investigation.

  17. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  18. Correlating cycling history with structural evolution in commercial 26650 batteries using in operando neutron powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Hagan, Mackenzie; Al Bahri, Othman K.; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Groot, Jens; Berg, Helena; Sharma, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    Ex situ and time-resolved in operando neutron powder diffraction (NPD) has been used to study the structural evolution of the graphite negative electrode and LiFePO4 positive electrode within ANR26650M1A commercial batteries from A123 Systems, in what to our knowledge is the first reported NPD study investigating a 26650-type battery. Batteries with different and accurately-known electrochemical and storage histories were studied, enabling the tell-tale signs of battery degradation to be elucidated using NPD. The ex-situ NPD data revealed that the intensity of the graphite/lithiated graphite (LixC6 or LiyC) reflections was affected by battery history, with lower lithiated graphite (LiC12) reflection intensities typically corresponding to more abused batteries. This indicates that the lithiation of graphite is less progressed in more abused batteries, and hence these batteries have lower capacities. In operando NPD allows the rate of structural evolution in the battery electrode materials to be correlated to the applied current. Interestingly, the electrodes exhibit different responses to the applied current that depend on the battery cycling history, with this particularly evident for the negative electrode. Therefore, this work illustrates how NPD can be used to correlate a battery history with electrode structure.

  19. Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Quarters 1 and 2, with landscape elements visible, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 41 CFR 114-51.100 - Departmental Quarters Handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governing administration, management and rental rate establishment activities relating to Government furnished quarters (GFQ). Officials responsible for administration and management of quarters shall... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Departmental...