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Sample records for battery program generic

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  2. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  3. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)

  4. Generic programming in POOMA and PETE

    SciTech Connect

    Crotinger, J.A.; Cummings, J.C.; Haney, S.W.; Humphrey, W.F.; Karmesin, S.R.; Reynders, J.V.; Smith, S.A.; Williams, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    POOMA is a C++ framework for developing portable scientific applications for serial and parallel computers using high-level physical abstractions. PETE is the expression template library used by POOMA. This paper discusses generic programming techniques that are used to achieve flexibility and high performance in POOMA and PETE. POOMA uses an engine class that factors the data representation out of its array classes. PETE`s expression templates are used to build up and operate efficiently on expressions. PETE itself uses generic techniques to adapt to a variety of client-class interfaces, and to provide a powerful and flexible compile-time expression-tree traversal mechanism.

  5. Perception of Generic Prescription Drugs and Utilization of Generic Drug Discount Programs

    PubMed Central

    Omojasola, Anthony; Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Jones, Lovell

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to assess patient’s perceptions of generic drugs and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Design, Setting and Participants A survey was administered to adult participants at community health centers and community-based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Main Outcome Measures Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the strength of association between generic drug perception and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Results Respondents who agreed that “Generic prescription drugs are as effective as brand name prescription drugs,” were 3 times as likely to utilize generic drug discount programs (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–4.8, P<.001). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 1.4–76.4) and Hispanics (OR: 10.3; 95% CI: 1.3–79.4) were 10 times as likely to agree that generic drugs have more side effects than brand name drugs. Conclusion Race/ethnicity had no impact in utilization of generic drug discount programs, despite racial disparities in perception toward generic drugs’ side effects and generic drugs being inferior to brand name drugs. PMID:23140080

  6. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  7. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-02-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  8. Program Diagnoses Nickel/Cadmium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Bykat, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) computer program is prototype expert-system program for diagnosis and management of health of nickel/cadmium batteries. Intended to support evaluation of performance of batteries in Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. Oversees status of batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when so merits, raises alarm and provides diagnosis of faults as well as advice on actions to be taken to remedy condition giving rise to alarm. Provides history of statuses of batteries pertaining to health of batteries, and graphical display to help operator assimilate information generated. Written in C language.

  9. AUSSAT battery life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorian, P. W.; Pickett, D. F., Jr.; Bogner, R. S.; Chao, T. I.; Jordan, J. P.; Clark, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    AUSSAT Pty. Ltd., the Australian National Satellite organization, has contracted with the Hughes Aircraft Company (HAC) for the construction of 3 satellites based on the now familiar HS-376 product line. As part of the AUSSAT contract, HAC is conducting an extensive NiCd battery life test program. The life test program, objectives and test results to date are described. Particular emphasis is given to the evaluation of the FS2117 separator as a future replacement for the Pellon 2505 separator of which only a very limited quantity remains.

  10. Overview of NASA battery technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebling, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's technology program in batteries for space applications are presented. Program elements include: (1) advanced ambient temperature alkaline secondaries, which are primarily nickel-cadmium cells in batteries; (2) a toroidal nickel cadmium secondaries with multi-kilowatt-hour storage capacity primarily for lower orbital applications; (3) ambient temperature lithium batteries, both primary and secondaries, primarily silver hydrogen and high-capacity nickel hydrogen.

  11. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  12. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  13. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  14. HTGR generic technology program. Semiannual report ending March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-80. It covers a period when the design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of an overall review. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have continued so as to provide the basic technology required for all HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop an MEU fuel and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbine and process heat plants.

  15. NASA aerospace battery system program initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight and flight battery system problems in flight programs at NASA created high-level concern and interest in the current battery technology status. As a result, NASA conducted an in-house review of problems experienced both internally and by other government users. The derived issues which encompassed the programmatic scope from cell manufacturing to in-flight operations of the system are discussed. From the identified deficiencies, a modestly scaled battery program was established to alleviate or minimize the risks of future occurrences.

  16. A Generic Program for Multistate Protein Design

    PubMed Central

    Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Jacak, Ron; Stranges, P. Benjamin; Kuhlman, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Some protein design tasks cannot be modeled by the traditional single state design strategy of finding a sequence that is optimal for a single fixed backbone. Such cases require multistate design, where a single sequence is threaded onto multiple backbones (states) and evaluated for its strengths and weaknesses on each backbone. For example, to design a protein that can switch between two specific conformations, it is necessary to to find a sequence that is compatible with both backbone conformations. We present in this paper a generic implementation of multistate design that is suited for a wide range of protein design tasks and demonstrate in silico its capabilities at two design tasks: one of redesigning an obligate homodimer into an obligate heterodimer such that the new monomers would not homodimerize, and one of redesigning a promiscuous interface to bind to only a single partner and to no longer bind the rest of its partners. Both tasks contained negative design in that multistate design was asked to find sequences that would produce high energies for several of the states being modeled. Success at negative design was assessed by computationally redocking the undesired protein-pair interactions; we found that multistate design's accuracy improved as the diversity of conformations for the undesired protein-pair interactions increased. The paper concludes with a discussion of the pitfalls of negative design, which has proven considerably more challenging than positive design. PMID:21754981

  17. Generic Assessment Rubrics for Computer Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustapha, Aida; Samsudin, Noor Azah; Arbaiy, Nurieze; Mohammed, Rozlini; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi

    2016-01-01

    In programming, one problem can usually be solved using different logics and constructs but still producing the same output. Sometimes students get marked down inappropriately if their solutions do not follow the answer scheme. In addition, lab exercises and programming assignments are not necessary graded by the instructors but most of the time…

  18. Tpetra, and the use of generic programming in scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Christopher G; Heroux, Dr. Michael A

    2012-01-01

    We present Tpetra, a Trilinos package for parallel linear algebra primitives implementing the Petra object model. We describe Tpetra s design, based on generic programming via C++ templated types and template metaprogramming. We discuss some benefits of this approach in the context of scientific computing, with illustrations consisting of code and notable empirical results.

  19. Training for Development and Use of Generic Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joan H.; Rettig, Julianne D.

    Five part-time adult basic education instructors were trained to develop tutorials for their students by using the SuperPILOT authoring language to insert their own questions, answers, and hints in already existing generic programs. The project involved 18 hours of training and ongoing supervision and review of products. A total of 66 tutorial…

  20. Generic and Automated Runtime Program Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Scheme), one stack language (Forth), six object-oriented languages (Ada, Basic, C++, C#, Eiffel , Sather), and three imperative languages (Algol, BCPL...contract Eiffel programs [65]. This is unfortunate because embedded failures have both civilian and military implications, ranging from faulty-firmware

  1. Overview of Sandia's storage battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Grothaus, K. R.

    The primary mission of Sandia National Laboratories is the design and development of the non-nuclear components and systems for nuclear weapons. To a lesser degree, Sandia is also involved in a variety of other programs; such as, energy projects with the Department of Energy, conventional military projects with the Department of Defense, and nuclear waste management and reactor safety with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Over the years, Sandia has evolved a considerable expertise in the areas of specialty primary, reserve, and more recently, secondary battery systems. This paper focuses on the status of the storage or secondary battery programs. These programs are divided into those battery systems being developed for energy applications and those being developed for military applications.

  2. Iron-air battery development program

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzelli, E.S.; Liu, C.T.; Bryant, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The progress and status of the research and development program on the iron-air advanced technology battery system at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation during the period June 1978-December 1979 are described. This advanced battery system is being developed for electric vehicle propulsion applications. Testing and evaluation of 100 cm/sup 2/ size cells was undertaken while individual iron and air electrode programs continued. Progress is reported in a number of these study areas. Results of the improvements made in the utilization of the iron electrode active material coupled with manufacturing and processing studies related to improved air electrodes continue to indicate that a fully developed iron-air battery system will be capable of fulfilling the performance requirements for commuter electric vehicles.

  3. Summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; Odonnell, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    A summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Activities is presented. The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program represents a unified NASA wide effort with the overall objective of providing NASA with the policy and posture which will increase the safety, performance, and reliability of space power systems. The specific objectives of the program are to: enhance cell/battery safety and reliability; maintain current battery technology; increase fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; provide a means to bring forth advanced technology for flight use; assist flight programs in minimizing battery technology related flight risks; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  4. The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Utility battery energy storage allows a utility or customer to store electrical energy for dispatch at a time when its use is more economical, strategic, or efficient. The UBS program sponsors systems analyses, technology development of subsystems and systems integration, laboratory and field evaluation, and industry outreach. Achievements and planned activities in each area are discussed.

  5. Galileo probe battery program - An historical overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, S. J.; Taenaka, R. K.; Van Ess, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Galileo Probe mission to Jupiter required the selection of a battery module design that exceeded the known state of the art in 1977. The choice of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system, a technology then under development for nonaerospace applications necessitated an extensive cell and module development program that ultimately resulted in a space-qualified product that satisfies the severe constraints and requirements of the Galileo mission. The development program drew on the data base and experience then available from other government-sponsored lithium-sulfur dioxide programs and is an example of multiapplication synergism that can be derived from industry and government cooperation.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP): LIQUID COATINGS--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol or GVP which provides standards for testing liquid coatings for their enviornmental impacts under the Environmental Technology Verification program. It provides generic guidelines for product specific testing and quality assurance p...

  7. A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for Introductory Programming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorva, Juha; Karavirta, Ville; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This article is a survey of program visualization systems intended for teaching beginners about the runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on generic systems that are capable of illustrating many kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively describe such systems from the last three decades and review findings from their empirical…

  8. A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for Introductory Programming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorva, Juha; Karavirta, Ville; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This article is a survey of program visualization systems intended for teaching beginners about the runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on generic systems that are capable of illustrating many kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively describe such systems from the last three decades and review findings from their empirical…

  9. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  10. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  11. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  12. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program was initiated in 1985 to address battery problems experienced by NASA and other space battery users over the previous ten years. The original program plan was approved in May 1986 and modified in 1990 to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. The NASA Battery Workshop is supported by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program. The main objective of the discussions is to aid in defining the direction which the agency should head with respect to aerospace battery issues. Presently, primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to issues revolving around the future availability of nickel-cadmium batteries as a result of the proposed OSHA standards with respect to allowable cadmium levels in the workplace. The decision of whether or not to pursue the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs hinges on the impact of the OSHA ruling. As part of a unified Battery Program, the evaluation of a nickel-hydrogen cell design options and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  13. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-02-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program was initiated in 1985 to address battery problems experienced by NASA and other space battery users over the previous ten years. The original program plan was approved in May 1986 and modified in 1990 to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. The NASA Battery Workshop is supported by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program. The main objective of the discussions is to aid in defining the direction which the agency should head with respect to aerospace battery issues. Presently, primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to issues revolving around the future availability of nickel-cadmium batteries as a result of the proposed OSHA standards with respect to allowable cadmium levels in the workplace. The decision of whether or not to pursue the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs hinges on the impact of the OSHA ruling. As part of a unified Battery Program, the evaluation of a nickel-hydrogen cell design options and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  14. Estimating the percentage of the population with abnormally low scores (or abnormally large score differences) on standardized neuropsychological test batteries: a generic method with applications.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Gault, Catherine B

    2007-07-01

    Information on the rarity or abnormality of an individual's test scores (or test score differences) is fundamental in interpreting the results of a neuropsychological assessment. If a standardized battery of tests is administered, the question arises as to what percentage of the healthy population would be expected to exhibit one or more abnormally low test scores (and, in general, j or more abnormally low scores). Similar issues arise when the concern is with the number of abnormal pairwise differences between an individual's scores on the battery, or when an individual's scores on each component of the battery are compared with the individual's mean score. A generic Monte Carlo simulation method for tackling such problems is described (it requires only that the matrix of correlations between tests be available) and is contrasted with the use of binomial probabilities. The method is then applied to Index scores for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Three computer programs that implement the methods are made available.

  15. NLEdit: A generic graphical user interface for Fortran programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlett, Brian P.

    1994-01-01

    NLEdit is a generic graphical user interface for the preprocessing of Fortran namelist input files. The interface consists of a menu system, a message window, a help system, and data entry forms. A form is generated for each namelist. The form has an input field for each namelist variable along with a one-line description of that variable. Detailed help information, default values, and minimum and maximum allowable values can all be displayed via menu picks. Inputs are processed through a scientific calculator program that allows complex equations to be used instead of simple numeric inputs. A custom user interface is generated simply by entering information about the namelist input variables into an ASCII file. There is no need to learn a new graphics system or programming language. NLEdit can be used as a stand-alone program or as part of a larger graphical user interface. Although NLEdit is intended for files using namelist format, it can be easily modified to handle other file formats.

  16. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Report for FY 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the fiscal year 1992 activities of the, Utility Battery Storage Systems Program (UBS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Management (OEM). The UBS program is conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). UBS is responsible for the engineering development of integrated battery systems for use in utility-energy-storage (UES) and other stationary applications. Development is accomplished primarily through cost-shared contracts with industrial organizations. An important part of the development process is the identification, analysis, and characterization of attractive UES applications. UBS is organized into five projects: Utility Battery Systems Analyses; Battery Systems Engineering; Zinc/Bromine; Sodium/Sulfur; Supplemental Evaluations and Field Tests. The results of the Utility Systems Analyses are used to identify several utility-based applications for which battery storage can effectively solve existing problems. The results will also specify the engineering requirements for widespread applications and motivate and define needed field evaluations of full-size battery systems.

  17. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  18. Overview of Sandia`s Electric Vehicle Battery Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.P.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  19. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  20. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  1. Facilitating program and NCLEX-RN success in a generic BSN program.

    PubMed

    Uyehara, Janet; Magnussen, Lois; Itano, Joanne; Zhang, Shuqiang

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on a study of predictors of program and NCLEX-RN success and withdrawal in a generic BSN program at the University of Hawaii at Manoa School of Nursing. Data were collected over a 5-year period after a new curriculum was implemented. High program (95.09%) and NCLEX-RN (97.25%) success were achieved. Of the 11 who did not meet the definition of program success, 100% completed the program by another two to three semesters and 90.91% passed the NCLEX-RN as first-time takers. The program withdrawal rate was 20%. It is very important to use measures to promote program completion and NCLEX passing for both the normally progressing and at-risk student to meet the demands of the nursing shortage.

  2. The 20 kW battery study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Six battery configurations were selected for detailed study and these are described. A computer program was modified for use in estimation of the weights, costs, and reliabilities of each of the configurations, as a function of several important independent variables, such as system voltage, battery voltage ratio (battery voltage/bus voltage), and the number of parallel units into which each of the components of the power subsystem was divided. The computer program was used to develop the relationship between the independent variables alone and in combination, and the dependent variables: weight, cost, and availability. Parametric data, including power loss curves, are given.

  3. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  4. Some basic data structures and algorithms for chemical generic programming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hou, Tingjun; Qiao, Xuebin; Xu, Xiaojie

    2004-01-01

    Here, we report a template library used for molecular operation, the Molecular Handling Template Library (MHTL). The library includes some generic data structures and generic algorithms, and the two parts are associated with each other by two concepts: Properties and Molecule. The concept Properties describes the interface to access objects' properties, and the concept Molecule describes the minimum requirement for a molecular class. Data structures include seven models of Properties, each using a different method to access properties, and two models of molecular classes. Algorithms include molecular file manipulation subroutines, SMARTS language interpreter and matcher functions, and molecular OpenGL rendering functions.

  5. 77 FR 31584 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Program Evaluation Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Program Evaluation Data Collection AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology... take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required...

  6. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.

    1980-12-01

    The status of electrochemical storage systems is reviewed. Secondary batteries were recommended, however, selected mechanically rechargeable batteries and aspects of energy conservation in industrial electrochemistry were included. Batteries included are: lead acid, nickel/iron, nickel/zinc; advanced: lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur, zinc/chlorine; and research and development: metal/air, hydrogen/chlorine, zinc/bromine, redox, organic electrolytes, solid state. Electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials are examined. Energy conservation and alternative processes in electrochemical industry are reviewed. The potential contributions of the battery program to the various missions supported such as electric vehicles, photovoltaic systems, distributed electrical energy systems, and energy conservation in industry are discussed.

  7. HTGR Generic Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the second half of FY-80. It covers a period when the design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of an overall review. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have continued so as to provide the basic technology required for all HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop an LEU fuel and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbines and process heat plants.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 1, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume I: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements of the program's operations.

  9. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 1, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume I: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries of the program's operations.

  10. Professional Competency Requirements for the Basic Generic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominican Coll. of San Rafael, CA.

    A preservice, competency-based teacher education program is presented in this special education program and curriculum guide. Some of the behaviors required by the competencies include: assessing an individual child's learning abilities; working in a variety of educational settings; choosing a curriculum to teach children with different abilities;…

  11. Generic Optimization Program User Manual Version 3.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-05-11

    GenOpt is an optimization program for the minimization of a cost function that is evaluated by an external simulation program. It has been developed for optimization problems where the cost function is computationally expensive and its derivatives are not available or may not even exist. GenOpt can be coupled to any simulation program that reads its input from text files and writes its output to text files. The independent variables can be continuous variables (possibly with lower and upper bounds), discrete variables, or both, continuous and discrete variables. Constraints on dependent variables can be implemented using penalty or barrier functions. GenOpt uses parallel computing to evaluate the simulations. GenOpt has a library with local and global multi-dimensional and one-dimensional optimization algorithms, and algorithms for doing parametric runs. An algorithm interface allows adding new minimization algorithms without knowing the details of the program structure. GenOpt is written in Java so that it is platform independent. The platform independence and the general interface make GenOpt applicable to a wide range of optimization problems. GenOpt has not been designed for linear programming problems, quadratic programming problems, and problems where the gradient of the cost function is available. For such problems, as well as for other problems, special tailored software exists that is more efficient.

  12. Influence Based Learning Program Scientific Learning Approach to Science Students Generic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahyuni, Ida; Amdani, Khairul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of scientific approach based learning program (P2BPS) against generic science skills of students. The method used in this research is "quasi experiment" with "two-group pretest posttest" design.The population in this study were all students who take courses in general physics II at the…

  13. Programming Languages or Generic Software Tools, for Beginners' Courses in Computer Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Erich

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of methods that can be used to teach beginner courses in computer literacy focuses on students aged 10-12. The value of using a programing language versus using a generic software package is highlighted; Logo and Prolog are reviewed; and the use of databases is discussed. (LRW)

  14. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C.K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  15. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  16. Generic Baccalaureate Nursing Programs: Survey of Enrollment, Administrative Structure/Funding, Faculty Teaching/Practice Roles, and Selected Curriculum Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman, Barbara K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Generic Baccalaureate Nursing Data Project is described, which surveyed: enrollment trends, budget and support services for nursing programs, faculty development and workload determinants, and collaborative arrangements between nursing programs and clinical agencies. (Author/MLW)

  17. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 2/Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume II Appendix A to Part 2 - Volume I.

  18. Zinc-oxygen battery development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Deborah S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this Zinc-Oxygen development program is to incorporate the improved air/oxygen cathode and zinc anode technology developed in recent years into relatively large cells (150-200 amp/hr, 25-100 hour rate) and smaller high rate cells (9-12 amp/hr, 3-12 hour rate). Existing commercial cells manufactured by Duracell and Rayovac are currently being utilized on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mini-oscilloscope, the crew radio, and other crew equipment. These applications provide a basis for other Orbiter systems that require portable, storable, electrical power as well as emergency power for the Space Station major payload systems power and for Space Station equipment applications.

  19. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  20. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-05-23

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  1. Generic radiological characterization protocol for surveys conducted for DOE remedial action programs

    SciTech Connect

    Berven, B.A.; Cottrell, W.D.; Leggett, R.W.; Little, C.A.; Myrick, T.E.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes goals and methodology that can be used by radiological survey contractors in surveys at properties associated with the Department of Energy's remedial action programs. The description includes: (1) a general discussion of the history of the remedial action programs; (2) the types of surveys that may be employed by the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) contractor; (3) generic survey methods that may be used during radiological surveys; and (4) a format for presenting information and data in a survey report. 9 refs.

  2. A generic model for evaluating payor net cost savings from a disease management program.

    PubMed

    McKay, Niccie L

    2006-01-01

    Private and public payors increasingly are turning to disease management programs as a means of improving the quality of care provided and controlling expenditures for individuals with specific medical conditions. This article presents a generic model that can be adapted to evaluate payor net cost savings from a variety of types of disease management programs, with net cost savings taking into account both changes in expenditures resulting from the program and the costs of setting up and operating the program. The model specifies the required data, describes the data collection process, and shows how to calculate the net cost savings in a spreadsheet format. An accompanying hypothetical example illustrates how to use the model.

  3. ETX-I: First-generation single-shaft electric propulsion system program. Volume 2: Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-06-01

    The overall objective of this research and development program was to advance ac powertrain technology for electric vehicles (EV). The program focused on the design, build, test, and refinement of an experimental advanced electric vehicle powertrain suitable for packaging in a Ford Escort or equivalent-size vehicle. A Mercury LN7 was subsequently selected for the test bed vehicle. Although not part of the initial contract, the scope of the ETX-I Program was expanded in 1983 to encompass the development of advanced electric vehicle batteries compatible with the ETX-I powertrain and vehicle test bed. The intent of the battery portion of the ETX-I Program was to apply the best available battery technology based on existing battery developments. The battery effort was expected to result in a practical scale-up of base battery technologies to the vehicle battery subsystem level. With the addition of the battery activity, the ETX-I Program became a complete proof-of-concept ac propulsion system technology development program. In this context, the term propulsion system is defined as all components and subsystems (from the driver input to the vehicle wheels) that are required to store energy on board the vehicle and, using that energy, to provide controlled motive power to the vehicle. This report, Volume 2, describes the battery portion of the ETX-I Program. The powertrain effort is reported in Volume 1.

  4. Addition of generic medication vouchers to a pharmacist academic detailing program: effects on the generic dispensing ratio in a physician-hospital organization.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Vinay; Greg, Mark E; Shields, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Generic dispensing ratio (GDR) is an important measure of efficiency in pharmacy benefit management. A few studies have examined the effects of academic detailing or generic drug samples on GDR. On July 1, 2007, a physician-hospital organization (PHO) with a pay-for-performance incentive for generic utilization initiated a pilot generic medication voucher program that augmented its existing pharmacist-led academic detailing efforts. No published studies have examined the role of generic medication vouchers in promoting generic drug utilization. To determine if supplementing an existing academic detailing initiative in a PHO with a generic medication voucher program would be more effective in increasing the GDR compared with academic detailing alone. The intervention took place over the 9-month period from July 1, 2007, through March 31, 2008. Vouchers provided patients with the first fill of a 30-day supply of a generic drug at no cost to the patient for 8 specific generic medications obtained through a national community pharmacy chain. The study was conducted in a PHO composed of 7 hospitals and approximately 2,900 physicians (900 primary care providers [PCPs] and 2,000 specialists). Of the approximately 300 PCP practices, 21 practices with at least 2 physicians each were selected on the basis of high prescription volume (more than 500 pharmacy claims for the practice over a 12-month pre-baseline period) and low GDR (practice GDR less than 55% in the 12-month pre-baseline period). These 21 practices were then randomized to a control group of academic detailing alone or the intervention group that received academic detailing plus generic medication vouchers. One of 10 intervention groups declined to participate, and 2 of 11 control groups dropped out of the PHO. GDR was calculated monthly for all pharmacy claims including the 8 voucher medications. GDR was defined as the ratio of the total number of paid generic pharmacy claims divided by the total number of paid

  5. New technology from 100 ampere-hour Ni-Cd space battery program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present paper describes some of the results of a 100 Ah battery development program. Background, module design, cell terminal design, and other technology newly used are described. It is shown that the program led to successful production of both cell and module, and that several areas utilized new technology and contributed advances to the sealed secondary battery state-of-the-art.

  6. New technology from 100 ampere-hour Ni-Cd space battery program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present paper describes some of the results of a 100 Ah battery development program. Background, module design, cell terminal design, and other technology newly used are described. It is shown that the program led to successful production of both cell and module, and that several areas utilized new technology and contributed advances to the sealed secondary battery state-of-the-art.

  7. Generic drug discount programs: are prescriptions being submitted for pharmacy benefit adjudication?

    PubMed

    Tungol, Alexandra; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Qiu, Yang; Gleason, Patrick P

    2012-01-01

      In 2006, pharmacies began offering select generic prescription drugs at discount prices (e.g., $4 for a 30-day supply) through nonmembership and membership programs. As part of the contract in membership generic drug discount programs, the member agrees to forgo submission of the claim to the insurance company. Claims not submitted for insurance adjudication may result in incomplete pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) and health plan data, which could negatively influence adherence reporting and clinical programs. To address potentially missing claims data, the Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) encourages Medicare Part D sponsors to incentivize network pharmacies to submit claims directly to the plan for drugs dispensed outside of a member's Part D benefit, unless a member refuses. The extent of PBM and health plan claims capture loss due to generic drug discount programs is unknown. To identify changes in levothyroxine utilizers' prescription claims capture rate following the advent of generic drug discount membership and nonmembership programs. This retrospective concurrent cohort study used claims data from 3.5 million commercially insured members enrolled in health plans located in the central and southern United States with Prime Therapeutics pharmacy benefit coverage. Members were required to be 18 years or older and younger than 60 years as of January 1, 2006, and continuously enrolled from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2010. Members utilizing generic levothyroxine for at least 120 days during January 1, 2006, through June 30, 2006 (baseline period) from the same pharmacy group with supply on July 1, 2006, were placed into 1 of 3 pharmacy groups: (1) nonmembership (Walmart, Sam's Club, Target, Kroger, City Market, and King Soopers pharmacies), (2) membership (Walgreens, CVS, Albertsons, and Savon pharmacies), or (3) the reference group of all other pharmacies. The index date was defined as July 1, 2006. The levothyroxine claim providing

  8. Electromechanical Battery Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. F.; Bender, D. A.; Merritt, B. T.

    1994-05-01

    New materials and new design concepts are being incorporated in a new approach to an old idea - flywheel energy storage - to create an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling. We visualize such EMB's (electromechanical batteries) as being modular in character, with small (1-5 kWh) modules being used for power-conditioning and for vehicular use, and paralleled 25 kWh modules being used for bulk storage, i.e., load-leveling, applications. In a funded program at the Laboratory two fractional kWh, 200 kW (design peak power) modules have been constructed and subjected to shake-down testing. Their design for high peak power was prompted by awareness of a particular commercial need, as a component in a power-line conditioning device. In addition to such stationary applications, the high power capability of our EMB designs makes them attractive for use in hybrid-electric vehicles. Important elements of the LLNL program include the development of passive magnetic bearings and the application of new high-efficiency permanent magnet arrays to an ironless generator/motor. Use of these particular elements, together with a multi-ring design for the flywheel rotor, is particularly conducive to a systemic approach to the design of an EMB module. These particular design developments have been motivated by the economic issues of simplification, lowered cost, and extended maintenance-free service life.

  9. Electromechanical Battery Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Bender, D.A.; Merritt, B.T.

    1994-05-31

    New materials and new design concepts are being incorporated in a new approach to an old idea -- flywheel energy storage -- to create an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling. We visualize such EMBs (electromechanical batteries) as being modular in character, with small (1--5 kWh) modules being used for power-conditioning and for vehicular use, and paralleled 25 kWh modules being used for bulk storage, i.e., load-leveling, applications. In a funded program at the Laboratory two fractional kWh, 200 kW (design peak power) modules have been constructed and subjected to shake-down testing. Their design for high peak power was prompted by awareness of a particular commercial need, as a component in a power-line conditioning device. In addition to such stationary applications, the high power capability of our EMB designs makes them attractive for use in hybrid-electric vehicles. Important elements of the LLNL program include the development of passive magnetic bearings and the application of new high-efficiency permanent magnet arrays to an ironless generator/motor. Use of these particular elements, together with a multi-ring design for the flywheel rotor, is particularly conducive to a systemic approach to the design of an EMB module. These particular design developments have been motivated by the economic issues of simplification, lowered cost, and extended maintenance-free service life.

  10. Program maintenance manual for nickel cadmium battery expert system, version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is an expert system for fault diagnosis and advice of the nickel-cadmium batteries found in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The system application and security, equipment environment, and the program maintenance procedures are examined.

  11. Program maintenance manual for nickel cadmium battery expert system, version 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-10-01

    The Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is an expert system for fault diagnosis and advice of the nickel-cadmium batteries found in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The system application and security, equipment environment, and the program maintenance procedures are examined.

  12. Predictors of $4 Generic Prescription Drug Discount Programs use in the Low-income Population

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Paxton, Raheem; Jones, Lovell

    2013-01-01

    Background Generic drug discount programs (GDDPs) are an option to provide affordable prescription medication to low-income individuals. However, the factors that influence the use of GDDPs in low-income population are unknown. Objectives To evaluate factors associated with utilization of generic a drug discount program in a low-income population. Methods A survey was administered to adult participants at health centers and community based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the construct validity of the survey instrument and to assess distinct factors associated with GDDP utilization. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution of patient socio-demographic characteristics and questionnaire responses. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios and to examine the strength of association with GDDP utilization after adjusting for participant socio-demographic features that were statistically significant at a priori level of p<0.05. Results In this study, 72% of respondents were aware of the GDDP, and 61% had utilized the GDDP. Participants were 4 times likely to use a GDDP when their physician (AOR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.6 – 6.4, P < 0.001) or pharmacist (AOR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.6 – 6.3, P < 0.001) talked to them about it. Participants indicated that the most important barriers to utilization of GDDPs were lack of awareness (44%), and lack of recommendation by a physician (19%). Conclusions Increased patient awareness and physician recommendation may increase the use of GDDPs, which may lead to improved compliance with medications, better health outcomes and reduced health care costs. PMID:23684716

  13. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Develop an understanding of the safety issues relating to space use and qualification of new Li-Ion technology for manned applications. Enable use of new technology batteries into GFE equipment - laptop computers, camcorders. Establish a data base for an optimized set of cells (and batteries) exhibiting acceptable performance and abuse characteristics for utilization as building blocks for numerous applications.

  14. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  15. The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program to Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.

  16. The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program to Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.

  17. Batteries for solar energy systems -- A program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-31

    DOE has selected Sandia National Laboratories as its lead laboratory to direct a program to develop and test batteries for electrical storage in a variety of solar applications. Initial emphasis is on storage in photovoltaic systems, but wind-energy and solar-thermal systems will be considered later. The BSSAP program is divided functionally into five tasks: Task 1--battery requirements analysis; Task 2--laboratory evaluation; Task 3--PV advanced systems tests; Task 4--applied experiments; Task 5--battery research and development. This report briefly discusses these tasks.

  18. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program, 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chronous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included.

  19. Mediation effects of a culturally generic substance use prevention program for Asian American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the mediation effects of a family-based substance use prevention program on a sample of Asian American families. These families were randomized into an intervention arm or a non-intervention control arm. Using path models, we assessed the effect of the intervention on adolescent girls’ substance use outcomes at 2-year follow-up through family relationships and adolescent self-efficacy pathways. Bias-corrected bootstrapping strategy was employed to assess the significance of the mediation effect by evaluating the 95% confidence interval of the standardized coefficient. The results show that receiving the intervention exerted a positive effect on girls’ family relationships at 1-year follow-up. Such an improvement was associated with girls’ increased self-efficacy, which in turn led to girls’ decreased alcohol use, marijuana use, and future intention to use substances at 2-year follow-up. Considering the diverse cultural backgrounds, as well as languages, nationalities, and acculturation levels under the umbrella term “Asian Americans”, we demonstrate that a universal web-based intervention that tackles the theoretical- and empirical-based risk and protective factors can be effective for Asian Americans. Despite its generic nature, our program may provide relevant tools for Asian American parents in assisting their adolescent children to navigate through the developmental stage and ultimately, resist substance use. PMID:25505939

  20. CohortExplorer: A Generic Application Programming Interface for Entity Attribute Value Database Schemas.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Abhishek; Dobson, Richard J B

    2014-12-01

    Most electronic data capture (EDC) and electronic data management (EDM) systems developed to collect and store clinical data from participants recruited into studies are based on generic entity-attribute-value (EAV) database schemas which enable rapid and flexible deployment in a range of study designs. The drawback to such schemas is that they are cumbersome to query with structured query language (SQL). The problem increases when researchers involved in multiple studies use multiple electronic data capture and management systems each with variation on the EAV schema. The aim of this study is to develop a generic application which allows easy and rapid exploration of data and metadata stored under EAV schemas that are organized into a survey format (questionnaires/events, questions, values), in other words, the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Observational Data Model (ODM). CohortExplorer is written in Perl programming language and uses the concept of SQL abstract which allows the SQL query to be treated like a hash (key-value pairs). We have developed a tool, CohortExplorer, which once configured for a EAV system will "plug-n-play" with EAV schemas, enabling the easy construction of complex queries through an abstracted interface. To demonstrate the utility of the CohortExplorer system, we show how it can be used with the popular EAV based frameworks; Opal (OBiBa) and REDCap. The application is available under a GPL-3+ license at the CPAN website. Currently the application only provides datasource application programming interfaces (APIs) for Opal and REDCap. In the future the application will be available with datasource APIs for all major electronic data capture and management systems such as OpenClinica and LabKey. At present the application is only compatible with EAV systems where the metadata is organized into surveys, questionnaires and events. Further work is needed to make the application compatible with EAV schemas where the

  1. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  2. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  3. Successful Development of Generic Capabilities in an Undergraduate Medical Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, H. Patrick; Scicluna, Helen A.; Boyle, Patrick; Grimm, Michael C.; Gibson, Kathryn A.; Jones, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of generic capabilities or graduate attributes in communication, teamwork, critical analysis of information, problem solving and ethical practice is widely recognised as a desired outcome of higher education. This emphasis on generic capabilities has emerged despite ongoing debates about the concept and development of such…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATINGS EQUIPMENT PROGRAM, UV-CURABLE COATINGS GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this document is to establish the Generic Verification Protocol (GVP) for ultraviolet (UV)-curable coatings, to be referred to as the UV-Curable Coatings GVP. The secondary purpose is to establish the generic format and guidelines for product specific Tes...

  5. Successful Development of Generic Capabilities in an Undergraduate Medical Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, H. Patrick; Scicluna, Helen A.; Boyle, Patrick; Grimm, Michael C.; Gibson, Kathryn A.; Jones, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of generic capabilities or graduate attributes in communication, teamwork, critical analysis of information, problem solving and ethical practice is widely recognised as a desired outcome of higher education. This emphasis on generic capabilities has emerged despite ongoing debates about the concept and development of such…

  6. A Generic multi-dimensional feature extraction method using multiobjective genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Rockett, Peter I

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generic feature extraction method for pattern classification using multiobjective genetic programming. This not only evolves the (near-)optimal set of mappings from a pattern space to a multi-dimensional decision space, but also simultaneously optimizes the dimensionality of that decision space. The presented framework evolves vector-to-vector feature extractors that maximize class separability. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by making statistically-founded comparisons with a wide variety of established classifier paradigms over a range of datasets and find that for most of the pairwise comparisons, our evolutionary method delivers statistically smaller misclassification errors. At very worst, our method displays no statistical difference in a few pairwise comparisons with established classifier/dataset combinations; crucially, none of the misclassification results produced by our method is worse than any comparator classifier. Although principally focused on feature extraction, feature selection is also performed as an implicit side effect; we show that both feature extraction and selection are important to the success of our technique. The presented method has the practical consequence of obviating the need to exhaustively evaluate a large family of conventional classifiers when faced with a new pattern recognition problem in order to attain a good classification accuracy.

  7. Technical Manual for Batteries, Navy Lithium Safety Program Responsibilities and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-20

    monofluoride, liquids such as thionyl chloride , or gases such as sulfur dioxide. Cathodes may be pure materials or mixtures of reactive compounds...are liquids, which can serve as cathode reactants and electrolytes in cells and batteries. Typical examples are thionyl chloride (SOCl2) and...S9310-AQ-SAF-010 0910-LP-128-4800 TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR BATTERIES, NAVY LITHIUM SAFETY PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES AND

  8. The mission and status of the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program history, assessing the importance it has had in the national interest to date in industrial, vehicular, and electric utility load leveling applications. The development status of battery technology is also evaluated for the cases of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-ferricyanide, nickel-hydrogen, aluminum-air, lithium-metal disulfide, and fuel cell systems. Development trends are projected into the foreseeable future.

  9. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 2, Part 3; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S,; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume II Appendices to Part 3 - Volume I.

  10. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  11. Preparing for the workplace: fostering generic attributes in allied health education programs.

    PubMed

    Higgs, J; Hunt, A

    1999-01-01

    Allied health curricula need to extend beyond the learning of discipline-specific skills to encompass broader learning goals. In particular, the acquisition of generic skills is necessary to enable graduates to function more competently and confidently within their rapidly changing work, professional, and societal environments. In health sciences education particularly, the rate of change in practice and education is rapid and unprecedented. If educators focus on components of the curriculum rather than the entire learning experience, they are likely to significantly limit the students' acquisition of such generic skills. To achieve the desired generic skills outcomes, an overarching, integrated, and consistently applied curriculum strategy is advocated. This article considers a number of such strategies relevant to allied health education.

  12. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Electrochemical Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby. significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of October 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. These tasks are structured into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 3.0 Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; 4.0 Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; 5.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

  13. Galileo Li/SO sub 2 battery modules program update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to meet the power needs of NASA's Galileo Probe, the Li/SO2 high rate D cells used in the battery modules have undergone some design changes, as upgrading of hardware quality requirements, and significant testing. A description of the design changes and the cell test data that are of a general nature is presented here. This data includes capacities, open circuit voltages, and internal resistance comparisons. A significant data base was built up over the years and continues to grow.

  14. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  15. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... must identify the subject matter (``Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Energy Conservation... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power...

  16. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    DOE PAGES

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  17. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  18. The 100 ampere-hour nickel cadmium battery development program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.

    1974-01-01

    A program to develop a long-life, reliable and safe 100 ampere-hour sealed nickel-cadmium cell and battery module with ancillary charge control and automated test equipment to fulfill the requirements of a large Manned Orbital Space Station which uses Solar Arrays as its prime source for 25 kW of electrical power was conducted. A sealed 100 ampere-hour cell with long life potential and a replaceable, space maintainable battery module has been developed for Manned Space Station applications. The 100 ampere-hour cell has been characterized for initial (early life) anticipated conditions.

  19. Vibratory response of a precision double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system using a generic modeling program with experimental verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, J.

    1998-07-29

    A generic vibratory response-modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. The systems are modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear non-rigid elements such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each non-rigid element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Thus, it is possible to have a suite of standardize structural elements for modeling many different positioning systems that use standardized components. This paper will present the application of this program to a double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system that utilizes standardized components. Calculated results are compared to experimental modal analysis results.

  20. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  1. Some theoretical models and constructs generic to substance abuse prevention programs for adolescents: possible relevance and limitations for problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.

  2. Generic Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    Generic Drugs: The Same Medicine for Less Money What is a generic drug? A generic is a copy of a brand-name drug. A brand- name drug has a patent. When ... benefit to your health, and you will save money. 7KH IHGHUDO )RRG DQG 'UXJ $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ )'$ UHJXODWHV ERWK ...

  3. Technical Manual for Batteries, Navy Lithium Safety Program Responsibilities and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-19

    chloride battery manufactured by Acme Battery Manufacturers, Inc. The battery is a single cell, hermetically sealed lithium / thionyl chloride ...reserve lithium / thionyl chloride battery manufactured by Acme Battery Manufacturers, Inc. The battery is a single cell, hermetically sealed... lithium / thionyl chloride system with a mechanical activation mechanism. The system is currently in development by the Army and is proposed for use by

  4. Software control program for 25 kW breadboard testing. [spacecraft power supplies; high voltage batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajak, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A data acquisition software program developed to operate in conjunction with the automated control system of the 25 kW PM Electric Power System Breadboard Test facility is described. The proram provides limited interactive control of the breadboard test while acquiring data and monitoring parameters, allowing unattended continuous operation. The breadboard test facility has two positions for operating separate configurations. The main variable in each test setup is the high voltage Ni-Cd battery.

  5. Assessment of Lithium-based Battery Electrolytes Developed under the NASA PERS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, NASA formally completed the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Program, which was established in 2000 in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The goal of this program was to ultimately develop an advanced, space-qualified battery technology, which embodied a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and complementary components, with improved performance characteristics that would address future aerospace battery requirements. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. A variety of cell and polymeric electrolyte concepts were pursued as part of the development efforts undertaken at numerous governmental, industrial and academic laboratories. Numerous candidate electrolyte materials were developed, synthesized and optimized for evaluation. Utilizing the component screening facility and the "standardized" test procedures developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, electrochemical screening and performance evaluations of promising candidate materials were completed. This overview summarizes test results for a variety of candidate electrolyte materials that were developed under the PERS Program. Electrolyte properties are contrasted and compared to the original project goals, and the strengths and weaknesses of the electrolyte chemistries are discussed. Limited cycling data for full-cells using lithium metal and vanadium oxide electrodes are also presented. Based on measured electrolyte properties, the projected performance characteristics and temperature limitations of batteries utilizing

  6. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  7. The ANL electric vehicle battery R/D program for DOE-EHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid PropuLsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce air pollution and petroleum consumption. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of 1 Oct. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Sodium/Metal Chloride R&D 3.0 Microreference Electrodes for Lithium/Polymer Batteries; and 4.0 USABC Support. The Project Management and Coordination Task Area encompasses planning, organization, coordination, integration, and overall management of battery R&D projects for DOE-EHP, as well as work performed in behalf of DOE-directed inter-laboratory tasks. Section 3 of this report recounts the work performed during this reporting period on each task within these task areas.

  8. Generic concept to program the time domain of self-assemblies with a self-regulation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Thomas; Steppert, Ann-Kathrin; Lopez, Catalina Molano; Zhu, Baolei; Walther, Andreas

    2015-04-08

    Nature regulates complex structures in space and time via feedback loops, kinetically controlled transformations, and under energy dissipation to allow non-equilibrium processes. Although man-made static self-assemblies realize excellent control over hierarchical structures via molecular programming, managing their temporal destiny by self-regulation is a largely unsolved challenge. Herein, we introduce a generic concept to control the time domain by programming the lifetimes of switchable self-assemblies in closed systems. We conceive dormant deactivators that, in combination with fast promoters, enable a unique kinetic balance to establish an autonomously self-regulating, transient pH-state, whose duration can be programmed over orders of magnitude-from minutes to days. Coupling this non-equilibrium state to pH-switchable self-assemblies allows predicting their assembly/disassembly fate in time, similar to a precise self-destruction mechanism. We demonstrate a platform approach by programming self-assembly lifetimes of block copolymers, nanoparticles, and peptides, enabling dynamic materials with a self-regulation functionality.

  9. A Meta-Evaluation of a Generic Skills Approach to Evaluating Academic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gary W.

    The Academic Program Evaluation Paradigm (APEP) is a five-stage process for participating institutions and their faculties to structure inquiry into their academic programs and develop concrete procedures to effect institutional changes. APEP was developed and implemented by 10 member institutions of the American Association of State Colleges and…

  10. Lithium Ambient-Temperature Battery Reliability Program, May 1983-April 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, C. D.; Hall, N. H.; Thomas, E. V.

    1986-06-01

    From May 1983 through April 1985 Sandia National Laboratories continued to develop and evaluate nondestructive methodology for predicting the reliability of primary lithium batteries. During this period, considerable time was spent improving the microcalorimetry data acquisition and processing software and completing the curve-fitting algorithm for the impedance data. All initial measurements were conducted, and all cells either completed the storage portion of the text matrix or remained in storage. Some statistical analyses were completed. Several nondestructive measurement variables that correlate well with remaining capacity were identified. Finally, the status of the program was evaluated and the program was tentatively extended to October 1986.

  11. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... and General Instructions a. Confidence Intervals b. Test Laboratory Temperature c. Charge Rate Selection d. Battery Selection e. Non-Battery Charging Functions f. Battery Chargers With Protective Circuitry g. Charge Capacity of Batteries With No Rating h. Battery Conditioning i. Rest Period 5. Test...

  12. The cost of generic clinical mastitis in dairy cows as estimated by using dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Bar, D; Tauer, L W; Bennett, G; González, R N; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Schulte, H F; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of generic clinical mastitis (CM) in high-yielding dairy cows given optimal decisions concerning handling of CM cases. A specially structured optimization and simulation model that included a detailed representation of repeated episodes of CM was used to study the effects of various factors on the cost of CM. The basic scenario was based on data from 5 large herds in New York State. In the basic scenario, 92% of the CM cases were recommended to be treated. The average cost of CM per cow and year in these herds was $71. The average cost of a CM case was $179. It was composed of $115 because of milk yield losses, $14 because of increased mortality, and $50 because of treatment-associated costs. The estimated cost of CM was highly dependent on cow traits: it was highest ($403) in cows with high expected future net returns (e.g., young, high-milk-yielding cows), and was lowest ($3) in cows that were recommended to be culled for reasons other than mastitis. The cost per case of CM was 18% higher with a 20% increase in milk price and 17% lower with a 20% decrease in milk price. The cost per case of CM was affected little by a 20% change in replacement cost or pregnancy rate. Changes in CM incidence, however, resulted from changes in these factors, thus affecting whole-farm profitability. The detailed results obtained from this insemination and replacement optimization model can assist farmers in making CM treatment decisions.

  13. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  14. A Generic Qualitative Study of the Experiences of International Students Participating in the Cultural Connections Program at the University of Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kholomeydik, Nadezda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the experiences of international students participating in the Cultural Connections Program at The University of Mississippi. A generic qualitative design was utilized using purposeful criterion sampling. The data was collected from two focus group interviews with 11 participants in focus group 1 and 10…

  15. Mechanism to support generic collective communication across a variety of programming models

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Dozsa, Gabor; Kumar, Sameer

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for supporting collective communications on a plurality of processors that use different parallel programming paradigms, in one aspect, may comprise a schedule defining one or more tasks in a collective operation, an executor that executes the task, a multisend module to perform one or more data transfer functions associated with the tasks, and a connection manager that controls one or more connections and identifies an available connection. The multisend module uses the available connection in performing the one or more data transfer functions. A plurality of processors that use different parallel programming paradigms can use a common implementation of the schedule module, the executor module, the connection manager and the multisend module via a language adaptor specific to a parallel programming paradigm implemented on a processor.

  16. Effectiveness of moving on: an Australian designed generic self-management program for people with a chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the evaluation of “Moving On”, a generic self-management program for people with a chronic illness developed by Arthritis NSW. The program aims to help participants identify their need for behaviour change and acquire the knowledge and skills to implement changes that promote their health and quality of life. Method A prospective pragmatic randomised controlled trial involving two group programs in community settings: the intervention program (Moving On) and a control program (light physical activity). Participants were recruited by primary health care providers across the north-west region of metropolitan Sydney, Australia between June 2009 and October 2010. Patient outcomes were self-reported via pre- and post-program surveys completed at the time of enrolment and sixteen weeks after program commencement. Primary outcomes were change in self-efficacy (Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale), self-management knowledge and behaviour and perceived health status (Self-Rated Health Scale and the Health Distress Scale). Results A total of 388 patient referrals were received, of whom 250 (64.4%) enrolled in the study. Three patients withdrew prior to allocation. 25 block randomisations were performed by a statistician external to the research team: 123 patients were allocated to the intervention program and 124 were allocated to the control program. 97 (78.9%) of the intervention participants commenced their program. The overall attrition rate of 40.5% included withdrawals from the study and both programs. 24.4% of participants withdrew from the intervention program but not the study and 22.6% withdrew from the control program but not the study. A total of 62 patients completed the intervention program and follow-up evaluation survey and 77 patients completed the control program and follow-up evaluation survey. At 16 weeks follow-up there was no significant difference between intervention and control groups in self

  17. 78 FR 30930 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ..., for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be... Clearance To Support Programs and Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SUMMARY...

  18. Solution ionic strength engineering as a generic strategy to coat graphene oxide (GO) on various functional particles and its application in high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jiepeng; Ge, Mingyuan; Fang, Xin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-02-12

    A generic and facile method of coating graphene oxide (GO) on particles is reported, with sulfur/GO core-shell particles demonstrated as an example for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery application with superior performance. Particles of different diameters (ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm), geometries, and compositions (sulfur, silicon, and carbon) are successfully wrapped up by GO, by engineering the ionic strength in solutions. Importantly, our method does not involve any chemical reaction between GO and the wrapped particles, and therefore, it can be extended to vast kinds of functional particles. The applications of sulfur/GO core-shell particles as Li-S battery cathode materials are further investigated, and the results show that sulfur/GO exhibit significant improvements over bare sulfur particles without coating. Galvanic charge-discharge test using GO/sulfur particles shows a specific capacity of 800 mAh/g is retained after 1000 cycles at 1 A/g current rate if only the mass of sulfur is taken into calculation, and 400 mAh/g if the total mass of sulfur/GO is considered. Most importantly, the capacity decay over 1000 cycles is less than 0.02% per cycle. The coating method developed in this study is facile, robust, and versatile and is expected to have wide range of applications in improving the properties of particle materials.

  19. Learning generics.

    PubMed

    Shulkin, D J

    1992-01-01

    The growing use of generic drug substitution may have important implications on quality of care. This study was conducted to determine resident physicians' knowledge of restrictive prescribing policies at the hospitals where they primarily practice.

  20. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Prototype Batteries for Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L.; Surampudi, S.; Byers, J.; Marsh, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the scientific payload, expected launch date and tasks, and an image of the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander components. The Lander's battery specifications are given. The program objectives for the Li-ion cells for the Lander are listed, and results performance evaluation and cycle life performance tests are outlined for different temperatures. Cell charge characteristics are described, and test data is presented for charge capacity at varying temperatures. Capacity retention and storage characteristics tests are described and results are shown.

  1. ISPATOM: A Generic Real-Time Data Processing Tool Without Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Information Sharing Protocol Advanced Tool of Math (ISPATOM) is an application program allowing for the streamlined generation of comps, which subscribe to streams of incoming telemetry data, perform any necessary computations on the data, then send the data to other programs for display and/or further processing in NASA mission control centers. Heretofore, the development of comps was difficult, expensive, and time-consuming: Each comp was custom written manually, in a low-level computing language, by a programmer attempting to follow requirements of flight controllers. ISPATOM enables a flight controller who is not a programmer to write a comp by simply typing in one or more equation( s) at a command line or retrieving the equation(s) from a text file. ISPATOM then subscribes to the necessary input data, performs all of necessary computations, and sends out the results. It sends out new results whenever the input data change. The use of equations in ISPATOM is no more difficult than is entering equations in a spreadsheet. The time involved in developing a comp is thus limited to the time taken to decide on the necessary equations. Thus, ISPATOM is a real-time dynamic calculator.

  2. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R&D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  3. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  4. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  5. Registered Nurse to Bachelor of Science in Nursing: nesting a fast-track to traditional generic program, teachings from nursing education in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Beogo, Idrissa; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Dlamini, Colile P; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Nursing education has evolved over time to fit societies' increasing care needs. Innovations in nursing education draw thorny debates on potential jeopardy in the quality, safety, and efficacy of nurse graduates. Accelerated nursing education programs have been among landmark strategic changes to address the persistent bedside nurse shortage. Despite the dearth of empirical studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the National School of Public Health of Burkina Faso has developed a State Diploma Nursing (SDN) fast-track program. With innovative features, the program is nested into the traditional SDN program. This study investigates preliminary outcomes of the implemented policy using the initial cohort that went through the program. Comparison of the traditional generic program and the fast-track one is drawn to inform nursing education policy. The study was conducted in the three campuses delivering the SDN program. Data collected from a representative sample included 255 students from the 2006-2009 cohort, after concluding the program. Surveyed students were assessed according to the program entry status. Outcomes were measured using students' academic performance. Besides descriptive analysis, bivariate t-test, F-test, and multivariate ordinary least square regression (OLSR) were employed to determine the comparative pattern between the traditional generic and the newly nested fast-track program. Students' varied statuses (private pre-registration, state pre-registration, private post-registration, and state post-registration) were kept to better outline the findings trend. A fifth (19.6 %) of surveyed students were enrolled in the fast-track stream from which, one third (33.7 %) consisted of post-registered students. Fast-track students comparatively achieved the best academic performance (mean: 73.68/100, SD: 5.52). Multivariate OLSR confirmed that fast-track students performed better (β: 5.559, p < 0.001), and further informed differences between campuses

  6. Environmental Technology Verification Program Materials Management and Remediation Center Generic Protocol for Verification of In Situ Chemical Oxidation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), focused specifically to expand the application of ISCO at manufactured gas plants with polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination (MGP/PAH) an...

  7. Environmental Technology Verification Program Materials Management and Remediation Center Generic Protocol for Verification of In Situ Chemical Oxidation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), focused specifically to expand the application of ISCO at manufactured gas plants with polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination (MGP/PAH) an...

  8. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Progress report, October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Electrochemical Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby. significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of October 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. These tasks are structured into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 3.0 Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; 4.0 Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; 5.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

  9. Firm- and drug-specific patterns of generic drug payments by US medicaid programs: 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Kelton, Christina M L; Chang, Lenisa V; Guo, Jeff J; Yu, Yan; Berry, Edmund A; Bian, Boyang; Heaton, Pamela C

    2014-04-01

    The entry of generic drugs into markets previously monopolized by patented, branded drugs often represents large potential savings for healthcare payers in the USA. Our objectives were to describe and explain the trends in drug reimbursement by public Medicaid programmes post-generic entry for as many drug markets and for as long a time period as possible. The data were the Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data maintained by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Quarterly utilization and expenditure data from 1991 to 2008 were extracted for 83 drugs, produced by 229 firms, that experienced initial generic entry between 1992 and 2004. A relative 'price' for a specific drug, firm and quarter was constructed as Medicaid reimbursement per unit (e.g. tablet, capsule or vial) divided by average reimbursement per unit for the branded drug the year before entry. Fixed-effects models controlling for time-, firm- and drug-specific differences were estimated to explain reimbursement. Twelve quarters after generic entry, 18 % of drugs had average per-unit reimbursement less than 50 % of the original branded-drug reimbursement. For each additional firm manufacturing the drug, reimbursement per unit, relative to the pre-generic-entry branded-drug reimbursement, was estimated to fall by 17 (p < 0.01) and 3 (p < 0.01) percentage points for generic and branded-drug companies, respectively. Each additional quarter post-generic entry brought a 2 (p < 0.01) percentage point drop in relative reimbursement. State Medicaid programmes generally have been able to obtain relief from high drug prices following patent expirations for many branded-drug medications by adjusting reimbursement following the expanded competition in the pharmaceutical market.

  10. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  11. Low-Cost Generic Program Use by Medicare Beneficiaries: Implications for Medication Exposure Misclassification in Administrative Claims Data.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Nathan J; Talbert, Jeffery C; Brown, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Administrative claims data are used for a wide variety of research and quality assurance purposes; however, they are prone to medication exposure misclassification if medications are purchased without using an insurance benefit. Low-cost generic drug programs (LCGPs) offered at major chain pharmacies are a relatively new and sparsely investigated source of exposure misclassification. LCGP medications are often purchased out of pocket; thus, a pharmacy claim may never be submitted, and the exposure may go unobserved in claims data. As heavy users of medications, Medicare beneficiaries have much to gain from the affordable medications offered through LCGPs. This use may put them at increased risk of exposure misclassification in claims data. Many high-risk medications (HRMs) and medications tracked for adherence and utilization quality metrics are available through LCGPs, and exposure misclassification of these medications may impact the quality assurance efforts reliant on administrative claims data. Presently, there is little information regarding the use of these programs among a geriatric population. To (a) quantify the prevalence of LCGP users in a nationally representative population of Medicare beneficiaries; (b) compare clinical and demographic characteristics of LCGP users and nonusers; (c) assess determinants of LCGP use and medications acquired through these programs; and (d) analyze patterns of LCGP use during the years 2007-2012. This study relied on data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 2007 to 2012. The first 3 objectives were completed with a cohort of individuals in the most recent MEPS panel, while the fourth objective was completed with a separate cohort composed of individuals who participated in MEPS from 2007 to 2012. Inclusion in either study cohort required that individuals were Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or greater, used at least 1 prescription drug during their 2-year panel period, and participated in all 5

  12. micrOMEGAs 2.0: A program to calculate the relic density of dark matter in a generic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2007-03-01

    micrOMEGAs 2.0 is a code which calculates the relic density of a stable massive particle in an arbitrary model. The underlying assumption is that there is a conservation law like R-parity in supersymmetry which guarantees the stability of the lightest odd particle. The new physics model must be incorporated in the notation of CalcHEP, a package for the automatic generation of squared matrix elements. Once this is done, all annihilation and coannihilation channels are included automatically in any model. Cross-sections at v=0, relevant for indirect detection of dark matter, are also computed automatically. The package includes three sample models: the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the MSSM with complex phases and the NMSSM. Extension to other models, including non-supersymmetric models, is described. Program summaryTitle of program:micrOMEGAs2.0 Catalogue identifier:ADQR_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested:PC, Alpha, Mac, Sun Operating systems under which the program has been tested:UNIX (Linux, OSF1, SunOS, Darwin, Cygwin) Programming language used:C and Fortran Memory required to execute with typical data:17 MB depending on the number of processes required No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:91 778 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 306 726 Distribution format:tar.gz External routines/libraries used:no Catalogue identifier of previous version:ADQR_v1_3 Journal reference of previous version:Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 577 Does the new version supersede the previous version:yes Nature of physical problem:Calculation of the relic density of the lightest stable particle in a generic new model of particle physics. Method

  13. Prevalence of Low-Cost Generic Program Use in a Nationally Representative Cohort of Privately Insured Adults.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Nathan James; Brown, Joshua David

    2015-12-01

    Administrative claims data are used for a wide variety of research and quality assurance purposes. Despite their utility, they are prone to medication exposure misclassification if medications are purchased without utilizing an insurance benefit. Low-cost generic programs (LCGPs) offered at major chain pharmacies are a relatively new and sparsely investigated source of exposure misclassification. Since they were implemented in 2006, LCGPs are now available at 8 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains and include a wide variety of medication classes. LCGP medications are often purchased out of pocket; thus, a pharmacy claim may never be submitted and exposure may go unobserved in claims data. There are little data regarding the utilization of these programs, and estimates of their use can provide important insights into the potential impact LCGPs may have on exposure misclassification in claims data. To (a) quantify the prevalence of LCGP users in a privately insured adult population, (b) assess patterns of LCGP use, and (c) compare clinical and demographic characteristics associated with LCGP users and nonusers. The study cohort consisted of 19,037 privately insured adults aged 18-64 who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 2007-2011. MEPS captures medication utilization at the pharmacy level, so prescription fills can be observed irrespective of a claim being filed. Pharmaceutical utilization was assessed at the individual level for each year of the study period, and LCGP use was recorded as a binary variable for each individual. An LCGP medication fill was identified if the total cost of the drug was paid out of pocket and matched the cost of medications listed on LCGP formularies available from Target, Walmart, CVS, or other major pharmacy retailers during these years. Cohort demographics and characteristics of interest included age, gender, race, employment status, marital status, family income, education level, residence in a metropolitan

  14. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  16. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  17. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes major revisions to its test procedures for battery chargers and external power supplies. In particular, DOE proposes to insert a new active mode energy consumption test procedure for battery chargers, to assist in the development of energy conservation standards as directed by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. DOE also proposes to......

  18. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 GDR Performance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; Gary L. Henriksen; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed the performance evaluation of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). This report documents the testing and analysis of the Gen 2 GDR cells, which were used to learn and debug the newly developed Technology Life Verification Test Manual. The purpose of the manual is to project a 15-year, 150,000 mile battery life capability with a 90% confidence interval using predictive models and short-term testing. The GDR cells were divided into two different matrices. The core-life test matrix consisted of calendar- and cycle-life cells with various changes to the four major acceleration factors (temperature, state-of-charge, throughput, and power rating). The supplemental-life test matrix consisted of cells subjected either to a path dependence study, or a comparison between the standard hybrid pulse power characterization test and the newly-developed minimum pulse power characterization test. Resistance and capacity results are reported.

  19. NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project Battery Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Technical Interchange Meeting was held at Saft America s Research and Development facility in Cockeysville, Maryland on Sept 28th-29th, 2010. The meeting was attended by Saft, contractors who are developing battery component materials under contracts awarded through a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), and NASA. This briefing presents an overview of the components being developed by the contractor attendees for the NASA s High Energy (HE) and Ultra High Energy (UHE) cells. The transition of the advanced lithium-ion cell development project at NASA from the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project to the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, changes to deliverable hardware and schedule due to a reduced budget, and our roadmap to develop cells and provide periodic off-ramps for cell technology for demonstrations are discussed. This meeting gave the materials and cell developers the opportunity to discuss the intricacies of their materials and determine strategies to address any particulars of the technology.

  20. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  1. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  2. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  3. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  4. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  5. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  6. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  7. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  8. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Newmiller, Jeff; Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  9. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane L; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-05-15

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems. Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied to design an optimising control strategy for a subcatchment area in Copenhagen. The results are promising and expected to contribute to the advance of the operation and control problem of sewer systems.

  10. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  11. The USAF Phillips Laboratory sodium-sulfur battery technology program: Results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbow, Marc E.; Somerville, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Tests performed on NaS batteries are reported. The results of safety and abuse testing, shock and vibration tests, cell failure on warm-up, freeze thaw, overtemperature conditions, electrolyte fracture, overdischarge, and short circuit tests are presented along with GEO and LEO cycle tests and the status of the NaS cell flight tests.

  12. The USAF Phillips Laboratory sodium-sulfur battery technology program: Results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbow, Marc E.; Somerville, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Tests performed on NaS batteries are reported. The results of safety and abuse testing, shock and vibration tests, cell failure on warm-up, freeze thaw, overtemperature conditions, electrolyte fracture, overdischarge, and short circuit tests are presented along with GEO and LEO cycle tests and the status of the NaS cell flight tests.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP) HIGH TRANSFER EFFICIENCE SPRAY EQUIPMENT--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies and report this objective information, thus, accelerating the entrance of these new technologies into the marketplace. V...

  14. Environmental Technology Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program (ETV CCEP) High Transfer Efficiency Spray Equipment--Generic Verification Protocol

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies across all media and report this objective information to the states, ...

  15. Environmental Technology Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program (ETV CCEP) High Transfer Efficiency Spray Equipment--Generic Verification Protocol

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies across all media and report this objective information to the states, ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP) HIGH TRANSFER EFFICIENCE SPRAY EQUIPMENT--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies and report this objective information, thus, accelerating the entrance of these new technologies into the marketplace. V...

  17. Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur De W.

    The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

  18. Handling difficult materials: Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.

    1994-09-01

    Batteries run the gamut from tiny button cells to the large, lead-acid batteries used in automobiles. While these two extremes pose some of the highest environmental risks of the battery waste stream and are the targets of many recycling programs, recycling technology has yet to catch up with the bulk of the less-harmful, consumer-oriented, dry-cell batteries, used in everything from flashlights and radios to toys and other essentials of modern life. Major US battery firms are spending millions of dollars working with European and Japanese companies to seek more efficient technologies to recycle dry-cell batteries. The next step in the recycling evolution may be to reclaim the metals in alkaline batteries as secondary metals.

  19. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  20. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  1. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  2. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  3. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  4. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  5. Generic antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan J; Krauss, Gregory L

    2008-07-01

    Generic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) generally provide safe, effective, lower-cost alternatives to brand-name drugs. To be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), manufacturers must show that generic drugs are comparable to brand-name formulations, meeting bioequivalence, dissolution, and manufacturing quality standards. Bioequivalence for most generic formulations is evaluated by measuring blood pharmacokinetic values in a small, crossover study of adult volunteers taking single doses of brand-name and generic AEDs. Bioequivalence standards require that ratios of average peak drug concentrations (C(max)) and total extent of absorption (area under the curve, AUC) for a test drug be within 80% to 125% of the reference brand-name drug, with a confidence interval of 90%. Bioequivalence of most generic AEDs, however, has not been evaluated in patients with epilepsy or in other special populations such as elderly patients or patients taking multiple AEDs and prodrugs. Moreover, evidence is limited regarding the adequacy of FDA generic standards for AEDs, particularly for "narrow therapeutic ratio" medications such as oxcarbazepine, although two carbamazepine studies are supportive. Most patients can successfully initiate therapy with generic AEDs and can safely switch from brand-name to generic AEDs (and sometimes back again). The FDA, however, has not shown safety in generic-to-generic switches, which could potentially cause drug concentration changes of up to 40%. Less expensive generic formulations will soon be available for most of the "second generation" AEDs--onisamide, for example, recently had 17 generic formulations approved in the United States--providing substantial savings in health care costs. In summary, although generic AEDs are generally safe and effective for most patients, the current bioequivalence standards may not be sufficient for certain patient populations and for certain drugs, requiring vulnerable patients to be monitored very

  6. Magellan battery operations: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Glueck, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The Magellan Spacecraft's mission to map Venus's surface provides a unique application for Nickel-Cadmium batteries. An overview of the spacecraft, power subsystem, battery, and mission requirements are presented. The reliability and performance of the batteries were extensively studied with a comprehensive test and analysis program. Actual data for cruise and a limited number of mapping orbits is also presented.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    PubMed

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W; So, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W.; So, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15–25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10–19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32–75 (195–460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62–110 (379–670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63–120 (384–734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level. PMID:26536626

  9. What makes a generic medication generic?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    By law, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve generic versions of brand-name drugs without requiring that research be conducted to prove them safe and effective. However, compared with a brand-name drug, a generic drug must demonstrate that it (a) contains the same active ingredients; (b) is identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration; (c) is bioequivalent; (d) has the same clinical use indications; (e) meets the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality; and (f) is manufactured according to the same FDA regulations. The most important aspect of generic drug development are the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence. According to the concept of bioequivalence, if a drug product contains an active ingredient that is chemically identical and is delivered to the site of action at the same rate and extent as another drug product, then it is considered to be clinically equivalent and can be substituted for that drug product.

  10. Assessing Medicare Part D claim completeness using medication self-reports: the role of veteran status and Generic Drug Discount Programs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Stearns, Sally C; Thudium, Emily M; Alburikan, Khalid A; Rodgers, Jo E

    2015-05-01

    Medicare Part D claims are commonly used for research, but missing claims could compromise their validity. This study assessed 2 possible causes of missing claims: veteran status and Generic Drug Discount Programs (GDDP). We merged medication self-reports from telephone interviews in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study with Part D claims for 6 medications (3 were commonly in GDDP in 2009). Merged records (4468) were available for 2905 ARIC participants enrolled in Part D. Multinomial logit regression provided estimates of the association of concordance (self-report and Part D, self-report only, or Part D only) with veteran and GDDP status, controlling for participant sociodemographics. Sample participants were 74±5 years of age, 68% white and 63% female; 19% were male veterans. Compared with females, male veterans were 11% [95% confidence interval (CI), 7%-16%] less likely to have matched medications in self-report and Part D and 11% (95% CI, 7%-16%) more likely to have self-report only. Records for GDDP versus non-GDDP medications were 4% (95% CI, 1%-7%) more likely to be in self-report and Part D and 3% (95% CI, 1%-5%) less likely to be in Part D only, with no difference in self-report only. Part D claims were more likely to be missing for veterans, but claims for medications commonly available through GDDP were more likely to match with self-reports. Although researchers should be aware of the possibility of missing claims, GDDP status was associated with a higher rather than lower likelihood of claims being complete in 2009.

  11. Patients’ Perceptions Of Generic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Shrank, William H.; Cox, Emily R.; Fischer, Michael A.; Mehta, Jyotsna; Choudhry, Niteesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Insurers and policymakers encourage the use of generic drugs to reduce costs, but generics remain underused. We conducted a national survey of commercially insured adults to evaluate their perceptions about generic drugs. Patients agreed that generics are less expensive and a better value than brand-name drugs, and are just as safe. However, although 56 percent reported that Americans should use more generics, only 37.6 percent prefer to take generics. We discuss perceptions about communicating with practitioners about generics, generic substitution, and policymakers’ role in influencing generic use. These findings underscore the challenge that providers, insurers, and policymakers face in stimulating the cost-effective use of medications. PMID:19276015

  12. Lithium-ion Battery Demonstration for the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William; Baldwin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in a portable life support system (PLSS) on spacesuit simulators. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, over-discharge and over-temperature. The 500-gram batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 38 watts over 103 minutes of discharge time (130 Wh/kg). Battery design details are described and field and laboratory test results are summarized.

  13. Generic Fortran Containers (GFC)

    SciTech Connect

    Liakh, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).

  14. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  15. Bioequivalence of generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are bioequivalent to the original brand; this is a prerequisite for marketing approval. It is theoretically possible that one generic drug may overestimate the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the original and another generic may underestimate these PK parameters; in consequence, these 2 generics may not be bioequivalent between themselves. The result could be loss of efficacy or development of drug-related adverse effects if these generics are interchanged in stable patients. In a recent study involving 292 indirect comparisons of generic formulations of 9 different drugs, mathematical modeling showed that in most cases (87.0% for maximum concentration, 90.1% for area under the curve, and 80.5% for both) generic drugs are bioequivalent to each other. These reassuring findings notwithstanding, prudence dictates that, in stable patients, generic drugs should be interchanged only if there is a good reason for it. This is because bioequivalent brands of drugs may differ in their excipient content, and this can result in variations in safety profiles. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.

  17. micrOMEGAs 2.0.7: a program to calculate the relic density of dark matter in a generic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2007-12-01

    micrOMEGAs2.0.7 is a code which calculates the relic density of a stable massive particle in an arbitrary model. The underlying assumption is that there is a conservation law like R-parity in supersymmetry which guarantees the stability of the lightest odd particle. The new physics model must be incorporated in the notation of CalcHEP, a package for the automatic generation of squared matrix elements. Once this is done, all annihilation and coannihilation channels are included automatically in any model. Cross-sections at v=0, relevant for indirect detection of dark matter, are also computed automatically. The package includes three sample models: the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the MSSM with complex phases and the NMSSM. Extension to other models, including non supersymmetric models, is described. Program summaryTitle of program:micrOMEGAs2.0.7 Catalogue identifier:ADQR_v2_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v2_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:216 529 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 848 816 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language used:C and Fortran Computer:PC, Alpha, Mac, Sun Operating system:UNIX (Linux, OSF1, SunOS, Darwin, Cygwin) RAM:17 MB depending on the number of processes required Classification:1.9, 11.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version:ADQR_v2_0 Journal version of previous version:Comput. Phys. Comm. 176 (2007) 367 Does the new version supersede the previous version?:Yes Nature of problem:Calculation of the relic density of the lightest stable particle in a generic new model of particle physics. Solution method:In numerically solving the evolution equation for the density of dark matter, relativistic formulae for the thermal average are used. All tree

  18. Identifying Generic Skills through Curriculum Mapping: A Critical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Goodfellow, Joy

    2004-01-01

    This article describes processes involved in a curriculum mapping exercise that constituted the first phase of a project aimed at furthering the integration of generic skills in a Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood) program. The purpose of the mapping exercise was to identify the generic skills currently fostered in the program, and those that…

  19. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  20. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  1. Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James.; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2004-03-01

    Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

  2. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  3. Calcium/metal sulfide battery development program. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, D. L.; Roche, M. F.; Preto, S. K.; Ross, L. E.; Otto, N. C.; Martino, F. J.

    1981-03-01

    A Ca-Al-Si/FeS/sub 2/ cell has been developed and has exhibited reasonably stable capacity through 3200 h of operation. This system is expected to be capable of meeting the ultimate performance goals (i.e., 160 W.h/kg) of this development program. Further tests of this cell system in the coming year will better define its ultimate performance capabilities.

  4. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  5. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  6. US Army battery needs -- Present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlen, R.P.; Christopher, H.A.; Gilman, S.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the needs of the US Army for silent portable power sources, both in the near and longer term future. As a means of doing this, the programs of the Power Sources Division of the Army Research Laboratory will be discussed. The six program areas in which the Power Sources Division is engaged are: primary batteries, rechargeable batteries, reserve/fuze batteries, pulse batteries and capacitors, fuel cells, and thermophotovoltaic power generation.

  7. Impact of generic antiretroviral therapy (ART) and free ART programs on time to initiation of ART at a tertiary HIV care center in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sunil S; Lucas, Gregory M; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yepthomi, Tokugha; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Ganesh, Aylur K; Anand, Santhanam; Moore, Richard D; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H

    2013-08-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in the developing world has improved, but whether increased access has translated to more rapid treatment initiation among those who need it is unknown. We characterize time to ART initiation across three eras of ART availability in Chennai, India (1996-1999: pregeneric; 2000-2003: generic; 2004-2007: free rollout). Between 1996 and 2007, 11,171 patients registered for care at the YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education (YRGCARE), a tertiary HIV referral center in southern India. Of these, 5726 patients became eligible for ART during this period as per Indian guidelines for initiation of ART. Generalized gamma survival models were used to estimate relative times (RT) to ART initiation by calendar periods of eligibility. Time to initiation of ART among patients in Chennai, India was also compared to an HIV clinical cohort in Baltimore, USA. Median age of the YRGCARE patients was 34 years; 77% were male. The median CD4 at presentation was 140 cells/µl. After adjustment for demographics, CD4 and WHO stage, persons in the pregeneric era took 3.25 times longer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-4.17) to initiate ART versus the generic era and persons in the free rollout era initiated ART more rapidly than the generic era (RT: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.83). Adjusting for differences across centers, patients at YRGCARE took longer than patients in the Johns Hopkins Clinical Cohort (JHCC) to initiate ART in the pregeneric era (RT: 4.90; 95% CI: 3.37-7.13) but in the free rollout era, YRGCARE patients took only about a quarter of the time (RT: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.22-0.44). These data demonstrate the benefits of generic ART and government rollouts on time to initiation of ART in one developing country setting and suggests that access to ART may be comparable to developed country settings.

  8. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  9. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  10. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  11. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  12. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  13. Money Left on the Table: Generic Drug Prices in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Law, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generic drugs are a major cost-saving opportunity for patients and drug plans. While almost every province has reduced generic drug prices, we have no information on whether these new prices are internationally competitive. Therefore, I compared Canadian prices to those in two other countries. Methods: I used 2009 data from the IMS Brogan Canadian CompuScript and PharmaStat databases and studied the 100 most frequently dispensed generic products in Ontario, which has Canada's lowest generic prices. I compared these prices to those in public drug programs in the United States and New Zealand that use tendering. Using these alternative prices, I calculated the potential savings in Ontario. Results: Of the top 100 generic products, 82 were listed on an international formulary. In 90% of cases, generic products were less expensive in other countries. If Ontario had obtained the lowest comparator price for these products, the annual public sector and overall drug expenditure savings would have been $129 million and $245 million, respectively. Further, the province could have publicly paid for all these generic drugs – both public and private – and saved $87 million compared to current public sector expenditures. Discussion: Even after recent reforms, generic drug prices in Canada remain high by international standards. I found that if Ontario had obtained commonly used generic drugs at international best prices, the province could have publicly paid for all generic drugs and lowered annual expenditures by nearly a quarter-billion dollars. PMID:23968624

  14. Simulation of the AUC Changes after Generic Substitution in Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To address the debate on the safety of generic substitution quantitatively, the author compared the change in AUC in virtual patients who were simulated for several different scenarios of generic substitution. In four scenarios of original (branded) to generic and generic to generic substitution, 5,000 virtual patients were simulated per scenario using the programming software R. The mean population AUC of generics ranged from 90-110% (scenarios A and B) and 80-123.5% (scenarios C and D) of the AUC of the original. Those patients who had an AUC change (ratio) as a result of drug substitution of less than 0.67 or greater than 1.5 were considered to be in potential danger due to the substitution. We found that less than 6% of patients fell outside of the cutoff range of 0.67-1.5 as a result of original to generic substitution. However, in the case of generic to generic substitution, the proportion was as high as 9-12%. This alerts us to the potential danger of generic substitution, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices. PMID:19270806

  15. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  16. Generic linear microcircuit test requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Steve K.; Mitchell, Ronald R.

    1991-04-01

    The Generic Linear Microcircuit Test Requirements Program is outlined. The objective was to develop new series-4000 test specifications to standardize testing of linear devices. The drafts developed will replace the existing series-4000 methods in MIL-STD-883C. New series-4000 drafts for 11 device families were developed, which will cover the majority of the linear microcircuits used in military systems. The test methods specified in each draft referenced a variety of sources including M38510 slash sheets, industry standard procedures, literature, existing test methods in MIL-STD-883C, and newly developed methods. Completion of these drafts will provide more consistent testing of linear devices. All aspects of the program are reviewed.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Christophersen, Jon P.

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  18. Intelsat-V: Nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanommering, G.

    1980-01-01

    A design program for the development of a nickel hydrogen battery is described. The design and design advantages of the battery are discussed. The general characteristics of the battery such as the strain gage cell pressure monitoring and the automatic low temperature heater control are reported along with the performance characteristics.

  19. Battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, C.V.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a battery charger for a storage battery having circuitry including a primary charging path consisting of means to reduce the voltage of a power source to a level to be applied to a battery to be charged. It also includes a means to convert power from the power source to a pulsating direct current applied to an SCR and gating it on at the beginning of each selected half cycle and passing the current to the positive terminal of the battery. The improvement in circuitry in the charging path consists of voltage control and time control means of a battery charger, the voltage control means comprises a voltage low pass filter and sensing means, the same being connected to the leads of a battery as a charging input voltage source and having as its output a filtered voltage proportional to the Vmin voltage of a battery, the Vmin voltage being applied to a voltage comparator, means feeding a fixed reference voltage to the comparator, the reference voltage being proportional to an equalization voltage to be impressed upon the battery, whereby when the reference voltage is exceeded by the Vmin voltage from the battery, current flow through the SCR ceases and the voltage in the battery decreases, and when the Vmin voltage is less than the fixed reference voltage, the SCR resumes charging the battery to maintain the battery at its equalization level voltage, and means causing the time control means to run for the time of the equalization charge and to pause and hold its time setting in the event equalization charging ceases prior to the completion of the equalization charging cycle.

  20. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may…

  1. Generic Survey Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Hints on conducting surveys appropriate for university use are outlined, and sample checklists and forms are provided. The following research elements concerning generic surveys are covered: sequences of events for surveys conducted by mail (15 weeks) and telephone (11 weeks); algorithms for estimating materials costs and quantities; a catalog of…

  2. THERMAL BATTERY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMAL BATTERIES, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING)), DESIGN, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, CHLORINE, LITHIUM, ELECTRODES, GAS ANALYSIS , CALIBRATION, IMPURITIES, PRESSURE, POLARIZATION, GRAPHITE, DIFFUSION, CONTROL SYSTEMS.

  3. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  4. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA): Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A space generic open avionics architecture created for NASA is described. It will serve as the basis for entities in spacecraft core avionics, capable of being tailored by NASA for future space program avionics ranging from small vehicles such as Moon ascent/descent vehicles to large ones such as Mars transfer vehicles or orbiting stations. The standard consists of: (1) a system architecture; (2) a generic processing hardware architecture; (3) a six class architecture interface model; (4) a system services functional subsystem architectural model; and (5) an operations control functional subsystem architectural model.

  5. Aerospace applications of nickel-cadmium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, S. )

    1993-05-01

    Some recent NASA applications of Ni-Cd batteries are Magellan, Topex/Poseidon, and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. Each of these automated spacecraft has a design lifetime of at least 3 years. Characteristics of the battery systems for each of these applications are given. Other topics discussed include the NASA standard Ni-Cd battery, the aerospace flight battery systems program, and the impact of the pending OHSA ruling.

  6. Nickel-Zinc Batteries for RPV Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    SPECIAL SEPARTAION BATTERIES- CELL 149 CHARACTERISTICS ix SECTION I MAR- 5013 1.0 INTRODUCTION The objective of this portion of the program was to...34A remotely piloted vehicles. The nickel-zinc batteries herein described (Eagle-Picher Part No. MAR-5013) are to be physically and electrically...battery. Cells 3,4,7, and 8 were electrically connected in series and tested as a battery. All twelve (12) cells were physically assembled into a single

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has also been added directly to

  8. What use is generic prescribing?

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Michael

    1985-01-01

    The dispensing of generic preparations at four dispensing chemist shops was investigated by means of a questionnaire. Certain generic prescriptions result in the dispensing of proprietary products despite the existence of generic preparations, and the pharmacist may be reimbursed for the cost of the proprietary drug which has been dispensed. Not all generic prescriptions result in the dispensing of cheaper drugs because of the methods of payment to chemists. If doctors write more generic prescriptions there will ultimately be more dispensing of generic products. Even in the case of drugs still under patent, prescribing by generic name should be encouraged. The savings achieved by generic prescribing are to some extent at the cost of the dispensing chemists. The method and scale of payments for dispensing requires urgent review. PMID:4032358

  9. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  10. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  11. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  12. Generic Verification Protocol for Verification of Online Turbidimeters

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of online turbidimeters. The verification tests described in this document will be conducted under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Verification tests will...

  13. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  14. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  15. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  16. Generic command interpreter for robot controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, J.

    1991-04-09

    Generic command interpreter programs have been written for robot controllers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Each interpreter program resides on a robot controller and interfaces the controller with a supervisory program on another (host) computer. We call these interpreter programs monitors because they wait, monitoring a communication line, for commands from the supervisory program. These monitors are designed to interface with the object-oriented software structure of the supervisory programs. The functions of the monitor programs are written in each robot controller's native language but reflect the object-oriented functions of the supervisory programs. These functions and other specifics of the monitor programs written for three different robots at SNL will be discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Are biosimilars really generics?

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop

    2010-04-01

    Ever since the formation of the first biotechnology company almost three decades ago, more than 150 biopharmaceutical products have been marketed across the globe. The oldest of these biotechnology-derived products are now at the end of their patent lives, as a result of which, the development of 'biosimilars' is increasing. The review highlights aspects in which biosimilars differ from generic drugs. The active substance of a biosimilar medicine is similar to the one of the biological reference medicine; however, biosimilars differ from generics of pharmacological drugs in aspects like size and complexity of the active substance, and the nature of the manufacturing process. The manufacture of a biopharmaceutical product is complex and involves several isolation and purification steps. These procedures are proprietary to the manufacturer of the originator product and hence even minor changes in production can have serious implications in terms of safety and efficacy of the product. Biosimilars should not be brought to market using the same procedure applied to generics, and existing and future regulation should prevent inappropriate and automatic substitution of a biosimilar for a reference biopharmaceutical product.

  18. 76 FR 45814 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... application fees and any other fees owed under the Animal Generic Drug User Fee program. II. Revenue Amount... application fees is $1,712,000 and each of the other two generic new animal drug user fee categories, annual...

  19. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, displays a piece of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  20. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, prepares layers of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  1. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K.

    2005-03-01

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  2. Development Program for 3.0 KW Inverter. Militarized Inverter for Use with Fuel Cell or Battery Power Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-15

    considerations to cost., reliability, maintainability, weight. size and efficiency. TheJ applicati6n) of this portable,. rugged Inverter is to replace miechan...task per Purchase Description EED 76 022501 to design 3.0 KW Silent Lightweight Electrical Energy Plant (SLEEP) Inverter. A prototype of the Inverter was... Lightweight Electrical Energy Plant (SLEEP) Inverter. The Invertex’s 35-60 VDC input will be from a fuel cell or battery and supplies ac voltages at

  3. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  4. Lithium battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasetty, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of lithium in electric batteries. Topics considered include solvents for lithium battery technology, transport properties and structure of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions, primary lithium batteries, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries, lithium oxyhalide batteries, medical batteries, ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium cells, high-temperature lithium batteries, and lithium ion-conducting solid electrolytes.

  5. Power fade and capacity fade resulting from cycle-life testing of Advanced Technology Development Program lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Christophersen, J. P.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Battaglia, V. S.; Barnes, J. A.; Duong, T. Q.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and analysis of the power and capacity fade resulting from the cycle-life testing using PNGV (now referred to as FreedomCAR) test protocols at 25 and 45 °C of 18650-size Li-ion batteries developed by the US Department of Energy sponsored Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. Two cell chemistries were studied, a Baseline chemistry that had a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 with binders, that was cycle-life tested at 25 and 45 °C, and a Variant C chemistry with a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.10Al 0.10O 2 with binders, that was tested only at 45 °C. The 300 Wh power, and % power fade were determined as a function of test time, i.e. the number of test cycles for up to 44 weeks (369,600 test cycles) for the Baseline cells, and for 24 weeks (201,600 test cycles) for the Variant C cells. The C/1 and C/25 discharge capacity and capacity fade were also determined during the course of these studies. The results of this study indicate that the 300 Wh power for the Baseline cells tested at 25 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) decreased as a linear function of test time. The % power fade for these cells increased as a linear function of test time. The Baseline cells tested at 45 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) displayed a decrease in their power proportional to the square root of the test time, with a faster rate of decrease of the power occurring at ˜28 weeks of testing. The % power fade for these cells also increased as the square root of the test time, and exhibited an increase in the % power fade rate at ˜28 weeks of testing. The 45 °C tested Baseline cells' power decreased, and their % power fade increased at a greater rate than the 25 °C tested Baseline cells. The power fade was greater for the Variant C cells. The power of the Variant C cells (tested at 45 °C) decreased as the square root of the test time, and their % power fade was also found to be a function of the square root of the test time

  6. Battery research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has, for many years, been engaged in battery-related R and D programs for DOE and the transportation industry. In particular, from 1973 to 1995, ANL played a pioneering role in the technological development of the high-temperature (400 C) lithium-iron disulfide battery. With the emphasis of battery research moving away from high temperature systems toward ambient temperature lithium-based systems for the longer term, ANL has redirected its efforts toward the development of a lithium-polymer battery (60--80 C operation) and room temperature systems based on lithium-ion technologies. ANL`s lithium-polymer battery program is supported by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), 3M and Hydro-Quebec, and the lithium-ion battery R and D efforts by US industry and by DOE.

  7. Electrical Arc Ignition Testing for Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Kyle; Gallus, Timothy; Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Materials and Processes Branch requested that NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) perform testing for the Constellation Program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition of materials that could be in close proximity to batteries. Specifically, WSTF was requested to perform wire-break electrical arc tests to determine the current threshold for ignition of generic cotton woven fabric samples with a fixed voltage of 3.7 V, a common voltage for hand-held electrical devices. The wire-break test was developed during a previous test program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition inside the Extravehicular Mobility Unit [1].

  8. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide

  9. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stomach and intestines without causing any serious damage. How well someone does depends on the type of battery they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery.

  10. Physician perceptions about generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Liberman, Joshua N; Fischer, Michael A; Girdish, Charmaine; Brennan, Troyen A; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2011-01-01

    With constrained health-care resources, there is a need to understand barriers to cost-effective medication use. To study physician perceptions about generic medications. Physicians used 5-point Likert scales to report perceptions about cost-related medication nonadherence, the efficacy and quality of generic medications, preferences for generic use, and the implications of dispensing medication samples. Descriptive statistics were used to assess physician perceptions and logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of physician perceptions. Among the invited sample, 839 (30.4%) responded and 506 (18.3%) were eligible and included in the final study population. Over 23% of physicians surveyed expressed negative perceptions about efficacy of generic drugs, almost 50% reported negative perceptions about quality of generic medications, and more than one quarter do not prefer to use generics as first-line medications for themselves or for their family. Physicians over the age of 55 years were 3.3 times more likely to report negative perceptions about generic quality, 5.8 times more likely to report that they would not use generics themselves, and 7.5 times more likely to state that they would not recommend generics for family members (p < 0.05 for all). Physicians reported that pharmaceutical company representatives are the most common (75%) source of information about market entry of a generic medication. Almost half of the respondents expressed concern that free samples may adversely affect subsequent affordability, yet two thirds of respondents provide free samples. A meaningful proportion of physicians expressed negative perceptions about generic medications, representing a potential barrier to generic use. Payors and policymakers trying to encourage generic use may consider educational campaigns targeting older physicians.

  11. Calendar- and cycle-life studies of advanced technology development program generation 1 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Christophersen, J. P.; Ho, C. D.; Richardson, R. A.; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0-4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance. The measured resistances were then used to develop an empirical model that was used to predict the calendar-life of the cells. This model accounted for the time, temperature and SOC of the batteries during the calendar-life test. The functional form of the model is given by: R( t, T,SOC)= A( T, SOC) F( t)+ B( T, SOC), where t is the time at test temperature, T the test temperature

  12. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  13. Generic medications in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Zore, Matt; Harris, Alon; Tobe, Leslie Abrams; Siesky, Brent; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Behzadi, Jennifer; Amireskandari, Annahita; Egan, Patrick; Garff, Kevin; Wirostko, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the process of genericisation of medications in the US and Europe with a focus on ophthalmic drugs. Regulatory guidelines of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency will be discussed, and the advantages and concerns of genericisation will be explored. We will look at various studies concerning the safety and efficacy of generic drugs compared to their branded counterparts. In particular, the challenges of assuring bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence in topical ophthalmic drugs will be examined.

  14. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  15. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-01-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  16. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  17. The environmentally safe battery

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Brown, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    There are three aspects to an environmentally safe battery. The first deals with the manufacturing process, the second with the use of environmentally friendly materials, and the third with the disposal and/or recycling of spent units. In this paper, several ongoing programs at Sandia National Laboratories that relate to the environmentally conscious manufacturing of batteries, are discussed. The solvent substitution/elimination program is a two-pronged effort, aimed at identifying new solvents which are compatible with the environment, while at the same time developing dry process cleaning technology. The joining program is evaluating new solvents for flux removal as well as the development of fluxless soldering processes. In the area of welding, new cleaning processes are under study. Chemical microsensors are under development that are capable of identifying and quantifying single chemical species. These sensors have been used to monitor and improve processes using toxic/hazardous solvents. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  18. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  19. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the

  20. Side effects of generic competition?

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jörgen; Rudholm, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects.

  1. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  2. Advertising and generic market entry.

    PubMed

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  3. Comparison of Generic-to-Brand Switchback Rates Between Generic and Authorized Generic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Qian, Jingjing; Berg, Richard; Linneman, James; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Dutcher, Sarah K; Raofi, Saeid; Page, C David; Peissig, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    Generic drugs contain identical active ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs and are pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, whereas authorized generic drugs (AGs) contain both identical active and inactive ingredients as their corresponding brand drugs but are marketed as generics. This study compares generic-to-brand switchback rates between generic and AGs. Retrospective cohort study. Claims and electronic health record data from a regional U.S. health care system. The full cohort consisted of 5542 unique patients who received select branded drugs during the 6 months prior to their generic drug market availability (between 1999 and 2014) and then were switched to an AG or generic drug within 30 months of generic drug entry. For these patients, 5929 unique patient-drug combinations (867 with AGs and 5062 with generic drugs) were evaluated. Ten drugs with AGs and generics marketed between 1999 and 2014 were evaluated. The date of the first generic prescription was considered the index date for each drug, and it marked the beginning of follow-up to evaluate the occurrence of generic-to-brand switchback patterns over the subsequent 30 months. Switchback rates were compared between patients receiving AGs versus those receiving generics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for individual drug effects, age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, pre-index drug use characteristics, and pre-index health care utilization. Among the 5542 unique patients who switched from brand to generic or brand to AG, 264 (4.8%) switched back to the brand drug. Overall switchback rates were similar for AGs compared with generics (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.15). The likelihood of switchback was higher for alendronate (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.23) and simvastatin (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.30-2.54) and lower for amlodipine (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared with the other drugs evaluated. Overall switchback rates were similar

  4. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-09-01

    To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners.

  5. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Results Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. Conclusion For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners. PMID:25295444

  6. The difference between professional image and job satisfaction of nurses who studied in a post-basic education program and nurses with generic education: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Toren, Orly; Kerzman, Hana; Kagan, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    To compare nurses' perceptions of the contribution of post-basic education (PBE) programs to nurses' professional image, job satisfaction, and clinical practice between two groups, nurses who had participated in PBE programs and nurses who had not. This is a cross-sectional study. A study conducted with 419 nurses employed in two major hospitals in Israel. Data were collected using structured questionnaires containing perception on professional self-image and clinical image, job satisfaction, and PBE contributions to nursing practice. Nurses who had completed a PBE in comparison to those who had not completed such a program rated higher the contribution of the program to independent decision making (40% and 50%, respectively, P < .001) as well as to specialized skills and proficiencies (38% and 55%, respectively, P < .01). Significant differences between the two groups were also found regarding professional image. Professional self-image and image of the clinical area were positively associated with professionalization. No differences regarding job satisfaction were found between the two groups. The study indicated that the model of PBE applied allows nurses to acquire greater self-confidence and improves professional self-image when making decisions. The model likewise helped nurses acquire greater authority to decide and intervene in clinical practice.

  7. A multicenter prospective quasi-experimental study on the impact of a transition-oriented generic patient education program on health service participation and quality of life in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Silke; Herrmann-Garitz, Carsten; Bomba, Franziska; Thyen, Ute

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effects of a generic transition-oriented patient education program on adolescents' health service participation and quality of life (QoL). We conducted a controlled trial comparing participants of 29 transition workshops with treatment as usual in 274 adolescents (16.8 mean age, SD=1.76) diagnosed with type I diabetes (DM), cystic fibrosis (CF) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A two-day transition workshop was carried out at 12 sites in Germany, focusing in standardized modules on adjustment to adult care settings, organization of future disease management, career choices and partnership. Study outcomes were health-related transition competence, self-efficacy, satisfaction with care, patient activation and QoL. Measures were assessed at baseline and six-month follow-up. Repeated-measurement covariance analysis using age as a covariate showed that the transition workshop significantly affected transition competence, self-efficacy and satisfaction with school care six months post intervention. The intervention did not significantly affect patient activation and QoL. However, post-hoc analysis suggested different effects across conditions. The program has a positive effect on the competence of adolescents in the transition phase. The study demonstrates that an intervention can be effective in preparing adolescents with chronic conditions for transitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  9. Generic criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    An independent group has been designated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (MMES) to internally review Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) that describe containers for shipment of radioactive material. This group is called the Energy Systems Independent Review Group (ESIRG), reporting to the MMES Transportation Safety Manager as part of a central staff function. The ESIRG focus is Y-12 Plant packages, with additional review responsibilities for the Paducah Tiger UF{sub 6} overpack and 6M package. Review questions are posed directly to the SARP preparers. This paper addresses three generic issues that arose during the ESIRG criticality reviews: analysis tools, uncertainties in results, and resulting (finite) probability of criticality. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Generic torus canards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    Torus canards are special solutions of fast/slow systems that alternate between attracting and repelling manifolds of limit cycles of the fast subsystem. A relatively new dynamic phenomenon, torus canards have been found in neural applications to mediate the transition from tonic spiking to bursting via amplitude-modulated spiking. In R3, torus canards are degenerate: they require one-parameter families of 2-fast/1-slow systems in order to be observed and even then, they only occur on exponentially thin parameter intervals. The addition of a second slow variable unfolds the torus canard phenomenon, making it generic and robust. That is, torus canards in fast/slow systems with (at least) two slow variables occur on open parameter sets. So far, generic torus canards have only been studied numerically, and their behaviour has been inferred based on averaging and canard theory. This approach, however, has not been rigorously justified since the averaging method breaks down near a fold of periodics, which is exactly where torus canards originate. In this work, we combine techniques from Floquet theory, averaging theory, and geometric singular perturbation theory to show that the average of a torus canard is a folded singularity canard. In so doing, we devise an analytic scheme for the identification and topological classification of torus canards in fast/slow systems with two fast variables and k slow variables, for any positive integer k. We demonstrate the predictive power of our results in a model for intracellular calcium dynamics, where we explain the mechanisms underlying a novel class of elliptic bursting rhythms, called amplitude-modulated bursting, by constructing the torus canard analogues of mixed-mode oscillations. We also make explicit the connection between our results here with prior studies of torus canards and torus canard explosion in R3, and discuss how our methods can be extended to fast/slow systems of arbitrary (finite) dimension.

  11. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  12. The nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

    The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

  13. Redox reactions with empirical potentials: atomistic battery discharge simulations.

    PubMed

    Dapp, Wolf B; Müser, Martin H

    2013-08-14

    Batteries are pivotal components in overcoming some of today's greatest technological challenges. Yet to date there is no self-consistent atomistic description of a complete battery. We take first steps toward modeling of a battery as a whole microscopically. Our focus lies on phenomena occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interface which are not easily studied with other methods. We use the redox split-charge equilibration (redoxSQE) method that assigns a discrete ionization state to each atom. Along with exchanging partial charges across bonds, atoms can swap integer charges. With redoxSQE we study the discharge behavior of a nano-battery, and demonstrate that this reproduces the generic properties of a macroscopic battery qualitatively. Examples are the dependence of the battery's capacity on temperature and discharge rate, as well as performance degradation upon recharge.

  14. Which Type of Parent Training Works Best for Preschoolers with Comorbid ADHD and ODD? A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Generic and Specialized Programs.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Peisch, Virginia D; Long, Nicholas; Abikoff, Howard B

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined whether the presence of comorbid ODD differentially moderated the outcome of two Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) programs in a sample of preschoolers with ADHD: One designed specifically for ADHD (NFPP: New Forest Parenting Programme) and one designed primarily for ODD (HNC: Helping the Noncompliant Child). In a secondary analysis, 130 parents and their 3-4 year-old children diagnosed with ADHD were assigned to one of the two programs. 44.6 % of the children also met criteria for ODD. Significant interactions between treatment conditions (NFPP vs. HNC) and child ODD diagnosis (presence vs. absence) indicated that based on some parent and teacher reports, HNC was more effective with disruptive behaviors than NFPP but only when children had a comorbid diagnosis. Further, based on teacher report, NFPP was more effective with these behaviors when children had a diagnosis of only ADHD whereas HNC was equally effective across ADHD only and comorbid ODD diagnoses. Comorbidity profile did not interact with treatment program when parent or teacher reported ADHD symptoms served as the outcome. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed and directions for future work are provided.

  15. A Generic Metadata Query Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, B.; Duval, E.; Olivie, H.

    This paper discusses a generic query tool that enables an end user to query a metadata store through filters that impose search criteria on attributes. The Metadata Query Tool (MQT) is generic in the sense that it dynamically creates its user interface, based on configuration files that define the metadata scheme and the query functionalities.…

  16. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  17. Ontario's plunging price-caps on generics: deeper dives may drown some drugs.

    PubMed

    Anis, Aslam; Harvard, Stephanie; Marra, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, the Ontario government announced another reduction in the maximum price of generic drugs permitted under the Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) program, demanding that generic drugs now be sold for no more than 25% of the branded product's price. Other provinces are following Ontario in setting unprecedentedly low price-caps to reduce the cost of generic drugs. Generic product substitution legislation is vital to reducing costs to provincial drug plans, yet lower and lower price-caps may undo some of the benefits of substitution legislation if generics find it difficult to survive.

  18. Ontario’s plunging price-caps on generics: deeper dives may drown some drugs

    PubMed Central

    Anis, Aslam; Harvard, Stephanie; Marra, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, the Ontario government announced another reduction in the maximum price of generic drugs permitted under the Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) program, demanding that generic drugs now be sold for no more than 25% of the branded product’s price. Other provinces are following Ontario in setting unprecedentedly low price-caps to reduce the cost of generic drugs. Generic product substitution legislation is vital to reducing costs to provincial drug plans, yet lower and lower price-caps may undo some of the benefits of substitution legislation if generics find it difficult to survive. PMID:22046229

  19. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  20. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  1. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  2. Generic Stellarator-like Magnetic Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper, published in 1985, has been updated, reflecting the improved science and technology base in the magnetic fusion program. Key changes beyond inflation are driven by important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs from ITER construction, and the use of a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence in modern fusion reactor designs. In this paper the generic approach is applied to a catalyzed D-D stellarator-like reactor. It is shown that an interesting power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved for a reference reactor: R/ < a > ~ 4 , confinement factor, fren = 0.9-1.15, < β > ~ 8 . 0 -11.5 %, Zeff ~ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ~ 0.07, Bm ~ 14-16 T, and R ~ 18-24 m. J. Sheffield was supported under ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  3. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  4. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  5. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  6. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  7. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  8. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  9. Dimensional Regularization is Generic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the λϕ4 theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the λϕ4 theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. In this sense the dimensional regularization may be said to be generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low energy theory. We also define a modified version of the mass independent renormalization for a scalar field which leads to the homogeneous renormalization group equation. Implications of the present analysis on the Standard Model at high energies and the presence or absence of SUSY at LHC energies are briey discussed.

  10. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  11. Generic flux coupling analysis.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  13. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  14. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  15. Predictive Testing for Entrance in Vocational-Technical Schools; A Study of the Predictive Value of a Pre-selected Battery of Standardized Tests as a Tool for the Selection of Entering Students in Certain Trade Programs Offered in the Vocational-Technical Schools of the State of Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John G.

    This study was organized for the purpose of determining the validity of any part or parts of a pre-selected battery of standardized tests as predictors of success in secondary school trade programs. The study was limited to the trade areas of machine shop and electrical wiring in 14 state vocational schools in Connecticut. A battery of…

  16. Performance Analysis of GAME: A Generic Automated Marking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Michael; Green, Steve; Fogelman, Shoshana; Nguyen, Ann; Muthukkumarasamy, Vallipuram

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Generic Automated Marking Environment (GAME) and provides a detailed analysis of its performance in assessing student programming projects and exercises. GAME has been designed to automatically assess programming assignments written in a variety of languages based on the "structure" of the source code and the correctness…

  17. Performance Analysis of GAME: A Generic Automated Marking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Michael; Green, Steve; Fogelman, Shoshana; Nguyen, Ann; Muthukkumarasamy, Vallipuram

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Generic Automated Marking Environment (GAME) and provides a detailed analysis of its performance in assessing student programming projects and exercises. GAME has been designed to automatically assess programming assignments written in a variety of languages based on the "structure" of the source code and the correctness…

  18. Novel Battery Management System with Distributed Wireless and Fiber Optic Sensors for Early Detection and Suppression of Thermal Runaway in Large Battery Packs, FY13 Q4 Report, ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPE

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.; Chang, J.; Zumstein, J.; Kovotsky, J.; Puglia, F.; Dobley, A.; Moore, G.; Osswald, S.; Wolf, K.; Kaschmitter, J.; Eaves, S.

    2013-10-08

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in highcapacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high-capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrated operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge-discharge cycling

  19. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  20. Effects of Generic Language on Category Content and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that generic noun phrases (“Bears climb trees”) would provide important input to children’s developing concepts. In three experiments, four-year-olds and adults learned a series of facts about a novel animal category, in one of three wording conditions: generic (e.g., “Zarpies hate ice cream”), specific– label (e.g., “This zarpie hates ice cream”), or no-label (e.g., “This hates ice cream”). Participants completed a battery of tasks assessing the extent to which they linked the category to the properties expressed, and the extent to which they treated the category as constituting an essentialized kind. As predicted, for adults, generics training resulted in tighter category-property links and more category essentialism than both the specific-label and no-label training. Children also showed effects of generic wording, though the effects were weaker and required more extensive input. We discuss the implications for language-thought relations, and for the acquisition of essentialized categories. PMID:20638053

  1. State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under Medicaid.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Federman, Alex D; Liberman, Joshua N; Liu, Jun; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Brookhart, M Alan; Fischer, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    To stem the rising costs of medications provided to patients enrolled in Medicaid, states have implemented varying policies about generic substitution. These policies differ in the extent to which pharmacists or patients can influence which medications they choose. Using national Medicaid data, we evaluated the relationship between different generic substitution policies and the use of generic simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, after the patent for the brand-name equivalent, Zocor, expired. States that implemented policies requiring patients' consent prior to generic substitution experienced rates of substitution that were 25 percent lower than those of states that did not require patient consent. By eliminating patient consent requirements, state Medicaid programs could expect to save more than $100 million in coverage for three top-selling medications that are nearing patent expiration. Although these consent requirements are probably intended to increase patient autonomy, policy makers should consider the sizable opportunity costs.

  2. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  3. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  4. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  5. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  6. Effects of a physician office generic drug sampling system on generic dispensing ratios and drug costs in a large managed care organization.

    PubMed

    Scott, Amy B; Culley, Eric J; O'Donnell, Jerry

    2007-06-01

    Greater use of generic drugs, particularly as measured by the generic utilization or dispensing ratio (GDR), is an effective means of managing care by attaining the same clinical outcome as brand drugs but at lower cost. Health plans encourage members to use generic drugs through copayments that are lower than for brand drugs. Encouraging physicians to prescribe generic drugs in therapeutic selection continues to be an opportunity for health plans to produce drug cost savings without compromising safety or efficacy. To determine if the addition of an automated generic drug sampling system in primary care physician offices would increase (1) the GDR of the sampled therapeutic categories and (2) the overall GDR. To encourage prescribers to increase their use of generic pharmaceuticals, this managed care organization of 2.3 million members with pharmacy benefits, who represent about two thirds of approximately 3.5 million total health plan members, collaborated with a vendor that developed an automated generic medication sampling intervention that takes place in the physician's office at the point of care. The generic sampling system (kiosk) included 21 distinct generic drugs in 36 variations of dose and strength. To isolate the effect of the generic sampling intervention from the general trend of greater generic drug use, we compared physicians participating in the generic sampling program with all other network physicians. Because formal statistical testing of program outcomes was precluded by incomplete physician data, we performed a descriptive, business-case analysis of the program. Before implementation of the generic sampling program, the physicians in the intervention group and the comparison group had the same GDR of 47.8%. In the first full year of the intervention in 2005, the 301 physicians participating in the generic sampling program had a GDR of 55.3% compared with 54.1% for all of the other approximately 33,000 network physicians. This absolute 1

  7. Generic Substitution Issues: Brand-generic Substitution, Generic-generic Substitution, and Generic Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)/Critical Dose Drugs

    PubMed Central

    PAVELIU, Marian Sorin; BENGEA, Simona; PAVELIU, Fraga Silvia

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doctors accuse individual variability or lack of quality of generic drugs for adverse reactions or lack of efficacy. The variability of effect of generic substitution, although accepted by clinicians as possible, is little discussed or even understood by them. The situation is really serious in the case of generic substitution of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI) or critical dose. In this paper we review the basic notions of variability and effectiveness of generic medication and change of attitude that would improve the use of these drugs. PMID:21977191

  8. A generic computerized method for estimate of familial risks.

    PubMed Central

    Colombet, Isabelle; Xu, Yigang; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Desages, Daniel; Degoulet, Patrice; Chatellier, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    Most guidelines developed for cancers screening and for cardiovascular risk management use rules to estimate familial risk. These rules are complex, difficult to memorize, and need to collect a complete pedigree. This paper describes a generic computerized method to estimate familial risks and its implementation in an internet-based application. The program is based on 3 generic models: a model of the family; a model of familial risk; a display model for the pedigree. The model of family allows to represent each member of the family and to construct and display a family tree. The model of familial risk is generic and allows easy update of the program with new diseases or new rules. It was possible to implement guidelines dealing with breast and colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases prevention. First evaluation with general practitioners showed that the program was usable. Impact on quality of familial risk estimate should be more documented. PMID:12463810

  9. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  10. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  11. Principles for Creating a Computerized Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The experience of developing a set of comprehensive aptitude batteries for computer administration for the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory's Learning Abilities Measurement Program resulted in the formulation of nine principles for creation of a computerized test battery. These principles are discussed in the context of research on…

  12. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  13. Developing Generic Software for Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A proposed approach to the development of software for spacecraft avionics is based partly on a concept of generic software that could be tailored to satisfy requirements for specific missions. The proposed approach would stand in contrast to the conventional approach of first defining avionics requirements for a specific mission, then developing software specific to those requirements. The proposed approach might also be adaptable to programming computers that control and monitor other complex equipment systems that range in scale from automobiles to factories. The concept of a spacecraft avionics functional model (SAFM) is a major element of the proposed approach. An SAFM would be, essentially, a systematic and hierarchical description of the functionality required of the avionics software (and hardware) for a given mission. Although the initial input information used to start the construction of an SAFM would typically amount to a high-level description, the SAFM would thereafter be decomposed to a low level. The resulting low-level version of the model would be used to develop a set of generic requirements that could be expected to include a large fraction of all requirements for a large fraction of all missions. The generic requirements would be used to develop software modules that could be included in, or excluded from, the final flight software to satisfy the requirements of a specific mission.

  14. Generic Environment for Simulating Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Martin; Mollaghasemi, Mansooreh; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2006-01-01

    GEM-FLO (A Generic Simulation Environment for Modeling Future Launch Operations) is a computer program that facilitates creation of discrete-event simulation models of ground processes in which reusable or expendable launch vehicles (RLVs) are prepared for flight. GEM-FLO includes a component, developed in Visual Basic, that generates a graphical user interface (GUI) and a component, developed in the Arena simulation language, that creates a generic discrete-event simulation model. Through the GUI, GEM-FLO elicits RLV design information from the user. The design information can include information on flight hardware elements, resources, and ground processes. GEM-FLO translates the user s responses into mathematical variables and expressions that populate the generic simulation model. The variables and expressions can represent processing times, resource capacities, status variables, and other process parameters needed to configure a simulation model that reflects the ground processing flow and requirements of a specific RLV. Upon execution of the model, GEMFLO puts out data on many measures of performance, including the flight rate, turnaround time, and utilization of resources. This information can serve as the basis for determining whether design goals can be met, and for comparing characteristics of competing RLV designs

  15. Lithium-alloy/iron sulfide battery design studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilenskas, A. A.

    1984-10-01

    The DOE/EHV sponsored design studies carried out at Argonne and the integration of these studies with the EPRI program for the development of an advanced van battery are discussed. The design basis for the van battery is given. Some of the inputs are given which are required to derive the battery specifications. Modeling work to optimize the powr/energy ratio as a function of energy was performed. Energy efficiency of the battery is addressed, as is battery deprication. Recharging and reliability of the battery is discussed.

  16. Assessment of battery technologies, trends and projected business climate

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    This study, sponsored by the North American Defense Industrial Base Organization (NADIBO), assesses the long term health of the North American military battery production base. The objective of the report is to discuss the following areas: Batteries and battery chemistries that military systems use today; U.S. and Canadian production capabilities relative to these chemistries; Battery technology trends and research and development programs regarding current and future military battery systems; The current and projected business climate for producers of military batteries Marketplace issues and concerns.

  17. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70s they have performed their task admirably. Recently, a growing problem of developing reliable Ni-Cd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications has been identified. This problem and the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth-observing spacecraft, are discussed.

  18. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  19. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  20. Use of COTS Batteries on ISS and Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation focuses on COTS Battery testing for energy content, toxicity, hazards, failures modes and controls for different battery chemistries. It also discusses the current program requirements, challenges with COTS Batteries in manned vehicle COTS methodology, JSC test details, and gives a list of incidents from consumer protection safety commissions. The Battery test process involved testing new batteries for engineering certification, qualification of batteries, flight acceptance, cell and battery, environment, performance and abuse. Their conclusions and recommendations were that: high risk is undertaken with the use of COTS batteries, hazard control verification is required to allow the use of these batteries on manned space flights, failures during use cannot be understood if different scenarios of failure are not tested on the ground, and that testing is performed on small sample numbers due to restrictions on cost and time. They recommend testing of large sample size to gain more confidence in the operation of the hazard controls.

  1. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  2. More potency assay results for generic non-USA lots of piperacillin/tazobactam and initial reports for generic meropenem compounds marketed in the USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Watters, Amy A

    2013-05-01

    An ongoing program of international generic antimicrobial potency assays for piperacillin/tazobactam has been summarized here through December 2010, and the initial results for meropenem generic lots from the United States are also presented. Fifteen additional piperacillin/tazobactam generic lots revealed an average of -10% activity (range, +3 to -23%) compared to the branded product (Zosyn®; Wyeth-Pfizer), a finding consistent with prior reports (46 lots) of -16%. In contrast, meropenem branded and generic products had equivalent assay results (5 generic lots from 2 manufacturers [Hospira and Sandoz]). In conclusion, potencies for generic lots of parenteral broad-spectrum β-lactams can vary widely when directly compared to branded products, requiring documentation by chemical, in vitro activity (potency assays as measured here), and purity testing before considering their addition to a hospital formulary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during FY-92 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass six battery technologies (Na/S, Li/FeS, Ni/Metal-Hydride, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  4. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during FY 1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass six battery technologies [Na/S, Li/FeS, Ni/Metal-Hydride, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and lie evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  5. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  6. Generic architectures for future flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Generic architecture for future flight systems must be based on open system architectures (OSA). This provides the developer and integrator the flexibility to optimize the hardware and software systems to match diverse and unique applications requirements. When developed properly OSA provides interoperability, commonality, graceful upgradability, survivability and hardware/software transportability to greatly minimize life cycle costs and supportability. Architecture flexibility can be achieved to take advantage of commercial developments by basing these developments on vendor-neutral commercially accepted standards and protocols. Rome Laboratory presently has a program that addresses requirements for OSA.

  7. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  8. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  9. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  10. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  11. The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: Abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Nicastri, Sergio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Bolla, Karen I

    2010-10-01

    Substance-dependence is highly associated with executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments. However, considering that it is difficult to assess ECF clinically, the aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility of a brief neuropsychological tool (the Frontal Assessment Battery - FAB) to detect specific ECF impairments in a sample of substance-dependent individuals (SDI). Sixty-two subjects participated in this study. Thirty DSM-IV-diagnosed SDI, after 2weeks of abstinence, and 32 healthy individuals (control group) were evaluated with FAB and other ECF-related tasks: digits forward (DF), digits backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SDI did not differ from the control group on sociodemographic variables or IQ. However, SDI performed below the controls in DF, DB, and FAB. The SDI were cognitively impaired in 3 of the 6 cognitive domains assessed by the FAB: abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. The FAB correlated with DF, SCWT, and WCST. In addition, some neuropsychological measures were correlated with the amount of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use. In conclusion, SDI performed more poorly than the comparison group on the FAB and the FAB's results were associated with other ECF-related tasks. The results suggested a negative impact of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use on the ECF. The FAB may be useful in assisting professionals as an instrument to screen for ECF-related deficits in SDI.

  12. Generic Architecture Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-22

    RAPIER system of the Air Force Space Command. The report also gives special attention to the use of the Ada programming language in the development of...processing and logoff the user. A wide range of processing activities cari occur in response to an event. If the event is the entry of an operator command

  13. Generic Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Paralegal Inst., Washington, DC.

    Part of the National Paralegal Institute's curriculum for short-term intensive training sessions for paralegals, or legal assistants, the document outlines the format for training sessions concerning: (1) initial training to examine the functions of the paralegal and stimulate commitment to the entire training program, (2) legal research, (3)…

  14. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  15. Medicaid payment for generic drugs: achieving savings and access.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christie Provost

    2010-09-30

    Medicaid payment for generic prescription drugs has been a point of contention for the pharmacy industry over the past few years because of reimbursement formula changes contained in the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) includes provisions to resolve some of these issues. The DRA reduced the maximum amount the federal government would pay state Medicaid programs for generic drugs, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid services (CMS) final regulation, to implement the DRA provisions was met with a lawsuit from the pharmacy industry. An injunction by the federal district court, followed by a congressional moratorium, kept CMS from implementing the regulation and kept the pre-DRA formula for the generic drug payment limit in place. PPACA provisions increase maximum federal reimbursement levels for Medicaid generic drugs, but the impact on the pharmacy industry depends on CMS implementation and state policies. This paper examines Medicaid payment for generic drugs, the DRA and PPACA changes to generic drug reimbursement, the concerns of the pharmacy industry, and the potential impact on access.

  16. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  17. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  18. Generic Channel Simulator software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    I flat doppier spectrum _1 classic doppler spectrum _J I waroiup fitters I load filter warmupfiles I generate fitter warmup files OK Script...program input parameters such as input file, sample rate, output file, carrier frequency, and warmup filter option, the user must specify two...Input FüR Sample Rate (MHz) Output FüR Warmup Füters: _J xexe Carrier Frequency (MHz) Velocities (in-plane) (m/s) Velocities (perp) (m/s

  19. NASA flight cell and battery issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents the important battery and cell problems, encompassing both test failures and accidents, which were encountered during the past year. Practical issues facing programs, which have to be considered in the development of a battery program strategy, are addressed. The problems of one program, the GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), during the past year are focused on to illustrate the fundamental types of battery problems that occur. Problems encountered by other programs are briefly mentioned to complete the accounting. Two major categories of issues are defined, namely, whose which are quality and design related, i.e., problems having inherent manufacturing-process-related aspects with an impact on cell reliability, and these which are accident triggered or man induced, i.e., those operational issues having an impact on battery and cell reliability.

  20. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  1. Battery charge-discharge controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccanti, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Charge-discharge controller contains punched-tape programmer capable of programming 305 discrete steps in the battery load. The indicating instrumentation includes meters for ampere-hours, watt-hours, voltage, current, and internal temperature and pressure. It also generates analog signals for recording the displayed data.

  2. Generic medications for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Donald M; Sebhatu, Phoebe; Reau, Nancy S

    2016-07-01

    The recent development and approval of expensive but highly effective oral agents against hepatitis C has led to restrictions and access limitations in many countries with limited healthcare budgets. Generic formulations of many of these agents are available at a fraction of the retail price in several countries because of generic licensure agreements. The discounted alternatives are only accessible in developing countries and require manufacturing and distribution regulations to ensure the quality and bioequivalence of the new drug formulations. The continued medication access limitations have driven great interest in the practice of personal drug importation of the generic formulations. This review and debate will address the medical and legal issues involved in the purchase and importation of these medicines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Experimental Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Demonstration at the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and built five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in spacesuit simulators as a part of the 2007 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) activity at Cinder Lake, Arizona. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, overdischarge and over-temperature. The 500-g experimental batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 22 W for 2.5 hr with a minimum voltage of 13 V. When discharged at the maximum expected power output of 38.5 W, the batteries operated for 103 min of discharge time, achieving a specific energy of 130 Wh/kg. This report summarizes design details and safety considerations. Results for field trials and laboratory testing are summarized.

  4. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. This action is...

  5. Software synthesis using generic architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a generic architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a generic tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.

  6. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications

    SciTech Connect

    Posthumus, K.J.C.M.; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C.

    1996-11-01

    Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

  7. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  8. 77 FR 45629 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... payment of related application fees and any other fees owed under the Animal Generic Drug User Fee program... abbreviated application fees is $1,809,000 and each of the other two generic new animal drug user fee...] [FR Doc No: 2012-18710] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket...

  9. Exploring community pharmacists' views on generic medicines: a nationwide study from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chee Ping; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the Malaysian community pharmacists' views on generic medicines. A sample of 1419 Malaysian community pharmacies with resident pharmacists. A cross-sectional nationwide survey using a self-completed mailing questionnaire. Pharmacists' views on generic medicines including issues surrounding efficacy, safety, quality and bioequivalence. Responses were received from 219 pharmacies (response rate 15.4%). Only 50.2% of the surveyed pharmacists agreed that all products that are approved as generic equivalents can be considered therapeutically equivalent with the innovator medicines. Around 76% of respondents indicated that generic substitution of narrow therapeutic index medicines is inappropriate. The majority of the pharmacists understood that a generic medicine must contain the same amount of active ingredient (84.5%) and must be in the same dosage form as the innovator brand (71.7%). About 21% of respondents though that generic medicines are of inferior quality compared to innovator medicines. Most of the pharmacists (61.6%) disagreed that generic medicines produce more side-effects than innovator brand. Pharmacists graduated from Malaysian universities, twinning program and overseas universities were not differed significantly in their views on generic medicines. Additionally, the respondents appeared to have difficulty in ascertaining the bioequivalent status of the marketed generic products in Malaysia. The Malaysian pharmacists' have lack of information and/or trust in the generic manufacturing and/or approval system in Malaysia. This issue should be addressed by pharmacy educators and relevant government agencies.

  10. ORE's GENeric Evaluation SYStem: GENESYS 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Nancy; And Others

    GENESYS--GENeric Evaluation SYStem--is a method of streamlining data collection and evaluation through the use of computer technology. GENESYS has allowed the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District to evaluate a multitude of contrasting programs with limited resources. By standardizing methods and…

  11. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  12. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  13. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  14. Battery developments: The positive connection to a greener future

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1995-02-01

    Extraordinary innovations are being made in the performance of today`s portable electronic equipment. But, although electronics manufacturers have been leaping generations ahead of themselves technologically, they are still forced to look back to see battery technology struggling to close the distance that ever widens with each new electronics breakthrough. The need to improve battery performance, namely in the area of battery longevity, has stemmed from a growing consumer demand and has become one of the electronics industry`s newest challenges. Battery manufactures like Duracell, Ovonic Battery Company (OBC), Ergenics, Matsushita, and Sony Corporation are answering the call with research and development programs that will aid the transition to more efficient, environmentally friendly batteries. Traditionally, the market was dedicated to primary batteries, or non-rechargeable, disposable batteries that are composed of zinc-carbon, alkaline-manganese, mercury oxide, silver oxide, lithium metal, and lead-acid. Conventional lead-acid automotive batteries, while rechargeable, are toxic and not recyclable; new secondary battery designs will satisfy the needs of the electronics industry, while offering environmental benefits. The new types, such as rechargeable nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion, and lithium-polymer have longer life-cycles and are also recyclable. Zinc-air batteries, which are classified as primary batteries, are not rechargeable but offer substantial power and environmental benefits. Portable computers, cellular telephones, video camcorders, stereo equipment, and LCD televisions are a few of the many practical applications that will benefit from new battery technology.

  15. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  16. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  18. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. Over the last 2 yr, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only approx. 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the Brookhaven National Lab. program to develop generic boiling water reactor (BWR) PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs.

  19. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  20. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-02-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  1. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  2. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING...

  3. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  4. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  5. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10198 - Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10198 Dialkylcornoilamidopropionate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  10. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  11. SUNRAYCE 1995: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  12. Earth Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphillmore » into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  13. Earth Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphill into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  14. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  15. Deeply discounted medications: Implications of generic prescription drug wars.

    PubMed

    Czechowski, Jessica L; Tjia, Jennifer; Triller, Darren M

    2010-01-01

    To describe the history of generic prescription pricing programs at major pharmacy chains and their potential implications on prescribing, quality of care, and patient safety. Publicly available generic prescription discount program drug lists as of May 1, 2009. Fierce competition among major pharmacy chains such as Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart has led to a generic prescription pricing war with unclear public health implications. Introduced in 2006, currently 7 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains advertise a version of a deeply discounted medication (DDM) program, accounting for more than 25,000 locations nationally. By early 2008, almost 70 million Americans had used these programs. Although DDM programs lower drug costs for many patients, DDM formularies include potentially ineffective or harmful medications, have the potential to influence physician prescribing behavior, and may impair pharmacists' ability to review complete drug-dispensing records. DDMs are widespread but have the potential for unintended consequences on patients, providers, and the health care system. A systematic review of DDMs needs to evaluate the clinical, economic, and system-level implications of such programs.

  16. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries: they are not all the same!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, L. S.

    It has become popular and widespread, both in symposia and battery magazine articles, to refer to valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries as if they are a single entity and generic in nature. Sweeping conclusions have been drawn about the reliability and life of VRLA batteries but, usually, little is published alongside of these conclusions that can give the reader much insight into the nature of the alleged non-reliability, or indeed the failure modes associated with the apparent shortage of life. Consequently, there is a danger that the performance of VRLA batteries will become branded as a serious problem. The purpose of this paper is to present facts which demonstrate that VRLA batteries are most certainly not generic in nature. The batteries are designed differently, and they are manufactured in different ways from different materials. Moreover, the various producers make different claims with respect to the likely service-lives of VRLA batteries. When considered against this background, it should not be surprising that there is considerable variation in the life of VRLA batteries in their many and varied applications and environments. Nor should conclusions be drawn about all VRLA batteries by a consideration of a few.

  17. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  18. 40 CFR 721.9929 - Polyurea (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurea (generic). 721.9929 Section... Substances § 721.9929 Polyurea (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurea (PMN P-01-716) is subject...

  19. Design and test of lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chilenskas, A.A.; Biwer, R.L.; DeLuca, W.H.

    1986-04-01

    A program has been initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute to examine the feasibility of using the Li-alloy/FeS battery for electric-vehicle propulsion. In the first phase of the program, a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Reserch Center resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two full-scale 12-V modules and related battery components at Argonne's National Battery Test Laboratory. The design of the module and battery components was based upon a van battery design study supported by the US Department of Energy. The objective of the Phase I program was to provide test data to the battery developers applicable to cell and module development, insulated case design, heating/cooling subsystem design, and charger development.

  20. 76 FR 69294 - Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication Draft Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating... public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. The public... for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors...

  1. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  2. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  3. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  4. 78 FR 69703 - 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Generic Customer Satisfaction Surveys; Physical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 10-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Generic Customer Satisfaction... Customer Satisfaction Surveys Physical Inspection Alignment Pilot Program--Expansion Announcement....

  5. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intervention of battery and hardwired smoke alarms in New South Wales, Australia: Home fire safety checks pilot program.

    PubMed

    Tannous, W Kathy; Whybro, Mark; Lewis, Chris; Ollerenshaw, Michael; Watson, Graeme; Broomhall, Susan; Agho, Kingsley E

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, Fire & Rescue New South Wales piloted the delivery of its home fire safety checks program (HFSC) aimed at engaging and educating targeted top "at risk" groups to prevent and prepare for fire. This pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of smoke alarms using a cluster randomized controlled trial. Survey questionnaires were distributed to the households that had participated in the HFSC program (intervention group). A separate survey questionnaire was distributed to the control group that was identified with similar characteristics to the intervention group in the same suburb. To adjust for potential clustering effects, generalized estimation equations with a log link were used. Multivariable analyses revealed that battery and hardwired smoking alarm usage increased by 9% and 3% respectively among the intervention group compared to the control group. Females were more likely to install battery smoke alarms than males. Respondents who possessed a certificate or diploma (AOR=1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.70, P=0.047) and those who were educated up to years 8-12 (AOR=1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.64, P=0.012) were significantly more likely to install battery smoke alarms than those who completed bachelor degrees. Conversely, holders of a certificate or diploma and people who were educated up to years 8-12 were 31% (AOR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93, P=0.014) and 24% (AOR=0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.95, P=0.015) significantly less likely to install a hardwired smoke alarm compared to those who completed bachelor degrees. This pilot study provided evidence of the benefit of the HFSC in New South Wales. Fire safety intervention programs, like HFSC, need to be targeted to male adults with lower level of schooling even when they are aware of their risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  6. Li-Ion Battery for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2004-01-01

    The ISS currently uses Ni-H2 batteries in the main power system. Although Ni-H2 is a robust and reliable system, recent advances in battery technology have paved the way for future replacement batteries to be constructed using Li-ion technology. This technology will provide lower launch weight as well as increase ISS electric power system (EPS) efficiency. The result of incorporating this technology in future re-support hardware will be greater power availability and reduced program cost. the presentations of incorporating the new technology.

  7. Nickel-hydrogen CPV battery update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1993-01-01

    The multicell common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery manufactured by Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. has completed full flight qualification, including random vibration at 19.5 g for two minutes in each axis, electrical characterization in a thermal vacuum chamber, and mass-spectroscopy vessel leak detection. A first launch is scheduled for late in 1992 or early 1993 by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Specifics of the launch date are not available at this time due to the classified nature of the program. Release of orbital data for the battery is anticipated following the launch.

  8. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  9. Generic voice interface for cockpit application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, David T.; Feitshans, Gregory L.

    A voice technology interface is proposed that would allow both novice and expert users of voice input and output devices to quickly interface them to their applications while maintaining optimum performance. The objective of this generic voice interface (GVI) is to provide a device-independent interface to existing voice systems. The system will be designed so that any application, not just cockpit applications, can be used with the GVI. Once it has been successfully integrated into a few key applications, the same techniques can be transitioned to other areas. The system will initially be targeted for the rapidly reconfigurable crew-station (RRC) program, which will provide a rapid prototyping environment for advanced crew-station design.

  10. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  11. Patients' perceptions of generic drugs in Greece.

    PubMed

    Skaltsas, Leonora N; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic drugs is growing increasingly around the world and in Greece, in particular, in order to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. However, patients' perceptions and attitudes about generics have only partially been studied so far in Greece. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence the attitude of patients and consumers regarding generic drugs. A questionnaire survey of 364 patients visiting a pharmacy was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 29 questions, including questions regarding their knowledge about generics, the reasons for using them, their previous experience, their willingness for generic substitution, and the factors behind these choices. Nearly half of the participants in the survey know the term 'generic' and that it has a lower price compared to the brand name drug. Their views on safety and efficacy vary significantly and the main source of information on generics is the media and the internet. The lack of knowledge is the main barrier for attitudes of doctors. Health professionals play the most influential role for the substitution of a branded drug by a generic, followed by the cost of the generic. Almost half of the patients know about generic drugs, with their lower price being the most popular feature which most patients are familiar with. It seems that primarily the doctor and, subsequently the pharmacist play the most important role in a patient's decision to replace his/her medicine with a generic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generic Language in Parent-Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Goetz, Peggy J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.; Flukes, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Generic knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop generic knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express generic knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to generic kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn generic forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as generic. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of generics, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807

  13. Use of Learner-Centered Principles Test Battery in Pre-Service Educational Programs and in the School Setting: Implications for Teacher Roles and Professional Development Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.; Grubb, Deborah J.

    The Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (LCP) were developed through the efforts of an American Psychological Association task force as part of an effort to add to educational reform literature regarding the learner and the learner process. The Learner-Centered Battery (LCB) was administered to 38 teachers and 656 students in grades 6…

  14. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  15. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  16. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  17. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  18. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  19. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  20. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the battery to spill through the vents. Use a battery carrier when available and always handle with extreme care. This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be ... reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of ...

  1. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  2. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  3. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  5. Asian Battery Forecast Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-12-31

    A forecast of battery production in Asia is described. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market, Asian economic growth has the potential to result in the battery market matching or possibly exceeding that of North America.

  6. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  7. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  8. Zinc-bromine battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  9. The Controversy over Generic Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Susan J.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2010-01-01

    As patent protection ends for the next generation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a complex debate continues over generic substitution of AEDs. On one hand, generic drug formulations provide cost savings for patients and society. On the other hand, patients with epilepsy and physicians are wary about the adequacy and efficacy of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) standards for generics. This article reviews current and proposed bioequivalence test procedures, summarizes new generic AED formulations and their costs, and discusses potential pitfalls in the current standards. These shortcomings include certain pharmacokinetic factors and clinical pharmacologic factors that may affect bioequivalence of generic AEDs, and statistical limitations of the standards. While the drug concentration differences between the brand name drug and each generic formulation are unlikely to be substantial, the differences with generic-to-generic switches will be greater and potentially clinically significant. Conversely, owing to their more favorable pharmacokinetic profile, newer AEDs may be less prone to problems with generic substitution than older ones. Unfortunately, very few data are available to guide decisions regarding what is best for an individual patient. Based on new prediction methods, generic substitution should be safe for many patients but identifying them ultimately requires more rigorous study. PMID:22477799

  10. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  11. Generic trending and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keehan, Lori; Reese, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The Generic Trending and Analysis System (GTAS) is a generic spacecraft performance monitoring tool developed by NASA Code 511 and Loral Aerosys. It is designed to facilitate quick anomaly resolution and trend analysis. Traditionally, the job of off-line analysis has been performed using hardware and software systems developed for real-time spacecraft contacts; then, the systems were supplemented with a collection of tools developed by Flight Operations Team (FOT) members. Since the number of upcoming missions is increasing, NASA can no longer afford to operate in this manner. GTAS improves control center productivity and effectiveness because it provides a generic solution across multiple missions. Thus, GTAS eliminates the need for each individual mission to develop duplicate capabilities. It also allows for more sophisticated tools to be developed because it draws resources from several projects. In addition, the GTAS software system incorporates commercial off-the-shelf tools software (COTS) packages and reuses components of other NASA-developed systems wherever possible. GTAS has incorporated lessons learned from previous missions by involving the users early in the development process. GTAS users took a proactive role in requirements analysis, design, development, and testing. Because of user involvement, several special tools were designed and are now being developed. GTAS users expressed considerable interest in facilitating data collection for long term trending and analysis. As a result, GTAS provides easy access to large volumes of processed telemetry data directly in the control center. The GTAS archival and retrieval capabilities are supported by the integration of optical disk technology and a COTS relational database management system.

  12. Influence of paste composition and curing program used for the production of positive plates with PbSnCa grids on the performance of lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Dimitrov, M.; Rogachev, T.; Bogdanova, L.

    The cycle life performance of lead acid batteries with PbSnCa grids is strongly affected by the structure and properties of PAM and of the interface PAM/grid. The latter interface is formed during curing and formation of the positive plates. The processes that take place on curing of positive lead acid battery plates produced with Concast or Conroll PbSnCa grids and 3PbOPbSO 4·H 2O (3BS) or 4PbOPbSO 4· xH 2O (4BS) pastes are discussed in this paper. The enhanced processes of Sn and Ca segregation in the alloy of the grids during plate curing lead to the formation of a thin layer of a new phase, composed of the intermetallic compound (Pb 1- xSn x) 3Ca, in the spaces between the metal grains or sub-grains. This layer makes the interface heterogeneous and exerts a detrimental effect on the cycle life of the battery. In order to suppress its effect on battery performance, the thickness of this layer should be reduced by reducing the content of Ca in the grid alloy. During plate curing, the heterogeneous surface of the grid alloy is oxidized under the action of oxygen and H 2O at elevated temperature and the alkaline solution in the paste pores. A corrosion layer is formed comprising a thin sub-layer (CL1) and a thick partially hydrated lead oxide sub-layer (CL2). The 4BS/CL2 contact surface is larger and more stable than that between the 3BS particles and the CL2 layer. Both 3BS and 4BS particles are bonded to the CL2 layer through their hydrated layers. When curing is conducted at temperatures above 80 °C, 3BS particles are converted into 4BS ones which contain water. It has been established that positive plates produced with 4BS plates cured at 50 °C have the longest cycle life and adequate capacity performance, but a bit low power output. Positive plates prepared with 3BS pastes, which are then converted into 4BS ones during plate curing at 90 °C, have high initial capacity and power performance, but shorter cycle life. Batteries with plates produced with 4BS

  13. Patients’ beliefs about generic medicines in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Zhi Y.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Yahaya, Abdul H.; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acceptance of generic medicines by patients is an essential factor given that they are the end users of these medicines. In fact, adequate knowledge and positive perceptions are prerequisite to patients’ acceptance and use of generic medicines. Objective: To assess the current belief and views of patients about generic medicines in Malaysia. Method: This was a self-administered questionnaire-based study. The study was conducted with patients visiting outpatient pharmacy department at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. The Malaysian version of Generic Medicines Scale (GMS) was used. The GMS consists of two subscales: efficacy and similarity of generic medicines to original brand medicines. The efficacy subscale consists of 10 items while the similarity subscale consists of 6 items. The responses to the items were framed as a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree). Results: A total of 202 out of 300 patients participated in the study, giving a response rate of 67.3%. In this study, only 49% of them (n=99) knew the term ‘generic medicine’. Moreover, only 53.5% of the respondents (n=108) believed that the efficacy of generic medicines was the same as original brand medicines. In terms of quality, only 44% of the respondents (n=89) disagreed that generic medicines were of a lower quality. About one third (n=65, 32.2%) believed that generic medicines were cheaper because they were less efficacious. In terms of side effects, 44.5% of the respondents (n=90) believed that generic medicines had the same side effect profile as original brand medicines. Conclusions: The study finding showed that almost half of the respondents had negative belief in generic medicines. Similarly, many patients were not aware of the similarities and differences between generic and original brand medicines. Therefore, there is a need to provide patients with adequate information about generic medicines. PMID:25580171

  14. GLAD: A Generic LAttice Debugger

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings.

  15. Generic thin-shell gravastars

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt; Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Lobo, Francisco S.N. E-mail: nmontelongo@fis.cinvestav.mx E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz

    2012-03-01

    We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.

  16. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  17. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalskrishna M.; Tiller, Smith E.

    1999-01-01

    The "International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance" report provides the information on the cell/battery design, battery performance during the thirty eight (38) solar eclipse seasons and the end-of-life test data. It is noteworthy that IUE spacecraft was an in-house project and that the batteries were designed, fabricated and tested (Qualification and Acceptance) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. A detailed information is given on the cell and battery design criteria and the designs, on the Qualification and the Acceptance tests, and on the cell life cycling tests. The environmental, thermal, and vibration tests were performed on the batteries at the battery level as well as with the interface on the spacecraft. The telemetry data were acquired, analyzed, and trended for various parameters over the mission life. Rigorous and diligent battery management programs were developed and implemented from time to time to extend the mission life over eighteen plus years. Prior to the termination of spacecraft operation, special tests were conducted to check the battery switching operation, battery residual capacity, third electrode performance and battery impedance.

  18. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  19. Automatic battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Schub, L.

    1984-06-26

    An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

  20. Isolation of Battery Chargers Integrated Into Printed Circuit Boards

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2013-11-21

    Present test procedures developed by the Federal Government (10 CFR Part 430 “Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products”) to measure the energy consumption of battery chargers provide no method for the isolation of input power for battery chargers that have been integrated into printed circuit boards internal to electronic equipment. This prevents the measurement of Standby and Off Mode energy consumption. As a result, the energy consumption of battery chargers integrated into the printed circuit board cannot be measured.

  1. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  2. DNA Based Electrolyte/Separator for Lithium Battery Application (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-07

    electronics to hybrid and electric vehicles . Two general categories of secondary batteries are mainly explored: the first are liquid electrolyte metal-ion...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0302 DNA BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) Jitendra Kumar1, Fahima...BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5405-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  3. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  5. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  6. An object oriented generic controller using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nivens, Cody R.

    1990-01-01

    In today's applications, the need for the division of code and data has focused on the growth of object oriented programming. This philosophy gives software engineers greater control over the environment of an application. Yet the use of object oriented design does not exclude the need for greater understanding by the application of what the controller is doing. Such understanding is only possible by using expert systems. Providing a controller that is capable of controlling an object by using rule-based expertise would expedite the use of both object oriented design and expert knowledge of the dynamic of an environment in modern controllers. This project presents a model of a controller that uses the CLIPS expert system and objects in C++ to create a generic controller. The polymorphic abilities of C++ allow for the design of a generic component stored in individual data files. Accompanying the component is a set of rules written in CLIPS which provide the following: the control of individual components, the input of sensory data from components and the ability to find the status of a given component. Along with the data describing the application, a set of inference rules written in CLIPS allows the application to make use of sensory facts and status and control abilities. As a demonstration of this ability, the control of the environment of a house is provided. This demonstration includes the data files describing the rooms and their contents as far as devices, windows and doors. The rules used for the home consist of the flow of people in the house and the control of devices by the home owner.

  7. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  8. Generic Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    2004-01-01

    A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.

  9. Toward a generic UGV autopilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Whitehorn, Mark; Weinstein, Alejandro J.; Xia, Junjun

    2009-05-01

    Much of the success of small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) has arguably been due to the widespread availability of low-cost, portable autopilots. While the development of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) has led to significant achievements, as typified by recent grand challenge events, to date the UGV equivalent of the UAV autopilot is not available. In this paper we describe our recent research aimed at the development of a generic UGV autopilot. Assuming we are given a drive-by-wire vehicle that accepts as inputs steering, brake, and throttle commands, we present a system that adds sonar ranging sensors, GPS/IMU/odometry, stereo camera, and scanning laser sensors, together with a variety of interfacing and communication hardware. The system also includes a finite state machine-based software architecture as well as a graphical user interface for the operator control unit (OCU). Algorithms are presented that enable an end-to-end scenario whereby an operator can view stereo images as seen by the vehicle and can input GPS waypoints either from a map or in the vehicle's scene-view image, at which point the system uses the environmental sensors as inputs to a Kalman filter for pose estimation and then computes control actions to move through the waypoint list, while avoiding obstacles. The long-term goal of the research is a system that is generically applicable to any drive-by-wire unmanned ground vehicle.

  10. Anti-Idling Battery for Truck Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kelly

    2011-09-30

    In accordance to the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001036, the objective of this project was to develop an advanced high voltage lithium-ion battery for use in an all-electric HVAC system for Class-7-8 heavy duty trucks. This system will help heavy duty truck drivers meet the tough new anti-idling laws being implemented by over 23 states. Quallion will be partnering with a major OEM supplier of HVAC systems to develop this system. The major OEM supplier will provide Quallion the necessary interface requirements and HVAC hardware to ensure successful testing of the all-electric system. At the end of the program, Quallion will deliver test data on three (3) batteries as well as test data for the prototype HVAC system. The objectives of the program are: (1) Battery Development - Objective 1 - Define battery and electronics specifications in preparation for building the prototype module. (Completed - summary included in report) and Objective 2 - Establish a functional prototype battery and characterize three batteries in-house. (Completed - photos and data included in report); (2) HVAC Development - Objective 1 - Collaborate with manufacturers to define HVAC components, layout, and electronics in preparation for establishing the prototype system. (Completed - photos and data included in report) and Objective 2 - Acquire components for three functional prototypes for use by Quallion. (Completed - photos and data included in report).

  11. [Generic drugs in morocco: survey of physicians].

    PubMed

    Zaoui, Sanaa; Hakkou, Farid; Filali, Houda

    2011-01-01

    To assess the knowledge of physicians about generic drugs and their prescribing habits, with a view to making proposals for developing the use of generic drug in Morocco. Prospective study conducted among 100 physicians working in different sectors, using a questionnaire comprising 14 questions. The points raised in this questionnaire focused on assessing the knowledge of physicians about generic drugs, their prescribing habits, and their point of view towards the rights of substitution. The prescription of generic medicines is more than 20% of drug prescriptions in less than half of doctors. For 68% of physicians, a generic is not always effective. When the definition of generic drug only 66% of physicians mentioned bioequivalence with the brand-name drug, and when the definition of bioequivalence, for almost half (51%) of physicians, a generic drug bioequivalent to the brand-name drug is a drug with the same half-life. Eighty-eight percent (88%) of the doctors prescribe generic drugs when lower cost is met. Seventy percent of physicians (70%) prescribe generics when bioequivalence is demonstrated with the brand-name drug. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of doctors are against the substitution because it presents an obstacle to their freedom of prescription. In order to increase the use of generic drugs, better information for physicians is necessary. Other ways can be implemented, first establish the quality of Moroccan generic by bioequivalence studies and think about steps to put in place to encourage doctors and pharmacists to prescribe and dispense generic drugs, particularly the rights of substitution. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  13. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not) was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups) and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments) and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.). Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments) was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and beliefs are probably the

  14. Final Viking NiCd battery conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Britting, A.

    1983-08-01

    The Viking Lander Monitor Mission (VLMM) is well beyond its planned 90-day landed Mars mission. It has been an established NASA goal to maintain an American presence on Mars for as long as possible. With healthy subsystems, the mission could conceivably last until December 5, 1994. At that time the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power source output power would be marginal for support of the system electrical loads and for battery maintenance. The antenna pointing coefficients will also expire at that time, resulting in telecommunication system shutdown. Recently three of the four, 8 ampere-hour (AH) nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries onboard Viking Lander 1 (VL-1) have indicated signs of significant loss of energy storage capacity. An intensive program of deep-discharge battery reconditioning was begun in January 1982 in an attempt to return the batteries to levels of capacity approaching early mission values.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  20. Transfluthrin: comparative efficacy and toxicity of reference and generic versions.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Juergen; Ozaki, Keisuke

    2015-02-01

    Stringent requirements are in place for the evaluation and registration of new compounds with biocidal or pesticidal activities. However, the registration requirements for established compounds from new suppliers or for established compounds produced by a different manufacturing process have been less clear and ambiguity exists as to how 'equivalence of health hazards' can unequivocally be demonstrated analytically and by toxicological assays. The case presented in this analysis focuses on the chiral pyrethroid transfluthrin (TFL) synthesized by esterification of an acid chloride and alcoholic moiety. According to any modifications of the process of synthesis and purification, new potentially highly toxic and yet chemically reactive impurities in low concentrations (<0.1%) may be formed. Amongst these, that with the structural alert 'organic acid anhydride' was given heightened concern as the most potent putative toxicologically significant impurity. The course taken in this analysis focused on the comparison of reference TFL with commercialized generic TFL from two alternative manufacturing sources in India and China. Despite their apparent high racemic purity, TFLs from generic sources were biologically less effective, genotoxic in the Ames' assay, demonstrated sensory lung irritation and lung/skin sensitization in specialized bioassays. While the off-patent reference TFL was unequivocally negative in all assays (anhydride content not detectable, LOQ <0.01%), positive results with high batch-to-batch variability were a frequent outcome in generic TFLs. Tier I analytical assays failed to detect this relevant impurity in the absence of impurity-specific optimized analytical procedures. This finding suggests that a well-balanced combined approach of analytical and toxicological assays provides the best means to assure that all critical impurities are identified and accounted for. Similarly, putative 'structural alert'-based toxicity tests proved to be more

  1. Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna

    1995-01-01

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.

  2. Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna

    1995-02-01

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.

  3. Rational use of generic psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-05-01

    For economic reasons, the generic substitution of branded medications is common and welcome. These replacements are based on the concept of bioequivalence, which is considered equal to therapeutic equivalence. Regulatory standards for bioequivalence require the 90 % confidence intervals of group averages of pharmacokinetic measures of a generic and the original drug to overlap within ±20 %. However, therapeutic equivalence has been challenged for several psychotropic agents by retrospective studies and case reports. To evaluate the degree of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence of branded and generic psychotropic drugs, we performed an electronic search (from database inception until 24 May 2012 and without language restrictions) in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Search terms were "(generic) AND (psychotropic OR psychoactive OR antipsychotic OR antiepileptic OR antidepressant OR stimulant OR benzodiazepine)" or the respective individual substances. We included clinical studies, regardless of design, comparing branded with generic psychotropic drug formulations, identifying 35 such studies. We also included case reports/series reporting on outcomes after a switch between brand and generic psychotropics, identifying 145 clinical cases. Bioequivalence studies in healthy controls or animals, in-vitro studies, and health economics studies without medical information were excluded. An overview of the few randomized controlled studies supports that US FDA regulations assure clinically adequate drug delivery in the majority of patients switched from brand to generic. However, with a growing number of competing generic products for one substance, and growing economic pressure to substitute with the currently cheapest generic, frequent generic-generic switches, often unbeknownst to prescribing clinicians, raise concerns, particularly for antiepileptics/mood stabilizers. Generic-generic switches may vary by more than ±20 % from each other in

  4. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  5. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  6. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  7. High reliability, maintenance-free INS battery development, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutetakis, David G.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the findings of a study undertaken to develop a high reliability, maintenance-free battery (HRMFB) for application in the Litton LTN-72 and Delco Carousel IV Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). The current phase of this program, Phase 2, comprised the procurement and qualification of preproduction INS batteries based on the specification requirements developed in Phase 1.

  8. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  9. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  10. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish…

  11. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish…

  12. Fixing Holes Where the Rain Gets in: Problem Areas in the Development of Generic Skills in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little attention is paid to understanding generic skills in business. Even less attention is paid to collecting evidence of students' development of these skills. This paper aims to fill this gap. Design/methodology/approach: Four generic skills in business undergraduate and graduate programs are examined--written communication; critical…

  13. Fixing Holes Where the Rain Gets in: Problem Areas in the Development of Generic Skills in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little attention is paid to understanding generic skills in business. Even less attention is paid to collecting evidence of students' development of these skills. This paper aims to fill this gap. Design/methodology/approach: Four generic skills in business undergraduate and graduate programs are examined--written communication; critical…

  14. Battery charge control with temperature compensated voltage limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierfelder, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    Battery charge control for orbiting spacecraft with mission durations from three to ten years, is a critical design feature that is discussed. Starting in 1974, the General Electric Space Systems Division designed, manufactured and tested battery systems for six different space programs. Three of these are geosynchronous missions, two are medium altitude missions and one is a near-earth mission. All six power subsystems contain nickel cadmium batteries which are charged using a temperature compensated voltage limit. This charging method was found to be successful in extending the life of nickel cadmium batteries in all three types of earth orbits. Test data and flight data are presented for each type of orbit.

  15. [Original brands and generic preparations].

    PubMed

    Petersen, K U

    2000-01-15

    Modern guidelines of drug approval aim at interchangeability of drugs containing the same active ingredients. Therapeutic equivalence of original and generic drugs is assumed as soon as bioequivalence is documented. For this to be accepted, first, pharmaceutical equivalence must prevail (the same amount of active substances in the same dosage forms) and, second, differences in bioavailabilities must not exceed certain limits. Drastic deviations from the original--not infrequent in the past--have become rare under the new sets of rules. However, there is still room for sometimes stunning discrepancies between approved drugs, since the current procedures--mainly for economic reasons--do not cover some potentially relevant aspects: Usually, studies are performed on young, healthy, mostly male volunteers; possible effects of meals on bioavailability are not investigated and, after approval of a drug, maintenance of attested quality--as with all manufacturers--is not monitored. Moreover, the tolerated deviations from the bioavailability of the original drug are quite large; with certain substances, a change from the generic drug with the lowest bioavailability to that with the highest could mean transition from low efficacy to a toxic dose level. Documented examples include carbamazepine, phenytoin, levothyroxin, verapamil, and aspirin. In conclusion, even today's sophisticated rules do not suffice to cover all eventualities. In particular, drugs with a narrow therapeutic range require close scrutiny in product selection. Pertinent are drug documentation as well as the distinguishing features of the respective manufacturers, mainly scientific support and record of product reliability. Besides the sometimes insufficient official documentation, the internet has been gaining importance as a source of information.

  16. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  17. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  18. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  19. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Barcellona, Simone; Brenna, Morris; Foiadelli, Federica; Longo, Michela; Piegari, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery's cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles. PMID:26236775

  20. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries.

    PubMed

    Barcellona, Simone; Brenna, Morris; Foiadelli, Federica; Longo, Michela; Piegari, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery's cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles.

  1. Authorized generic drugs, price competition, and consumers' welfare.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Ernst R; Mortimer, Richard; Bhattacharjya, Ashoke; Parece, Andrew; Tuttle, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The growing frequency of authorized generics has important implications for the welfare of prescription drug consumers. Authorized generic entry could affect the timing of generic entry, brand-name and generic prices, and generic penetration. We reviewed 1999-2003 data and found that generic entry in the absence of short-run exclusivity restrictions benefits consumers through lower short-run prices. We suggest that these benefits likely also result from authorized generics. We posit that long-run prices and shares are likely essentially unaffected by authorized generics and that potential costs to consumers from any delayed generic entry are likely small.

  2. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim; Bowens, Ebony; Balcer, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up.The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) was originally designed to use Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. As the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. The first set of 6 Li-ion battery replacements were launched in December 2016 and deployed in January 2017. This paper will discuss the Li-ion battery on-orbit start-up and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  3. Use of COTS Batteries on ISS and Shuttle: Payload Safety and Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Contents: Current program requirements; Challenges with COTS batteries; manned vehicle COTS methodology in use; List of typical flight COTS batteries; Energy content and toxicity; Hazards, failure modes and controls for different battery chemistries; JSC test details; List of incidents from Consumer Protection Safety Commission; Conclusions ans recommendations.

  4. The Intelligent Monitoring System: Generic Database Interface (GDI). User Manual. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-03

    Interface (GDI) is a common application programmable to multiple databases, providing two key capabilities: Database access and data management...Overview The Generic Database Interface (GDI) Is a common Application Programming Interface (API) to multiple databases. The GDI provides two key...of: "* Database Interface Manages Interaction with the target database. "* Generic Interface Provides a common API for C applications to access any

  5. NASA Battery Working Group - 2007-2008: Battery Task Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of the 2007-2008 NASA Battery Working Group efforts completed in support of the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC). The effort covered a series of pro-active tasks that address the following: Binding Procurements -- guidelines related to requirements for the battery system that should be considered at the time of contract award Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries -- issues/strategies for effective storage and impact of long-term storage on performance and life Generic Guidelines for Lithium-ion Safety, Handling and Qualification -- Standardized approaches developed and risk assessments (1) Lithium-ion Performance Assessment -- survey of manufacturers and capabilities to meet mission needs. Guidelines document generated (2) Conditions Required for using Pouch Cells in Aerospace Missions -- focus on corrosion, thermal excursions and long-term performance issues. Document defining requirements to maintain performance and life (3) High Voltage Risk Assessment -- focus on safety and abuse tolerance of battery module assemblies. Recommendations of features required for safe implementation (4) Procedure for Determination of Safe Charge Rates -- evaluation of various cell chemistries and recommendation of safe operating regimes for specific cell designs

  6. Asian battery forecast report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-08-01

    A forecast battery production in Asia is a particularly relevant subject for an Australian lead man to speak of as the majority of our own business is in the region. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market of some 80-85 million units per annum, Asian economic growth in the next decade has the potential to result in the battery market matching or even exceeding the above figures.

  7. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  8. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  9. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  10. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  11. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  12. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  13. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  14. A smart control system for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Arikara, M.P.; Dickinson, B.E.; Branum, B.

    1993-12-31

    A smart control system for electric vehicle (EV) batteries was designed and its performance was evaluated. The hardware for the system was based on the Motorola MC68HC11ENB micro controller. A zinc bromide (Zn/Br{sub 2}) battery was chosen since it is a good candidate as an EV battery and has a large number of user variable parameters that affect its performance. The flexibility of the system arises from the fact that the system can be programmed to do a wide variety of jobs. The use of real time interrupts and other features makes the system safe for use along with the battery systems. Test data indicates that real time control of the different parameters can increase the performance of the battery by 15%. In addition to optimizing the performance of the battery the control system incorporates essential safety features.

  15. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    1992-10-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991-1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  16. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  17. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  18. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  19. Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Generic sentences (such as "Birds lay eggs") are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about…

  20. Generic drugs in dermatology: part I.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    The cost of health care in the United States is increasing. In order to help control these rising costs, all parties involved in the delivery of health care, including dermatologists, need to be part of the solution of ethically reducing the cost of delivery of care. One potential means of meeting this goal is to increase the use of generic medications in daily practice. Generic medications can offer equally efficacious therapy at significantly lower prices, which can translate into large scale savings for the individual patient, the payer, and the overall health care system. Herein we provide an overview of new drug development, review the history of the generic drug industry, describe how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and define the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. In part II, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use, provide cost analyses of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs, and review data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  2. Defining Generic Skills. At a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Generic skills--skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts--are taking on increased importance in Australia and internationally. There is a high demand for generic skills in the workplace because employers seek to ensure business success by recruiting and retaining employees who have a variety of skills and personal attributes as…

  3. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  4. Generic Proving: Reflections on Scope and Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role of generic proofs in helping students access difficult proofs more easily and naturally. We present three examples of generic proving--an elementary one on numbers, a more advanced one on permutations, and yet more advanced one on groups--and consider the affordances and pitfalls of the method by reflecting on these examples. A…

  5. Generic drug approval: a US perspective.

    PubMed

    Nagori, B P; Mathur, V; Garg, S

    2011-03-01

    Generic drugs are identical or bioequivalent versions of the brand name drugs. They are the economic alternative of the costlier brand name drugs. This article presents a general overview of the procedure and regulatory aspects relating to generic drug approval in the US. A computerized search was conducted to find literature on generic drug approval in the US. The literature was searched using the following key words: generic drug, brand name drug, Hatch-Waxman Act, Medicare Act, NDA, ANDA, CTD and exclusivity. The search results were filtered for the literature describing and analyzing the procedure and regulatory provisions for generic drug approval in the US. After the screening total 19 applicable literature remained. In the US standardized procedures for the recognition of generic drugs have been laid down under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act, 1984 (the Hatch-Waxman Act). Provisions of this Act such as patent challenge, patent term extension and data exclusivity have created profound effects on the approval, sale and distribution of the pharmaceuticals in the US. The Hatch-Waxman Act is an excellent piece of legislation that takes care of the rights of both the brand name and generic drug companies. This article presents only an overview of generic drug approvals and for all practical purposes official resources should be referred.

  6. Mapping Generic Skills Curricula: A Recommended Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robley, Will; Whittle, Sue; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1997 Dearing Report, generic skills development has become an essential part of higher education in the UK. Generic skills programmes are, in the main, either run in parallel with existing curricula or "embedded" within them. In 1993 the General Medical Council introduced student selected components (SSCs) into the UK medical…

  7. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  8. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  9. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  10. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  11. Economic savings versus health losses: the cost-effectiveness of generic antiretroviral therapy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Sax, Paul E; Nakamura, Yoriko M; Weinstein, Milton C; Pei, Pamela P; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Paltiel, A David; Schackman, Bruce R

    2013-01-15

    U.S. HIV treatment guidelines recommend branded once-daily, 1-pill efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). With the anticipated approval of generic efavirenz in the United States, a once-daily, 3-pill alternative (generic efavirenz, generic lamivudine, and tenofovir) will decrease cost but may reduce adherence and virologic suppression. To assess the clinical effect, costs, and cost-effectiveness of a 3-pill, generic-based regimen compared with a branded, coformulated regimen and to project the potential national savings in the first year of a switch to generic-based ART. Mathematical simulation of HIV disease. United States. HIV-infected persons. No ART (for comparison); 3-pill, generic-based ART; and branded ART. Quality-adjusted life expectancy, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in dollars per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Compared with no ART, generic-based ART has an ICER of $21,100/QALY. Compared with generic-based ART, branded ART increases lifetime costs by $42,500 and per-person survival gains by 0.37 QALYs for an ICER of $114,800/QALY. Estimated first-year savings, if all eligible U.S. patients start or switch to generic-based ART, are $920 million. Most plausible assumptions about generic-based ART efficacy and costs lead to branded ART ICERs greater than $100,000/QALY. The efficacy and price reduction associated with generic drugs are unknown, and estimates are intended to be conservative. Compared with a slightly less effective generic-based regimen, the cost-effectiveness of first-line branded ART exceeds $100,000/QALY. Generic-based ART in the United States could yield substantial budgetary savings to HIV programs. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

  12. "Agile" Battery Technology Transfer-Lessons Learnt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, P.; Annoni, G.; Grossi, R.; Alia, Sergio; Reulier, David

    2008-09-01

    AGILE, the high energy astrophysics mission of the Italian Space Agency launched on April 23rd 2007, is the first LEO satellite to be powered by Saft's commercially available space qualified MPS176065 rechargeable lithium ion batteries.Saft and Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS) have achieved a successful technology transfer replacing Ni-H2 batteries with high energy lithium ion batteries in a full speed program (4 months) and with a cost effective approach. The battery system comprises 2 x 24 Saft MPS176065 space qualified Li-ion cells in an 8s3p configuration (3 parallel arrays each composed by 8 series cell) with a nominal capacity of 2 x 480 Wh and an integral autonomous cell balancing system that ensures the maximum possible battery life.The MPS176065 space qualified cell is based on Saft's well proven MP series of prismatic rechargeable Li-ion batteries. It offers an extremely high capacity made possible by the stainless steel prismatic container that makes use of the volume which is otherwise lost when conventional cylindrical cells are packed together. A single prismatic cell has about 20% more volumetric energy density than an equivalent pack of cylindrical cells.

  13. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  14. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-12-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  15. [Generic drugs: good or bad? Physician's knowledge of generic drugs and prescribing habits].

    PubMed

    García, A J; Martos, F; Leiva, F; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    2003-01-01

    In this article we analyze the responses of 1220 Spanish physicians who participated in a survery about generic drugs. A previously validated questionnaire was sent to physicians through the Spanish Medical Councils of the different provinces. Four items were analyzed: what doctors know about generic drugs (knowledge); physicians' prescribing habits concerning these drugs (attitude and professional competence); how prescription of generic drugs effects pharmaceutical costs amd, finally, what doctors believe a generic drug should be. The influence of physician-related variables (age, type of contract, specialty, workload, etc.) on prescribing of generic drugs was also analyzed. In view of the results, we believe that to rationalize expenditure through and appropriate policy on generic drugs Spanish health authorities should offer more and better training and information (clear and independent) about what generic drugs are.

  16. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPP) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. However, precisely what is important, and what is not important. What should one focus inspection efforts on. Over the last two years Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PR) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only about 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the BNL program to develop generic BWR PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs.

  17. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  18. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-03-01

    A brief overview of the current set of unmanned missions that are currently in operation and those planned for the next 5 to 10 years was presented. The important role of batteries in the development of successful missions was discussed. The workhorse battery, the NiCd, and its use throughout historical missions was explored. Its role on Observers and Landers was discussed, and the success those batteries had. The recent events in the issues of quality and life for NiCd batteries were discussed. These discussions focused on the current design activities for Mars Observer (MO), TOPEX, and Mariner Mark II. Separator selection and the need for uniform testing procedures to develop a quality battery product that can perform to mission requirements were discussed. The recent experiences with the GRO battery failure and the other events have led JPL to the decision to develop a testing program in conjunction with other NASA centers to determine the best separator material for these two missions. The decision for separator material and battery design must be made a year from now. Thus there will not be time to perform a total 2-year accelerated test. The JPL plan for coping with this compromise was discussed. A discussion of where NiH2 batteries are beginning to have an impact and the difficulties with their implementation were addressed. Such missions at Earth Observing System (EOS) and the NOAA series of satellites rely upon NiH2 for success but were not chosen for TOPEX or MO due to their large volume requirements.

  19. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview of the current set of unmanned missions that are currently in operation and those planned for the next 5 to 10 years was presented. The important role of batteries in the development of successful missions was discussed. The workhorse battery, the NiCd, and its use throughout historical missions was explored. Its role on Observers and Landers was discussed, and the success those batteries had. The recent events in the issues of quality and life for NiCd batteries were discussed. These discussions focused on the current design activities for Mars Observer (MO), TOPEX, and Mariner Mark II. Separator selection and the need for uniform testing procedures to develop a quality battery product that can perform to mission requirements were discussed. The recent experiences with the GRO battery failure and the other events have led JPL to the decision to develop a testing program in conjunction with other NASA centers to determine the best separator material for these two missions. The decision for separator material and battery design must be made a year from now. Thus there will not be time to perform a total 2-year accelerated test. The JPL plan for coping with this compromise was discussed. A discussion of where NiH2 batteries are beginning to have an impact and the difficulties with their implementation were addressed. Such missions at Earth Observing System (EOS) and the NOAA series of satellites rely upon NiH2 for success but were not chosen for TOPEX or MO due to their large volume requirements.

  20. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  2. Bipolar Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has contracted with Electro Energy, Inc., to develop a bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery design for energy storage on low-Earth-orbit satellites. The objective of the bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery development program is to approach advanced battery development from a systems level while incorporating technology advances from the lightweight nickel electrode field, hydride development, and design developments from nickel-hydrogen systems. This will result in a low-volume, simplified, less-expensive battery system that is ideal for small spacecraft applications. The goals of the program are to develop a 1-kilowatt, 28-volt (V), bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery with a specific energy of 100 watt-hours per kilogram (W-hr/kg), an energy density of 250 W-hr/liter and a 5-year life in low Earth orbit at 40-percent depth-of-discharge.

  3. Nickel-cadium batteries for Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, W. W.; Shikoh, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    The operational testing and evaluation program is presented which was conducted on 20-ampere-hour nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries for use on the Apollo telescope mount (ATM). The test program was initiated in 1967 to determine if the batteries could meet ATM mission requirements and to determine operating characteristics and methods. The ATM system power and charging power for the Ni-Cd secondary batteries is provided by a solar array during the 58-minute daylight portion of the orbit; during the 36-minute night portion of the orbit, the Ni-Cd secondary batteries will supply ATM system power. The test results reflect battery operating characteristics and parameters relative to simulated ATM orbital test conditions. Maximum voltage, charge requirements, capacity, temperature, and cyclic characteristics are presented.

  4. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-02-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  5. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  6. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. 78 FR 59911 - Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Forest Service Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... information collection, Generic Information Collection for Land Management Planning. DATES: Comments must be... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Generic Information Collection for Land Management...

  8. Robotic thermal battery pellet fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbler, D. L.; Townsend, A. S.; Walton, R. D.; Jones, C. W.

    1985-03-01

    Thermal battery manufacturing at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a sequence of operations involving materials processing, component manufacture, and assembly. These operations, for the most part, were manually performed although some operation were computer or fixture assisted. The high labor intensity and the need for process consistency in these operations made the conversion to a robotic work cell appealing in that it could increase productivity while allowing the reassignment of highly trained workers to other duties. An Alpha robot (Microbot, Inc.) was coupled with a Hewlett-Packard HP-9816 microcomputer, and custom software was developed to control the thermal battery manufacturing process. The software provided a menu driven main program with feedback at virtually every step to allow technicians with little or no computer experience to operate the system. Previously, one or two workers were assigned to each of several industrial presses used in the manufacture of thermal batteries. With the introduction of a robotic operator and a microcomputer process control, one worker alone could support two to three presses.

  9. Battery powered BION FES network.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J H; Mobley, J P; Wolfe, J; Regev, E; Perron, C Y; Ananth, R; Matei, E; Glukhovsky, A; Davis, R

    2004-01-01

    The Alfred Mann Foundation is completing development of a coordinated network of BION microstimulator/sensor (hereinafter implant) that has broad stimulating, sensing and communication capabilities. The network consists of a master control unit (MCU) in communication with a group of BION implants. Each implant is powered by a custom lithium-ion rechargeable 10 mW-hr battery. The charging, discharging, safety, stimulating, sensing, and communication circuits are designed to be highly efficient to minimize energy use and maximize battery life and time between charges. The stimulator can be programmed to deliver pulses in any value in the following range: 5 microA to 20 mA in 3.3% constant current steps, 7 micros to 2000 micros in 7 micros pulse width steps, and 1 to 4000 Hz in frequency. The preamp voltage sensor covers the range 10 microV to 1.0 V with bandpass filtering and several forms of data analysis. The implant also contains sensors that can read out pressure, temperature, DC magnetic field, and distance (via a low frequency magnetic field) up to 20 cm between any two BION implants. The MCU contains a microprocessor, user interface, two-way communication system, and a rechargeable battery. The MCU can command and interrogate in excess of 800 BlON implants every 10 ms, i.e., 100 times a second.

  10. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  11. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  12. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  13. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  14. Batteries: Getting solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Materials with high ionic conductivity are urgently needed for the development of solid-state lithium batteries. Now, an inorganic solid electrolyte is shown to have an exceptionally high ionic conductivity of 25 mS cm-1, which allows a solid-state battery to deliver 70% of its maximum capacity in just one minute at room temperature.

  15. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  16. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  17. Generic drugs in dermatology: part II.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the generic drug industry, described how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through generic substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risks and benefits of generic antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alonso, Juan; Kanner, Andrés M; Herranz, José Luis; Molins, Albert; Gil-Nagel, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    In most therapeutic areas, prescribing generic drugs seems to lower costs without sacrificing efficacy. The use of generic drugs for treating epilepsy may, however, be more controversial. A systematic review of the literature on generic antiepileptic drugs has been carried out based primarily on a bibliographical search in the Medline database. Published studies are usually of a descriptive nature and are sometimes based on generic drugs that were approved in times when regulatory agency requirements were not as strict as they are now. Experts claim that a change in pharmaceutical formulations could cause seizure recurrence in cases that had been successfully controlled in the past, with severe effects on patients. Meanwhile, several health organizations have provided inconsistent recommendations on the use of generic antiepileptic drugs. In order to obtain scientific evidence on the potential risks and benefits of interchanging branded and generic antiepileptic drugs, high methodological comparative studies are necessary. These studies could bring consensus about the role of generic drugs for treating epilepsy.

  19. Generic antibiotic drugs: is effectiveness guaranteed?

    PubMed

    Gauzit, R; Lakdhari, M

    2012-04-01

    There are recently published arguments suggesting all generic antibiotic drugs do not present the full reliability needed to claim therapeutic equivalence with branded drugs. The problem is especially crucial for generic intravenous drugs, which do not need any bioequivalence study before they can be marketed. The evaluation of generic antibiotic drug effectiveness yields an important dispersion of results according to antibiotic agents and for the same antibiotic agent all generic drugs are not equivalent. There are differences at all levels: drug components, levels of impurity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, in vitro effectiveness, therapeutic effectiveness in experimental models, etc. So that finally, the specifications approved in the initial submission file of a brand name drugs are not always respected by a generic drug. There is also a specific problem of taste and treatment acceptability for pediatric oral antibiotic drugs. Available data on clinical effectiveness is excessively rare. The marketing of a great number of generic drugs of the same specialty is followed by a sometimes very important increase of their use, even in countries where consumption is low. The corollary of this increase in consumption is an increase of resistance, and this is especially true for oral fluoroquinolones. Even if most of this information needs to be verified, it seems necessary to review regulations for marketing authorization of generic antibiotic drugs.

  20. A reappraisal of generic bisphosphonates in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Reginster, J-Y; Kaufman, J-M; Ringe, J-D; Adachi, J D; Hiligsmann, M; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C

    2012-01-01

    The competitive price of generic bisphosphonates has had a marked effect on practice guidelines, but an increasing body of evidence suggests that they have more limited effectiveness than generally assumed. The purpose of this study is to review the impact of generic bisphosphonates on effectiveness in the treatment of osteoporosis. This study is a literature review. A substantial body of evidence indicates that many generic formulations of alendronate are more poorly tolerated than the proprietary preparations which results in significantly poorer adherence and thus effectiveness. Poorer effectiveness may result from faster disintegration times of many generics that increase the likelihood of adherence of particulate matter to the oesophageal mucosa. Unfortunately, market authorisation, based on the bioequivalence of generics with a proprietary formulation, does not take into account the potential concerns about safety. The poor adherence of many generic products has implications for guideline development, cost-effectiveness and impact of treatment on the burden of disease. The impact of generic bisphosphonates requires formal testing to re-evaluate their role in the management of osteoporosis.