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Sample records for battery separators

  1. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  2. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  3. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  4. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  5. Separator for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. W.; Pfluger, H. L.

    1968-01-01

    Separator compositions have been tested as components of three-plate silver-zinc oxide cells in a standard cycling test. Six materials meet imposed requirements, giving cycling performance superior to cellophane.

  6. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  7. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  8. Battery Separator from Polyphenylquinoxaline Polymer Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    This work was performed to determine if polyphenylquinoxaline blends with polymers such as polyvinylacetate, cellulose acetate , can be made into...polymeric membranes useful as battery separators. It was found that polyphenylquinoxaline and cellulose acetate blends offer the best membrane useful as battery separators. (Author)

  9. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  10. Battery Separators Based on Polyphenylquinoxaline Polymer Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    concluded that PPQ/ Cellulose Acetate is a good candidate material for alkaline battery separators; however, because of cost considerations, it is not competative with similar state-of-the-art materials. (Author)

  11. Pure inorganic separator for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    He, Meinan; Zhang, Xinjie; Jiang, Kuiyang; Wang, Joe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Battery safety is critical for many applications including portable electronics, hybrid and electric vehicles, and grid storage. For lithium ion batteries, the conventional polymer based separator is unstable at 120 °C and above. In this research, we have developed a pure aluminum oxide nanowire based separator; this separator does not contain any polymer additives or binders; additionally, it is a bendable ceramic. The physical and electrochemical properties of the separator are investigated. The separator has a pore size of about 100 nm, and it shows excellent electrochemical properties under both room and high temperatures. At room temperature, the ceramic separator shows a higher rate capability compared to the conventional Celgard 2500 separator and life cycle performance does not show any degradation. At 120 °C, the cell with the ceramic separator showed a much better cycle performance than the conventional Celgard 2500 separator. Therefore, we believe that this research is really an exciting scientific breakthrough for ceramic separators and lithium ion batteries and could be potentially used in the next generation lithium ion batteries requiring high safety and reliability.

  12. AGM separator for 36 V batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Yoshiaki; Endo, Hideo; Sugiyama, Shoji

    The requirements of the environment, saving resources, and comfortableness for automobiles are constantly increasing year after year. There is a trend to reduce the fuel cost and exhaust gas by changing the power source to high voltage, shutting the engine off during stopping and replacing the hydraulics parts and compressor, etc. which are driven by the out-put of the engine, with electrically actuated parts. A valve-regulated lead-acid battery is considered to be promising as a power supply suitable for this 42 V electrical power system from the viewpoint of reliability and price, and is being actively studied. The 36 V-VRLA battery applied to the 42 V power supply system of the automobile demands higher out-put characteristics and longer life than a conventional automobile battery. Distances between electrodes are less than in a conventional battery and the pressure to assemble the electrodes will be higher than in the conventional battery. Mechanical short-circuit caused by physical force and chemical short-circuits caused by dendrite growth in this design of the battery could cause problems. We solved the problems by adding organic fibers for preventing the mechanical short-circuit and inorganic filler to restrain the chemical short-circuit to the AGM separator. This new AGM separator has twice the performance preventing mechanical short-circuits and five times for preventing chemical short-circuits in comparison with the separator in the past mixed with the fine glass fibers and coarse glass fibers. This AGM separator can restrain mechanical short-circuits and chemical short-circuits even if the thickness of the separator is decreased. This developed AGM separator should be of wide application because it can be applied to the VRLA battery demanded for the high out-put performance.

  13. Rigid separator lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.

  14. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  15. PBI treated polypropylene battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veryzwyvelt, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    A generalized procedure for fabricating the separator is described. Some of the desired properties considered in fabricating the separator material for nickel-cadmium cells were good mechanical strength, good chemical stability, good wettability to the electrolyte, high electrolyte retention, and gas passage.

  16. Ionic resistance measurements of battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, T.; Sybeldon, A.

    1997-12-01

    The performance of a battery is affected by the ionic resistance of the separator used to separate the anode from the cathode. If the ionic resistance is too high, the power output from the battery is diminished because the flow of ions is hindered. This paper examines issues that affect the ionic resistance of regenerated cellulose membranes. In particular, changes in the pore size, or molecular weight cut off, of the membranes are correlated with ionic resistance to show that changes in molecular weight cut off do effect ionic resistance.

  17. Development of battery separator composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G. F.; Weber, R. E.

    1981-11-01

    Improved inorganic-organic separators developed by NASA were commercially prepared. A single-ply asbestos substrate was developed, as well as alternative substrates based on cellulose and on polypropylene fibers. The single-ply asbestos was bound with butyl rubber and was functionally superior to the formerly used polyphenylene oxide saturated sheet. Commercially prepared separators exhibited better measured separator properties than the NASA standard. Cycle life in Ni/Zn and Ag/Zn cells was related to substrate, decreasing in the order; asbestos cellulose paper nonwoven polypropylene. The cycle life of solvent-coated separators was better than aqueous in Ni/Zn cells, while aqueous coatings were better in Ag/Zn cells.

  18. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  19. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  20. Development of a lithium secondary battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. A.; Willie, R.

    1985-01-01

    A nonporous membrane based on the polymerization of 2,3-dihydrofuran followed by crosslinking in situ was prepared. The material is compatible with rechargeable Li battery components and, when swollen with an appropriate solvent such as tetrahydrofuran, exhibits separator resistance and Li transport equivalent to Celgard.

  1. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    DOEpatents

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  2. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Christoph J. Geiger, Sigrid; Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael

    2014-06-16

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m{sup 2} mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  3. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christoph J.; Geiger, Sigrid; Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m2 mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  4. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  5. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  6. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C.; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann

    2014-06-16

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ('Energiewende') was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  7. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  8. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  9. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  10. Separators and organics for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead-acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain 'expander' actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment. The partially hydrophobic character of synthetic separators has been overcome by organic surfactants. Other organic compounds have been found to improve further the stability of separators against oxidation. Special organic molecules, namely aldehydes and ketones, have been identified to retard, or even suppress, the adverse effects of metals such as antimony, and thus prolong the cycle-life of traction batteries in heavy-duty applications or reduce water loss from automotive batteries. Knowledge about these interactions has opened ways to improve separators.

  11. DNA Based Electrolyte/Separator for Lithium Battery Application (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-07

    electronics to hybrid and electric vehicles . Two general categories of secondary batteries are mainly explored: the first are liquid electrolyte metal-ion...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0302 DNA BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) Jitendra Kumar1, Fahima...BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5405-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  12. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1985-01-01

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  13. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOEpatents

    Poa, D.S.

    1984-02-16

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  14. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF6. While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material.

  15. Lifetime estimates for sterilizable silver-zinc battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Walmsley, D. E.; Moacanin, J.

    1972-01-01

    The lifetime of separator membranes currently employed in the electrolyte environment of silver-zinc batteries was estimated at 3 to 5 years. The separator membranes are crosslinked polyethylene film containing grafted poly (potassium acrylate)(PKA), the latter being the hydrophilic agent which promotes electrolyte ion transport. The lifetime was estimated by monitoring the rate of loss of PKA from the separators, caused by chemical attack of the electrolyte, and relating this loss rate to a known relationship between battery performance and PKA concentration in the separators.

  16. Lifetime estimates for sterilizable silver-zinc battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Walmsley, D. E.; Moacanin, J.

    1972-01-01

    The lifetime of separator membranes currently employed in the electrolyte environment of silver-zinc batteries was estimated at 3 to 5 years. The separator membranes are crosslinked polyethylene film containing grafted poly (potassium acrylate)(PKA), the latter being the hydrophilic agent which promotes electrolyte ion transport. The lifetime was estimated by monitoring the rate of loss of PKA from the separators, caused by chemical attack of the electrolyte, and relating this loss rate to a known relationship between battery performance and PKA concentration in the separators.

  17. Battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline polymer blends. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Angres, I.; Kowalchik, L.; Parkhurst, W.

    1981-04-01

    This document is a final report on battery separators based on polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) polymer blends. The report describes the preparation of the polymer blends and their extrusion into membranes, reports a series of quality assurance tests for the membranes, and reports cycle life testing of the new membranes. The test results for the PPQ blend membranes are compared with the results obtained for standard separator membranes. It is concluded that PPQ/Cellulose Acetate is a good candidate material for alkaline battery separators; however, because of cost considerations, it is not competative with similar state-of-the-art materials.

  18. New separators for nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flexible separators consisting of a substrate coated with a mixture of a polymer and organic and inorganic additives were cycle tested in nickel-zinc cells. By substituting a rubber-based resin for polyphenylene oxide in the standard inorganic-organic separator, major improvements in both cell life and flexibility were made. Substituting newsprint for asbestos as the substrate shows promise for use on the zinc electrode and reduces separator cost. The importance of ample electrolyte in the cells was noted. Cycle lives and the characteristics of these flexible, low-cost separators were compared with those of a standard microporous polypropylene separator.

  19. Evaluation of hybrid rubber-polyethylene industrial battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, Rick; Miller, Jamie; Brilmyer, George

    Antimonial lead alloys continue to play a key role in the overall success of the lead-acid battery in deep cycle applications. In markets such as motive power and golf car, these alloys have long been known to assist the performance of the positive plate by promoting a healthy, grid-active material interface. Antimony, on the other hand, is a well-established poison to the negative plate and ultimately leads to gassing, water-loss and cell failure. Reports in the literature indicate that specific battery separator materials may be used to delay the onset of gassing by suppressing the effects of antimony. Literature findings also suggest that the suppression effect may be due to a combination of the chemical make-up of the separator and its physical attributes. It is the intention of this paper to introduce a novel method for evaluating battery separator materials in terms of their ability to suppress the deleterious effects of antimony. Results presented here indicate that the chemical composition of the separator is a controlling factor in suppressing the influence of antimony in the lead-acid battery. Initial information on the characteristics of a new hybrid rubber-polyethylene battery separator is also presented.

  20. Removal of batteries from solid waste using trommel separation.

    PubMed

    Lau, S T; Cheung, W H; Kwong, C K; Wan, C P; Choy, K K H; Leung, C C; Porter, J F; Hui, C W; Mc Kay, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a trommel for separation of batteries from solid waste. A trommel is a cylindrical separation device that rotates and performs size separation. It has also been used in areas such as municipal solid waste (MSW) processing, classifying construction and demolition debris, screening mass-burn incinerator ash and compost processing. A trommel has been designed based on size separation to separate household batteries from solid waste, which can then be used as feedstock for alternative applications of solid waste combustion, particularly where the metal content of the product is also a critical parameter, such as the Co-Co process for integrated cement and power production. This trommel has been tested with batches of university office and restaurant wastes against various factors. The recovery efficiency of batteries increases with decreasing inclination angle of the trommel and decreasing rotational speed. A physical characterization of the university solid waste has been performed with a 20-kg sample of the tested waste. It was found that there is a trend of decreasing recovery of batteries with increasing paper composition, and a trend of increasing recovery of batteries with increasing organic materials composition.

  1. New separators for industrial and specialty lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    Standard Amersil calendered ribbed separators based on the cold extrusion of PVC and silica have successfully been used in industrial lead acid batteries for over 30 years. The requirements of the battery industry for even more efficient separator systems have led Amersil to develop a new generation of highly porous polymeric material, well suited for traction as well as for stationary applications, both in flooded and gel VRLA technologies. The new polymeric separators are based on the unique Amersil production process and use the same raw materials of high chemical purity as the standard product, but the design has been optimised in order to improve the physical properties required to reach higher battery efficiency. Especially, the pore volume has been increased, the electrical resistance and acid displacement reduced to such an extent that the electrical output of batteries has been improved both in terms of higher capacity and longer cycle life. This paper shows the beneficial impact of the new Amersil separators on various types of industrial lead acid batteries.

  2. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V.

  3. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  4. Activation parameters of flow through battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blokhra, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the hydrodynamic flow of water and 45 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution through a microporous and an ion exchange separator are described. The permeability values are interpreted in terms of a pseudoactivation process. The enthalpy of activation deltaH* and the entropy of activation deltaS* were estimated from Eyring's rate equation.

  5. Towards a fully printable battery : robocast deposition of separators.

    SciTech Connect

    Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Fenton, Kyle Ross; Apblett, Christopher Alan

    2010-04-01

    The development of thin batteries has presented several interesting problems which are not seen in traditional battery sizes. As the size of a battery reaches a minimum, the usable capacity of the battery decreases due to the fact that the major constituent of the battery becomes the package and separator. As the size decreases, the volumetric contribution from the package and separator increases. This can result in a reduction of capacity from these types of batteries of nearly all of the available power. The development of a method for directly printing the battery layers, including the package, in place would help to alleviate this problem. The technology used in this paper to directly print battery components is known as robocasting and is capable of direct writing of slurries in complex geometries. This method is also capable of conformally printing on three dimensional surfaces, opening up the possibility of novel batteries based on tailoring battery footprints to conform to the available substrate geometry. Interfacial resistance can also be reduced by using the direct write method. Each layer is printed in place on the battery stack instead of being stacked one at a time. This ensures an intimate contact and seal at every interface within the cell. By limiting the resistance at these interfaces, we effectively help increase the useable capacity of our battery through increase transport capability. We have developed methodology for printing several different separator materials for use in a lithium cell. When combined with a printable cathode comprised of LiFePO{sub 4} (as seen in Figure 1) and a lithium anode, our battery is capable of delivering a theoretical capacity of 170 mAh g{sup -1}. This capacity is diminished by transport phenomena within the cell which limit the transport rate of the lithium ions during the discharge cycle. The material set chosen for the printable separator closely resemble those used in commercially available separators in order

  6. Microporous separators for Fe/V redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Xia, Guan-Guang; Miller, Eric; Chambers, Jeff; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-11-01

    The Fe/V redox flow battery has demonstrated promising performance with distinct advantages over other redox flow battery systems. Due to the less oxidative nature of the Fe(III) species, hydrocarbon-based ion exchange membranes or separators can be used. Daramic® microporous polyethylene separators were tested on Fe/V flow cells using sulphuric/chloric mixed acid-supporting electrolytes. Among them, separator C exhibited good flow cell cycling performance with satisfactory repeatability over a broad temperature range of 5-50 °C. Energy efficiency (EE) of C remains around 70% at current densities of 50-80 mA cm-2 in temperatures ranging from room temperature to 50 °C. The capacity decay problem could be circumvented through hydraulic pressure balancing by means of applying different pump rates to the positive and negative electrolytes. Stable capacity and energy were obtained over 20 cycles at room temperature and 40 °C. These results show that extremely low-cost separators ($1-20 m-2) are applicable in the Fe/V flow battery system with acceptable energy efficiency. This represents a remarkable breakthrough: a significant reduction of the capital cost of the Fe/V flow battery system, which could further its market penetration in grid stabilization and renewable integration.

  7. Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Xia, Guanguang; Miller, Eric; Chambers, Jeff; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-28

    The Fe/V redox flow battery has demonstrated promising performance that is advantageous over other redox flow battery systems. The less oxidative nature of the Fe(III) species enables use of hydrocarbon - based ion exchange membranes or separators. Daramic(reg. sign) microporous polyethylene separators were tested on Fe/V flow cells using the sulphuric/chloric mixed acid - supporting electrolytes. Among them, Daramic(reg. sign) C exhibited good flow cell cycling performance with satisfactory repeatability over a broad temperature range of 5 - 50 degrees C. Energy efficiency (EE) of C remains above 67% at current densities of 50 - 80 cm{sup -2} in the temperature range from room temperature to 50 degrees C. The capacity decay problem could be circumvented through hydraulic pressure balancing by applying different pump rates to the positive and negative electrolytes. Stable capacity and energy were obtained over 40 cycles at room temperature and 40 degrees C. These results manifest that the extremely low-cost separators ($10/cm2) are applicable in the Fe/V flow battery system at an acceptable sacrifice of energy efficiency. This stands for a remarkable breakthrough in significant reduction of the capital cost of the Fe/V flow battery system, and is promising to promote its market penetration in grid stabilization and renewable integration.

  8. Evaluation of Fiber Separators for Use in Thermal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    1999-09-08

    Fiberglass tape and borosilicate filter discs impregnated with molten LiCl-KCl eutectic were examined for potential use as separators for high-temperature LiSi/LiCl-KCl/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries. Test discs were punched from these materials and evaluated at 400 C in single cells at a steady-state current of 63 mA/cm{sup 2}. The performance generally improved with electrolyte loading for most of the materials. Better results were obtained with the filter discs than with the tape. The best overall results were obtained with Whatman GF/A discs. Active lives for cells with these separators were about 85% of the standard cells with pressed-powder separators. More work with other materials and electrolytes over a wider temperature range is underway, along with 5-cell-battery tests.

  9. Separator for alkaline electric batteries and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor); Hoyt, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Battery separator membranes of high electrolytic conductivity comprising a cellulose ether and a compatible metallic salt of water soluble aliphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives are described. It was found that methyl cellulose can be modified by another class of materials, nonpolymeric in nature, to form battery separator membranes of low electrolytic resistance but which have the flexibility of membranes made of unmodified methyl cellulose, and which in many cases enhance flexibility over membranes made with unmodified methyl cellulose. Separator membranes for electrochemical cells comprising a cellulose ether and a modified selected from the group consisting of metallic salts of water soluble alphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives and to electrochemical cells utilizing said membranes are described.

  10. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Polymeric membrane systems of potential use for battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Two membrane systems were investigated that may have potential use as alkaline battery separators. One system comprises two miscible polymers: a support polymer (e.g., polyvinyl formal) and an ion conductor such as polyacrylic acid. The other system involves a film composed of two immiscible polymers: a conducting polymer (e.g., calcium polyacrylate) suspended in an inert polymer support matrix, polyphenylene oxide. Resistivities in 45-percent potassium hydroxide and qualitative mechanical properties are presented for films comprising various proportions of conducting and support polymers. In terms of these parameters, the results are encouraging for optimum ratios of conducting to support polymers.

  12. A review of physical properties of separators for valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zguris, G. C.

    The microglass separator has been used from the conception of valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) technology. There is increasing recognition that the separator has a critical role in battery performance. Research is supporting the position that compression exerted by the separator has an important role in premature capacity loss. Some companies have suggested that the separator compression set/creep plays a critical role in the battery failure mechanism in float applications. ALABC studies have shown that designs with higher compression improve the cycle life of batteries. Increasing numbers of manufacturers are designing their separators around the end-application of the battery. The separator in a VRLA battery is not an inactive spacer/barrier, as in a flooded lead/acid cell. Instead, these separators function as a key element, the third electrode. This paper reviews aspects of the microglass separator used in VRLA batteries. Information is provided to make a better separator selection, since a 100% microglass media, or any recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM) for a VRLA battery has a critical role is assuring the performance of the battery. A poor design can thus decrease the expected life of the battery.

  13. The influence of rubber separators on electrochemical behavior of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents manufacturing processes; physical, chemical and electrochemical properties; performance in batteries; and their applications of currently available three types of rubber separators. Many aspects of lead-acid battery performance characteristics which are unique electrochemical properties of rubber separators are given. During the early period of lead-acid batteries and their separator development, introduction of microporous hard rubber separators greatly improved performances of lead-acid batteries over wood separators extending battery life and improving cold cranking capabilities. Even after the coming of age of microporous plastic separators, rubber separators have maintained a unique position in the battery industry due to certain performance characteristics which could only be found in microporous rubber separators. Presently, there are several types of separators which differ by their material composition, namely separators made of plastic (polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, phenolic resorcinol), fiber glass, resin impregnated cellulosic paper and rubber. The performance success of microporous hard rubber separators over the years lead to the introduction of two new variations of rubber products. These are electron beam radiation crosslinked microporous flexible rubber separators and coated fiber glass mat separators containing rubber. In addition to providing physical, mechanical and chemical requirements necessary for designing good lead-acid batteries, rubber separators impart electrochemical performance characteristics which enhance overall performance of battery.

  14. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cross-linking methods were investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. The pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide - zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  15. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-linking methods have been investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. Then pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide-zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  16. A high performance ceramic-polymer separator for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kichambare, Padmakar; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Rodrigues, Stanley; Subramanyam, Guru

    2016-01-01

    A three-layered (ceramic-polymer-ceramic) hybrid separator was prepared by coating ceramic electrolyte [lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP)] over both sides of polyethylene (PE) polymer membrane using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) technique. Ionic conductivities of membranes were evaluated after soaking PE and LAGP/PE/LAGP membranes in a 1 Molar (1M) lithium hexafluroarsenate (LiAsF6) electrolyte in ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) in volume ratio (1:1:1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to evaluate morphology and structure of the separators before and after cycling performance tests to better understand structure-property correlation. As compared to regular PE separator, LAGP/PE/LAGP hybrid separator showed: (i) higher liquid electrolyte uptake, (ii) higher ionic conductivity, (iii) lower interfacial resistance with lithium and (iv) lower cell voltage polarization during lithium cycling at high current density of 1.3 mA cm-2 at room temperature. The enhanced performance is attributed to higher liquid uptake, LAGP-assisted faster ion conduction and dendrite prevention. Optimization of density and thickness of LAGP layer on PE or other membranes through manipulation of PVD deposition parameters will enable practical applications of this novel hybrid separator in rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy, high power, longer cycle life, and higher safety level.

  17. Separator for alkaline batteries and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The preparation of membranes suitable for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells by selective solvolysis of copolymers of methacrylate esters with acrylate esters followed by addition of a base and to the resultant products is described. The method of making copolymers by first copolymerizing a methacrylate ester (or esters) with a more readily hydrolyzable ester, followed by a selective saponification whereby the methacrylate ester moieties remain essentially intact and the readily hydrolyzable ester moiety is suponified and to the partial or complete neutralization of the relatively brittle copolymer acid with a base to make membranes which are sufficiently flexible in the dry state so that they may be wrapped around electrodes without damage by handling is described.

  18. A review on separators for lithiumsbnd sulfur battery: Progress and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Nanping; Kang, Weimin; Liu, Yanbo; Ju, Jingge; Wu, Dayong; Li, Lei; Hassan, Bukhari Samman; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-11-01

    Lithium-sulfur battery is considered as one of high performance batteries of the new generation owing to its extremely high theoretical capacity, energy density, good environmental protection and low cost. These features make it of great significance to serve as the next-generation battery especially in electric vehicles and portable devices. However, the practical application of lithium-sulfur battery is still hindered due to some obstacles including the low electrical and ionic conductivity of elemental sulfur, the discharge product Li2S and the "shuttle effect" caused by the dissolved polysulfide species. In this review, the current trends, fundamental studies and developments for lithium-sulfur battery separators including some modified functional and novel battery separators with the customized structure designs are presented and reviewed. The effects of different selections and the resulting properties of the separators affecting the overall lithium-sulfur battery performances are discussed as well. The current research directions and challenges associated with the use of battery separator and the future perspectives for this class of the battery separator are concluded as well.

  19. Functionalized Nanocellulose-Integrated Heterolayered Nanomats toward Smart Battery Separators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Gu, Minsu; Lee, Do Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Oh, Yeon-Su; Min, Sa Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Su; Lee, Sang-Young

    2016-09-14

    Alternative materials obtained from natural resources have recently garnered considerable attention as an innovative solution to bring unprecedented advances in various energy storage systems. Here, we present a new class of heterolayered nanomat-based hierarchical/asymmetric porous membrane with synergistically coupled chemical activity as a nanocellulose-mediated green material strategy to develop smart battery separator membranes far beyond their current state-of-the-art counterparts. This membrane consists of a terpyridine (TPY)-functionalized cellulose nanofibril (CNF) nanoporous thin mat as the top layer and an electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) macroporous thick mat as the support layer. The hierarchical/asymmetric porous structure of the heterolayered nanomat is rationally designed with consideration of the trade-off between leakage current and ion transport rate. The TPY (to chelate Mn(2+) ions) and PVP (to capture hydrofluoric acid)-mediated chemical functionalities bring a synergistic coupling in suppressing Mn(2+)-induced adverse effects, eventually enabling a substantial improvement in the high-temperature cycling performance of cells.

  20. Polydopamine coated electrospun poly(vinyldiene fluoride) nanofibrous membrane as separator for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chengying; Tan, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Ma, Jiquan; Li, Lei

    2014-02-01

    In this study, polydopamine (PDA) coated electrospun poly(vinyldiene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibrous membranes used as separator for lithium-ion batteries are successfully prepared. Their morphology, chemical and electrochemical characterization are investigated. The morphology and porosity measurements of the membranes show that the PDA coating does not harm to the structure of the electrospun PVDF nanofibrous membranes. Due to the PDA coating, it makes the PVDF surface hydrophilic and thus increases the electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, resulting in the enhanced performance of batteries. The battery using the PDA coated PVDF nanofibrous separator exhibits better cycling performance and higher power capability than that the battery using the bare PVDF nanofibrous separator. This study underlines that the PDA-coating treatment provides a promising process for the fabrication of advanced electrospun nanofibers separator in the lithium-ion battery applications.

  1. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-04

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  2. A scalable hybrid separator for a high performance lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Liu, Jingyuan; Haller, Servane; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-04-25

    A newly designed hybrid separator composed of a glassy fiber paper and a microporous membrane is effectively integrated into a Li-S battery. Superior cell performance up to 500 cycles is achieved even with commercially available pristine sulfur as cathode material. This fascinating study demonstrates a largely restrained polysulfides shuttle process toward practical Li-S battery application.

  3. Battery separators. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning materials and methods used to manufacture battery separators. Microporous films and sheets, glass fibers, textile fabrics, and synthetic fibers are included. Coatings for improvement of battery performance and life are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 241 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangmin; Li, Lu; Wang, Da-Wei; Shan, Xu-Yi; Pei, Songfeng; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2015-01-27

    A flexible Li-S battery based on an integrated structure of sulfur and graphene on a separator is developed. The internal graphene current collector offers a continuous conductive pathway, a modified interface with sulfur, and a good barrier to and an effective reservoir for dissolved polysulfides, consequently improving the capacity and cyclic life of the Li-S battery.

  5. Advanced Separators for Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review of Recent Progress.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yinyu; Li, Junsheng; Lei, Jiaheng; Liu, Dan; Xie, Zhizhong; Qu, Deyu; Li, Ke; Deng, Tengfei; Tang, Haolin

    2016-11-09

    Li-ion and Li-S batteries find enormous applications in different fields, such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. A separator is an indispensable part of the battery design, which functions as a physical barrier for the electrode as well as an electrolyte reservoir for ionic transport. The properties of the separators directly influence the performance of the batteries. Traditional polyolefin separators showed low thermal stability, poor wettability toward the electrolyte, and inadequate barrier properties to polysulfides. To improve the performance and durability of Li-ion and Li-S batteries, development of advanced separators is required. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the fabrication and application of novel separators, including the functionalized polyolefin separator, polymeric separator, and ceramic separator, for Li-ion and Li-S batteries. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of these separators are discussed. A brief outlook for the future directions of the research in the separators is also provided. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Deformation and failure characteristics of four types of lithium-ion battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of battery separators play a crucial role in integrity of Lithium-ion batteries during an electric vehicle crash event. In this study, four types of commonly used battery separators are characterized and their mechanical performance, strength, and failure are compared. This includes two dry-processed polyethylene (PE) and trilayer separators, a wet-processed ceramic-coated separator, and a nonwoven separator. In detail, uniaxial tensile tests were performed along machine direction (MD), transverse direction (TD) and diagonal direction (DD). Also, through-thickness compression tests and biaxial punch tests were conducted. Comprehensive mechanical tests revealed interesting deformation and failure patterns under extreme mechanical loads. Last, a finite element model of PE separator was developed in LSDYNA based on the uniaxial tensile and through-thickness compression test data. The model succeeded in predicting the response of PE separator under punch tests with different sizes of punch head.

  7. Characterisation of separator papers for use in valve regulated lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, R. J.; Evans, R.; Stevens, R.

    Separator papers are an essential component of a valve regulated lead/acid (VRLA) battery. In addition to separating the positive and negative electrodes, they provide a constant pressure on the active materials thereby reducing the rate of degradation during cycling. Dendrites formed from the negative active material are also less likely to cause short circuits in batteries where a separator is employed. The level to which a separator will influence the performance of a VRLA battery it strongly dependent on its properties. This paper describes the results from a series of tests used to characterise the properties of separators most influential to battery performance. These properties include, the macroscopic structure, permittivity and wicking rates. During the operational life of a VRLA battery the volume of electrolyte will decrease, due mainly to the electrolysis of water during overcharging. The consequence of this process is a variation of acid saturation during the life of the battery, which will have a direct influence on the compressive and diffusive properties of the separator. Compressive and diffusive characteristics were therefore measured over a range of saturation levels. Characterisation was conducted on three separator types. Types A and B were 100% glass but had slightly different structures and type C contained 8% polyester fibres mixed with glass.

  8. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  9. An evaluation of potentially useful separator materials for nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd] satellite batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, H. A.; Toner, S. D.; Cuthrell, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation intended to determine the potential suitability and probable efficacy of a group of separator materials for use in nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) satellite batteries was carried out. These results were obtained using test procedures established in an earlier evaluation of other separator materials, some of which were used in experimental battery cells subjected to simulated use conditions. The properties that appear to be most important are: high electrolyte absorptivity, good electrolyte retention, low specific resistivity, rapid wettability and low resistance to air permeation. Wicking characteristics and wet-out time seem to be more important with respect to the initial filling of the battery with the electrolyte.

  10. The role of mechanically induced separator creep in lithium-ion battery capacity fade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, Christina; Arnold, Craig B.

    2011-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well-known to be plagued by a gradual loss of capacity and power which occur regardless of use and can be limiting factors in the development of emerging energy technologies. Here we show that separator deformation in response to mechanical stimuli that arise under normal operation and storage conditions, such as external stresses on the battery stack or electrode expansion associated with lithium insertion/deinsertion, leads to increased internal resistance and significant capacity fade. We find this mechanically induced capacity fade to be a result of viscoelastic creep in the electrochemically inactive separator which reduces ion transport via a pore closure mechanism. By applying compressive stress on the battery structure we are able to accelerate aging studies and identify this unexpected, but important and fundamental link between mechanical properties and electrochemical performance. Furthermore, by making simple modifications to the electrode structure or separator properties, these effects can be mitigated, providing a pathway for improved battery performance.

  11. Factors influence flexibility resistivity and zinc dendrite penetration rate of inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Developmental work resulted in a formulation which can improve the flexibility of the inorganic-organic-type separator for silver-zinc and nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The effects of various fillers and reactive organic additives on separator volume resistivity are described. The effects of various inert fillers on the zinc dendrite penetration rate of the separator are shown. Conclusions regarding the operating mechanism of the separator are presented.

  12. Electrospun Nanofiber-Coated Membrane Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hun

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used as a power source for portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles due to their excellent energy and power densities, long cycle life, and enhanced safety. A separator is considered to be the critical component in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The separator is placed between the positive and negative electrodes in order to prevent the physical contact of electrodes while allowing the transportation of ions. In most commercial lithium-ion batteries, polyolefin microporous membranes are commonly used as the separator due to their good chemical stability and high mechanical strength. However, some of their intrinsic natures, such as low electrolyte uptake, poor adhesion property to the electrodes, and low ionic conductivity, can still be improved to achieve higher performance of lithium-ion batteries. In order to improve these intrinsic properties, polyolefin microporous membranes can be coated with nanofibers by using electrospinning technique. Electrospinning is a simple and efficient method to prepare nanofibers which can absorb a significant amount of liquid electrolyte to achieve low internal resistance and battery performance. This research presents the preparation and investigation of composite membrane separators prepared by coating nanofibers onto polyolefin microporous membranes via electrospinning technique. Polyvinylidene fluoride polymers and copolymers were used for the preparation of electrospun nanofiber coatings because they have excellent electrochemical stability, good adhesion property, and high temperature resistance. The nanofiber coatings prepared by electrospinning form an interconnected and randomly orientated structure on the surface of the polyolefin microporous membranes. The size of the nanofibers is on a scale that does not interfere with the micropores in the membrane substrates. The resultant nanofiber-coated membranes have the potential to combine advantages of both the polyolefin

  13. Flexible Carbon Nanotube Modified Separator for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Shan; Tang, Zhen; Yang, Quanling; Hu, Guo-Hua; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have become promising candidates for electrical energy storage systems due to their high theoretical specific energy density, low cost and environmental friendliness. However, there are some technical obstacles of lithium-sulfur batteries to be addressed, such as the shuttle effect of polysulfides. Here, we introduced organically modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a coating layer for the separator to optimize structure and enhance the performance of the Li-S battery. The results showed that the cell with a CNTs-coated separator exhibited an excellent cycling performance. Compared to the blank separator, the initial discharge capacity and the capacity after 100 cycles for the CNTs-coated separator was increased by 115% and 161%, respectively. Besides, according to the rate capability test cycling from 0.1C to 2C, the battery with a CNTs-coated separator still released a capacity amounting to 90.2% of the initial capacity, when the current density returned back to 0.1C. It is believed that the organically modified CNTs coating effectively suppresses the shuttle effect during the cycling. The employment of a CNTs-coated separator provides a promising approach for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:28933721

  14. New composite separator pellet to increase power density and reduce size of thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Grillet, Anne; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Barringer, David Alan; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Chavez, Thomas P.; Ingersoll, David T.; Hughes, Lindsey Gloe; Evans, Lindsey R.; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2013-11-01

    We show that it is possible to manufacture strong macroporous ceramic films that can be backfilled with electrolyte to form rigid separator pellets suitable for use in thermal batteries. Several new ceramic manufacturing processes are developed to produce sintered magnesium oxide foams with connected porosities of over 80% by volume and with sufficient strength to withstand the battery manufacturing steps. The effects of processing parameters are quantified, and methods to imbibe electrolyte into the ceramic scaffold demonstrated. Preliminary single cell battery testing show that some of our first generation pellets exhibit longer voltage life with comparable resistance at the critical early times to that exhibited by a traditional pressed pellets. Although more development work is needed to optimize the processes to create these rigid separator pellets, the results indicate the potential of such ceramic separator pellets to be equal, if not superior to, current pressed pellets. Furthermore, they could be a replacement for critical material that is no longer available, as well as improving battery separator strength, decreasing production costs, and leading to shorter battery stacks for long-life batteries.

  15. The key to success: Gelled-electrolyte and optimized separators for stationary lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, Valérie

    The lead acid technology is nowadays considered one of the best suited for stationary applications. Both gel and AGM batteries are complementary technologies and can provide reliability and efficiency due to the constant optimization of the battery design and components. However, gelled-electrolyte batteries remain the preferred technology due to a better manufacturing background and show better performance mainly at low and moderate discharge rates. Especially, using the gel technology allows to get rid of the numerous problems encountered in most AGM batteries: drainage, stratification, short circuits due to dendrites, and mostly premature capacity loss due to the release of internal cell compression. These limitations are the result of the evident lack of an optimal separation system. In gel batteries, on the contrary, highly efficient polymeric separators are nowadays available. Especially, microporous separators based on PVC and silica have shown the best efficiency for nearly 30 years all over the world, and especially in Europe, where the gel technology was born. The improved performance of these separators is explained by the unique extrusion process, which leads to excellent wettability, and optimized physical properties. Because they are the key for the battery success, continuous research and development on separators have led to improved properties, which render the separator even better adapted to the more recent gel technology: the pore size distribution has been optimized to allow good oxygen transfer while avoiding dendrite growth, the pore volume has been increased, the electrical resistance and acid displacement reduced to such an extent that the electrical output of batteries has been raised both in terms of higher capacity and longer cycle life.

  16. Decoration of Silica Nanoparticles on Polypropylene Separator for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Huang, Yudai; Zhang, Su; Jia, Wei; Wang, Xingchao; Guo, Yong; Jia, Dianzeng; Wang, Lishi

    2017-03-01

    A SiO2 nanoparticle decorated polypropylene (PP) separator (PP-SiO2) has been prepared by simply immersing the PP separator in the hydrolysis solution of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with the assistance of Tween-80. After decoration, the thermal stability and the electrolyte wettability of the PP-SiO2 separator are obviously improved. When the PP-SiO2 separator is used for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, the cyclic stability and rate capability of the batteries are greatly enhanced. The capacity retention ratio of the Li-S battery configured with the PP-SiO2 separator is 64% after 200 cycles at 0.2 C, which is much higher than that configured with the PP separator (45%). Moreover, the rate capacity of the Li-S batteries using the PP-SiO2 separator reaches 956.3, 691.5, 621, and 567.6 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 C, respectively. The reason could be ascribed to that the polar silica coating not only alleviates the shuttle effect but also facilitates Li-ion migration.

  17. Ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers. [separators for alkaline batteries and dfuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenevey, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    Mats were made from ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to provide an alternate to the use of asbestos as separators in fuel cells and alkaline batteries. To minimize distortion during mat drying, a process to provide a dry fibrid was developed. Two fibrid types were developed: one coarse, making mats for battery separators; the other fine, making low permeability matrices for fuel cells. Eventually, it was demonstrated that suitable mat fabrication techniques yielded fuel cell separators from the coarser alkaline battery fibrids. The stability of PBI mats to 45% KOH at 123 C can be increased by heat treatment at high temperatures. Weight loss data to 1000 hours exposure show the alkali resistance of the mats to be superior to that of asbestos.

  18. Aquagel electrode separator for use in batteries and supercapacitors

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-03-28

    An electrode separator is described for electrochemical energy storage devices, such as a high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes. The separator is derived from an aquagel of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers and containing ionically conducting electrolyte in the pores thereof. 9 figures.

  19. Aquagel electrode separator for use in batteries and supercapacitors

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    An electrode separator for electrochemical energy storage devices, such as a high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes. The separator is derived from an aquagel of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers and containing ionically conducting electrolyte in the pores thereof.

  20. Electrode-supported thin α-alumina separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Wanliang; Sharma, Gaurav; Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Yi; Lin, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    Lithium ion batteries with an inorganic separator offer improved safety and enhanced reliability. The free-standing inorganic separators recently studied for lithium ion batteries are brittle and expensive. To address these issues, this paper reports the synthesis of a new and stable electrode-supported separator using a low-cost ceramic powder. Thin and porous α-Al2O3 separator films of thicknesses down to 40 μm were coated on Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) electrode by blade-coating a slurry of α-Al2O3, water and a small amount of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The performance of the LTO/Li cells with coated α-Al2O3 separator improves with decreasing PVA content. Cells with coated α-Al2O3 separator containing 0.4wt% PVA exhibit similar discharge capacity but better rate capability than those with commercial polypropylene (PP) or thick sintered α-Al2O3 separator. The coated α-Al2O3 separator does not react with LTO even after many charge/discharge cycles. Fabrication of the electrode-supported α-Al2O3 separator is scalable and cost-effective, offering high potential for practical application in industrial lithium ion battery manufacturing.

  1. Test Procedures for Characterizing, Evaluating, and Managing Separator Materials used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guasp, Edwin; Manzo, Michelle A.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary alkaline batteries, such as nickel-cadmium and silver-zinc, are commonly used for aerospace applications. The uniform evaluation and comparison of separator properties for these systems is dependent upon the measurement techniques. This manual presents a series of standard test procedures that can be used to evaluate, compare, and select separator materials for use in alkaline batteries. Detailed test procedures evaluating the following characteristics are included in this manual: physical measurements of thickness and area weight, dimensional stability measurements, electrolyte retention, resistivity, permeability as measured via bubble pressure, surface evaluation via SEM, chemical stability, and tensile strength.

  2. Functioning of inorganic/organic battery separators in silver-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; May, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of three experimental studies related to the inorganic/organic battery separator operating mechanism are described: saponification of the plasticizer, resistivity of the simulated separators, and zincate diffusion through the separators. The inorganic/organic separator appears to be a particular example of a general class of ionic conducting films composed of inorganic fillers and/or substrates bonded together by an organic polymer containing an incompatible plasticizer that may be leached by the electrolyte. The I/O separator functions as a microporous film of varying tortuosity with essentially no specific chemical inhibition to zincate diffusion.

  3. A review on the separators of liquid electrolyte Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng Shui

    This paper reviews the separators used in liquid electrolyte Li-ion batteries. According to the structure and composition of the membranes, the battery separators can be broadly divided as three groups: (1) microporous polymer membranes, (2) non-woven fabric mats and (3) inorganic composite membranes. The microporous polymer membranes are characterised by their thinness and thermal shutdown properties. The non-woven mats have high porosity and a low cost, while the composite membranes have excellent wettability and exceptional thermal stability. The manufacture, characteristics, performance and modifications of these separators are introduced and discussed. Among numerous battery separators, the thermal shutdown and ceramic separators are of special importance in enhancing the safety of Li-ion batteries. The former consists of either a polyethylene (PE)-polypropylene (PP) multilayer structure or a PE-PP blend which increases safety by allowing meltdown of the PE to close the ionic conduction pathways at a temperature below that at which thermal runway occurs. Whereas the latter comprises nano-size ceramic materials coated on two sides of a flexible and highly porous non-woven matrix which enhances the safety by retaining extremely stable dimensions even at very high temperatures to prevent the direct contact of the electrodes.

  4. Developments in absorptive glass mat separators for cycling applications and 36 V lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, V.; Lambert, U.

    The major markets for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are undergoing a radical upheaval. In particular, the telecommunications industry requires more reliable power supplies, and the familiar 12 V electrical system in cars will probably be soon replaced by a 36/42 V system, or by other electrical systems if part of the automotive market is taken over by hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). In order to meet these new challenges and enable VRLA batteries to provide a satisfactory life in float and cycling applications in the telecommunication field, or in the high-rate-partial-state-of-charge service required by both 36/42 V automobiles and HEVs, the lead-acid battery industry has to improve substantially the quality of present VRLA batteries based on absorptive glass mat (AGM) technology. Therefore, manufacturing steps and cell components have to be optimized, especially AGM separators as these are key components for better production yields and battery performance. This paper shows how the optimal segregation of the coarse and fine fibres in an AGM separator structure can improve greatly the properties of the material. The superior capillarity, springiness and mechanical properties of the 100% glass Amerglass multilayer separator compared with commercial monolayer counterparts with the same specific surface-area is highlighted.

  5. The mechanics of pressed-pellet separators in molten salt batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kevin Nicholas; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Roberts, Scott Alan; Grillet, Anne

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological constitutive model that describes the macroscopic behavior of pressed-pellet materials used in molten salt batteries. Such materials include separators, cathodes, and anodes. The purpose of this model is to describe the inelastic deformation associated with the melting of a key constituent, the electrolyte. At room temperature, all constituents of these materials are solid and do not transport cations so that the battery is inert. As the battery is heated, the electrolyte, a constituent typically present in the separator and cathode, melts and conducts charge by flowing through the solid skeletons of the anode, cathode, and separator. The electrochemical circuit is closed in this hot state of the battery. The focus of this report is on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the separator, which typically exhibits the most deformation of the three pellets during the process of activating a molten salt battery. Separator materials are composed of a compressed mixture of a powdered electrolyte, an inert binder phase, and void space. When the electrolyte melts, macroscopically one observes both a change in volume and shape of the separator that depends on the applied boundary conditions during the melt transition. Although porous flow plays a critical role in the battery mechanics and electrochemistry, the focus of this report is on separator behavior under flow-free conditions in which the total mass of electrolyte is static within the pellet. Specific poromechanics effects such as capillary pressure, pressure-saturation, and electrolyte transport between layers are not considered. Instead, a phenomenological model is presented to describe all such behaviors including the melting transition of the electrolyte, loss of void space, and isochoric plasticity associated with the binder phase rearrangement. The model is appropriate for use finite element analysis under finite deformation and finite temperature change conditions. The model

  6. Highly lithium-ion conductive battery separators from thermally rearranged polybenzoxazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Joo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, So Young; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Joo Sung; Sun, Yang-Kook; Guiver, Michael D; Suh, Kyung Do; Lee, Young Moo

    2015-02-07

    High power density lithium ion battery (HLIB) separators were fabricated for the first time from thermally rearranged poly(benzoxazole-co-imide) (TR-PBOI) nanofibrous membranes coated with TR-PBOI nanoparticles, which show distinct thermal and dimensional stabilities as well as excellent cycle retention and rate capability.

  7. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  8. Metal-organic framework-based separator for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Songyan; Liu, Xizheng; Zhu, Kai; Wu, Shichao; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising energy-storage technology due to their relatively low cost and high theoretical energy density. However, one of their major technical problems is the shuttling of soluble polysulfides between electrodes, resulting in rapid capacity fading. Here, we present a metal-organic framework (MOF)-based battery separator to mitigate the shuttling problem. We show that the MOF-based separator acts as an ionic sieve in lithium-sulfur batteries, which selectively sieves Li+ ions while efficiently suppressing undesired polysulfides migrating to the anode side. When a sulfur-containing mesoporous carbon material (approximately 70 wt% sulfur content) is used as a cathode composite without elaborate synthesis or surface modification, a lithium-sulfur battery with a MOF-based separator exhibits a low capacity decay rate (0.019% per cycle over 1,500 cycles). Moreover, there is almost no capacity fading after the initial 100 cycles. Our approach demonstrates the potential for MOF-based materials as separators for energy-storage applications.

  9. New battery strategies with a polymer/Al2O3 separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyusung; Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Song, Jie; Peng, Jing; Gobet, Mallory; Greenbaum, Steven; Ellison, Christopher J.; Goodenough, John B.

    2014-10-01

    A low-cost, thin, flexible, and mechanically robust alkali-ion electrolyte separator is shown to allow fabrication of a safe rechargeable alkali-ion battery with alternative cathode strategies. A Na-ion battery with an insertion host as cathode and a Li-ion battery with a redox flow-through cathode are demonstrated to cycle without significant fade. The separator membrane is a composite of Al2O3 particles and cross-linked ethylene-oxide chains; it can be fabricated at low cost into a large-area thin membrane that blocks dendrites from an alkali-metal anode. To block a soluble ferrocene redox molecule from crossing from the cathode side to the anode in a Li-ion battery with a redox-flow cathode, a thin mixed Li+/electronic-conducting film has been added to the cathode side of the composite separator. An osmosis issue was minimized by balancing concentrations of solutes on the two sides of the separator where the cathode side contains a soluble redox molecule.

  10. Advanced separators based on aromatic polymer for high energy density lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Woo, Jung-Je; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-21

    A process includes casting a solution including poly(phenylene oxide), inorganic nanoparticles, a solvent, and a non-solvent on a substrate; and removing the solvent to form a porous film; wherein: the porous film is configured for use as a porous separator for a lithium ion battery.

  11. In-depth correlation of separator pore structure and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunju; Park, Joonam; Jeon, Hyunkyu; Yeon, Daeyong; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Cho, Kuk Young; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-09-01

    To establish an accurate correlation between a separator's pore structure and the electrochemical performance of a lithium-ion battery (LIB), we fabricate well defined polyethylene (PE) separators on the same production line while maintaining most processing variables, except for composition. Four PE separators having different thicknesses and porosities (16 μm/37%, 16 μm/40%, 16 μm/47%, 22 μm/47%, respectively) are physically and electrochemically evaluated in detail. Although thickness and porosity remain good parameters by which to represent the separators' characteristics, both the normalized Gurley number and ionic conductance are found to have much stronger relationships with the rate capability.

  12. Prawn Shell Derived Chitin Nanofiber Membranes as Advanced Sustainable Separators for Li/Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Wen; Shen, Bao; Yao, Hong-Bin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Lei-Lei; Zhou, Fei; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-08-09

    Separators, necessary components to isolate cathodes and anodes in Li/Na-ion batteries, are consumed in large amounts per year; thus, their sustainability is a concerning issue for renewable energy storage systems. However, the eco-efficient and environmentally friendly fabrication of separators with a high mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability, and good electrolyte wettability is still challenging. Herein, we reported the fabrication of a new type of separators for Li/Na-ion batteries through the self-assembly of eco-friendly chitin nanofibers derived from prawn shells. We demonstrated that the pore size in the chitin nanofiber membrane (CNM) separator can be tuned by adjusting the amount of pore generation agent (sodium dihydrogen citrate) in the self-assembly process of chitin nanofibers. By optimizing the pore size in CNM separators, the electrochemical performance of the LiFePO4/Li half-cell with a CNM separator is comparable to that with a commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator. More attractively, the CNM separator showed a much better performance in the LiFePO4/Li cell at 120 °C and Na3V2(PO4)3/Na cell than the PP separator. The proposed fabrication of separators by using natural raw materials will play a significant contribution to the sustainable development of renewable energy storage systems.

  13. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  14. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.C.; Philipp, W.H.; Sheibley, D.W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.D.

    1981-07-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery separator comprises a crosslinked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The crosslinked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. A polyaldehyde crosslinking agent is preferred.

  15. Swelling and softening of lithium-ion battery separators in electrolyte solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Cannarella, John; Leng, Collen Z.; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Arnold, Craig B.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical stability of inactive polymeric components (e.g. separator and binder) can play an important role in the long term performance of lithium-ion batteries. Here we investigate the effects of electrolyte solvents on the mechanical properties of a polypropylene battery separator through experimental measurements of thickness and elastic modulus of separator samples immersed in different solvent environments. We find that certain electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and ethyl acetate cause noticeable softening of the separator. However, in other solvent environments such as propylene carbonate and acetonitrile, the separator retains the mechanical properties of a dry material. We show that the mechanical property reduction can be attributed to polymer swelling and explain these observations in the context of the Hildebrand solubility and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. The solubility/interaction parameter analysis provides a straightforward method for predicting the in situ mechanical behavior of polymer separators in solvent environments. The relationships discussed herein can be used to screen and identify mechanically-stable polymer and electrolyte solvent pairs for use in lithium-ion batteries designed for long life.

  16. Rate- and Temperature-Dependent Material Behavior of a Multilayer Polymer Battery Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, Ilya; Martinsen, Michael; Francis, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Designing battery packs for safety in automotive applications requires multiscale modeling, as macroscopic deformations due to impact cause the mechanical failure of individual cells on a sub-millimeter level. The separator material plays a critical role in this process, as the thinning or perforating of the separator can lead to thermal runaway and catastrophic failure of an entire battery pack. The electrochemical properties of various polymer separators have been extensively investigated; however, the dependency of mechanical properties of these thin films on various factors, such as high temperature and strain rate, has not been sufficiently characterized. In this study, the macroscopic mechanical properties of a multilayer polymer thin film used as a battery separator are studied experimentally at various temperatures, strain rates, and solvent saturations. Due to the anisotropy of the material, material testing was conducted in two perpendicular directions (machine and transverse directions). Material samples were tested in both dry and saturated conditions at several temperatures, and it was found that temperature and strain rate have a nearly linear effect on the stress experienced by the material. Additionally, saturating the separator material in a common lithium-ion solvent had softened it and had a positive effect on its toughness. The experimental results obtained in this study can be used to develop mathematical constitutive models of the multilayer separator material for subsequent numerical simulations and design.

  17. Shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator with improved thermal and electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Won-Yeol; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator (SFNS) with improved thermal and electrochemical stabilities is prepared by a simple dip coating method for use in lithium-ion battery (LiB) applications. The SFNS shows thermal stability at 200 °C, while providing shutdown functionality at approximately 140 °C, similar to commercial porous polyethylene separators. The surface-coated polymer prevents leakage current problems and in addition, shows air permeability values similar to that of bare nonwoven separators, while maintaining a thickness of about 20 μm, which is a desired attribute of effective separators for LiBs. The SFNS also shows increased electrolyte uptake and higher conductivity, compared to a bare polyethylene separator. Therefore, a cell with the SFNS exhibits higher discharge capacity and better cycle property than that with a porous polyethylene separator. These results suggest that SFNS is an effective separator for high-performance LiBs.

  18. Characterization of Glass Fiber Separator Material for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    Characterization studies were carried out on a glass fiber paper that is currently employed as a separator material for some LiSOCl2 primary cells. The material is of the non-woven type made from microfilaments of E-type glass and contains an ethyl acrylate binder. Results from extraction studies and tensile testing revealed that the binder content and tensile strength of the paper were significantly less than values specified by the manufacturer. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the presence of clusters of impurities many of which were high in iron content. Results of emission spectroscopy revealed high overall levels of iron and leaching, followed by atomic absorption measurements, revealed that essentially all of this iron is soluble in SOCl2.

  19. Preparation and characterization of a Lithium-ion battery separator from cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongfeng; Wang, Xiwen; Liang, Yun

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the desired properties for stretch monolayer separators used in Lithium-ion batteries has been a challenge. In the present study a cellulose nanofiber/PET nonwoven composite separator is successfully fabricated, using a wet-laid nonwoven (papermaking) process, which can attain optimal properties in wettability, mechanical strength, thermal resistance, and electrochemical performance simultaneously. The PET nonwoven material, which is fabricated from ultrafine PET fibers by a wet-laid process, is a mechanical support layer. The porous structure of the composite separator was created by cellulose nanofibers coating the PET in a papermaking process. Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), which are an eco-friendly sustainable resource, have been drawing considerable attention due to their astounding properties, such as: incredible specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability, high mechanical strength and hydrophilicity. The results show that the CNF separator exhibits higher porosity (70%) than a PP (polypropylene) separator (40%). The CNF separator can also be wetted by electrolyte in a few seconds while a PP separator cannot be entirely wetted after 1 min. The CNF separator has an electrolyte uptake of 250%, while a PP separator has only 65%. Another notable finding is that the CNF separator has almost no shrinkage when exposed to 180 °C for 1 h, whereas a PP separator shrinks by more than 50%. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows that the CNF separator has a higher melting point than a PP separator. These findings all indicate that the CNF 29 separator will be more favorable than stretch film for use in Lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Separator for lithium-sulfur battery based on polymer blend membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Anne; Stamm, Manfred; Ionov, Leonid

    2017-09-01

    In this work we report a novel way of reducing the polysulfide shuttle in lithium-sulfur batteries by a new separator material. Polyvinylsulfate potassium salt (PVSK) as polymeric additive is introduced into a polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) matrix membrane to improve the battery performance. PVSK is expected to lower the polysulfide mobility due to interaction with the sulfonic group. PVdF-HFP/PVSK blend membranes are prepared and an UV/Vis polysulfide diffusion test clearly demonstrates the positive effect of PVSK. Electrochemical testing reveals a significant improvement of cycling stability up to more than 200 cycles. In addition, the effect of separator porosity to the polysulfide shuttle is investigated with PVdF-HFP membranes of different porosity. A simple polysulfide diffusion test and potentiostatic charge/discharge cycling clearly demonstrate that low separator porosity is favorable in a lithium-sulfur cell.

  1. Electrospun montmorillonite modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite separators for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Changjiang; Yang, Shuli; Zhao, Xinfei; Du, Pingfan; Xiong, Jie

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Composite separators of PVDF and MMT for lithium-ion batteries were electrospun. • Thermal dimensional stability and tensile property of composite separators get improved. • Presence of montmorillonite promotes electrical properties of PVDF fibrous separators. • Batteries consisting of PVDF/MMT-5% separator achieve the best performance. - Abstract: Composite separators of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT) for Li-ion batteries have been fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology, function group, crystallinity, and mechanical properties of membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile test, respectively. Interlayer spacing of MMT in polymer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the results of electrochemical measurements suggest that PVDF/MMT-5% composite membrane has maximum ionic conductivity of 4.2 mS cm{sup −1}, minimum interfacial resistance of 97 Ω, and excellent electrochemical stability. The cell comprising PVDF/MMT-5% composite membrane shows higher capacity and more stable cycle performance than the one using commercial Celgard PP membrane.

  2. Blending Study of MgO-Based Separator Materials for Thermal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.; ANDAZOLA, ARTHUR H.

    2002-06-01

    The development and testing of a new technique for blending of electrolyte-binder (separator) mixes for use in thermal batteries is described. The original method of blending such materials at Sandia involved liquid Freon TF' as a medium. The ban on the use of halogenated solvents throughout much of the Department of Energy complex required the development of an alternative liquid medium as a replacement. The use of liquid nitrogen (LN) was explored and developed into a viable quality process. For comparison, a limited number of dry-blending tests were also conducted using a Turbula mixer. The characterization of pellets made from LN-blended separators involved deformation properties at 530 C and electrolyte-leakage behavior at 400 or 500 C, as well as performance in single-cells and five-cell batteries under several loads. Stack-relaxation tests were also conducted using 10-cell batteries. One objective of this work was to observe if correlations could be obtained between the mechanical properties of the separators and the performance in single cells and batteries. Separators made using three different electrolytes were examined in this study. These included the LiCl-KCl eutectic, the all-Li LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte, and the low-melting LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic. The electrochemical performance of separator pellets made with LN-blended materials was compared to that for those made with Freon T P and, in some cases, those that were dry blended. A satisfactory replacement MgO (Marinco 'OL', now manufactured by Morton) was qualified as a replacement for the standard Maglite 'S' MgO that has been used for years but is no longer commercially available. The separator compositions with the new MgO were optimized and included in the blending and electrochemical characterization tests.

  3. Development and characterization of a bilayer separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2011-10-01

    A battery separator is placed between the positive and negative electrodes to prevent electric contact of the electrodes while maintaining good ionic flow. The most commonly used separators for lithium-ion batteries are porous polyolefin membranes. However, they generally do not have good dimentional stability at elevated temperatures. In this study, a bilayer separator has been formed directly on an anode. This bilayer separator comprised a ceramic layer and a porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer. Coin cells with this type of separators showed stable cycling performance at room temperature. They also showed significantly improved rate capabilities compared to the reference cell with a conventional polyolefin separator. An oven test has been used to characterize the cells thermal stability. Charged cells were kept in an oven at 150 °C and their voltage drop was recorded. The reference cell with a conventioal separator failed within about 50 min, while no noticeable voltage drop was observed for the cells with the new bilayer separator within the measured 2 h.

  4. Immobilizing Polysulfides with MXene-Functionalized Separators for Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianjun; Su, Dawei; Xie, Xiuqiang; Guo, Xin; Bao, Weizhai; Shao, Guangjie; Wang, Guoxiu

    2016-11-02

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted increasing attention as one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. However, the poor cycling performance and the low utilization of sulfur greatly hinder its practical applications. Here we report the improved performance of lithium-sulfur batteries by coating Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets (where T stands for the surface termination, such as -O, -OH, and/or -F) on commercial "Celgard" membrane. In favor of the ultrathin two-dimensional structure, the Ti3C2Tx MXene can form a uniform coating layer with a minimum mass loading of 0.1 mg cm(-2) and a thickness of only 522 nm. Owing to the improved electric conductivity and the effective trapping of polysulfides, the lithium-sulfur batteries with MXene-functionalized separators exhibit superior performance including high specific capacities and cycling stability.

  5. Hydrophilic polymer coated microporous membranes capable of use as a battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Taskier, H.T.

    1984-03-20

    The present invention is directed to microporous membranes having a surfactant impregnated therein which is coated on at least one surface thereof with a polymer coating, such as cellulose acetate. The polymer coating possesses functional groups in the presence of an aqueous alkaline environment which permits it to undergo hydrogen bonding with water and to transport battery electrolyte through the coating by diffusion. The presence of the coating on the normally hydrophobic substrate membrane, when used in conjunction with a suitable surfactant, increases the wettability of the substrate membrane and thereby lowers its electrical resistance. The coating also serves to immobilize various soluble electrode derived ions at the coating-electrolyte interface thereby hindering their penetration into the pores of the substrate microporous membrane. Consequently, the plugging of the pores of the substrate membrane by these ions is substantially reduced thereby increasing the life of a battery in which said coated membranes are used as battery separators.

  6. Facilitated ion diffusion in multiscale porous particles: application in battery separators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Bum; Tran-Phu, Thanh; Kim, Min; Jung, Dae-Woong; Yi, Gi-Ra; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-03-04

    Polyethylene (PE) separators have been the most popular option for commercial Li-ion batteries because of their uniform pore size, high tensile strength, low cost, and electrochemical stability. Unfortunately, PE separators generally suffer from significant dimensional changes at high temperatures, which frequently results in serious safety problems. In this regard, the integration of inorganic nanoparticles with PE separators has been considered to be a promising approach. Here, inorganic nanoparticles with a hierarchical pore structure were coated on a conventional polymer separator. The resultant composite separator exhibited superior Li ion transportation compared with separators coated with mesopore-only nanoparticles or conventional nonporous nanoparticles. The mesopores and macropores act synergistically to improve the electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of the inorganic nanoparticles, while other positive aspects such as their thermal and mechanical properties are still maintained.

  7. Recycling metals from lithium ion battery by mechanical separation and vacuum metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiefeng; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhengming

    2017-09-15

    The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn2O4) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn2O4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed. And the results show that mixed electrode materials can be in situ converted into manganese oxide (MnO) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) at 1073K for 45min. In this process, the binder is evaporated and decomposed into gaseous products which can be collected to avoid disposal cost. Finally, 91.30% of Li resource as Li2CO3 is leached from roasted powders by water and then high value-added Li2CO3 crystals are further gained by evaporating the filter liquid. The filter residues are burned in air to remove the graphite and the final residues as manganous-manganic oxide (Mn3O4) is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of Li-ion battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnaus, Sergiy; Wang, Yanli; Turner, John A.

    2017-04-01

    Anisotropic mechanical properties were experimentally determined and compared for three types of commercially available Li-ion battery separators: Celgard 2325, Celgard PP2075 dry-processed polymer separators, and DreamWeaver Gold 40 non-woven separator. Significant amount of anisotropy of properties was determined, with the Young's modulus being different by up to a factor of 5 and ultimate strength being different by a factor of 10 between orthogonal directions within a polymer separator layer. Strain rate sensitivity was investigated by applying strain rates ranging from 1 ṡ10-4 s-1 to 0.1 s-1. Significant strengthening was observed and the strain rate strengthening coefficients were determined for both elastic modulus and yield stress in case of polymer separators. Digital image correlation technique was used to measure and map the strains over the specimen's gage section. Significant strain concentration in bands running perpendicular to the tensile axis was observed in polymer separator samples oriented in transverse direction. Such localized necking allows for extremely high strains close to 300% to develop in the material. The failure mode was remarkably different for all three types of separators which adds additional variable in safe design of Li-ion batteries for prevention of internal short circuits.

  9. Mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of Li-ion battery separators

    DOE PAGES

    Kalnaus, Sergiy; Wang, Yanli; Turner, John A.

    2017-03-09

    We determine and compare anisotropic mechanical properties for three types of commercially available Li-ion battery separators: Celgard 2325, Celgard PP2075 dry-processed polymer separators, and DreamWeaver Gold 40 non-woven separator. Significant amount of anisotropy of properties was determined, with the Young's modulus being different by up to a factor of 5 and ultimate strength being different by a factor of 10 between orthogonal directions within a polymer separator layer. Strain rate sensitivity was investigated by applying strain rates ranging from 1•10-4 s-1 to 0.1 s-1. Significant strengthening was observed and the strain rate strengthening coefficients were determined for both elastic modulusmore » and yield stress in case of polymer separators. Digital image correlation technique was used to measure and map the strains over the specimen's gage section. A significant strain concentration in bands running perpendicular to the tensile axis was observed in polymer separator samples oriented in transverse direction. Such localized necking allows for extremely high strains close to 300% to develop in the material. Furthermore, the failure mode was remarkably different for all three types of separators which adds additional variable in safe design of Li-ion batteries for prevention of internal short circuits.« less

  10. In-situ cross linking of polyvinyl alcohol. [application to battery separator films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method of producing a crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol structure, such as a battery separator membrane or electrode envelope is described. An aqueous solution of a film-forming polyvinyl alcohol is admixed with an aldehyde crosslinking agent a basic pH to inhibit crosslinking. The crosslinking agent, perferably a dialdehyde such as glutaraldehyde, is used in an amount of from about 1/2 to about 20% of the theoretical amount required to crosslink all of the hydroxyl groups of the polymer. The aqueous admixture is formed into a desired physical shape, such as by casting a sheet of the solution. The sheet is then dried to form a self-supporting film. Crosslinking is then effected by immersing the film in aqueous acid solution. The resultant product has excellent properties for use as a battery separator.

  11. A trilayer separator with dual function for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Rensheng; Fang, Ruopian; Wen, Lei; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shaogang; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose a trilayer graphene/polypropylene/Al2O3 (GPA) separator with dual function for high performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Graphene is coated on one side of polypropylene (PP) separator, which functions as a conductive layer and an electrolyte reservoir that allows for rapid electron and ion transport. Then Al2O3 particles are coated on the other side to further enhance thermal stability and safety of the graphene coated polypropylene (GCP) separator, which are touched with lithium metal anode in the Li-S battery. The GPA separator shows good thermal stability after heating at 157 °C for 10 min while both GCP and PP separators showing an obvious shrinkage about 10%. The initial discharge specific capacity of Li-S coin cell with a GPA separator could reach 1067.7 mAh g-1 at 0.2C. After 100 discharge/charge cycles, it can still deliver a reversible capacity of as high as 804.4 mAh g-1 with 75% capacity retention. The pouch cells further confirm that the trilayer design has great promise towards practical applications.

  12. Novel Ceramic-Grafted Separator with Highly Thermal Stability for Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2017-08-09

    The separator is a critical component of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which not only allows ionic transport while it prevents electrical contact between electrodes but also plays a key role for thermal safety performance of LIBs. However, commercial separators for LIBs are typically microporous polyolefin membranes that pose challenges for battery safety, due to shrinking and melting at elevated temperature. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to improve the thermal stability and electrolyte affinity of polyethylene (PE) separators. By simply grafting the vinylsilane coupling reagent on the surface of the PE separator by electron beam irradiation method and subsequent hydrolysis reaction into the Al(3+) solution, an ultrathin Al2O3 layer is grafted on the surface of the porous polymer microframework without sacrificing the porous structure and increasing the thickness. The as-synthesized Al2O3 ceramic-grafted separator (Al2O3-CGS) shows almost no shrinkage at 150 °C and decreases the contact angle of the conventional electrolyte compared with the bare PE separator. Notably, the full cells with the Al2O3-CGSs exhibit better cycling performance and rate capability and also provide stable open circuit voltage even at 170 °C, indicating its promising application in LIBs with high safety and energy density.

  13. Femtosecond laser patterning of lithium-ion battery separator materials: impact on liquid electrolyte wetting and cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröll, J.; Schmitz, B.; Niemöeller, A.; Robertz, B.; Schäfer, M.; Torge, M.; Smyrek, P.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2015-03-01

    High capacity Li-ion batteries are composed of alternating stacked cathode and anode layers with thin separator membranes in between for preventing internal shorting. Such batteries can suffer from insufficient cell reliability, safety and electrochemical performance due to poor liquid electrolyte wetting properties. Within the electrolyte filling process, homogeneous wetting of cathode, separator and anode layers is strongly requested due to the fact that insufficient electrolyte wetting of battery components can cause limited capacity under challenging operation or even battery failure. The capacity of the battery is known to be limited by the quantity of wetting of the electrode and separator layers. Therefore, laser structuring processes have recently been developed for forming capillary micro-structures into cathode and anode layers leading to improved wetting properties. Additionally, many efforts have been undertaken to enhance the wettability and safety issues of separator layers, e.g. by applying thin coatings to polymeric base materials. In this paper, we present a rather new approach for ultrafast femtosecond laser patterning of surface coated separator layers. Laser patterning allows the formation of micro-vias and micro-channel structures into thin separator membranes. Liquid electrolyte wetting properties were investigated before and after laser treatment. The electrochemical cyclability of batteries with unstructured and laser-structured separators was tested in order to determine an optimal combination with respect to separator material, functional coating and laser-induced surface topography.

  14. A stencil printed, high energy density silver oxide battery using a novel photopolymerizable poly(acrylic acid) separator.

    PubMed

    Braam, Kyle; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-01-27

    A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm(-2) at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm(-2) (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness.

  15. High energy Li-ion rechargeable battery using thin lithium film composite separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shuming; Moses, P. R.

    It has been demonstrated that small amounts of active lithium metal can be added to a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery via the separator by using vacuum deposition techniques. Lithium films (4-8 μm) were deposited onto micro-porous polypropylene film that is used as the separator in Li-ion cells. We have demonstrated that the lithium electrochemically reacts with either electrode depending on the geometry of assembly. As a result, the intrinsic irreversible capacity of negative electrode can be compensated using volumetrically efficient lithium metal. Hence, Li-ion cells can be designed and constructed with significantly higher energy than those assembled with conventional techniques.

  16. Design, development, performance, and reconditioning of Ni-Cd batteries using polyropylene separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britting, A. O., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A performance assessment is made for the Viking Mars Lander Program's sealed, sterilizable, 8-ampere hour Ni-Cd batteries, which use a nonwoven polypropylene separator material. Attention is given to separator wettability, the optimization of electrolyte quantity, and the reduction of plate carbonate, in view of thermal considerations and other environmental design and test requirements generated by mission characteristics. Life data based on mission experience identify, in addition to performance and degradation behavior, a series of shallow discharge reconditioning cycles and an intensive program of deep discharge reconditioning.

  17. Design, development, performance, and reconditioning of Ni-Cd batteries using polyropylene separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britting, A. O., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A performance assessment is made for the Viking Mars Lander Program's sealed, sterilizable, 8-ampere hour Ni-Cd batteries, which use a nonwoven polypropylene separator material. Attention is given to separator wettability, the optimization of electrolyte quantity, and the reduction of plate carbonate, in view of thermal considerations and other environmental design and test requirements generated by mission characteristics. Life data based on mission experience identify, in addition to performance and degradation behavior, a series of shallow discharge reconditioning cycles and an intensive program of deep discharge reconditioning.

  18. Hierarchical Chitin Fibers with Aligned Nanofibrillar Architectures: A Nonwoven-Mat Separator for Lithium Metal Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwon; Kim, Do Hyeong; Joo, Se Hun; Choi, Byeongwook; Cha, Aming; Kim, Kwang Min; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kang, Seok Ju; Jin, Jungho

    2017-06-27

    Here, we introduce regenerated fibers of chitin (Chiber), the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, and propose its utility as a nonwoven fiber separator for lithium metal batteries (LMBs) that exhibits an excellent electrolyte-uptaking capability and Li-dendrite-mitigating performance. Chiber is produced by a centrifugal jet-spinning technique, which allows a simple and fast production of Chibers consisting of hierarchically aligned self-assembled chitin nanofibers. Following the scrutinization on the Chiber-Li-ion interaction via computational methods, we demonstrate the potential of Chiber as a nonwoven mat-type separator by monitoring it in Li-O2 and Na-O2 cells.

  19. Functional separator consisted of polyimide nonwoven fabrics and polyethylene coating layer for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Shaohua; He, Xinyi; Yang, Pingting; Wu, Dezhi; Sun, Daoheng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a composite membrane with nonwoven polyimide (PI) membrane as structural support and polyethylene (PE) particles coating layer as a thermal shutdown layer, is fabricated as the separator for lithium-ion battery. Different from PI nonwoven membrane, the PE coating PI nonwoven composite membrane (PE-PI-S) not only shows excellent thermal shutdown function, similar to traditional multilayer PP/PE/PP separator, but also exhibits much higher thermal stability, better wettability to the polar electrolyte and lower internal resistance than the PP/PE/PP separator. The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of PE-PI-S increase from 58%, 0.84 mS cm-1 to 400%, 1.34 mS cm-1, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal shutdown function of PE-PI-S can be controlled widely in the temperature range from 120 °C to more than 200 °C while the multilayer PP/PE/PP separator only with a shutdown temperature range from 130 °C to 160 °C. Lithium ion battery with PE-PI-S nonwoven separator also shows excellent stable cycling and good rate performance.

  20. Mechanical modeling of battery separator based on microstructure image analysis and stochastic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongyi; Zhu, Min; Marcicki, James; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2017-03-01

    A microstructure-based modeling method is developed to predict the mechanical behaviors of lithium-ion battery separators. Existing battery separator modeling methods cannot capture the structural features on the microscale. To overcome this issue, we propose an image-based microstructure Representative Volume Element (RVE) modeling method, which facilitates the understanding of the separators' complex macro mechanical behaviors from the perspective of microstructural features. A generic image processing workflow is developed to identify different phases in the microscopic image. The processed RVE image supplies microstructural information to the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Both mechanical behavior and microstructure evolution are obtained from the simulation. The evolution of microstructure features is quantified using the stochastic microstructure characterization methods. The proposed method successfully captures the anisotropic behavior of the separator under tensile test, and provides insights into the microstructure deformation, such as the growth of voids. We apply the proposed method to a commercially available separator as the demonstration. The analysis results are validated using experimental testing results that are reported in literature.

  1. Facile and Nonradiation Pretreated Membrane as a High Conductive Separator for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao; Li, Yongjun; Dai, Dongmei; Chang, Kun; Tang, Hongwei; Chang, Zhaorong; Wang, Chunru; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-09-16

    Polyolefin membranes are widely used as separators in commercialized Li-ion batteries. They have less polarized surfaces compared with polarized molecules of electrolyte, leading to a poor wetting state for separators. Radiation pretreatments are often adopted to solve such a problem. Unfortunately, they can only activate several nanometers deep from the surface, which limits the performance improvement. Here we report a facile and scalable method to polarize polyolefin membranes via a chemical oxidation route. On the surfaces of pretreated membrane, layers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(acrylic acid) can easily be coated, thus resulting in a high Li-ion conductivity of the membrane. Assembled with this decorated separator in button cells, both high-voltage (Li1.2Mn0.54Co0.13Ni0.13O2) and moderate-voltage (LiFePO4) cathode materials show better electrochemical performances than those assembled with pristine polyolefin separators.

  2. Polyvinilidine fluoride (PVDF) nanofiber membrane for Li-ion rechargeable battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyandari, H.; Purwanto, A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    This study reported synthesis and characterization of PVDF (polyvinilidine fluoride) nanofiber membrane using electrospinning method for Li-ion rechargeable battery separator. Electrospinning equipment system consists of a DC high voltage (HV - DC), a controllable spinner and a plate collector. The effects of the applied voltage on morphological property, porosity and thermal property were systematically investigated. The application of DC voltage at a range of 13 to 17 kV resulted the one-dimension nanostructure of the PVdF nanofiber. The produced PVdF nanofiber membrane separators are evaluated to have a higher level of porosity (86 - 93%) and a good thermal shrinkage property in comparison to Polypropylene (PP) microporous membrane separator. The produced PVdF membrane separators were assembled into the LiFePO4 cells and demonstrated high charge-discharge capacities at room temperature with the coulombic efficiency reaching 80 %.

  3. Li-ion battery shut-off at high temperature caused by polymer phase separation in responsive electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jesse C; Degrood, Nicholas L; Roberts, Mark E

    2015-03-28

    For the purpose of realizing inherently safe high-power Li-ion batteries, a model Li4Ti5O12/LiFePO4 rechargeable battery is investigated using the thermally responsive polymer, poly(benzyl methacrylate), in an ionic liquid. At high temperature, battery operation is inhibited as a result of increased internal resistance caused by polymer and ionic liquid phase separation. Li-ion concentration is shown to affect the phase transition temperature and the extent to which batteries are deactivated.

  4. Synergistic thermal stabilization of ceramic/co-polyimide coated polypropylene separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunju; Lee, Hoogil; Lee, Taejoo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2015-10-01

    To improve the safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), co-polyimide (PI) P84 was introduced as a polymeric binder for Al2O3/polymer composite surface coatings on polypropylene (PP) separators. By monitoring the dimensional shrinkage of the PP separators at high temperatures, we verified a synergistic thermal stabilization effect between the Al2O3 ceramic and the PI polymeric binder. Although PI was thermally stable up to 300 °C, a coating consisting solely of PI did not impede the PP separator dimensional changes (-22% at 150 °C). On the other hand, the Al2O3/PI-coated PP separators efficiently impeded the thermal shrinkage (-10% at 150 °C). In contrast, an Al2O3/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) combination lowered the thermal stability of the PP separators (-33% at 150 °C). As a result, the Al2O3/PI-coated PP separators remarkably suppressed the internal short-circuit of the unit half-cells associated with separator thermal shrinkage (100 min at 160 °C), whereas the PVdF-HFP retained only 40 min under identical conditions. The Al2O3/PI-coated PP separators achieved rate capabilities and cell performances similar to those of the bare PP separators.

  5. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-08-27

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte-separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4-400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3-38.1 mN∙m(-1). It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations.

  6. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte–separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4–400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3–38.1 mN∙m−1. It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations. PMID:26343636

  7. Mussel inspired modification of polypropylene separators by catechol/polyamine for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Junjie; Cai, Chao; Guo, Jing; Fan, Haosen; Zhu, Caizhen; Dong, Haixia; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-23

    Inspired by the remarkable adhesion of mussel, dopamine, a mimicking adhesive molecule, has been widely used for surface modification of various materials ranging from organic to inorganic. However, dopamine and its derivatives are expensive which impede their application in large scale. Herein, we replaced dopamine with low-cost catechol and polyamine (only 8% of the cost of dopamine), which could be polymerized in an alkaline solution and deposited on the surfaces of various materials. By using this cheap and simple modification method, polypropylene (PP) separator could be transformed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, while the pore structure and mechanical property of the separator remained intact. The uptake of electrolyte increased from 80% to 270% after the hydrophilic modification. Electrochemical studies demonstrated that battery with the modified PP separator had a better Coulombic efficiency (80.9% to 85.3%) during the first cycle at a current density of 0.1 C, while the discharging current density increased to 15 C and the discharge capacity increased by 1.4 times compared to the battery using the bare PP separator. Additionally, the modification allowed excellent stability during manifold cycles. This study provides new insights into utilizing low-cost chemicals to mimic the mussel adhesion and has potential practical application in many fields.

  8. Boehmite particle coating modified microporous polyethylene membrane: A promising separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chongwen; Tong, Hua; Luo, Chuanpeng; Yuan, Shuanglong; Chen, Guorong; Yang, Yunxia

    2017-04-01

    To exploit high-quality separators for lithium ion batteries, current research activities are mainly focused on the modification of microporous polyolefin membranes by coating them with inorganic particles to achieve comprehensive improvements in their thermal stability, electrochemical compatibility, and overcharge protection. Here, we report a separator made by coating boehmite (AlOOH) particles on microporous polyethylene (PE) membranes. Compared to the commercially applied coating materials, e.g., aluminum oxide (Al2O3), AlOOH allows for a substantial reduction in the coating thickness, while ensuring excellent thermal stability of the modified PE membrane. Our study shows that this is due to the formation of an interlocking interface structure that interconnects the PE membrane and AlOOH coating layer as soon as PE melts at about 140 °C, preventing the modified PE membrane from shrinking at subsequently elevated temperatures. The modified PE membrane exhibits suitable electrolyte wettability to facilitate ion transport through it. Thus, the lithium ion batteries employing it as a separator could attain substantially improved electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the AlOOH-coated PE separator was also found to provide an excellent overcharge protection.

  9. Ultrastrong Polyoxyzole Nanofiber Membranes for Dendrite-Proof and Heat-Resistant Battery Separators.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoming; Zhu, Jian; Jiang, Xiong; Wu, Haitao; Qiao, Jinshuo; Sun, Wang; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Kening

    2016-05-11

    Polymeric nanomaterials emerge as key building blocks for engineering materials in a variety of applications. In particular, the high modulus polymeric nanofibers are suitable to prepare flexible yet strong membrane separators to prevent the growth and penetration of lithium dendrites for safe and reliable high energy lithium metal-based batteries. High ionic conductance, scalability, and low cost are other required attributes of the separator important for practical implementations. Available materials so far are difficult to comply with such stringent criteria. Here, we demonstrate a high-yield exfoliation of ultrastrong poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) nanofibers from the Zylon microfibers. A highly scalable blade casting process is used to assemble these nanofibers into nanoporous membranes. These membranes possess ultimate strengths of 525 MPa, Young's moduli of 20 GPa, thermal stability up to 600 °C, and impressively low ionic resistance, enabling their use as dendrite-suppressing membrane separators in electrochemical cells. With such high-performance separators, reliable lithium-metal based batteries operated at 150 °C are also demonstrated. Those polyoxyzole nanofibers would enrich the existing library of strong nanomaterials and serve as a promising material for large-scale and cost-effective safe energy storage.

  10. Novel Nanofiber-based Membrane Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilmaz, Meltem

    Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in electronic devices including mobile phones, laptop computers, and cameras due to their high specific energy, high energy density, long cycling lifetime, and low self-discharge rate. Nowadays, lithium-ion batteries are finding new applications in electric/hybrid vehicles and energy storage for smart grids. To be used in these new applications, novel battery components are needed so that lithiumion batteries with higher cell performance, better safety, and lower cost can be developed. A separator is an important component to obtain safe batteries and its primary function is to prevent electronic contact between electrodes while regulating cell kinetics and ionic flow. Currently, microporous membranes are the most commonly used separator type and they have good mechanical properties and chemical stability. However, their wettability and thermal stabilities are not sufficient for applications that require high operating temperature and high performance. Due to the superior properties such as large specific surface area, small pore size and high porosity, electrospun nanofiber membranes can be good separator candidate for highperformance lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we focus our research on fabricating nanofiber-based membranes to design new high-performance separators with good thermal stability, as well as superior electrochemical performance compared to microporous polyolefin membranes. To combine the good mechanical strength of PP nonwovens with the excellent electrochemical properties of SiO2/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite nanofibers, SiO 2/PVDF composite nanofiber-coated PP nonwoven membranes were prepared. It was found that the addition of SiO2 nanoparticles played an important role in improving the overall performance of these nanofiber-coated nonwoven membranes. Although ceramic/polymer composites can be prepared by encapsulating ceramic particles directly into polymer nanofibers, the performance

  11. Inverse opal-inspired, nanoscaffold battery separators: a new membrane opportunity for high-performance energy storage systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Keun-Ho; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Joo Sung; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-08-13

    The facilitation of ion/electron transport, along with ever-increasing demand for high-energy density, is a key to boosting the development of energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries. Among major battery components, separator membranes have not been the center of attention compared to other electrochemically active materials, despite their important roles in allowing ionic flow and preventing electrical contact between electrodes. Here, we present a new class of battery separator based on inverse opal-inspired, seamless nanoscaffold structure ("IO separator"), as an unprecedented membrane opportunity to enable remarkable advances in cell performance far beyond those accessible with conventional battery separators. The IO separator is easily fabricated through one-pot, evaporation-induced self-assembly of colloidal silica nanoparticles in the presence of ultraviolet (UV)-curable triacrylate monomer inside a nonwoven substrate, followed by UV-cross-linking and selective removal of the silica nanoparticle superlattices. The precisely ordered/well-reticulated nanoporous structure of IO separator allows significant improvement in ion transfer toward electrodes. The IO separator-driven facilitation of the ion transport phenomena is expected to play a critical role in the realization of high-performance batteries (in particular, under harsh conditions such as high-mass-loading electrodes, fast charging/discharging, and highly polar liquid electrolyte). Moreover, the IO separator enables the movement of the Ragone plot curves to a more desirable position representing high-energy/high-power density, without tailoring other battery materials and configurations. This study provides a new perspective on battery separators: a paradigm shift from plain porous films to pseudoelectrochemically active nanomembranes that can influence the charge/discharge reaction.

  12. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  13. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  14. Evaluation of ceramic papers and tapes for use as separators in thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Frederick William; Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Ceramic tapes and papers were evaluated for potential use as separators in high-temperature thermal batteries. The bulk of the tests involved fiberglass tape and borosilicate filter discs. Quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) materials were also examined to a limited extent. In addition, custom-prepared MgO-coated ceramic discs from Inventek Inc. were evaluated as separators. The tapes and paper discs were impregnated with LiCl-KCl eutectic or LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolytes using three different techniques. Test discs were punched from the tapes and papers, impregnated with electrolyte and evaluated as separators in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} single cells at 400 or 500 C at a steady-state current of 63 or 125 mA/cm{sup 2}. The performance of single cells containing these discs generally improved with increased electrolyte loading for most of the materials in the case of the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Better results were obtained with the paper filter discs than with the tapes. The best results with the paper discs were obtained with Whatman GF/A filter discs. Active lives for cells with these separators were about 85% of standard cells with pressed-powder separators. Good results were obtained in one battery test with the eutectic electrolyte. Mixed results were obtained with the LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte under similar conditions. Higher loadings of electrolyte did not always translate into improved cell performance. Self-discharge reactions are believed responsible. The best overall results were obtained with the Inventek separators. Based on the results of this study, more work in this technology area is merited.

  15. Hydrometallurgical separation of aluminium, cobalt, copper and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Daniel Alvarenga; Prados, Luisa Martins Zimmer; Majuste, Daniel; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    A hydrometallurgical route based on leaching-crystallization steps for the separation of metals Al, Co, Cu and Li from spent Li-ion batteries was evaluated in this paper. Once dismantled for the removal of both plastic and steel cases, the anode (containing mainly Cu) of such batteries was manually separated from the cathode (which contains Al, Co and Li) for the recovery of Cu. The metal content of both anode and cathode was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic absorption analytical methods. The cathode was firstly leached with NaOH for the selective removal of Al, followed by leaching with H 2SO 4 + H 2O 2 for the dissolution of the remaining Co and Li. The operating variables concentration of NaOH and concentration of H 2O 2 were found significant for the metal dissolution conditions investigated at basic and acid leaching operations, respectively. On the other hand, the variables temperature and concentration of H 2SO 4 showed minor effects at acid leaching step. Reaction schemes were proposed to describe basic and acid leaching operations. The recovery of Co from the acid liquor was carried out by crystallization. This hydrometallurgical route was found to be simple and adequate to separate metals for recycling purposes.

  16. In situ self cross-linking of polyvinyl alcohol battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A battery separator was produced from a polyvinyl alcohol sheet structure which was subjected to an in situ, self crosslinking process by selective oxidation of the 1,2 diol units present in the polyvinyl alcohol sheet structure. The 1,2 diol units were cleaved to form aldehyde end groups which subsequently crosslink through acetalization of the 1,3 diol units of the polyvinyl alcohol. Selective oxidation was achieved using a solution of a suitable oxidizing agent such as periodic acid or lead tetraacetate.

  17. Development of Cellulose/PVDF-HFP Composite Membranes for Advanced Battery Separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Agubra, Victor; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Mao, Yuanbing

    Improvements in battery technology are necessary as Li-ion batteries transition from consumer electronic to vehicular and industrial uses. An important bottle-neck in battery efficiency and safety is the quality of the separators, which prevent electric short-circuits between cathode and anode, while allowing an easy flow of ions between them. In this study, cellulose acetate was dissolved in a mixed solvent with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and the mixture was forcespun in a peudo paper making process to yield nanofibrillated nonwoven mats. The mats were soaked in NaOH/Ethanol to strip PVP and regenerate cellulose from its acetate precursor. The cellulose mats were then dipped in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) to yield the cellulose/PVDF-HFP composte membranes. These membranes were characterized chemically through FTIR spectroscopy and solvent-stability tests, thermally through DSC, physically by stress/strain measurements along with weight-based electrolyte uptake, and electrically by AC-impedance spectroscopy combined with capacitative cycling.

  18. Modeling of ion transport through a porous separator in vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Wei, L.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we develop a two-dimensional, transient model to investigate the mechanisms of ion-transport through a porous separator in VRFBs and their effects on battery performance. Commercial-available separators with pore sizes of around 45 nm are particularly investigated and effects of key separator design parameters and operation modes are explored. We reveal that: i) the transport mechanism of vanadium-ion crossover through available separators is predominated by convection; ii) reducing the pore size below 15 nm effectively minimizes the convection-driven vanadium-ion crossover, while further reduction in migration- and diffusion-driven vanadium-ion crossover can be achieved only when the pore size is reduced to the level close to the sizes of vanadium ions; and iii) operation modes that can affect the pressure at the separator/electrode interface, such as the electrolyte flow rate, exert a significant influence on the vanadium-ion crossover rate through the available separators, indicating that it is critically important to equalize the pressure on each half-cell of a power pack in practical applications.

  19. High temperature stable Li-ion battery separators based on polyetherimides with improved electrolyte compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    l'Abee, Roy; DaRosa, Fabien; Armstrong, Mark J.; Hantel, Moritz M.; Mourzagh, Djamel

    2017-03-01

    We report (electro-)chemically stable, high temperature resistant and fast wetting Li-ion battery separators produced through a phase inversion process using novel polyetherimides (PEI) based on bisphenol-aceton diphthalic anhydride (BPADA) and para-phenylenediamine (pPD). In contrast to previous studies using PEI based on BPADA and meta-phenylenediamine (mPD), the separators reported herein show limited swelling in electrolytes and do not require fillers to render sufficient mechanical strength and ionic conductivity. In this work, the produced 15-25 μm thick PEI-pPD separators show excellent electrolyte compatibility, proven by low degrees of swelling in electrolyte solvents, low contact angles, fast electrolyte wicking and high electrolyte uptake. The separators cover a tunable range of morphologies and properties, leading to a wide range of ionic conductivities as studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) demonstrated dimensional stability up to 220 °C. Finally, single layer graphite/lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) pouch cells were assembled using this novel PEI-pPD separator, showing an excellent capacity retention of 89.3% after 1000 1C/2C cycles, with a mean Coulombic efficiency of 99.77% and limited resistance build-up. We conclude that PEI-pPD is a promising new material candidate for high performance separators.

  20. Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-04-22

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are capable of reversible conversion between electricity and chemical energy. Potential RFB applications resolve around mitigating the discrepancy between electricity production and consumption to improve the stability and utilization of the power infrastructure and tackling the intermittency of renewables such as photovoltaics or wind turbines to enable their reliable integration [1, 2]. Because the energy is stored in externally contained liquid electrolytes and the energy conversion reactions take place at the electrodes, RFBs hold a unique capability to separate energy and power and thus possess considerable design flexibility to meet either energy management driven or power rating oriented grid applications, which is considered to be a unparalleled advantage over conventional solid-state secondary batteries [3]. Other advantages of RFBs include fast response to load changes, high round-trip efficiency, long calender and cycle lives, safe operations, tolerance to deep discharge, etc. [4]. Among various flow battery chemistries, all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) was invented by Maria Skyllas-Kazacos at the University of New South Wales in the 1980s [5, 6] and have attracted substantial attention in both research and industrial communities today [7, 8]. A well-recognized advantage that makes VRB stands out among other redox chemistries is the reduced crossover contamination ascribed to employing four different oxidation states of the same vanadium element as the two redox couples. Recently, great progress has led to remarkably improved energy density of VRB by using sulfuric-chloric mixed acid supporting electrolytes that were stable at 2.5M vanadium and had wider operational temperature window of -5~50oC [9], compared with the traditional sulfuric acid VRB system [10].

  1. Electrospun core-shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Kong, Biao; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Zheng; Zhuo, Denys; Lin, Dingchang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although the energy densities of batteries continue to increase, safety problems (for example, fires and explosions) associated with the use of highly flammable liquid organic electrolytes remain a big issue, significantly hindering further practical applications of the next generation of high-energy batteries. We have fabricated a novel "smart" nonwoven electrospun separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. The encapsulation of a flame retardant inside a protective polymer shell has prevented direct dissolution of the retardant agent into the electrolyte, which would otherwise have negative effects on battery performance. During thermal runaway of the lithium-ion battery, the protective polymer shell would melt, triggered by the increased temperature, and the flame retardant would be released, thus effectively suppressing the combustion of the highly flammable electrolytes.

  2. Electrospun core-shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; ...

    2017-01-13

    Although the energy densities of batteries continue to increase, safety problems (for example, fires and explosions) associated with the use of highly flammable liquid organic electrolytes remain a big issue, significantly hindering further practical applications of the next generation of high-energy batteries. We have fabricated a novel “smart” nonwoven electrospun separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. The encapsulation of a flame retardant inside a protective polymer shell has prevented direct dissolution of the retardant agent into the electrolyte, which would otherwise have negative effects on battery performance. Furthermore, during thermal runaway of the lithium-ion battery, the protective polymermore » shell would melt, triggered by the increased temperature, and the flame retardant would be released, thus effectively suppressing the combustion of the highly flammable electrolytes.« less

  3. Electrospun core-shell microfiber separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Kong, Biao; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Zheng; Zhuo, Denys; Lin, Dingchang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although the energy densities of batteries continue to increase, safety problems (for example, fires and explosions) associated with the use of highly flammable liquid organic electrolytes remain a big issue, significantly hindering further practical applications of the next generation of high-energy batteries. We have fabricated a novel “smart” nonwoven electrospun separator with thermal-triggered flame-retardant properties for lithium-ion batteries. The encapsulation of a flame retardant inside a protective polymer shell has prevented direct dissolution of the retardant agent into the electrolyte, which would otherwise have negative effects on battery performance. During thermal runaway of the lithium-ion battery, the protective polymer shell would melt, triggered by the increased temperature, and the flame retardant would be released, thus effectively suppressing the combustion of the highly flammable electrolytes. PMID:28097221

  4. Ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting inorganic electrolyte for high-performance lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yun-Chae; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Moon-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Hye; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Ue, Makoto; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-10-01

    Flexible ceramic separators based on Li+-conducting lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide are prepared as thin films and directly applied onto negative electrode to produce a separator-electrode assembly with good interfacial adhesion and low interfacial resistances. The ceramic separators show an excellent thermal stability and high ionic conductivity as compared to conventional polypropylene separator. The lithium-ion batteries assembled with graphite negative electrode, Li+-conducting ceramic separator and LiCoO2 positive electrode exhibit good cycling performance in terms of discharge capacity, capacity retention and rate capability. It is also demonstrated that the use of a ceramic separator can greatly improve safety over cells employing a polypropylene separator, which is highly desirable for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety.

  5. Porous cellulose diacetate-SiO2 composite coating on polyethylene separator for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenju; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Yang, Haijun; Mao, Xufeng; Chi, Mingming; Sun, Lining; Yuan, Shuai

    2016-08-20

    The developments of high-performance lithium ion battery are eager to the separators with high ionic conductivity and thermal stability. In this work, a new way to adjust the comprehensive properties of inorganic-organic composite separator was investigated. The cellulose diacetate (CDA)-SiO2 composite coating is beneficial for improving the electrolyte wettability and the thermal stability of separators. Interestingly, the pore structure of composite coating can be regulated by the weight ratio of SiO2 precursor tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the coating solution. The electronic performance of lithium ion batteries assembled with modified separators are improved compared with the pristine PE separator. When weight ratio of TEOS in the coating solution was 9.4%, the composite separator shows the best comprehensive performance. Compared with the pristine PE separator, its meltdown temperature and the break-elongation at elevated temperature increased. More importantly, the discharge capacity and the capacity retention improved significantly.

  6. Synthesis of nanoporous materials using block copolymers and applications as battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David; Mullin, Scott; Stone, Greg; Balsara, Nitash

    2010-03-01

    A method for synthesizing nanoporous battery separators using poly(styrene-b-ethylene-b-polystyrene) (SES) is presented. The polyethylene block serves as a structural component, while the polystyrene block promotes wetting of the electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of these systems swollen with 1M LiPF6/Ethylene Carbonate/Diethyl Carbonate (EC/DEC) electrolyte was measured by AC impedance. Other groups have shown that radiation induced grafting of gel polymer electrolytes can increase the conductivity of a porous PE/LiPF6/EC/DEC system by as much as an order of magnitude. Data showing the ionic conductivity as a function of void fraction of the separator are presented.

  7. Phase-separated silicon-tin nanocomposites for high capacity negative electrodes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xingcheng; Wang, John S.; Liu, Ping; Sachdev, Anil K.; Verbrugge, Mark W.; Haddad, Daad; Balogh, Michael P.

    2012-09-01

    Both silicon and tin have a high specific capacity (3600 mAh g-1 for Li15Si4 and 992 mAh g-1 for Li22Sn5 respectively) and are among the most attractive materials for potential negative electrodes in lithium ion batteries. However, mechanical degradation induced by the large volume expansion during the cycling has limited their practical application. In this work, we developed a new class of Si-Sn nanocomposites with unique phase-separated nanostructure, where the amorphous Si nanoparticles are thermodynamically precipitated out from Si-Sn alloy and embedded within the Sn matrix. The phase separation-induced nanostructure provides the capability to mitigate the mechanical degradation, by preventing the nucleation and propagation of microcracks during lithiation. The nanocomposite electrode exhibits relative high capacity (1400 mAh g-1) and excellent cycling stability with the optimum composition and nanostructure.

  8. High-Performance Li-S Batteries with an Ultra-lightweight MWCNT-Coated Separator.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sheng-Heng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-06-05

    A bifunctional separator consisting of a layer of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the cathode-side of a Celgard polypropylene sheet has been investigated to overcome the challenges of Li-S cells. The conductive/porous MWCNT-coating functions (i) as an upper current collector to facilitate electron transport and high active-material utilization and (ii) as a filter to intercept/absorb the migrating polysulfides and thereby suppress the polysulfide diffusion. Also, the access to the electrolyte through the porous network of MWCNT along with its fast electronic transport facilitates the reutilization of the trapped active material and superior long-term cyclability. The MWCNT-coating is lightweight (0.17 mg cm(-2)), yet allows the successful use of regular sulfur cathodes (high sulfur content of 70 wt %) with high discharge capacity, excellent rate performance, and long cycle life, demonstrating that the MWCNT-coated separator is a viable solution to practical Li-S batteries.

  9. Plasma processes in the preparation of lithium-ion battery electrodes and separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava-Avendaño, J.; Veilleux, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the energy storage devices that dominate the portable electronic market. They are now also considered and used for electric vehicles and are foreseen to enable the smart grid. Preparing batteries with high energy and power densities, elevated cycleability and improved safety could be achieved by controlling the microstructure of the electrode materials and the interaction they have with the electrolyte over the working potential window. Selecting appropriate precursors, reducing the preparation steps and selecting more efficient synthesis methods could also significantly reduce the costs of LIB components. Implementing plasma technologies can represent a high capital investment, but the versatility of the technologies allows the preparation of powdered nanoparticles with different morphologies, as well as with carbon and metal oxide coatings. Plasma technologies can also enable the preparation of binder-free thin films and coatings for LIB electrodes, and the treatment of polymeric membranes to be used as separators. This review paper aims at highlighting the different thermal and non-thermal plasma technologies recently used to synthesize coated and non-coated active materials for LIB cathodes and anodes, and to modify the surface of separators.

  10. Metal separation from mixed types of batteries using selective precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Provazi, Kellie; Campos, Beatriz Amaral; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study metal separation from a sample composed of a mixture of the main types of spent household batteries, using a hydrometallurgical route, comparing selective precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction separation techniques. The preparation of the solution consisted of: grinding the waste of mixed batteries, reduction and volatile metals elimination using electric furnace and acid leaching. From this solution two different routes were studied: selective precipitation with sodium hydroxide and liquid-liquid extraction using Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphoric acid] as extracting agent. The best results were obtained from liquid-liquid extraction in which Zn had a 99% extraction rate at pH 2.5. More than 95% Fe was extracted at pH 7.0, the same pH at which more than 90% Ce was extracted. About 88% Mn, Cr and Co was extracted at this pH. At pH 3.0, more than 85% Ni was extracted, and at pH 3.5 more than 80% of Cd and La was extracted.

  11. Ethylcellulose-coated polyolefin separators for lithium-ion batteries with improved safety performance.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ming; Tang, Haolin; Wang, Yadong; Pan, Mu

    2014-01-30

    With the widely use in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, the safety of lithium-ion battery has raised serious concerns, in which the thermal stability of separator plays an essential role in preventing thermal runaway reactions. The novelty of this work is to coat commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator and trilayer polypropylene/polyethylene/polypropylene (PP/PE/PP) separator with ethylcellulose (EC), a thermally stable and renewable biomass. The formation of the EC layer with high porosity is through a simple dipping and extracting process. The effects of the EC layer on thermal shrinkage, electrolyte wettability and cell performance are investigated. After coating, the thermal shrinkage of PE separator at shutdown and meltdown point is reduced from 20% to 9% and 42% to 23% respectively, while the drop of OCV under increasing temperature is also postponed from 130°C to 160°C. The electrolyte wettability of pristine trilayer PP/PE/PP separator is greatly improved, leading to increased capacity retention from 28% to 99% of the cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyvinylidene fluoride membrane by novel electrospinning system for separator of Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cuiru; Jia, Zhidong; Guan, Zhicheng; Wang, Liming

    The remarkable characteristics of nanofibers mats electrospun are large surface area to volume ratio and high porosity, which are crucial to increase the ionic conductivity of membrane full of liquid electrolyte, in this aspect, electrospinning is prior to the other methods, such as dry method, wet method, etc. Therefore, fabricating the separator of Li-ion batteries by electrospinning is potential and promising. The PVDF membranes were fabricated by electrospinning. The experiment demonstrated that the main deficiency in the fabricating separators process by electrospinning was low mechanical property, which induced partial short circuits inside the cells. Several methods were presented to enhance the mechanical strength. The experiments demonstrated that the higher the solution concentration was, the stronger the mechanical strength was, and the higher the voltage was, the stronger the mechanical strength was. Additionally, the spherical hat collection target instead of conditional plane target was applied in the electrospinning system, as a result, the thickness of the membrane was more uniform and the fiber diameter was also more uniform. Therefore, the charge and discharge capacity of the coin type cell composed of the separator collected by spherical hat target exceeded the plane target, and the electrospinning separators exceeded the commercial polypropylene separator.

  13. Performance evaluation of a non-woven lithium ion battery separator prepared through a paper-making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2014-06-01

    Porous separator functions to electrically insulate the negative and positive electrodes yet communicate lithium ions between the two electrodes when infiltrated with a liquid electrolyte. The separator must fulfill numerous requirements (e.g. permeability, wettability, and thermal stability) in order to optimize the abuse tolerance and electrochemical performance of a battery. Non-woven mat separators have advantages such as high porosity and heat resistance. However, their applications in lithium ion batteries are very limited as their inadequate pore structures could cause accelerated battery performance degradation and even internal short. This work features the development of thermally stable non-woven composite separators using a low cost paper-making process. The composite separators offer significantly improved thermal dimensional stability and exhibit superior wettability by the liquid electrolyte compared to a conventional polypropylene separator. The open porous structures of the non-woven composite separators also resulted in high effective ionic conductivities. The electrochemical performance of the composite separators was tested in coin cells. Stable cycle performances and improved rate capabilities have been observed for the coin cells with these composite separators.

  14. Plasma Modified Polypropylene Membranes as the Lithium-Ion Battery Separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengduo; Zhu, Huiqin; Yang, Lizhen; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Zhongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the thermal shrinkage of the polymeric separators and improve the safety of the Li-ion batteries, plasma treatment and plasma enhanced vapor chemical deposition (PECVD) of SiOx-like are carried out on polypropylene (PP) separators, respectively. Critical parameters for separator properties, such as the thermal shrinkage rate, porosity, wettability, and mechanical strength, are evaluated on the plasma treated PP membranes. O2 plasma treatment is found to remarkably improve the wettability, porosity and electrolyte uptake. PECVD SiOx-like coatings are found to be able to effectively reduce the thermal shrinkage rate of the membranes and increase the ionic conductivity. The electrolyte-philicity of the SiOx-like coating surface can be tuned by the varying O2 content in the gas mixture during the deposition. Though still acceptable, the mechanical strength is reduced after PECVD, which is due to the plasma etching. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175024, 11375031), the Beijing Institute of Graphic and Communication Key Project of China (No. 23190113051), the Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Committee of China (No. JCYJ20130329181509637), BJNSFC (No. KZ201510015014), and the State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment of China (No. EIPE15208)

  15. PVDF-HFP/ether-modified polysiloxane membranes obtained via airbrush spraying as active separators for application in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Seidel, S M; Jeschke, S; Vettikuzha, P; Wiemhöfer, H-D

    2015-08-04

    Improved hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes are introduced based on ether-modified polysiloxanes and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) yielding a safe separator membrane, which is able to be sprayed directly onto lithium ion battery active materials, with an active role for enhanced ion transport.

  16. Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) separator for improving the heat resistance and power density of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yin; Xu, Tiange; John, Angelin Ebanezar; Li, Yang; Li, Weishan; Zhu, Baoku

    2016-10-01

    A microporous poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) separator with high safety (high-heat resistance and self extinguishing), high porosity and excellent liquid electrolyte wettability was prepared by the traditional nonsolvent introduced phase separation process. Due to the high-heat resistance of PMIA material, the as-prepared separator exhibited a negligible thermal shrank ratio at 160 °C for 1 h. Meanwhile, benefiting from its high porosity and excellent wettability in liquid electrolyte, the liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity of the separator were higher than that of the commercial PP-based separators. Furthermore, the cell assembled with this separator showed better cycling performance and superior rate capacity compared to those with PP-based separators. These results suggested that the PMIA separator is very attractive for high-heat resistance and high-power density lithium-ion batteries.

  17. A facile approach to make high performance nano-fiber reinforced composite separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2016-08-01

    The separator is a porous membrane located between the negative and the positive electrodes. In this work, a nano-fiber reinforced composite separator was developed. Compared with the commercial polyolefin separator, the composite separator showed superior (a) dimensional stability at elevated temperatures relative to conventional separators and (b) wettability by the liquid electrolyte. After being saturated with a commercial LiPF6-ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate electrolyte, the composite separator enabled a high effective ionic conductivity (σeff) of 1.25 mS/cm. A stable cycle performance and an improved rate capability have been observed in the coin cells with the composite separator. This initial study shows that this type of composite membranes can be a promising alternative separator for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Development and evaluation of polyvinyl-alcohol blend polymer films as battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Several dialdehydes and epoxies were evaluated for their suitability as cross-linkers. Optium concentrations of several cross-linking reagents were determined. A two-step method of cross-linking, which involves treatment of the film in an acid or acid periodate bath, was investigated and dropped in favor of a one-step method in which the acid catalyst, which initiates cross-linking, is added to the PVA - cross-linker solution before casting. The cross-linking was thus achieved during the drying step. This one-step method was much more adaptable to commercial processing. Cross-linked films were characterized as alkaline battery separators. Films were prepared in the lab and tested in cells in order to evaluate the effect of film composition and a number of processing parameters on cell performance. These tests were conducted in order to provide a broader data base from which to select optimum processing parameters. Results of the separator screening tests and the cell tests are discussed.

  19. Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-02

    Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

  20. Evaluating the trade-off between mechanical and electrochemical performance of separators for lithium-ion batteries: Methodology and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaimer, Martin; Breitfuß, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang; Heindl, Simon F.; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Steffan, Hermann; Wilkening, Martin; Hennige, Volker; Tatschl, Reinhard; Geier, Alexander; Schramm, Christian; Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are in widespread use in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Besides features like energy density, cost, lifetime, and recyclability the safety of a battery system is of prime importance. The separator material impacts all these properties and requires therefore an informed selection. The interplay between the mechanical and electrochemical properties as key selection criteria is investigated. Mechanical properties were investigated using tensile and puncture penetration tests at abuse relevant conditions. To investigate the electrochemical performance in terms of effective conductivity a method based on impedance spectroscopy was introduced. This methodology is applied to evaluate ten commercial separators which allows for a trade-off analysis of mechanical versus electrochemical performance. Based on the results, and in combination with other factors, this offers an effective approach to select suitable separators for automotive applications.

  1. Polyethylene separator activated by hybrid coating improving Li+ ion transference number and ionic conductivity for Li-metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xufeng; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Haijiao; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Qiu, Zhengfu; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-02-01

    Low Li+ ion transference number is one fatal defect of the liquid LiPF6 electrolyte for Li-metal anode based batteries. This work aims to improve Li+ ion transference number and ionic conductivity polyethylene (PE) separators. By a simple dip-coating method, the water-borne nanosized molecular sieve with 3D porous structure (ZSM-5) can be coated on PE separators. Especially, the Li+ ion transference number is greatly enhanced from 0.28 to 0.44, which should be attributed to the specific pore structure and channel environment of ZSM-5 as well as the interaction between ZSM-5 and electrolyte. Compared with the pristine PE separator, the ionic conductivity of modified separators is remarkably improved from 0.30 to 0.54 mS cm-1. As results, the C-rate capability and cycling stability are both improved. The Li-metal battery using the ZSM-5-modified PE separator keeps 94.2% capacity after 100 cycles. In contrast, the discharge capacity retention of the battery using pristine PE is only 74.7%.

  2. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented improved electrolyte uptake, better interface stability and enhanced ionic conductivity. In addition, the lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)/graphite cell using this composite separator exhibited better rate capability and cycling retention than that for PP separator owing to its facile ion transport and excellent interfacial compatibility. Furthermore, the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)/lithium cell with such composite separator delivered stable cycling performance and thermal dimensional stability even at an elevated temperature of 120°C. All these fascinating characteristics would boost the application of this composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery. PMID:24488228

  3. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Yue, Liping; Kong, Qingshan; Liu, Zhihong; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhang, Chuanjian; Xu, Quan; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Guoliang; Qin, Bingsheng; Duan, Yulong; Wang, Qingfu; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2014-02-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented improved electrolyte uptake, better interface stability and enhanced ionic conductivity. In addition, the lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)/graphite cell using this composite separator exhibited better rate capability and cycling retention than that for PP separator owing to its facile ion transport and excellent interfacial compatibility. Furthermore, the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)/lithium cell with such composite separator delivered stable cycling performance and thermal dimensional stability even at an elevated temperature of 120°C. All these fascinating characteristics would boost the application of this composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery.

  4. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator includes a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte, (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group, and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrode. The mixture comprises at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 sq meters/gram, at last one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram. The volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder. The filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle.

  5. Drying and moisture resorption behaviour of various electrode materials and separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, Michael; Pandey, Nisrit; Bund, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The drying behaviour and water uptake of a variety of commonly used electrode materials (graphite, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, Li(NiCoMn)O2) and separators (polyolefin, glass fibre) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. The drying experiments are carried out using a coulometric Karl Fischer titrator in combination with a vaporiser. This setup leads to a highly sensitive and precise method to quantify water amounts in the microgram range in solid materials. Thereby the mass specific drying behaviour at RT and 120 °C is determined as well as the water resorption of the investigated materials in conditioned air atmosphere (T: 25 °C, RH: 40%). By extracting characteristic water detection rate curves for the investigated materials, a method is developed to predict the water detection beyond the runtime of the experiment. The results help optimising drying procedures of LIB components and thus can save time and costs. It is also shown, that water contaminations in graphite/LiFePO4 coin cells with a LiPF6 based electrolyte lead to a faster capacity fade during cycling and a significant change of the cell impedance.

  6. Elecrokinetic separation of sulphate and lead from sludge of spent lead acid battery.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, S; Dhanibabu, T; Veluchamy, A; Palanichamy, S; Subramanian, P; Palaniswamy, N

    2011-10-15

    A novel electrokinetic (EK) technique is applied to separate lead and sulphate from the sludge of used/spent lead acid battery. XRD reveals that the sludge is a mixture of (PbO)(4) [Pb(SO(4))], Pb(2)O(3), PbSO(4), Pb(S(2)O(3)) and Pb(2)(SO(4)) which upon DC voltage application in a EK cell employing either titanium electrodes or titanium substrate insoluble anode as electrodes caused migration of sulphates and lead ions respectively into anode and cathode compartments, and accumulation of insoluble lead oxides at the central compartment. The insoluble lead oxides accumulated at the central compartment in the ratio 1:3, respectively for the high oxygen over-voltage Ti-anode (Ti-EK cell) and low oxygen over-voltage TSIA-anode (TSIA-EK cell) shows the superiority of Ti anode over TSIA anode. Also thermal investigation reveals Pb deposited at Ti-cathode is superior to that from TSIA cathode. This process does not release air/soil pollutants which are usually associated with high temperature pyrotechnic process.

  7. Amplification of electrolyte uptake in the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator for valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kameswara Rao, P. V.; Rawal, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators are widely used for valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries due to their remarkable fiber and structural characteristics. Discharge performance and recharge effectiveness of VRLA batteries essentially rely on the distribution and saturation levels of the electrolyte within the AGM separator. Herein, we report an analytical model for predicting the wicking characteristics of AGM battery separators under unconfined and confined states. The model of wicking behavior of AGM is based upon Fries and Dreyer's approach that included the effect of gravity component which was neglected in classic Lucas-Washburn's model. In addition, the predictive model of wicking accounted for realistic structural characteristics of AGM via orientation averaging approach. For wicking under confined state, the structural parameters have been updated under defined level of compressive stresses based upon the constitutive equation derived for a planar network of fibers in AGM under transverse loading conditions. A comparison has been made between the theoretical models and experimental results of wicking behavior under unconfined and confined states. Most importantly, the presented work has highlighted the questionable validity of classic Lucas-Washburn model for predicting the wicking characteristics of AGM separator over longer time duration.

  8. Current-induced transition from particle-by-particle to concurrent intercalation in phase-separating battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiyang; El Gabaly, Farid; Ferguson, Todd R; Smith, Raymond B; Bartelt, Norman C; Sugar, Joshua D; Fenton, Kyle R; Cogswell, Daniel A; Kilcoyne, A L David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bazant, Martin Z; Chueh, William C

    2014-12-01

    Many battery electrodes contain ensembles of nanoparticles that phase-separate on (de)intercalation. In such electrodes, the fraction of actively intercalating particles directly impacts cycle life: a vanishing population concentrates the current in a small number of particles, leading to current hotspots. Reports of the active particle population in the phase-separating electrode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4; LFP) vary widely, ranging from near 0% (particle-by-particle) to 100% (concurrent intercalation). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, we probed the individual state-of-charge for over 3,000 LFP particles. We observed that the active population depends strongly on the cycling current, exhibiting particle-by-particle-like behaviour at low rates and increasingly concurrent behaviour at high rates, consistent with our phase-field porous electrode simulations. Contrary to intuition, the current density, or current per active internal surface area, is nearly invariant with the global electrode cycling rate. Rather, the electrode accommodates higher current by increasing the active particle population. This behaviour results from thermodynamic transformation barriers in LFP, and such a phenomenon probably extends to other phase-separating battery materials. We propose that modifying the transformation barrier and exchange current density can increase the active population and thus the current homogeneity. This could introduce new paradigms to enhance the cycle life of phase-separating battery electrodes.

  9. Properties and Performance Attributes of Novel Co-extruded Polyolefin Battery Separator Materials. Part 2; Electrical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    As NASA prepares for its next era of manned spaceflight missions, advanced energy storage technologies are being developed and evaluated to address and enhance future mission needs and technical requirements. Cell-level components for advanced lithium-ion batteries possessing higher energy, more reliable performance and enhanced, inherent safety characteristics have been under development within the NASA infrastructure. A key component for safe and reliable cell performance is the cell separator, which separates the two energetic electrodes and functions to inhibit the occurrence of an internal short circuit but preserves an ionic current. Recently, a new generation of co-extruded separator films has been developed by ExxonMobil Chemical and introduced into their battery separator product portfolio. Several grades of this new separator material were evaluated with respect to dynamic mechanical properties and safety-related performance attributes, and the results of these evaluations were previously reported in "Part 1: Mechanical Properties" of this publication. This current paper presents safety-related performance results for these novel materials obtained by employing a complementary experimental methodology, which involved the analysis of separator impedance characteristics as a function of temperature. The experimental results from this study are discussed with respect to potential cell safety enhancement for future aerospace as well as for terrestrial energy storage needs, and they are compared with pertinent mechanical properties of these materials, as well as with current state-of-the practice separator materials.

  10. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO2 and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Diogo Vieira; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO2) and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO2 and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance. PMID:26512701

  11. Nanofiber/ZrO2-based mixed matrix separator for high safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2017-10-01

    A novel asymmetric separator based on a thin bacterial cellulose nanofiber (BCF)/nano-ZrO2 composite layer and a non-woven support was prepared by paper-making method. Owing to the relatively polar constituents and well-developed, gradient porous structure, the separator exhibited the advantages of higher thermal resistance, electrolyte wettability, and ionic conductivity in comparison to polyethylene separator. Based on these advantages, the Li/LiFePO4 cells assembled from this composite separator showed excellent performance characteristics, including outstanding C-rate capability, high capacity and cycling performance. Production of the composite separator is simple, environmentally benign and economically viable. Therefore, it's a good candidate for creating improved lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Fabrication of a novel sandwich-like composite separator with enhanced physical and electrochemical performances for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dazhao; He, Jinlin; Zhang, Mingzu; Ni, Peihong; Li, Xiaofei; Hu, Jiankang

    2015-09-01

    In this work, two kinds of composite separators are prepared and used for lithium-ion batteries, which are a PP nonwoven/PVdF-HFP/PMMA blending-type composite separator (CS) and a sandwich-like PP nonwoven/PVdF-HFP composite separator with the introduction of PMMA nanoparticles on the surface (nano-CS). The morphology, electrolyte uptake, ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of the separators are studied by SEM analysis, impedance measurements, charge-discharge cycle and C-rate tests, respectively. The nano-CS and CS(0.2) exhibit similar properties in electrolyte uptake (212% and 202%, respectively) and porosity (77.9% and 75.3%, respectively). Nonetheless, nano-CS shows enhanced thermal stability and higher ionic conductivity compared with CS(0.2) and commercial PP nonwoven/PVdF-HFP separators. Meanwhile, the LiFePO4/Li half-cell assembled with nano-CS displays the best C-rate capacity and cyclability especially at the high discharge current rate, indicating that the nano-CS separator is a kind of promising candidate for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Properties and Performance Attributes of Novel Co-Extruded Polyolefin Battery Separator Materials. Part 1; Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Guzik, Monica; Skierski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As NASA prepares for its next era of manned spaceflight missions, advanced energy storage technologies are being developed and evaluated to address future mission needs and technical requirements and to provide new mission-enabling technologies. Cell-level components for advanced lithium-ion batteries possessing higher energy, more reliable performance and enhanced, inherent safety characteristics are actively under development within the NASA infrastructure. A key component for safe and reliable cell performance is the cell separator, which separates the two energetic electrodes and functions to prevent the occurrence of an internal short-circuit while enabling ionic transport. Recently, a new generation of co-extruded separator films has been developed by ExxonMobil Chemical and introduced into their battery separator product portfolio. Several grades of this new separator material have been evaluated with respect to dynamic mechanical properties and safety-related performance attributes. This paper presents the results of these evaluations in comparison to a current state-ofthe-practice separator material. The results are discussed with respect to potential opportunities to enhance the inherent safety characteristics and reliability of future, advanced lithium-ion cell chemistries.

  14. MoS2 /Celgard Separator as Efficient Polysulfide Barrier for Long-Life Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Zahid Ali; He, Xiao; Khattak, Abdul Muqsit; Khan, Niaz Ali; Liang, Bin; Iqbal, Azhar; Wang, Jinxin; Sin, Haksong; Li, Lianshan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2017-06-01

    A high lithium conductive MoS2 /Celgard composite separator is reported as efficient polysulfides barrier in Li-S batteries. Significantly, thanks to the high density of lithium ions on MoS2 surface, this composite separator shows high lithium conductivity, fast lithium diffusion, and facile lithium transference. When used in Li-S batteries, the separator is proven to be highly efficient for depressing polysulfides shuttle, leading to high and long cycle stability. With 65% of sulfur loading, the device with MoS2 /Celgard separator delivers an initial capacity of 808 mAh g(-1) and a substantial capacity of 401 mAh g(-1) after 600 cycles, corresponding to only 0.083% of capacity decay per cycle that is comparable to the best reported result so far. In addition, the Coulombic efficiency remains more than 99.5% during all 600 cycles, disclosing an efficient ionic sieve preventing polysulfides migration to the anode while having negligible influence on Li(+) ions transfer across the separator. The strategy demonstrated in this work will open the door toward developing efficient separators with flexible 2D materials beyond graphene for energy-storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ionic Liquid Hybrid Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Key Role of the Separator-Electrolyte Interface in Battery Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Huie, Matthew M; DiLeo, Roberta A; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-06-10

    Batteries are multicomponent systems where the theoretical voltage and stoichiometric electron transfer are defined by the electrochemically active anode and cathode materials. While the electrolyte may not be considered in stoichiometric electron-transfer calculations, it can be a critical factor determining the deliverable energy content of a battery, depending also on the use conditions. The development of ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolytes has been a research area of recent reports by other researchers, due, in part, to opportunities for an expanded high-voltage operating window and improved safety through the reduction of flammable solvent content. The study reported here encompasses a systematic investigation of the physical properties of IL-based hybrid electrolytes including quantitative characterization of the electrolyte-separator interface via contact-angle measurements. An inverse trend in the conductivity and wetting properties was observed for a series of IL-based electrolyte candidates. Test-cell measurements were undertaken to evaluate the electrolyte performance in the presence of functioning anode and cathode materials, where several promising IL-based hybrid electrolytes with performance comparable to that of conventional carbonate electrolytes were identified. The study revealed that the contact angle influenced the performance more significantly than the conductivity because the cells containing IL-tetrafluoroborate-based electrolytes with higher conductivity but poorer wetting showed significantly decreased performance relative to the cells containing IL-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide electrolytes with lower conductivity but improved wetting properties. This work contributes to the development of new IL battery-based electrolyte systems with the potential to improve the deliverable energy content as well as safety of lithium-ion battery systems.

  16. Effects of cell positive cans and separators on the performance of high-voltage Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ding, Fei; Mei, Donghai; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-09-01

    The effects of different cell cans and separators on the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and long-term cycling stability of high voltage spinel cathode were investigated systematically. Compared to stainless steel (SS) positive-cans, aluminum (Al)-clad SS-316 positive-cans have a much better resistance to oxidation at high voltages thus improving the initial Coulombic efficiency of the batteries by more than 13%. Among the five separators studied in this work, polyethylene (PE) separator shows the best electrochemical stability. The cells using LiCr0.05Ni0.45Mn1.5O4 as cathode, Al-clad positive-can, and PE separator exhibit the first-cycle Columbic efficiency of about 90% and a capacity fading of only 0.01% per cycle.

  17. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  18. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-02-05

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator.

  19. Extending the Life of Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries by Reaction of Lithium Dendrites with a Novel Silica Nanoparticle Sandwiched Separator

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kai; Zhuo, Denys; Lee, Hyun -Wook; Liu, Wei; Lin, Dingchang; Lu, Yingying; Cui, Yi

    2016-11-22

    A reaction-protective separator that slows the growth of lithium dendrites penetrating into the separator is produced by sandwiching silica nanoparticles between two polymer separators. Here, the reaction between lithium dendrites and silica nanoparticles consumes the dendrites and can extend the life of the battery by approximately five times.

  20. Sandwich-like heat-resistance composite separators with tunable pore structure for high power high safety lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Shen, Tao; Hu, Huasheng; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a new kind of composite separators. A unique feature of the separators is the three-tier structure, i.e. the crosslinked polyethylene glycol (PEG) skin layer being formed on both sides of the nonwoven separators by in-situ polymerization and the large pores in the interior of the nonwoven separators being remained. The surface pore structure and the thickness of the skin layer could be adjusted by controlling the concentration of the coating solution. The skin layer is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance and to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, yielding an excellent cyclability. The remained large pores in the interior of the composite separators could provide an access for the fast transportation of lithium ions, giving rise to a very high ion conductivity. The polyimide (PI) nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability of the composite separators. More notably, the composite separators fabricated from the coating solution with a composition ratio of 20 wt% provide superior cell performances owing to the well-tailored microporous structure, comparing with the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, which show great promise for the application in the high power lithium ion batteries.

  1. Improved, low cost inorganic-organic separators for rechargeable silver-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Several flexible, low-cost inorganic-organic separators with performance characteristics and cycle life equal to, or better than, the Lewis Research Center Astropower separator were developed. These new separators can be made on continuous-production equipment at about one-fourth the cost of the Astropower separator produced the same way. In test cells, these new separators demonstrate cycle life improvement, acceptable operating characteristics, and uniform current density. The various separator formulas, test cell construction, and data analysis are described.

  2. SiO2/polyacrylonitrile membranes via centrifugal spinning as a separator for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilmaz, Meltem; Lu, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal spinning is a fast, cost-effective and safe alternative to the electrospinning technique, which is commonly used for making fiber-based separator membranes. In this work, SiO2/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes were produced by using centrifugal spinning and they were characterized by using different electrochemical techniques for use as separators in Li-ion batteries. SiO2/PAN membranes exhibited good wettability and high ionic conductivity due to their highly porous fibrous structure. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membranes, SiO2/PAN membranes had larger liquid electrolyte uptake, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. SiO2/PAN membrane separators were assembled into lithium/lithium iron phosphate cells and these cells delivered high capacities and exhibited good cycling performance at room temperature. In addition, cells using SiO2/PAN membranes showed superior C-rate performance compared to those using microporous PP membrane.

  3. Effects of an Integrated Separator/Electrode Assembly on Enhanced Thermal Stability and Rate Capability of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gong, Seokhyeon; Jeon, Hyunkyu; Lee, Hoogil; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2017-05-31

    To improve the rate capability and safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we developed an integrated separator/electrode by gluing polyethylene (PE) separators and electrodes using a polymeric adhesive (poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVdF). To fabricate thin and uniform polymer coating layers on the substrate, we applied the polymer solution using a spray-coating technique. PVdF was chosen because of its superior mechanical properties and stable electrochemical properties within the voltage range of commercial LIBs. The integrated separator/electrode showed superior thermal stability compared to that of the control PE separators. Although PVdF coating layers partially blocked the porous structures of the PE separators, resulting in reduced ionic conductivity (control PE = 0.666 mS cm(-1), PVdF-coated PE = 0.617 mS cm(-1)), improved interfacial properties between the separators and the electrodes were obtained due to the intimate contact, and the rate capabilities of the LIBs based on integrated separators/electrodes showed 176.6% improvement at the 7 C rate (LIBs based on PVdF-coated and control PE maintained 48.4 and 27.4% of the initial discharge capacity, respectively).

  4. Inhibiting the shuttle effect of Li-S battery with a graphene oxide coating separator: Performance improvement and mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Chen, Fang; Gao, Yang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Qiang; Jiao, Zheng; Zhao, Bing; Chen, Zhiwen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) is integrated on commercial polypropylene separator by tape casting method and sandwiched between a sulfur cathode and the separator as a shuttle inhibitor of the Li-S battery. The issues of lithium polysulfides dissolution and shuttle effect are inhibited distinctly, and significant improvements not only in the active material utilization but also in capacity retention are observed. What's more, the improvement mechanism is studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the sulfur and polysulfide species in separator and electrolyte for the cell with GO-coating separator are much less than that with the pristine separator. The GO membrane still maintains three-dimensional porous and flexible structure with a few lithium polysulfides and Li2S2/Li2S nanoparticles anchored on the surface and inter-layers of GO sheets after long cycles. And the active materials are significantly localized within the cathode structure after GO-coating. In addition, less sulfate species, lithium salts, polysulfides and other insoluble species are identified on the cathode and separator after long-term cycling.

  5. Janus Separator of Polypropylene‐Supported Cellular Graphene Framework for Sulfur Cathodes with High Utilization in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong‐Jie; Wang, Dai‐Wei; Cheng, Xin‐Bing; Yuan, Zhe; Wei, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the conversion chemistry of the sulfur cathode, the lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries exhibit high theoretical energy density. However, the intrinsic mobile redox centers during the sulfur/Li2S‐to‐lithium polysulfides solid‐to‐liquid phase transition induce low sulfur utilization and poor cycling life. Herein, the Janus separator of mesoporous cellular graphene framework (CGF)/polypropylene membrane to promote the utilization of sulfur cathode is introduced. The porous polypropylene membrane serves as an insulating substrate in contact with lithium anode while CGFs that possess high electrical conductivity of 100 S cm−1, a large mesopore volume of 3.1 cm3 g−1, and a huge surface area of 2120 m2 g−1 are adhered on cathode side to reactivate the shuttling‐back polysulfides and to preserve the ion channels. Therefore, the Li–S cell with the “two‐face” CGF Janus separator exhibit a high initial capacity of 1109 mAh g−1 and superior capacity preserved upon 800 mAh g−1 after 250 cycles at 0.2 C, which is 40% higher on sulfur utilization efficiency than the corresponding results with routine polypropylene separators. There are significant improvements on capacity as well as electrochemical kinetics. A very high areal capacity of 5.5 mAh cm−2 combined with high sulfur content of 80% and areal loading amount of 5.3 mg cm−2 is achieved for such advanced configuration. The negative impact of shuttle mechanism on lowering the utilization of sulfur and overall energy density of a Li–S battery is well eliminated by applying CGF separators. Consequently, employing carbonaceous materials as Janus face of separators enlightens new opportunities for improving the utilization of active materials and energy density of devices that involve complex phase evolution and conversion electrochemistry. PMID:27774384

  6. Janus Separator of Polypropylene-Supported Cellular Graphene Framework for Sulfur Cathodes with High Utilization in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Wang, Dai-Wei; Huang, Jia-Qi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Yuan, Zhe; Wei, Fei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the conversion chemistry of the sulfur cathode, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries exhibit high theoretical energy density. However, the intrinsic mobile redox centers during the sulfur/Li2S-to-lithium polysulfides solid-to-liquid phase transition induce low sulfur utilization and poor cycling life. Herein, the Janus separator of mesoporous cellular graphene framework (CGF)/polypropylene membrane to promote the utilization of sulfur cathode is introduced. The porous polypropylene membrane serves as an insulating substrate in contact with lithium anode while CGFs that possess high electrical conductivity of 100 S cm(-1), a large mesopore volume of 3.1 cm(3) g(-1), and a huge surface area of 2120 m(2) g(-1) are adhered on cathode side to reactivate the shuttling-back polysulfides and to preserve the ion channels. Therefore, the Li-S cell with the "two-face" CGF Janus separator exhibit a high initial capacity of 1109 mAh g(-1) and superior capacity preserved upon 800 mAh g(-1) after 250 cycles at 0.2 C, which is 40% higher on sulfur utilization efficiency than the corresponding results with routine polypropylene separators. There are significant improvements on capacity as well as electrochemical kinetics. A very high areal capacity of 5.5 mAh cm(-2) combined with high sulfur content of 80% and areal loading amount of 5.3 mg cm(-2) is achieved for such advanced configuration. The negative impact of shuttle mechanism on lowering the utilization of sulfur and overall energy density of a Li-S battery is well eliminated by applying CGF separators. Consequently, employing carbonaceous materials as Janus face of separators enlightens new opportunities for improving the utilization of active materials and energy density of devices that involve complex phase evolution and conversion electrochemistry.

  7. Membrane Separator for Redox Flow Batteries that Utilize Anion Radical Mediators.

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    A Na + ion conducting polyethylene oxide membrane is developed for an organic electrolyte redox flow battery that utilizes anion radical mediators. To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether (TEGDME) is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

  8. Extending cycle life of lead-acid batteries: a new separation system allows the application of pressure on the plate group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, M.; Döring, H.; Ihmels, K.; Weiss, A.; Vogel, E.; Wagner, R.

    Since 1983, it has been claimed that pressure applied on a lead-acid battery increases its cycle life. But until now, the use of pressure in production batteries was limited by the mechanical properties of the conventional separation systems (absorptive glass mat (AGM), and gel) which cannot withstand mechanical pressure. In 1997, Daramic developed the new acid jellying separator (AJS) with the aim of combining the advantages of both conventional separation systems and to allow the application of lasting plate group pressure. The new separation system was evaluated and much information was gained on the effect of pressure in a lead-acid battery, e.g. on the evolution of the mechanical pressure during one cycle and during cycle life.

  9. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local “soft short circuits” in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data. PMID:27581185

  10. The research progress of Li-ion battery separators with inorganic oxide nanoparticles by electrospinning: A mini review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Li; Jiao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Jin-Tao

    2016-09-01

    The technology of Lithium-ion battery (LIB) separator has become more and more mature. But there are still many problems that needed to be resolved. For example, its mechanical strength is low relatively, thermal stability is bad and the porosity and electrochemical performance are imperfect. This paper introduces modification of electrospinning LIB separator from the way of adding nanoparticles, including SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3 and copper titanate oxide, etc. And addition methods include dissolving in dispersant, dissolving in polymer solution, coating and in situ method. The modified membranes possess higher ionic conductivity which can reach to the level of 10-3s/cm.

  11. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local “soft short circuits” in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data.

  12. Electronic and ionic co-conductive coating on the separator towards high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingsong; Wen, Zhaoyin; Yang, Jianhua; Jin, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Wu, Xiangwei; Han, Jinduo

    2016-02-01

    A thin coating layer composed of the mixture of the electronic conductive carbon and lithium ionic conductive inorganic solid electrolyte was introduced on one side of the routine Celgard separator. This functional coated separator is designed to localize the polysulfides on the cathode side and act as an upper current collector for further utilization of sulfur while alleviating the ion conductivity decrease induced by the dissolved polysulfides in the discharge and charge process. Moreover, catalytic conversion of polysulfides by the solid state highly ionic conductor is observed. This brings significant improvement in battery specific capacity and cycling stability, with an initial discharge capacity of 1247 mA h g-1 and a reversible capacity of 830 mA h g-1 after 150 extended cycles at 0.5 C rate. Rest-testing proves a low self-discharge and excellent capacity retention of the modified cells.

  13. Capacity decay mechanism of microporous separator-based all-vanadium redox flow batteries and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Thomsen, Edwin; Chen, Baowei; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The results of the investigation of the capacity decay mechanism of vanadium redox flow batteries with microporous separators as membranes are reported. The investigation focuses on the relationship between the electrochemical performance and electrolyte compositions at both the positive and negative half-cells. Although the concentration of total vanadium ions remains nearly constant at both sides over cycling, the net transfer of solution from one side to the other and thus the asymmetrical valance of vanadium ions caused by the subsequent disproportionate self-discharge reactions at both sides lead to capacity fading. Through in situ monitoring of the hydraulic pressure of the electrolyte during cycling at both sides, the convection was found to arise from differential hydraulic pressures at both sides of the separators and plays a dominant role in capacity decay. A capacity-stabilizing method is developed and was successfully demonstrated through the regulation of gas pressures in both electrolyte tanks.

  14. Attainable gravimetric and volumetric energy density of Li-S and li ion battery cells with solid separator-protected Li metal anodes.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-11-19

    As a result of sulfur's high electrochemical capacity (1675 mA h/gs), lithium-sulfur batteries have received significant attention as a potential high-specific-energy alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li ion batteries. For Li-S batteries to compete with commercially available Li ion batteries, high-capacity anodes, such as those that use Li metal, will need to be enabled to fully exploit sulfur's high capacity. The development of Li metal anodes has focused on eliminating Coulombically inefficient and dendritic Li cycling, and to this end, an interesting direction of research is to protect Li metal by employing mechanically stiff solid-state Li(+) conductors, such as garnet phase Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li2S-P2S5 glasses (LPS), as electrode separators. Basic calculations are used to quantify useful targets for solid Li metal protective separator thickness and cost to enable Li metal batteries in general and Li-S batteries specifically. Furthermore, maximum electrolyte-to-sulfur ratios that allow Li-S batteries to compete with Li ion batteries are calculated. The results presented here suggest that controlling the complex polysulfide speciation chemistry in Li-S cells with realistic, minimal electrolyte loading presents a meaningful opportunity to develop Li-S batteries that are competitive on a specific energy basis with current state-of-the-art Li ion batteries.

  15. Giant Electric-Field-Induced Strain in PVDF-Based Battery Separator Membranes Probed by Electrochemical Strain Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Romanyuk, Konstantin; Costa, Carlos M; Luchkin, Sergey Yu; Kholkin, Andrei L; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2016-05-31

    Efficiency of lithium-ion batteries largely relies on the performance of battery separator membrane as it controls the mobility and concentration of Li-ions between the anode and cathode electrodes. Recent advances in electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM) prompted the study of Li diffusion and transport at the nanoscale via electromechanical strain developed under an application of inhomogeneous electric field applied via the sharp ESM tip. In this work, we observed unexpectedly high electromechanical strain developed in polymer membranes based on porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PVDF-CTFE) and, using it, could study a dynamics of electroosmotic flow of electrolyte inside the pores. We show that, independently of the separator membrane, electric field-induced deformation observed by ESM on wetted membrane surfaces can reach up to 10 nm under a moderate bias of 1 V (i.e., more than an order of magnitude higher than that in best piezoceramics). Such a high strain is explained by the electroosmotic flow in a porous media composed of PVDF. It is shown that the strain-based ESM method can be used to extract valuable information such as average pore size, porosity, elasticity of membrane in electrolyte solvent, and membrane-electrolyte affinity expressed in terms of zeta potential. Besides, such systems can, in principle, serve as actuators even in the absence of apparent piezoelectricity in amorphous PVDF.

  16. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of titania coating onto polymeric separators for improved lithium-ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chen, Po-An; Chen, Yu-Fu

    2015-07-01

    This study adopts an efficient microwave-assisted method to deposit TiO2 into tri-layered polymeric membranes, forming composite separators for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) consisted of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode/Li cathode. The microwave deposition is capable of growing TiO2 crystals into the porous membranes at 40 °C in a short period of ∼8 min. Both improved thermal and dimensional stability are achieved by the deposition of TiO2 in the separators. The improvement can be attributed to the formation of robust skeleton to stabilize the separators, imparting a superior insulation and mass transport barrier against volatile compounds formed during the thermal decomposition process. After depositing an appropriate amount of TiO2, the TiO2-coated separator still features well-developed porous structure, allowing favorable liquid wettability and high mass uptake of electrolyte. The amount of TiO2 deposits plays as a crucial role in facilitating the cell performance, including high ionic conductivity, low inner resistance, high operation temperature, high energy density, and excellent cycleability. Accordingly, this low-temperature deposition method of modifying polymeric separators is attractive for application in high-performance LIBs.

  18. Reconfiguration of lithium sulphur batteries: "Enhancement of Li-S cell performance by employing a highly porous conductive separator coating"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeck, Ulrich; Balach, Juan; Klose, Markus; Wadewitz, Daniel; Ahrens, Eike; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Li-S batteries are an emerging technology and the most promising successor of current lithium ion technology. While there is great perspective in terms of superior theoretical specific capacity and energy density great challenges have to be addressed. One major challenge, severely limiting cycle performance and capacity retention, is the shuttling of polysulphide species. In this contribution we show a reconfiguration of the usual Li-S cell. Instead of generating a carbon/sulphur composite by melt infiltration a highly porous, conductive nitrogen-rich carbon material (TNC) is coated onto a commercial polypropylene separator foil. The thin conductive coating of TNC on the separator enables the application of very simple sulphur/carbon black cathodes. Because the melt infiltration of sulphur in a porous host material becomes unnecessary the electrode processing is significantly simplified. The specific capacity and cycling stability of reconfigurated cells are both improved significantly compared to the performance of a standard cell setup using a pristine separator. At a constant charging rate of C/5 cells with modified separator showed 2.5 times higher residual capacity (1016 mAh g-1) than cells with pristine separator (405 mAh g-1).

  19. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  20. Fabrication and test of inorganic/organic separators. [for silver zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smatko, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Completion of testing and failure analysis of MDC 40 Ahr silver zinc cells containing largely inorganic separators was accomplished. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objectives of the silver zinc cell development program were accomplished. Building, testing and failure analysis of two plate cells employing three optimum separators selected on the basis of extensive screening tests, was performed. The best separator material as a result of these tests was doped calcium zirconate.

  1. Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2011-02-15

    The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. The invented electrochemical cell generally comprising: a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. The novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

  2. Capacity Decay Mechanism of Microporous Separator-Based All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries and its Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Thomsen, Edwin; Chen, Baowei; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2013-10-29

    For all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) with porous separators as membranes, convection effect is found to play a dominant role in the capacity decay of the cells over cycling by investigating the relationship between electrical performances and electrolyte compositions at both positive and negative sides. Although the concentration of total vanadium ions hardly changes at both sides over cycling, the net transfer of solutions from one side to another and thus asymmetrical valance of vanadium ions at both sides lead to the capacity fading and lower energy efficiency, which is confirmed to result from the hydraulic pressure differential at both sides of separators. In this paper, the hydraulic pressures of solutions at both sides can be in-situ monitored, and regulated by varying the gas pressures in electrolyte tanks. It is found that the capacity can be stabilized and the net transfer of solutions can be prevented by slightly tailoring the hydraulic pressure differential at both sides of separators, which, however, doesn’t work for Nafion membranes, suggesting the negligible convection factor in flow cells using Nafion membranes. Therefore, the possibility of porous separators allows long-term running for VRBs without capacity loss, highlighting a new pathway to develop membranes used in VRBs.

  3. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders.

  4. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24571

  5. Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2011-03-08

    The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. A preferred embodiment of the invented electrochemical cell generally comprises a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. A preferred novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

  6. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene reinforced polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene separator with high thermal stability for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ming; Tang, Haolin; Wang, Yadong; Lin, Yu; Sun, Meiling; Yin, Zhuangfei; Pan, Mu

    2013-11-01

    PVDF-HFP/ePTFE composite separator with high thermal stability and low thermal shrinkage characteristic has been developed. The PVDF-HFP acts to absorb the electrolyte and shutdown at elevated temperature. The thermally stable ePTFE matrix is adopted to improve the mechanical strength and sustain the insulation after the shutdown. This novel separator presents good ion conductivity (up to 1.29 mS cm-1) and has a low thermal shrinkage of 8.8% at 162 °C. The composite separator shutdown at 162 °C and keep its integrity before 329 °C. Cells based on the composite separator show excellent capacities at high rate discharge and stable cycling performance.

  7. Control of volume resistivity in inorganic-organic separators. [for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Control of resistivity in NASA inorganic-organic separators is achieved by incorporating small percentages of high surface area, fine-particle silica with other ingredients in the separator coating. The volume resistivity appears to be predictable from coating composition, that is, from the surface area of filler particles in the coating. The approach has been applied to two polymer-'plasticizer'-filler coating systems, where the filler content of each is below the generally acknowledged critical pigment volume concentration of the coating. Application of these coating systems to 0.0254 cm thick (10 mil) fuel-cell grade asbestos sheet produces inexpensive, flexible, microporous separators that perform at least as well as the original inorganic-organic concept, the Astropower separator.

  8. Control of volume resistivity in inorganic-organic separators. [for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Control of resistivity in NASA inorganic-organic separators is achieved by incorporating small percentages of high surface area, fine-particle silica with other ingredients in the separator coating. The volume resistivity appears to be predictable from coating composition, that is, from the surface area of filler particles in the coating. The approach has been applied to two polymer-'plasticizer'-filler coating systems, where the filler content of each is below the generally acknowledged critical pigment volume concentration of the coating. Application of these coating systems to 0.0254 cm thick (10 mil) fuel-cell grade asbestos sheet produces inexpensive, flexible, microporous separators that perform at least as well as the original inorganic-organic concept, the Astropower separator.

  9. A graphene-oxide-based thin coating on the separator: an efficient barrier towards high-stable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunbo; Miao, Lixiao; Ning, Jing; Xiao, Zhichang; Hao, Long; Wang, Bin; Zhi, Linjie

    2015-06-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries can be significantly improved by simply coating a thin barrier layer on the separator. The spray-coating of a mixture of graphene oxides (GO) and oxidized carbon nanotubes (o-CNT) can achieve a barrier coating of only 0.3 mg cm-2, which is much less than conventional interlayers and has no negative impact on the energy density but significantly enhances the electrochemical performances of the whole battery device. Due to the binding forces induced by functional groups on GO and the interconnected nanoscale channels provided by o-CNT, the thus fabricated Li-S batteries show dramatically improved specific discharge capacities of up to 750 mAh g-1 at 1 C even after 100 cycles, more than twice those of batteries without barrier coatings.

  10. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  11. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  12. Electro-Spun Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Nanofiber Web as Separator for Lithium Ion Batteries: Effect of Pore Structure and Thickness.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Gyu; Jo, Hye-Dam; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hee-Tak; Chang, Duck-Rye

    2016-01-01

    Electro-spun nanofiber web is highly attractive as a separator for lithium ion batteries because of its high electrical properties. In moving toward wider battery applications of the nanofiber separators, a deeper understanding on the structure and property relationship is highly meaningful. In this regard, we prepared electro-spun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) webs with various thicknesses (10.5~100 µm) and investigated their structures and electrochemical performances. As the thickness of the web is decreased, a decrease of porosity and an increase of pore size are resulted in. For the 10.5 µm-thick separator, a minor short-circuit was detected, stressing the importance of reducing pore-size on prevention of short-circuit. However, above the thickness of 21 µm, well-connected, submicron-sized pores are generated, and, with lowering the separator thickness, discharge capacity and rate capability are enhanced owing to the lowered area-specific resistance.

  13. Electrochemical performance of a thermally rearranged polybenzoxazole nanocomposite membrane as a separator for lithium-ion batteries at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon Joo; Hwang, Jun-Ki; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lim, Hyung-Seok; Sun, Yang-Kook; Suh, Kyung-Do; Lee, Young Moo

    2016-02-01

    Shape-tunable hydroxyl copolyimide (HPI) nanoparticles are fabricated by a re-precipitation method and are coated onto electrospun HPI membranes, followed by heat treatment to prepare thermally rearranged polybenzoxazole (TR-PBO) composite membranes. The morphology of HPI nanoparticles consisted of sphere and sea-squirt structures, which is controlled by changing the concentration of the stabilizer. The morphological characteristics of TR-PBO nanoparticles convert from HPI nanoparticles by heat treatment and their composite membranes is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis, and contact angle measurements. TGA and DSC measurements confirm the excellent thermal stability compared to Celgard, a commercial PP separator for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Further, TR-PBO nano-composite membranes used in coin-cell type LIBs as a separator show excellent high power density performance as compared to Celgard. This is due to the fact that sea-squirt structured nanoparticles have better electrochemical properties than sphere structured nanoparticles at high temperature.

  14. Silica/polyacrylonitrile hybrid nanofiber membrane separators via sol-gel and electrospinning techniques for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilmaz, Meltem; Lu, Yao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-05-01

    Silica/polyacrylonitrile (SiO2/PAN) hybrid nanofiber membranes were fabricated by using sol-gel and electrospinning techniques and their electrochemical performance was evaluated for use as separators in lithium-ion batteries. The aim of this study was to design high-performance separator membranes with enhanced electrochemical performance and good thermal stability compared to microporous polyolefin membranes. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticle content up to 27 wt% was achieved in the membranes by using sol-gel technique. It was found that SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes had superior electrochemical performance with good thermal stability due to their high SiO2 content and large porosity. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membranes, SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes had larger liquid electrolyte uptake, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes with different SiO2 contents (0, 16, 19 and 27 wt%) were also assembled into lithium/lithium iron phosphate cells, and high cell capacities and good cycling performance were demonstrated at room temperature. In addition, cells using SiO2/PAN hybrid nanofiber membranes with high SiO2 contents showed superior C-rate performance compared to those with low SiO2 contents and commercial microporous polyolefin membrane.

  15. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2014-04-30

    Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier's law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180°C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOEpatents

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  17. Characterising the structural properties of polymer separators for lithium-ion batteries in 3D using phase contrast X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Cooper, Samuel J.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Gelb, Jeff; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    Separators are an integral component for optimising performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries; therefore, a clear understanding of how their microstructure affects cell performance and safety is crucial. Phase contrast X-ray microscopy is used here to capture the microstructures of commercial monolayer, tri-layer, and ceramic-coated lithium-ion battery polymer separators. Spatial variations in key structural parameters, including porosity, tortuosity factor and pore size distribution, are determined through the application of 3D quantification techniques and stereology. The architectures of individual layers in multi-layer membranes are characterised, revealing anisotropy in porosity, tortuosity factor and mean pore size of the three types of separator. Detailed structural properties of the individual layers of multi-layered membranes are then related with their expected effect on safety and rate capability of cells.

  18. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klinger, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2013-11-26

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li.sup.+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  19. Micro-structural design and function of an improved absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Kishimoto, K.; Sugiyama, S.; Sakaguchi, S.

    Two important properties of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators are examined in order to design optimum separators for advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Acid stratification in the separator depends on its micro-glass-fibre diameter, and it is found that the extent of stratification can be estimated based on hydrodynamics theory. Decreasing the plate-group pressure of the separator in the wetted state is also investigated, and it is considered that the phenomenon is caused by the balance between the fibre strength and the surface tension of acid solution. Given these results, the way to design AGM separators according to purpose has been identified. Accordingly, a new AGM separator has been developed and this functions both to suppress stratification and to maintain plate-group pressure.

  20. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  1. Rational Integration of Polypropylene/Graphene Oxide/Nafion as Ternary-Layered Separator to Retard the Shuttle of Polysulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ting-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Qi; Peng, Hong-Jie; He, Lian-Yuan; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Chen, Cheng-Meng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-20

    The reversible electrochemical transformation from lithium (Li) and sulfur (S) into Li2 S through multielectron reactions can be utilized in secondary Li-S batteries with very high energy density. However, both the low Coulombic efficiency and severe capacity degradation limits the full utilization of active sulfur, which hinders the practical applications of Li-S battery system. The present study reports a ternary-layered separator with a macroporous polypropylene (PP) matrix layer, graphene oxide (GO) barrier layer, and Nafion retarding layer as the separator for Li-S batteries with high Coulombic efficiency and superior cyclic stability. In the ternary-layered separator, ultrathin layer of GO (0.0032 mg cm(-2) , estimated to be around 40 layers) blocks the macropores of PP matrix, and a dense ion selective Nafion layer with a very low loading amount of 0.05 mg cm(-2) is attached as a retarding layer to suppress the crossover of sulfur-containing species. The ternary-layered separators are effective in improving the initial capacity and the Coulombic efficiency of Li-S cells from 969 to 1057 mAh g(-1) , and from 80% to over 95% with an LiNO3 -free electrolyte, respectively. The capacity degradation is reduced from 0.34% to 0.18% per cycle within 200 cycles when the PP separator is replaced by the ternary-layered separators. This work provides the rational design strategy for multifunctional separators at cell scale to effective utilizing of active sulfur and retarding of polysulfides, which offers the possibility of high energy density Li-S cells with long cycling life. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Multicore-shell nanofiber architecture of polyimide/polyvinylidene fluoride blend for thermal and long-term stability of lithium ion battery separator.

    PubMed

    Park, Sejoon; Son, Chung Woo; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Cheolmin; Eom, Kwang Sup; Fuller, Thomas F; Joh, Han-Ik; Jo, Seong Mu

    2016-11-11

    Li-ion battery, separator, multicoreshell structure, thermal stability, long-term stability. A nanofibrous membrane with multiple cores of polyimide (PI) in the shell of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) was prepared using a facile one-pot electrospinning technique with a single nozzle. Unique multicore-shell (MCS) structure of the electrospun composite fibers was obtained, which resulted from electrospinning a phase-separated polymer composite solution. Multiple PI core fibrils with high molecular orientation were well-embedded across the cross-section and contributed remarkable thermal stabilities to the MCS membrane. Thus, no outbreaks were found in its dimension and ionic resistance up to 200 and 250 °C, respectively. Moreover, the MCS membrane (at ~200 °C), as a lithium ion battery (LIB) separator, showed superior thermal and electrochemical stabilities compared with a widely used commercial separator (~120 °C). The average capacity decay rate of LIB for 500 cycles was calculated to be approximately 0.030 mAh/g/cycle. This value demonstrated exceptional long-term stability compared with commercial LIBs and with two other types (single core-shell and co-electrospun separators incorporating with functionalized TiO2) of PI/PVdF composite separators. The proper architecture and synergy effects of multiple PI nanofibrils as a thermally stable polymer in the PVdF shell as electrolyte compatible polymers are responsible for the superior thermal performance and long-term stability of the LIB.

  3. Multicore-shell nanofiber architecture of polyimide/polyvinylidene fluoride blend for thermal and long-term stability of lithium ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sejoon; Son, Chung Woo; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Cheolmin; Eom, Kwang Sup; Fuller, Thomas F.; Joh, Han-Ik; Jo, Seong Mu

    2016-11-01

    Li-ion battery, separator, multicoreshell structure, thermal stability, long-term stability. A nanofibrous membrane with multiple cores of polyimide (PI) in the shell of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) was prepared using a facile one-pot electrospinning technique with a single nozzle. Unique multicore-shell (MCS) structure of the electrospun composite fibers was obtained, which resulted from electrospinning a phase-separated polymer composite solution. Multiple PI core fibrils with high molecular orientation were well-embedded across the cross-section and contributed remarkable thermal stabilities to the MCS membrane. Thus, no outbreaks were found in its dimension and ionic resistance up to 200 and 250 °C, respectively. Moreover, the MCS membrane (at ~200 °C), as a lithium ion battery (LIB) separator, showed superior thermal and electrochemical stabilities compared with a widely used commercial separator (~120 °C). The average capacity decay rate of LIB for 500 cycles was calculated to be approximately 0.030 mAh/g/cycle. This value demonstrated exceptional long-term stability compared with commercial LIBs and with two other types (single core-shell and co-electrospun separators incorporating with functionalized TiO2) of PI/PVdF composite separators. The proper architecture and synergy effects of multiple PI nanofibrils as a thermally stable polymer in the PVdF shell as electrolyte compatible polymers are responsible for the superior thermal performance and long-term stability of the LIB.

  4. Characterization of Sulfonated Diels-Alder Poly(phenylene) Membranes for Electrolyte Separators in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhijiang; Lawton, Jamie S.; Sun, Che-Nan; Chen, Jihua; Bright, Michael I.; Jones, Amanda M.; Papandrew, Alex B.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2014-09-03

    Here, sulfonated Diels-Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) membranes were synthesized and characterized as potential electrolyte separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. The SDAPP membranes studied had ion exchange capacities of 1.4, 1.8 and 2.3 meq/g. Transmission electron microscopy imaging shows that the ionic domains in SDAPP are roughly 0.5 nm in dimension, while Nafion has a hydrophilic phase width of around 5 nm. The sulfuric acid uptake by SDAPP was higher than that for Nafion, but the materials had similar water uptake from solutions of various sulfuric acid concentrations. In equilibration with sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0–17.4 mol·kg-1, SDAPP with a IEC of 2.3 meq/g had the highest conductivity, ranging from 0.21 to 0.05 S·cm-1, while SDAPP with a IEC of 1.8 had conductivity close to Nafion 117, ranging from 0.11 to 0.02 S·cm-1. With varying sulfuric acid concentration and temperature, vanadium permeability in SDAPP is positively correlated to the membrane's IEC. The vanadium permeability of SDAPP 2.3 is similar to that of Nafion, but permeability values for SDAPP 1.8 and SDAPP 1.4 are substantially lower. The vanadium permeation decreases with increasing electrolyte sulfuric acid concentration. Lastly, vanadium diffusion activation energy is about 20 kJ·mol-1 in both SDAPP and Nafion.

  5. A novel hierarchically structured and highly hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanoporous membrane for lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Liu, Qiongzhen; Zhou, Zhou; Tao, Yifei; Li, MuFang; Liu, Ke; Wu, Zhihong; Wang, Dong

    2014-11-01

    A novel hierarchically structured and highly hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanoporous separator (referred to NFs/PET/NFs) composed of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven sandwiched between two interconnected poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membranes is successfully developed for lithium-ion battery. Systematical investigations including structural characterization, porosity measurement, water contact angle testing, electrolyte uptake, and thermal shrinkage testing demonstrate that the notable feature of this NFs/PET/NFs nanofibrous separator is an electrolyte-philic, highly porous and hierarchically nanoscaled structure, thus resulting in superior electrolyte wettability, lower thermal shrinkage, and higher ion conductivity, in comparison to the commercial Polypropylene (PP) separator. These structural characteristics enable the NFs/PET/NFs separator to offer an excellent cell performance including outstanding C-rate capability, high capacity and excellent cycling performance. This suggests that the NFs/PET/NFs separator is a promising material for practical application in lithium-ion battery due to it low cost production and high performance.

  6. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  7. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  8. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  9. Close-packed poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticle arrays-coated polyethylene separators for high-power lithium-ion polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Hoon; Park, Woong; Kim, Jong Hun; Ryoo, Dongjo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Jeong, Yeon Uk; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Sang-Young

    In an endeavor to improve the discharge C-rate performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries targeting high-power applications, we develop a novel gel polymer electrolyte-coated separator, which is based on introduction of close-packed poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticle arrays onto a polyethylene (PE) separator. In contrast to a conventional PMMA dense coating layer, a noticeable feature of the PMMA nanoparticle array coating layer is its highly ordered nanoporous structure, i.e. well-connected interstitial voids formed between the close-packed PMMA nanoparticles. This unique morphology allows for not only favorable liquid electrolyte wettability but also facile ionic conduction of the PMMA nanoparticle arrays-coated separator, both of which play crucial roles in improving the discharge C-rate performance of cells assembled with the separator.

  10. Improved cycling stability of lithium-sulfur batteries using a polypropylene-supported nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon hybrid separator as polysulfide adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balach, Juan; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The lithium/sulfur couple is garnering tremendous interest as the next-generation of cost-efficient rechargeable battery systems capable to fulfill emerging energy storage demands. However, the viable commercialization of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries is still an obstacle by fast capacity fading and poor cycling stability mostly caused by the polysulfide shuttle and active sulfur material loss. In this contribution, we show that the surface modification of the commercial polypropylene separator with a nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon enhances the interfacial interaction between the N-dopants on carbon-coating and the sulfur-related species by coupling interactions. These unique physical and interfacial chemical properties of the N-doped mesoporous carbon-coating promote the chemical adsorption and confinement of lithium (poly)sulfide intermediates in the cathode side, improving the active material utilization and hence the overall electrochemical performance of Li-S batteries: high initial discharge capacity of 1364 mAh g-1 at 0.2C and notable cycling stability with high reversible capacity of 566 mAh g-1 and negligible degradation rate of 0.037% after 1200 cycles at 0.5C. Furthermore, despite the use of a simple-mixed sulfur-carbon black cathode with high-sulfur loading of 3.95 mg cm-2, the cell with a hybrid separator delivers a high areal capacity of ˜3 mAh cm-2.

  11. Studies on Molecular and Ion Transport in Silicalite Membranes and Applications as Ion Separator for Redox Flow Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruidong

    Microporous zeolite membranes have been widely studied for molecular separations based on size exclusion or preferential adsorption-diffusion mechanisms. The MFI-type zeolite membranes were also demonstrated for brine water desalination by molecular sieving effect. In this research, the pure silica MFI-type zeolite (i.e. silicalite) membrane has been for the first time demonstrated for selective permeation of hydrated proton (i.e. H3O+) in acidic electrolyte solutions. The silicalite membrane allows for permeation of H 3O+ ions, but is inaccessible to the large hydrated multivalent vanadium ions due to steric effect. The silicalite membrane has been further demonstrated as an effective ion separator in the all-vanadium redox flow battery (RFB).The silicalite is nonionic and its proton conductivity relies on the electric field-driven H3O+ transport through the sub nanometer-sized pores under the RFB operation conditions. The silicalite membrane displayed a significantly reduced self-discharge rate because of its high proton-to-vanadium ion transport selectivity. However, the nonionic nature of the silicalite membrane and very small diffusion channel size render low proton conductivity and is therefore inefficient as ion exchange membranes (IEMs) for practical applications. The proton transport efficiency may be improved by reducing the membrane thickness. However, the zeolite thin films are extremely fragile and must be supported on mechanically strong and rigid porous substrates. In this work, silicalite-Nafion composite membranes were synthesized to achieve a colloidal silicalite skin on the Nafion thin film base. The "colloidal zeolite-ionic polymer" layered composite membrane combines the advantages of high proton-selectivity of the zeolite layer and the mechanical flexibility and low proton transport resistance of the ionic polymer membrane. The composite membrane exhibited higher proton/vanadium ion separation selectivity and lower electrical resistance than

  12. Selective Ion Transporting Polymerized Ionic Liquid Membrane Separator for Enhancing Cycle Stability and Durability in Secondary Zinc-Air Battery Systems.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ho Jung; Chi, Won Seok; Kwon, Ohchan; Lee, Jin Goo; Kim, Jong Hak; Shul, Yong-Gun

    2016-10-05

    Rechargeable secondary zinc-air batteries with superior cyclic stability were developed using commercial polypropylene (PP) membrane coated with polymerized ionic liquid as separators. The anionic exchange polymer was synthesized copolymerizing 1-[(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl]-3-butylimidazolium hydroxide (EBIH) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) monomers by free radical polymerization for both functionality and structural integrity. The ionic liquid induced copolymer was coated on a commercially available PP membrane (Celguard 5550). The coat allows anionic transfer through the separator and minimizes the migration of zincate ions to the cathode compartment, which reduces electrolyte conductivity and may deteriorate catalytic activity by the formation of zinc oxide on the surface of the catalyst layer. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data revealed the copolymer-coated separator showed less zinc element in the cathode, indicating lower zinc crossover through the membrane. Ion coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis confirmed over 96% of zincate ion crossover was reduced. In our charge/discharge setup, the constructed cell with the ionic liquid induced copolymer casted separator exhibited drastically improved durability as the battery life increased more than 281% compared to the pure commercial PP membrane. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) during the cycle process elucidated the premature failure of cells due to the zinc crossover for the untreated cell and revealed a substantial importance must be placed in zincate control.

  13. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-26

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO₃ (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core-shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm(-1)) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g(-1)) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-01

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28787873

  15. Separators for Li-Ion and Li-Metal Battery Including Ionic Liquid Based Electrolytes Based on the TFSI− and FSI− Anions

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhöfer, Marija; von Zamory, Jan; Paillard, Elie; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of separators for Li-ion or Li-metal batteries incorporating hydrophobic ionic liquid electrolytes is reported herein. Ionic liquids made of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (PYR14+) or N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (PYR12O1+), paired with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI−) or bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI−) anions, were tested in combination with separators having different chemistries and morphologies in terms of wetting behavior, Gurley and McMullin number, as well as Li/(Separator + Electrolyte) interfacial properties. It is shown that non-functionalized microporous polyolefin separators are poorly wetted by FSI−-based electrolytes (contrary to TFSI−-based electrolytes), while the ceramic coated separator Separion® allows good wetting with all electrolytes. Furthermore, by comparing the lithium solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) resistance evolution at open circuit and during cycling, depending on separator morphologies and chemistries, it is possible to propose a scale for SEI forming properties in the order: PYR12O1FSI > PYR14FSI > PYR14TFSI > PYR12O1TFSI. Finally, the impact the separator morphology is evidenced by the SEI resistance evolution and by comparing Li electrodes cycled using separators with two different morphologies. PMID:25153637

  16. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J [Chicago, IL; Sears, Devin N [Spruce Grove, CA; Smith, Luis J [Natick, MA; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  17. Sustainable and Superior Heat-Resistant Alginate Nonwoven Separator of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li Batteries Operated at 55 °C.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huijie; Zhang, Jianjun; Chai, Jingchao; Ma, Jun; Yue, Liping; Dong, Tiantian; Zang, Xiao; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Botao; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-02-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries have become a major research focus. As a major part of lithium batteries, the separator plays a critical role in the development of high-voltage lithium batteries. Herein, we demonstrated a sustainable and superior heat-resistant alginate nonwoven separator for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries. It was demonstrated that the resultant alginate nonwoven separator exhibited better mechanical property (37 MPa), superior thermal stability (up to 150 °C), and higher ionic conductivity (1.4 × 10(-3) S/cm) as compared to commercially available polyolefin (PP) separator. More impressively, the 5 V class LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO)/Li cell with this alginate nonwoven separator delivered much better cycling stability (maintaining 79.6% of its initial discharge capacity) than that (69.3%) of PP separator after 200 cycles at an elevated temperature of 55 °C. In addition, the LiFePO4/Li cell assembled with such alginate nonwoven separator could still charge and discharge normally even at an elevated temperature of 150 °C. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics of alginate separator provide great probability for its application for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries at elevated temperatures.

  18. Multicore-shell nanofiber architecture of polyimide/polyvinylidene fluoride blend for thermal and long-term stability of lithium ion battery separator

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sejoon; Son, Chung Woo; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Cheolmin; Eom, Kwang Sup; Fuller, Thomas F.; Joh, Han-Ik; Jo, Seong Mu

    2016-01-01

    Li-ion battery, separator, multicoreshell structure, thermal stability, long-term stability. A nanofibrous membrane with multiple cores of polyimide (PI) in the shell of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) was prepared using a facile one-pot electrospinning technique with a single nozzle. Unique multicore-shell (MCS) structure of the electrospun composite fibers was obtained, which resulted from electrospinning a phase-separated polymer composite solution. Multiple PI core fibrils with high molecular orientation were well-embedded across the cross-section and contributed remarkable thermal stabilities to the MCS membrane. Thus, no outbreaks were found in its dimension and ionic resistance up to 200 and 250 °C, respectively. Moreover, the MCS membrane (at ~200 °C), as a lithium ion battery (LIB) separator, showed superior thermal and electrochemical stabilities compared with a widely used commercial separator (~120 °C). The average capacity decay rate of LIB for 500 cycles was calculated to be approximately 0.030 mAh/g/cycle. This value demonstrated exceptional long-term stability compared with commercial LIBs and with two other types (single core-shell and co-electrospun separators incorporating with functionalized TiO2) of PI/PVdF composite separators. The proper architecture and synergy effects of multiple PI nanofibrils as a thermally stable polymer in the PVdF shell as electrolyte compatible polymers are responsible for the superior thermal performance and long-term stability of the LIB. PMID:27833132

  19. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (<0.5mm) fraction and to 68% in the fine (0.5-1mm) fraction, and been excluded in the larger pieces (>6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajit K; Khare, Prateek; Singh, Jayant K; Verma, Nishith

    2013-04-01

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (~500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ~25 μm. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm(-1), approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable.

  1. Absorptive glass mat separator surface modification and its influence on the heat generation in valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenchev, Boris; Dimitrov, Mitko; Boev, Victor; Aleksandrova, Albena

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the results from a comparative study between two types of valve-regulated lead-acid battery cells, with uncoated and polymer composite coated absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators. The volt-ampere characteristics of the studied cells, recorded at different ambient temperatures, show that the cells with polymer coated separators have significantly lower overcharge (recombinant) current than the cells with conventional untreated AGM separator. During overcharge, the higher recombinant current in the cells with plain separator leads to higher cell temperature than that of the cells with polymer coated AGM separator. The possibility to avoid thermal runaway (TR) is also illustrated during polarization of the cells at 2.65 V. After 320 h, a conventional cell has C/4 current (trend to TR), while the cells with composite coating sustain low (C/26) constant current for long period of time (at least 650 h). The cycle life test indicates stable operation of the cells with coated separator, while the conventional cell reaches high recombinant current and thus, it is susceptible to thermal runaway phenomena.

  2. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  3. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  4. Close-packed SiO 2/poly(methyl methacrylate) binary nanoparticles-coated polyethylene separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Hoon; Cho, Joo-Hyun; Park, Woong; Ryoo, Dongjo; Yoon, Su-Jin; Kim, Jong Hun; Jeong, Yeon Uk; Lee, Sang-Young

    In an endeavour to improve not only the thermal shrinkage but also the electrochemical performance of separators in lithium-ion batteries, a novel composite separator is developed, i.e., a close-packed SiO 2/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) binary nanoparticles-coated polyethylene (PE) separator. The introduction of SiO 2 nanoparticles to the coating layer effectively suppresses thermal shrinkage of the composite separator. In contrast to a SiO 2/PMMA coating layer having a film-shaped PMMA binder, the SiO 2/PMMA binary nanoparticle coating layer employs PMMA particles as a binder. As a consequence, a highly porous structure, i.e., well-connected interstitial voids, is formed between the binary SiO 2 and PMMA nanoparticles. The unique porous morphology allows favourable liquid electrolyte wettability and facile ionic conduction, which play a crucial role in improving cell performance such as the discharge capacity and the C-rate capability of the composite separator.

  5. Diffusion across the modified polyethylene separator GX in the heat-sterilizable AgO-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1973-01-01

    Models of diffusion across an inert membrane have been studied using the computer program CINDA. The models were constructed to simulate various conditions obtained in the consideration of the diffusion of Ag (OH)2 ions in the AgO-Zn battery. The effects on concentrations across the membrane at the steady state and on the fluxout as a function of time were used to examine the consequences of stepwise reducing the number of sources of ions, of stepwise blocking the source and sink surfaces, of varying the magnitude of the diffusion coefficient for a uniform membrane, of varying the diffusion coefficient across the membrane, and of excluding volumes to diffusion.

  6. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  7. Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Highly Cross-Linked Polymer Films for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Separators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Youngmin; Kim, Byung Gon; Pak, Kwanyong; Han, Sung Jae; Song, Heon-Sik; Choi, Jang Wook; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-08-26

    We report an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process to coat polyethylene (PE) separators in Li-ion batteries with a highly cross-linked, mechanically strong polymer, namely, polyhexavinyldisiloxane (pHVDS). The highly cross-linked but ultrathin pHVDS films can only be obtained by a vapor-phase process, because the pHVDS is insoluble in most solvents and thus infeasible with conventional solution-based methods. Moreover, even after the pHVDS coating, the initial porous structure of the separator is well preserved owing to the conformal vapor-phase deposition. The coating thickness is delicately controlled by deposition time to the level that the pore size decreases to below 7% compared to the original dimension. The pHVDS-coated PE shows substantially improved thermal stability and electrolyte wettability. After incubation at 140 °C for 30 min, the pHVDS-coated PE causes only a 12% areal shrinkage (versus 90% of the pristine separator). The superior wettability results in increased electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, leading to significantly improved rate performance. The current approach is applicable to a wide range of porous polymeric separators that suffer from thermal shrinkage and poor electrolyte wetting.

  8. Lithium ion conductive Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 based inorganic-organic composite separator with enhanced thermal stability and excellent electrochemical performances in 5 V lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Han, Shaojie; Fang, Lifeng; Pan, Meizi; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Since 5 V lithium ion batteries have attracted more and more attentions and are deemed to be an important tendency in the future, the matched design of the separators has also become a necessary and significant work. In this work, the lithium ionic conducting glass ceramic Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-polypropylene (PP) based inorganic-organic composite separator (LAGP-PP) is prepared. Compared with the pristine PP separator, the LAGP-PP separator owns enhanced thermal stability and wettability. Meanwhile, the LAGP-PP separator shows higher ion conductivity than the traditional Al2O3 coated PP separator due to the more facile lithium ion diffusion channels in the coating layer. The superior C-rate capacity and cyclability in the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 based 5 V lithium ion batteries indicate that the LAGP-PP separator is a good alternative for the traditional inert inorganic ceramic coated polyolefin separators and is a kind of promising candidate separator for the high voltage lithium ion batteries.

  9. Closely packed x-poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) coated polyetherimide/poly(vinylidene fluoride) fiber separators for lithium ion batteries with enhanced thermostability and improved electrolyte wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yunyun; Xiao, Ke; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The x-polyethylene glycol diacrylate (x-PEGDA) coated polyetherimide/polyvinylidene fluoride (PEI/PVdF) membranes are obtained by the facile combination of dip-coating and free radical polymerization of PEGDA on the electrospun PEI/PVdF fiber membranes. Successful cross-linking of PEGDA increases the average fibers diameter from 553 to 817 nm and reduces the packing density, which not only increases the tensile strength of x-PEGDA coated PEI/PVdF membranes, but also decreases the average pore diameter. Besides, the x-PEGDA coated PEI/PVdF membranes are endowed with good wettability, high electrolyte uptake, high ionic conductivity and improved electrochemical stability window because of the good affinity of PEI and PEGDA with liquid electrolyte. Benefiting from the synergetic effect of PEI and PVdF, the x-PEGDA coated PEI/PVdF membranes exhibit excellent thermal stability and nonflammability, which are beneficial for enhancing the safety of lithium ion batteries. More importantly, the x-PEGDA coated PEI/PVdF membranes based Li/LiFePO4 cell exhibits comparable cycling stability with capacity retention of 95.9% after 70 cycles and better rate capability compared with the Celgard membrane based cell. The results clearly demonstrate that the x-PEGDA coated PEI/PVdF membranes are the promising separator candidate with improved wettability and safety for next-generation lithium ion batteries.

  10. High-rate overcharge-protection separators for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and the method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guoying; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2016-12-20

    This invention relates to low-cost, electroactive-polymer incorporated fine-fiber composite membranes for use as overcharge and/or overdischarge protection separators in non-aqueous electrochemical cells and the methods for making such membranes.

  11. Facile control of nanoporosity in Cellulose Acetate using Nickel(II) nitrate additive and water pressure treatment for highly efficient battery gel separators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong Gi; Kim, Do Hyeong; Jeon, Woo Cheol; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kang, Seok Ju; Kang, Sang Wook

    2017-04-28

    We succeed in fabricating nearly straight nanopores in cellulose acetate (CA) polymers for use as battery gel separators by utilizing an inorganic hexahydrate (Ni(NO3)2·6H2O) complex and isostatic water pressure treatment. The continuous nanopores are generated when the polymer film is exposed to isostatic water pressure after complexing the nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate (Ni(NO3)2·6H2O) with the CA. These results can be attributed to the manner in which the polymer chains are weakened because of the plasticization effect of the Ni(NO3)2·6H2O that is incorporated into the CA. Furthermore, we performed extensive molecular dynamics simulation for confirming the interaction between electrolyte and CA separator. The well controlled CA membrane after water pressure treatment enables fabrication of highly reliable cell by utilizing 2032-type coin cell structure. The resulting cell performance exhibits not only the effect of the physical morphology of CA separator, but also the chemical interaction of electrolyte with CA polymer which facilitates the Li-ion in the cell.

  12. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/SiO2 composite membranes prepared by electrospinning and their excellent properties for nonwoven separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Ma, Xilan; Cao, Chuanbao; Li, Jili; Zhu, Youqi

    2014-04-01

    PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes exhibiting high safety (thermal stability), high ionic conductivity and excellent electrochemical performances are firstly prepared by electrospinning poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) homopolymer and silicon dioxide (SiO2) sol synchronously for the separators of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and hot oven tests show that the PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes are thermally stable at a high temperature of 400 °C while the commercial Celgard 2400 PP membrane exhibits great shrinkage at 130 °C, indicating a superior thermal stability of PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes than that of Celgard membrane. Moreover, the composite membrane exhibits fairly high ionic conductivity (7.47 × 10-3 S cm-1) that significantly improves the performance of LIBs. The PVdF/SiO2 composite membranes are also evaluated to have higher level of porosity (75-85%) and electrolyte uptake (571-646 wt%), lower interfacial resistance compared to the Celgard separator. The lithium-ion cell (using LiFePO4 cathode) assembled with the composite membrane exhibits more stable cycle performance, higher discharge capacity (159 mAh g-1) and excellent capacity retention which proves that they are promising candidates for separators of high performance rechargeable LIBs.

  13. Two-dimensional ion chromatography for the separation of ionic organophosphates generated in thermally decomposed lithium hexafluorophosphate-based lithium ion battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Weber, Waldemar; Menzel, Jennifer; Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-08-28

    A two-dimensional ion chromatography (IC/IC) technique with heart-cutting mode for the separation of ionic organophosphates was developed. These analytes are generated during thermal degradation of three different commercially available Selectilyte™ lithium ion battery electrolytes. The composition of the investigated electrolytes is based on 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP30), ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP40) and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP50). The organophosphates were pre-separated from PF6(-) anion on the low capacity A Supp 4 column, which was eluted with a gradient step containing acetonitrile. The fraction containing analytes was retarded on a pre-concentration column and after that transferred to the high capacity columns, where the separation was performed isocratically. Different stationary phases and eluents were applied on the 2nd dimension for the investigation of retention times, whereas the highly promising results were obtained with a high capacitive A Supp 10 column. The organophosphates generated in LP30 and LP40 electrolytes could be separated by application of an aqueous NaOH eluent providing fast analysis time within 35min. For the separation of the organophosphates of LP50 electrolyte due to its complexity a NaOH eluent containing a mixture of methanol/H2O was necessary. In addition, the developed two dimensional IC method was hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using aqueous NaOH without organic modifiers. This proof of principle measurement was carried out for future quantitative investigation regarding the concentration of the ionic organophosphates. Furthermore, the chemical stability of several ionic organophosphates in water and acetonitrile at room temperature over a period of 10h was investigated. In both solvents no decomposition of the investigated analytes was observed and

  14. Investigation of nano-CeO2 contents on the properties of polymer ceramic separator for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xueyi; Liao, Youhao; Zhu, Yunmin; Li, Minsui; Chen, Fangbing; Huang, Qiming; Li, Weishan

    2017-04-01

    Currently, the suitable proportion of inorganic particles in the ceramic separator has not been reported yet, due to the contradictory about the content of nano-particles in research papers (10 wt.%) and commercial application (large amount) [1,2]. In this paper, the nano-CeO2 contents on the properties of polyethylene (PE)-supported separator coating with poly (methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-acrylonitrile-styrene) (P(MMA-BA-AN-St)) copolymer is investigated systematically used in high voltage batteries for the first time. Since the copolymer contributes to high electrolyte uptake, and nano-CeO2 dedicates dimensional stability, the separator with 10 wt.% nano-CeO2 shows the highest ionic conductivity (2.5 × 10-3 S cm-1) at room temperature and the maximal electrolyte uptake (81.0 g m-2), while the separator with 100 wt.% nano-CeO2 exhibits better mechanical strength (52 MPa) and smaller shrinkage percentage (36%). Successively, cyclic performance of Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells indicates that the capacity retention of the cell using separator with 100 wt.% nano-CeO2 (72%) is second only to that with 10 wt.% nano-CeO2 (74%) after 200 cycles at 0.2 C between 3 V and 5 V, far larger than that without doping nano-CeO2 (51%) and PE (40%). By the consideration both of comprehensive performances and economic cost, 100 wt.% content is regarded as the most suitable appending proportion.

  15. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of ionic-conducting lithium lanthanum titanate oxide/polyacrylonitrile submicron composite fiber-based lithium-ion battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yinzheng; Ji, Liwen; Guo, Bingkun; Lin, Zhan; Yao, Yingfang; Li, Ying; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Qiu, Yiping; Zhang, Xiangwu

    Lithium lanthanum titanate oxide (LLTO)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) submicron composite fiber-based membranes were prepared by electrospinning dispersions of LLTO ceramic particles in PAN solutions. These ionic-conducting LLTO/PAN composite fiber-based membranes can be directly used as lithium-ion battery separators due to their unique porous structure. Ionic conductivities were evaluated after soaking the electrospun LLTO/PAN composite fiber-based membranes in a liquid electrolyte, 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:1 vol). It was found that, among membranes with various LLTO contents, 15 wt.% LLTO/PAN composite fiber-based membranes provided the highest ionic conductivity, 1.95 × 10 -3 S cm -1. Compared with pure PAN fiber membranes, LLTO/PAN composite fiber-based membranes had greater liquid electrolyte uptake, higher electrochemical stability window, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. In addition, lithium//1 M LiPF 6/EC/EMC//lithium iron phosphate cells containing LLTO/PAN composite fiber-based membranes as the separator exhibited high discharge specific capacity of 162 mAh g -1 and good cycling performance at 0.2 C rate at room temperature.

  16. A F-doped tree-like nanofiber structural poly-m-phenyleneisophthalamide separator for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Nanping; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jing; Ju, Jingge; Li, Zongjie; Fan, Lanlan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kang, Weimin; Cheng, Bowen

    2017-09-01

    In this study, F-doped tree-like nanofiber structural poly-m-phenyleneisophthalamide (PMIA) membranes are prepared via one-step electrospinning approach and their application performance as separators for lithium-sulfur batteries are discussed. The F-doped PMIA membrane can be regarded as matrix to form gel polymer electrolyte. The F doping endows the PMIA membranes with extraordinary high electrolyte uptake, excellent ability of preserving the liquid electrolyte and forceful chemisorption to polysulfides. And the tree-like structure effectively blocks polysulfides by the physical confinement. The lithium-sulfur cell with the F-doped PMIA separator exhibits high first-cycle discharge capacity of 1222.5 mAh g-1 and excellent cycling stability with good capacity retention of 745.7 mAh g-1 and coulombic efficiency of 97.97% after 800 cycles. The remarkable performance can be ascribed to the suppressed shuttle effects through both the physical trapping of polysulfides by the gel polymer electrolyte based on matrix with F-doped PMIA membrane and the tree-like structure in a working cell.

  17. Hybrid composite membranes based on polyethylene separator and Al2O3 nanoparticles for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-05-01

    A hybrid composite membrane is prepared by coating nano-sized Al2O3 powder (13 and 50 nm) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) binder on both sides of polyethylene separator. The composite membrane shows better thermal stability and improved wettability for organic liquid electrolyte than polyethylene separator, due to the presence of heat-resistant Al2O3 particles with high-surface area in the coating layer. By using the composite membrane, the lithium-ion cells composed of carbon anode and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode are assembled and their cycling performances are evaluated. The cells assembled with the composite membranes are proven to have better capacity retention than the cell prepared with polyethylene separator, due to the enhanced ability to retain the electrolyte solution in the cell. The cell assembled with the composite membrane containing 13 nm-sized Al2O3 particles has an initial discharge capacity of 173.2 mA h g(-1) with good capacity retention.

  18. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  19. The Effective Design of a Polysulfide-Trapped Separator at the Molecular Level for High Energy Density Li-S Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Wen-Liang; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2016-06-29

    In this work, the lightweight and scalable organic macromolecule graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with enriched polysulfide adsorption sites of pyridinic-N was introduced to achieve the effective functionalization of separator at the molecular level. This simple method overcomes the difficulty of low doping content as well as the existence of an uncontrolled form of nitrogen heteroatom in the final product. Besides the conventional pyridinic-N-Li bond formed in the vacancies of g-C3N4, the C-S bond was interestingly observed between g-C3N4 and Li2S, which endowed g-C3N4 with an inherent adsorption capacity for polysulfides. In addition, the microsized g-C3N4 provided the coating layer with good mechanical strength to guarantee its restriction function for polysulfides during long cycling. As a result, an excellent reversible capacity of 840 mA h g(-1) was retained at 0.5 C after 400 cycles for a pure sulfur electrode, much better than that of the cell with an innocent carbon-coated separator. Even at a current density of 1 C, the cell still delivered a stable capacity of 732.7 mA h g(-1) after 500 cycles. Moreover, when further increasing the sulfur loading to 5 mg cm(-2), an excellent specific capacity of 1134.7 mA h g(-1) was acquired with the stable cycle stability, ensuring a high areal capacity of 5.11 mA h cm(-2). Besides the intrinsic adsorption ability for polysulfides, g-C3N4 is nontoxic and mass produced. Therefore, a scalable separator decorated with g-C3N4 and a commercial sulfur cathode promises high energy density for the practical application of Li-S batteries.

  20. Inter and Intra Molecular Phase Separation Environment Effects on PI-PEO Block Copolymers for Batteries and Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Chen-Chen; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Eby, R. K.; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Ge, Jason J.; Cubon, Valerie A.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-coil molecules have been introduced as a novel type of block copolymers with unique microstructure due to their ability to self-assemble to various ordered morphologies on a nanometer length scale. These molecules, comprised two homo polymers joined together at one end, microphase separate into ordered, periodic arrays of spheres, cylinders in the bulk state and or solution. To get ordered structure in a reasonable scale, additional force field are applied, such as mechanical shearing, electric field and magnetic field. Recently, progress has made it a possible to develop a new class of polyimides (PI)-Polyethylene oxide (PEO) that are soluble in polar organic solvents. The solvent-soluble PI-PEO has a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, since these PI-PEO films exhibit a high degree of thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, we report the self-assembled ordered structure of PI-PEO molecules formed from concentrate solution.

  1. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Tailor-made pore controlled poly (arylene ether ketone) membranes as a lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mong, Anh; Kim, Dukjoon

    2016-02-01

    Porous poly(arylene ether ketone) (PAEK) membranes are prepared by selective removal of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) molecules from self-assembled PAEK-PLA block copolymers. The pore size and porosity of the membranes are precisely controlled by adjusting PLA concentration. The synthesis of the PAEK-PLA copolymer is confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and the morphology of the membrane is examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several important properties such as liquid electrolyte uptake, contact angle, thermal and mechanical stability, and lithium ion conductivity are measured and compared with those of commercial poly(propylene) (PP) membranes to investigate their application feasibility as a separator. The porous PAEK membrane shows improved thermal and dimensional stability compared to the PP membrane. The EC/DEC/EMC (1:1:1, v/v/v) soaked PAEK membrane with a pore diameter of 50 nm shows the highest lithium ion conductivity, higher than that of PP membrane. More importantly, the porous PAEK membranes show superior liquid electrolyte holding capacity to the PP membrane.

  3. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  4. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  5. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  6. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  7. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet

  8. Study of carbamate-modified disiloxane in porous PVDF-HFP membranes: new electrolytes/separators for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Steffen; Mutke, Monika; Jiang, Zhongxiang; Alt, Burkhard; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-06-23

    A gel electrolyte membrane is obtained through the absorption of a carbamate-modified liquid disiloxane-containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) by using macroporous poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) membranes. The porous membranes are prepared by means of a phase inversion technique. The resulting gel electrolyte membrane is studied by using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and microscope mapping through coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) confocal microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte is 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 20 °C. FTIR spectroscopy reveals interactions between LiTFSI and the carbonyl moiety of the disiloxane. No interactions between LiTFSI and PVDF-HFP or between disiloxane and PVDF-HFP are detected by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the distribution of the α and β/γ phases of PVDF-HFP and the homogeneous distribution of disiloxane/LiTFSI in the gel electrolyte membranes are examined by FTIR mapping. CARS confocal microscopy is used to image the three-dimensional interconnectivity, which reveals a reticulated structure of macrovoids in the porous PVDF-HFP framework. Owing to properties such as electrochemical and thermal stability of the disiloxane-based liquid electrolyte and the mechanical stability of the porous PVDF-HFP membrane, the gel electrolyte membranes presented herein are promising candidates for applications as electrolytes/separators in lithium-ion batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Union operation image processing of data cubes separately processed by different objective filters and its application to void analysis in an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Muto, Shunsuke

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we propose a smart image-analysis method suitable for extracting target features with hierarchical dimension from original data. The method was applied to three-dimensional volume data of an all-solid lithium-ion battery obtained by the automated sequential sample milling and imaging process using a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope to investigate the spatial configuration of voids inside the battery. To automatically fully extract the shape and location of the voids, three types of filters were consecutively applied: a median blur filter to extract relatively larger voids, a morphological opening operation filter for small dot-shaped voids and a morphological closing operation filter for small voids with concave contrasts. Three data cubes separately processed by the above-mentioned filters were integrated by a union operation to the final unified volume data, which confirmed the correct extraction of the voids over the entire dimension contained in the original data.

  10. Self-Organizing Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-16

    devise (e.g., electrochromics as well as batteries). ITO has also been found to be electrochemically stable in lithium battery electrolytes and to...1- 0.0 ~ glass powder -. 1.0 + ~~~~~~solvent ...................... -2.0 22, a 4.0 6.0 8.0 log frequency (Hz) Figure 4. Impedance spectroscopy...electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and certain types of sensors are fundamentally based on the separation of

  11. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  12. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  13. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  14. Combining Accurate O2 and Li2O2 Assays to Separate Discharge and Charge Stability Limitations in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Bryan D; Valery, Alexia; Luntz, Alan C; Gowda, Sanketh R; Wallraff, Gregory M; Garcia, Jeannette M; Mori, Takashi; Krupp, Leslie E

    2013-09-05

    Li-air batteries have generated enormous interest as potential high specific energy alternatives to existing energy storage devices. However, Li-air batteries suffer from poor rechargeability caused by the instability of organic electrolytes and carbon cathodes. To understand and address this poor rechargeability, it is essential to elucidate the efficiency in which O2 is converted to Li2O2 (the desired discharge product) during discharge and the efficiency in which Li2O2 is oxidized back to O2 during charge. In this Letter, we combine many quantitative techniques, including a newly developed peroxide titration, to assign and quantify decomposition pathways occurring in cells employing a variety of solvents and cathodes. We find that Li2O2-induced electrolyte solvent and salt instabilities account for nearly all efficiency losses upon discharge, whereas both cathode and electrolyte instabilities are observed upon charge at high potentials.

  15. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  16. Preparation of a new micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separator for high performance Li secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Ihm, Young-Eon; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-10-01

    In this study, micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separators (PE-g-PMMA) were prepared by a radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate onto a conventional PE separator followed by a phase inversion. After the phase inversion, the micro-pores were generated in the grafted PMMA layer. The prepared micro-porous PE-g-PMMA separators showed an improved electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity due to their improved affinity with a liquid electrolyte and the presence of pores in the grafted PMMA layer. The PE-g-PMMA separators exhibited a lower thermal shrinkage compared to the original PE separator. The PE-g-PMMA separators showed a better oxidation stability up to 5.0 V when compared to the original PE separator (4.5 V).

  17. Separator material for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

    1991-03-26

    An electrochemical cell is characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

  18. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  19. Batteries: Sieving the ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The major obstacle in the development of Li-S batteries is the undesired dissolution of polysulfide intermediates produced during electrochemical reactions. Now, a metal-organic framework-based separator is shown to mitigate the problem, leading to stable long cycles.

  20. 16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-43 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Tailoring Surface Properties of Polymeric Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries by 13.56 MHz Radio-Frequency Plasma Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chia-Han; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Tsai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Chun

    2013-11-01

    The hydrophilic surface modification of the polymeric separator is achieved by low-pressure 13.56 MHz radio-frequency Ar and He gas plasma treatments. The changes in surface hydrophilicity and surface free energy were examined by static contact angle analysis. The static water contact angle of the plasma-modified polymeric separator particularly decreased with the increase in treatment time. An obvious increase in the surface energy of polymeric separators owing to the crosslinking by activated species of inert gases effect of monatomic-gas-plasma treatments was also observed. Optical emission spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the chemical species generated after Ar and He gas plasma treatments. The variations in the surface morphology and chemical structure of the polymeric separators were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. XPS analysis showed significantly higher surface concentrations of oxygen functional groups for monatomic-gas-plasma-modified polymeric separator surfaces than for the unmodified polymeric separator surface. The experimental results show the important role of chemical species in the interaction between Ar and He gas plasmas and the polymeric separator surface, which can be controlled by surface modification to tailor the hydrophilicity of the polymeric separator.

  2. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-05-14

    Li-rich layered material Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 possesses high voltage and high specific capacity, which makes it an attractive candidate for the transportation industry and sustainable energy storage systems. The rechargeable capacity of the Li-ion battery is linked largely to the structural stability of the cathode materials during the charge-discharge cycles. However, the structure and cation distribution in pristine (un-cycled) Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 have not yet been fully characterized. Using a combination of aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (XEDS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and complementary multislice image simulation, we have probed the crystal structure, cation/anion distribution, and electronic structure of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoparticle. We discovered that the electronic structure and valence state of transition metal ions show significant variations, which have been identified to be attributed to the oxygen deficiency near the particle surfaces. Characterization of the nanoscale phase separation and cation ordering in the pristine material are critical for understanding the capacity and voltage fading of this material for battery application.

  3. Battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, C.V.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a battery charger for a storage battery having circuitry including a primary charging path consisting of means to reduce the voltage of a power source to a level to be applied to a battery to be charged. It also includes a means to convert power from the power source to a pulsating direct current applied to an SCR and gating it on at the beginning of each selected half cycle and passing the current to the positive terminal of the battery. The improvement in circuitry in the charging path consists of voltage control and time control means of a battery charger, the voltage control means comprises a voltage low pass filter and sensing means, the same being connected to the leads of a battery as a charging input voltage source and having as its output a filtered voltage proportional to the Vmin voltage of a battery, the Vmin voltage being applied to a voltage comparator, means feeding a fixed reference voltage to the comparator, the reference voltage being proportional to an equalization voltage to be impressed upon the battery, whereby when the reference voltage is exceeded by the Vmin voltage from the battery, current flow through the SCR ceases and the voltage in the battery decreases, and when the Vmin voltage is less than the fixed reference voltage, the SCR resumes charging the battery to maintain the battery at its equalization level voltage, and means causing the time control means to run for the time of the equalization charge and to pause and hold its time setting in the event equalization charging ceases prior to the completion of the equalization charging cycle.

  4. THERMAL BATTERY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMAL BATTERIES, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING)), DESIGN, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, CHLORINE, LITHIUM, ELECTRODES, GAS ANALYSIS , CALIBRATION, IMPURITIES, PRESSURE, POLARIZATION, GRAPHITE, DIFFUSION, CONTROL SYSTEMS.

  5. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  6. Forming solid electrolyte interphase in situ in an ionic conducting Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-polypropylene (PP) based separator for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao-Yang, Wu; Shi-Gang, Ling; Qi, Yang; Hong, Li; Xiao-Xiong, Xu; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    A new concept of forming solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in situ in an ionic conducting Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-polypropylene (LAGP-PP) based separator during charging and discharging is proposed and demonstrated. This unique structure shows a high ionic conductivity, low interface resistance with electrode, and can suppress the growth of lithium dendrite. The features of forming the SEI in situ are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirm that SEI films mainly consist of lithium fluoride and carbonates with various alkyl contents. The cell assembled by using the LAGP-coated separator demonstrates a good cycling performance even at high charging rates, and the lithium dendrites were not observed on the lithium metal electrode. Therefore, the SEI-LAGP-PP separator can be used as a promising flexible solid electrolyte for solid state lithium batteries. Project supported by the Beijing Science and Technology Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 51421002).

  7. Improved performance of lithium ion battery separator enabled by co-electrospinnig polyimide/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and the incorporation of TiO2-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiya; Liu, Yanbo; Ma, Ying; Yang, Wenxiu

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized TiO2 (f-TiO2) was synthesized by the atom transfer radical polymerization process and then three types of composite nanofiber membranes including PI/PVdF-HFP (PI/PH, with no nanoparticles contained in PI), TiO2@PI/PVdF-HFP (T@PI/PH, with TiO2 mixed in PI) and f-TiO2@PI/PVdF-HFP (f-T@PI/PH, with f-TiO2 blended in PI) were prepared by bicomponent co-electrospinning technique which could separately maintain the original properties of both PVdF-HFP and PI nanofibers. UV-vis characterization manifested that the modified nanoparticles can provide significant improvements in reducing the particle agglomeration. Morphology, porosity, electrolyte uptake and liquid electrolyte contact angle of all the electrospun separators were investigated, and results showed that the composite separator with 2% f-TiO2 nanoparticle had smaller fiber diameter, higher porosity, larger electrolyte uptake, smaller contact angle and more excellent thermal dimensional stability. More importantly, the tensile strength of all the composite membranes increased by more than three times after thermal calendering process, which resulted from the several bonded points caused by the fusion of PVdF-HFP component with low melting temperature. Additionally, electrochemical properties of PI/PH, 2% T@PI/PH and 2% f-T@PI/PH composite separators and cycling performances of corresponding batteries were evaluated and 2% f-T@PI/PH composite separator showed better properties than the other two.

  8. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  9. Lithium battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasetty, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of lithium in electric batteries. Topics considered include solvents for lithium battery technology, transport properties and structure of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions, primary lithium batteries, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries, lithium oxyhalide batteries, medical batteries, ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium cells, high-temperature lithium batteries, and lithium ion-conducting solid electrolytes.

  10. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide

  11. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stomach and intestines without causing any serious damage. How well someone does depends on the type of battery they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery.

  12. Optimized batteries for cars with dual electrical architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douady, J. P.; Pascon, C.; Dugast, A.; Fossati, G.

    During recent years, the increase in car electrical equipment has led to many problems with traditional starter batteries (such as cranking failure due to flat batteries, battery cycling etc.). The main causes of these problems are the double function of the automotive battery (starter and service functions) and the difficulties in designing batteries well adapted to these two functions. In order to solve these problems a new concept — the dual-concept — has been developed with two separate batteries: one battery is dedicated to the starter function and the other is dedicated to the service function. Only one alternator charges the two batteries with a separation device between the two electrical circuits. The starter battery is located in the engine compartment while the service battery is located at the rear of the car. From the analysis of new requirements, battery designs have been optimized regarding the two types of functions: (i) a small battery with high specific power for the starting function; for this function a flooded battery with lead-calcium alloy grids and thin plates is proposed; (ii) for the service function, modified sealed gas-recombinant batteries with cycling and deep-discharge ability have been developed. The various advantages of the dual-concept are studied in terms of starting reliability, battery weight, and voltage supply. The operating conditions of the system and several dual electrical architectures have also been studied in the laboratory and the car. The feasibility of the concept is proved.

  13. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  14. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  15. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  16. Studies on self-assembly phenomena of hydrophilization of microporous polypropylene membrane by acetone aldol condensation products: New separator for high-power alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszewski, Aleksander; Rydzyńska, Bożena

    Commercial hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) membranes were modified by a novel chemical method. This procedure consists of two steps. In the first step, the virgin hydrophobic PP membrane is saturated with acetone; in the second step, the filled membrane is dipped in aqueous KOH solution (d = 1.28 g cm -3), i.e. in the electrolyte typical for the nickel-cadmium cell. This two-step procedure starts the aldol condensation process of acetone and its products accumulated and adsorbed onto walls of micropores make the membrane hydrophilic. The presented method provided the hydrophilic PP membrane, persistent and soaked with KOH solution with electrolytic resistance of 23-29 mΩ cm 2. This result was compared with the data obtained with commercial hydrophilic membranes: Celgard 3501 and Cellophane. The aldol condensation process of acetone was monitored using the HPLC-ES-MS technique, and modified PP membranes were evaluated by FT-IR and SEM measurements. With the above-mentioned membrane as a separator, nickel-cadmium cells showed good high-rate performance.

  17. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy.

  18. TEST ADMINISTRATOR'S MANUAL FOR THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TEST BATTERY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.

    THE STANDARDIZED INSTRUCTIONS IN THIS MANUAL ARE FOR ADMINISTERING THE TEST BATTERY USED WITH THE RESEARCH PROJECT "DEVELOPMENT OF A CURRICULUM AND MATERIALS FOR TEACHING BASIC VOCATIONAL TALENTS," (VT 004 454). THIS TEST BATTERY WAS ADAPTED FROM THE TEST BATTERY DEVELOPED BY THE STAFF OF PROJECT TALENT UNDER THREE SEPARATE CONTRACTS…

  19. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  20. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.; John Hewson, Victor Brunini

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau” model.

  1. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  2. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M [Albuquerque, NM; Reinhardt, Frederick W [Albuquerque, NM; Odinek, Judy G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  3. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  4. 44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THIS IS THE IDENTICAL PERSPECTIVE GIVEN I CA-290-43 (CT), BUT THIS IS A TIGHTER (CLOSER) SHOT. APRONS AND STAIRWAY ARE OMITTED. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE SAMPS. TWO OR THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. 43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-16 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Electrical characterization of the Magellan batteries after storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Perrone, D.; Distefano, Sal; Timmerman, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Two 22 cell batteries designed by Martin Marietta were tested. The batteries were rated at 26.5 Amp-Hr. The battery design is characterized by the following: Gates Aerospace 42B030AB15, 11 pos/12 neg, Pellon 2536 separator, passivated pos/teflonated neg. The tests can be summarized as follows: (1) no noticeable capacity loss after storage period; and (2) batteries exhibited larger non-uniformity of cell voltages during constant current charge.

  7. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  8. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  9. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  10. Porous membranes in secondary battery technologies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjing; Yuan, Zhizhang; Zhao, Yuyue; Zhang, Hongzhang; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-03-13

    Secondary batteries have received huge attention due to their attractive features in applications of large-scale energy storage and portable electronic devices, as well as electrical vehicles. In a secondary battery, a membrane plays the role of separating the anode and cathode to prevent the occurrence of a short circuit, while allowing the transport of charge carriers to achieve a complete circuit. The properties of a membrane will largely determine the performance of a battery. In this article, we review the research and development progress of porous membranes in secondary battery technologies, such as lithium-based batteries together with flow batteries. The preparation methods as well as the required properties of porous membranes in different secondary battery technologies will be elucidated thoroughly and deeply. Most importantly, this review will mainly focus on the optimization and modification of porous membranes in different secondary battery systems. And various modifications on commercial porous membranes along with novel membrane materials are widely discussed and summarized. This review will help to optimize the membrane material for different secondary batteries, and favor the understanding of the preparation-structure-performance relationship of porous membranes in different secondary batteries. Therefore, this review will provide an extensive, comprehensive and professional reference to design and construct high-performance porous membranes.

  11. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  13. Fault-tolerant battery system employing intra-battery network architecture

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Ronald A.; Chen, Kenneth W.; Comte, Christophe; Knudson, Orlin B.; Rouillard, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A distributed energy storing system employing a communications network is disclosed. A distributed battery system includes a number of energy storing modules, each of which includes a processor and communications interface. In a network mode of operation, a battery computer communicates with each of the module processors over an intra-battery network and cooperates with individual module processors to coordinate module monitoring and control operations. The battery computer monitors a number of battery and module conditions, including the potential and current state of the battery and individual modules, and the conditions of the battery's thermal management system. An over-discharge protection system, equalization adjustment system, and communications system are also controlled by the battery computer. The battery computer logs and reports various status data on battery level conditions which may be reported to a separate system platform computer. A module transitions to a stand-alone mode of operation if the module detects an absence of communication connectivity with the battery computer. A module which operates in a stand-alone mode performs various monitoring and control functions locally within the module to ensure safe and continued operation.

  14. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  15. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  16. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  17. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  18. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  20. Brazilian policy on battery disposal and its practical effects on battery recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocce Romano Espinosa, Denise; Moura Bernardes, Andréa; Alberto Soares Tenório, Jorge

    The disposal of batteries is a problem that has grown in the last few years, due to the increase in the use of portable devices. Batteries may contain toxic metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead, so their disposal must be controlled. Brazil was the first country in Latin America to regulate the disposal and treatment of batteries. Limits were established on the concentration of heavy metals within batteries, so that they could be disposed along with domestic waste. Since batteries are products used broadly, it is very difficult to control their disposal. In order to have an efficient collection, the population must be engaged, and that can only happen if they are informed about the laws and regulations regarding the subject, as well as the importance of disposing of batteries with higher concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances separately from domestic garbage. Around the world, there are some long-established recycling processes for batteries. In Brazil, automotive (lead-acid) batteries have been recycled for several years, whereas the recycling of other types of batteries is just starting. This work does an analysis of the Brazilian law for battery recycling and presents some suggestions and examples of the initiatives of other countries, in order to manage of this kind of dangerous waste.

  1. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  2. Improved dual flow aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.; Matthews, D.

    1993-11-30

    A novel dual flow battery configuration is provided comprising an aqueous hydrogen peroxide catholyte, an aqueous anolyte, a porous solid electrocatalyst capable of reducing said hydrogen peroxide and separating said anolyte, and an aluminum anode positioned within said anolyte. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode.

  3. Improved dual flow aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart L.; Matthews, Donna

    1993-11-01

    A novel dual flow battery configuration is provided comprising an aqueous hydrogen peroxide catholyte, an aqueous anolyte, a porous solid electrocatalyst capable of reducing said hydrogen peroxide and separating said anolyte, and an aluminum anode positioned within said anolyte. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode.

  4. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  5. Glossary of testing terminology for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Paul C.

    1988-10-01

    The Battery Test Working Task Force was formed in 1983 for the purpose of coordinating the evaluation of development rechargeable batteries by DOE-funded labs. The Task Force developed this glossary of testing terminology to improve the accuracy of communication and to permit meaningful comparisons of test results. It consists of a section of technical terms and a separate section of programmatic phrases and acronyms. The glossary emphasizes terms related to electric vehicle batteries due to the significant development and testing activities in this area.

  6. The Chemistry of Redox-Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Noack, Jens; Roznyatovskaya, Nataliya; Herr, Tatjana; Fischer, Peter

    2015-08-17

    The development of various redox-flow batteries for the storage of fluctuating renewable energy has intensified in recent years because of their peculiar ability to be scaled separately in terms of energy and power, and therefore potentially to reduce the costs of energy storage. This has resulted in a considerable increase in the number of publications on redox-flow batteries. This was a motivation to present a comprehensive and critical overview of the features of this type of batteries, focusing mainly on the chemistry of electrolytes and introducing a thorough systematic classification to reveal their potential for future development.

  7. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  8. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  9. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  10. Improvements to active material for VRLA batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    In the past several years, there have been many developments in the materials for lead-acid batteries. Silver in grid alloys for high temperature climates in SLI batteries has increased the silver content of the recycled lead stream. Concern about silver and other contaminants in lead for the active material for VRLA batteries led to the initiation of a study by ALABC at CSIRO. The study evaluated the effects of many different impurities on the hydrogen and oxygen evolution currents in float service for flooded and VRLA batteries at different temperatures and potentials. The study results increased the understanding about the effects of various impurities in lead for use in active material, as well as possible performance and life improvements in VRLA batteries. Some elements thought to be detrimental have been found to be beneficial. Studies have now uncovered the effects of the beneficial elements as well as additives to both the positive and negative active material in increasing battery capacity, extending life and improving recharge. Glass separator materials have also been re-examined in light of the impurities study. Old glass compositions may be revived to give improved battery performance via compositional changes to the glass chemistry. This paper reviews these new developments and outline suggestions for improved battery performance based on unique impurities and additives.

  11. Nanostructured Metal Oxides and Sulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-05-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with high energy density and long cycle life are considered to be one of the most promising next-generation energy-storage systems beyond routine lithium-ion batteries. Various approaches have been proposed to break down technical barriers in Li-S battery systems. The use of nanostructured metal oxides and sulfides for high sulfur utilization and long life span of Li-S batteries is reviewed here. The relationships between the intrinsic properties of metal oxide/sulfide hosts and electrochemical performances of Li-S batteries are discussed. Nanostructured metal oxides/sulfides hosts used in solid sulfur cathodes, separators/interlayers, lithium-metal-anode protection, and lithium polysulfides batteries are discussed respectively. Prospects for the future developments of Li-S batteries with nanostructured metal oxides/sulfides are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-03-01

    A brief overview of the current set of unmanned missions that are currently in operation and those planned for the next 5 to 10 years was presented. The important role of batteries in the development of successful missions was discussed. The workhorse battery, the NiCd, and its use throughout historical missions was explored. Its role on Observers and Landers was discussed, and the success those batteries had. The recent events in the issues of quality and life for NiCd batteries were discussed. These discussions focused on the current design activities for Mars Observer (MO), TOPEX, and Mariner Mark II. Separator selection and the need for uniform testing procedures to develop a quality battery product that can perform to mission requirements were discussed. The recent experiences with the GRO battery failure and the other events have led JPL to the decision to develop a testing program in conjunction with other NASA centers to determine the best separator material for these two missions. The decision for separator material and battery design must be made a year from now. Thus there will not be time to perform a total 2-year accelerated test. The JPL plan for coping with this compromise was discussed. A discussion of where NiH2 batteries are beginning to have an impact and the difficulties with their implementation were addressed. Such missions at Earth Observing System (EOS) and the NOAA series of satellites rely upon NiH2 for success but were not chosen for TOPEX or MO due to their large volume requirements.

  13. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview of the current set of unmanned missions that are currently in operation and those planned for the next 5 to 10 years was presented. The important role of batteries in the development of successful missions was discussed. The workhorse battery, the NiCd, and its use throughout historical missions was explored. Its role on Observers and Landers was discussed, and the success those batteries had. The recent events in the issues of quality and life for NiCd batteries were discussed. These discussions focused on the current design activities for Mars Observer (MO), TOPEX, and Mariner Mark II. Separator selection and the need for uniform testing procedures to develop a quality battery product that can perform to mission requirements were discussed. The recent experiences with the GRO battery failure and the other events have led JPL to the decision to develop a testing program in conjunction with other NASA centers to determine the best separator material for these two missions. The decision for separator material and battery design must be made a year from now. Thus there will not be time to perform a total 2-year accelerated test. The JPL plan for coping with this compromise was discussed. A discussion of where NiH2 batteries are beginning to have an impact and the difficulties with their implementation were addressed. Such missions at Earth Observing System (EOS) and the NOAA series of satellites rely upon NiH2 for success but were not chosen for TOPEX or MO due to their large volume requirements.

  14. AUSSAT battery life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorian, P. W.; Pickett, D. F., Jr.; Bogner, R. S.; Chao, T. I.; Jordan, J. P.; Clark, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    AUSSAT Pty. Ltd., the Australian National Satellite organization, has contracted with the Hughes Aircraft Company (HAC) for the construction of 3 satellites based on the now familiar HS-376 product line. As part of the AUSSAT contract, HAC is conducting an extensive NiCd battery life test program. The life test program, objectives and test results to date are described. Particular emphasis is given to the evaluation of the FS2117 separator as a future replacement for the Pellon 2505 separator of which only a very limited quantity remains.

  15. Earth Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphillmore » into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  16. Earth Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphill into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  17. How Batteries Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saslow, Wayne

    2007-10-01

    Batteries are series and/or parallel sets of individual voltaic cells, each characterized by an emf (electromotive force) and an internal resistance. A voltaic cell, with two electrodes separated by ion-containing electrolyte, supports chemical reactions at each electrode-electrolyte interface, involving ions in the electrolyte and both atoms and electrons in the electrode. The chemical reactions drive an electric current, and are responsible for the cell emf (electromotive force). Moreover, ions in the electrolyte are largely responsible for the electrolyte conductance, which determines the internal resistance. As the cell discharges, the ion density decreases, causing a rate of decrease of the conductance proportional to the current. A simple model that treats the ion density as always uniform can explain numerous aspects of the discharge curves (current vs time or current vs total discharge), including the precipitous fall in current when the internal resistance becomes comparable to the load resistance.

  18. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  19. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A sealed, low maintenance battery (10, 100) is formed of a casing (14, 102) having a sealed lid (12, 104) enclosing cell compartments (22, 110) formed by walls (24, 132). The cells comprise a stack (26) of horizontally disposed negative active plates (30) and positive active plates (28) interspersed with porous, resilient separator sheets (30). Each plate has a set of evenly spaced tigs (40, 41) disposed on one side thereof; like polarity tigs being disposed on one side and opposite polarity tigs on the other. Columns of tigs are electrically and mechanically joined by vertical bus bars (46). The bus bars contain outwardly projecting arms (56) of opposite polarity which are electrically joined at each partition wall (24) to electrically connect the cells in series. The stack is compressed by biasing means such as resilient pad (58) attached to the lid or by joining the tigs (52) to the post (48) at a distance less than the thickness of the mat (124). The end bus bars (46) are joined to straps (60, 62) which connect to the terminals (16, 18). The negative plates contain more capacity than the positive plates and the starved electrolyte imbibed in the separator sheets permits pressurized operation during which oxygen diffuses through the separator sheet to the negative plate where it recombines. Excess pressure is relieved through the vent and pressure relief valve (20).

  20. Economic considerations of battery recycling based on the Recytec process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Pierre

    The Recytec process is successfully operated on a continuous industrial base since autumn 1994. All the products are regularly re-used without any problems and environmental limits are fully respected. The European Community Battery Directive is valid since many years and only a few countries like Switzerland and The Netherlands have implemented it in national guidelines. In the meantime, battery producers have accepted the necessity of the recycling of mercury-free batteries in order to prevent the contamination of municipal waste streams by other heavy metals, such as zinc and cadmium. Recycling processes like the Recytec process are considered by the battery producers as highly expensive and they are looking for cheaper alternatives. Steel works are confronted with a market change and have to produce less quantities of better quality steels with more stringent environmental limits. The electric arc furnace (EAF), one of the chosen battery destruction techniques, is producing 20% of the European steel. Even if the battery mixes contain only mercury-free batteries, the residual mercury content and the zinc concentration will be too high to insure a good steel quality, if all collected batteries will be fed in EAF. In Waelz kilns (production of zinc oxide concentrates for zinc producers) the situation is the same with regard to the residual mercury concentration and environmental limits. Sorting technologies for the separation of battery mixes into the different battery chemistries will presently fail because the re-users of these sorted mercury-free batteries are not able to accept raw waste batteries but they are interested in some fractions of them. This means that in any case pretreatment is an unavoidable step before selective reclamation of waste batteries. The Recytec process is the low-cost partner in a global strategy for battery recycling. This process is very flexible and will be able to follow, with slight and inexpensive adaptations of the equipment

  1. Sulfonated polysulfone battery membrane for use in corrosive environments

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Assink, Roger

    1987-01-01

    For batteries containing strong oxidizing electrolyte and a membrane separating two electrolyte solutions, e.g., a zinc ferricyanide battery, an improved membrane is provided comprising an oxidative resistant, conductive, ion-selective membrane fabricated from a catenated aromatic polymer having an absence of tertiary hydrogens, e.g., a sulfonated polysulfone.

  2. Toy Modification Note: Build It Yourself Battery Interrupter. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; Brandenburg, S.

    This toy modification note presents illustrated instructions on how to build a battery interrupter that permits on/off control of battery-operated toys without modification of the toys themselves. The device allows for a separate control switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Information on the construction and use…

  3. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-06-19

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  4. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  5. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  6. Advances in VRLA battery technology for telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sudhan S.

    Wide scale use of the newly emergent VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) battery in telecommunication applications and the subsequent problems encountered early in their deployment history spurred intense efforts to improve the design as a continuous endeavor. After implementing improvements to battery placement and containment design to prevent the sudden onset of thermal runaway, the focus of the development work has been on cell internals. These include improved grid and strap alloys, superior AGM (absorbent glass mat) separator that retains compression in the cell, use of beneficial additives to the active materials and the need to avoid contaminants that promote detrimental side reactions. These improvements are now resulting in a vastly superior VRLA experience in the telecommunication applications. To further improve the reliability demanded by today's communication and internet environment VRLA battery installations should include continuous cell/module and system monitoring similar to that incorporated in competing advanced battery systems under development.

  7. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Kuo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The initial design for the NASA-Lewis advanced nickel-hydrogen battery is discussed. Fabrication of two 10-cell boilerplate battery stacks will soon begin. The test batteries will undergo characterization testing and low Earth orbit life cycling. The design effectively deals with waste heat generated in the cell stack. Stack temperatures and temperature gradients are maintained to acceptable limits by utilizing the bipolar conduction plate as a heat path to the active cooling fluid panel external to the edge of the cell stack. The thermal design and mechanical design of the battery stack together maintain a materials balance within the cell. An electrolyte seal on each cell frame prohibits electrolyte bridging. An oxygen recombination site and electrolyte reservoir/separator design does not allow oxygen to leave the cell in which it was generated.

  8. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  9. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  10. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  11. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  12. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the battery to spill through the vents. Use a battery carrier when available and always handle with extreme care. This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be ... reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of ...

  13. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  14. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  15. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  16. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  17. Asian Battery Forecast Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-12-31

    A forecast of battery production in Asia is described. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market, Asian economic growth has the potential to result in the battery market matching or possibly exceeding that of North America.

  18. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  19. Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-03-18

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  20. Quasi-fluid storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Doundoulakis, G.J.

    1988-04-05

    A storage battery is described comprising: a casing; negative globules at least partially made out of a cathodic active substance; positive globules at least partially made out of an anodic active substance; appropriate electrolyte for interacting with the negative and the positive globules; at least one negative compartment close-packed exclusively with the negative globules in the electrolyte; at least one positive compartment close-packed exclusively with the positive globules in the electrolyte, and positioned adjacent to and in contact with negative compartment so that the combination of the negative and the positive compartments in tendem, form a battery storage cell; negative and positive electrode terminals on the casing; and at least two conductive separators allowing relatively free passage to the electrolyte and establishing electrical continuity between two cells or between the compartments at the ends of the casing and the terminals of the casing.

  1. The role of UHMW-PE in microporous PE separators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.C.; Harvey, M.K.; Stein, H.L.; Scheunemann, U.

    1997-12-01

    Microporous PE separators have gained large popularity in the lead acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (Starting, Lighting and Ignition) Automotive Applications. The PE (Polyethylene) in battery separator is actually UHMW-PE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). UHMW-PE has a molecular weight more than ten times that of conventional HDPE (High Density Polyethylene). This paper gives an overview of the UHMW-PE`s contributions to the PE battery separator process, assembly, and performance, in comparison to other conventional separators, such as PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), cellulose, and glass fiber.

  2. Separated Shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    Separated shoulder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments ...

  3. Safety Characteristics of Non-Lithium Battery Systems. Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    case rupture due to internal pressure considerations.* Such pressure would be the result of the electrolysis of water in cells subjected to forced...electrode as the separator .1 The electrolyte for the magnesium-silver chloride battery may be either aea or fresh water . When the battery is...treated paper as the separator . These cells are employed in applications requiring heavy , intermittent, or medium rate continuous discharge regimes

  4. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  5. Automatic battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Schub, L.

    1984-06-26

    An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

  6. Handling difficult materials: Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.

    1994-09-01

    Batteries run the gamut from tiny button cells to the large, lead-acid batteries used in automobiles. While these two extremes pose some of the highest environmental risks of the battery waste stream and are the targets of many recycling programs, recycling technology has yet to catch up with the bulk of the less-harmful, consumer-oriented, dry-cell batteries, used in everything from flashlights and radios to toys and other essentials of modern life. Major US battery firms are spending millions of dollars working with European and Japanese companies to seek more efficient technologies to recycle dry-cell batteries. The next step in the recycling evolution may be to reclaim the metals in alkaline batteries as secondary metals.

  7. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  9. Coulometer battery state-of-charge indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.; Secunde, R.

    1970-01-01

    Mercury-column electrochemical coulometer is a linear ampere-hour integrating device consisting of a sealed glass tube containing two columns of mercury separated by a gap containing an electrolyte. The drive circuit uses operational amplifier techniques to match nonlinear charge-discharge characteristics of an alkaline battery.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  15. Ultracapacitor separator

    DOEpatents

    Wei, Chang; Jerabek, Elihu Calvin; LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris

    2001-03-06

    An ultracapacitor includes two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. The electrolyte is a polar aprotic organic solvent and a salt. The porous separator comprises a wet laid cellulosic material.

  16. Bipolar Membranes for Acid Base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell; Roddecha, Supacharee; Jorne, Jacob; Coughlan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries can provide grid-scale electricity storage to match power generation with consumption and promote renewable energy sources. Flow batteries offer modular and flexible design, low cost per kWh and high efficiencies. A novel flow battery concept will be presented based on acid-base neutralization where protons (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions react electrochemically to produce water. The large free energy of this highly reversible reaction can be stored chemically, and, upon discharge, can be harvested as usable electricity. The acid-base flow battery concept avoids the use of a sluggish oxygen electrode and utilizes the highly reversible hydrogen electrode, thus eliminating the need for expensive noble metal catalysts. The proposed flow battery is a hybrid of a battery and a fuel cell---hydrogen gas storing chemical energy is produced at one electrode and is immediately consumed at the other electrode. The two electrodes are exposed to low and high pH solutions, and these solutions are separated by a hybrid membrane containing a hybrid cation and anion exchange membrane (CEM/AEM). Membrane design will be discussed, along with ion-transport data for synthesized membranes.

  17. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-08

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics.

  18. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries’ environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries. PMID:24646862

  20. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  1. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  2. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Some recent work on a lithium-oxygen secondary battery is reported in which stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes were used for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions. The electroactive material consisted of alloys possessing the general composition Li(x)FeSi2 immersed in a ternary molten salt comprising LiF, LiCl, and Li2O. The manufacture of the cell is described, and discharge-current voltage curves for partially charged cells are shown and discussed. A galvanostatic IR free-changing curve and an IR-free charge-discharge curve are also shown.

  3. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Some recent work on a lithium-oxygen secondary battery is reported in which stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes were used for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions. The electroactive material consisted of alloys possessing the general composition Li(x)FeSi2 immersed in a ternary molten salt comprising LiF, LiCl, and Li2O. The manufacture of the cell is described, and discharge-current voltage curves for partially charged cells are shown and discussed. A galvanostatic IR free-changing curve and an IR-free charge-discharge curve are also shown.

  4. Nylon separators. [thermal degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    A nylon separator was placed in a flooded condition in K0H solution and heated at various high temperatures ranging from 60 C to 110 C. The weight decrease was measured and the molecular weight and decomposition product were analyzed to determine: (1) the effect of K0H concentration on the hydrolysis rate; (2) the effect of K0H concentration on nylon degradation; (3) the activation energy at different K0H concentrations; and (4) the effect of oxygen on nylon degradation. The nylon hydrolysis rate is shown to increase as K0H concentration is decreased 34%, giving a maximum rate at about 16%. Separator hydrolysis is confirmed by molecular weight decrease in age of the batteries, and the reaction of nylon with molecular oxygen is probably negligible, compared to hydrolysis. The extrapolated rate value from the high temperature experiment correlates well with experimental values at 35 degrees.

  5. Nylon separators. [thermal degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    A nylon separator was placed in a flooded condition in K0H solution and heated at various high temperatures ranging from 60 C to 110 C. The weight decrease was measured and the molecular weight and decomposition product were analyzed to determine: (1) the effect of K0H concentration on the hydrolysis rate; (2) the effect of K0H concentration on nylon degradation; (3) the activation energy at different K0H concentrations; and (4) the effect of oxygen on nylon degradation. The nylon hydrolysis rate is shown to increase as K0H concentration is decreased 34%, giving a maximum rate at about 16%. Separator hydrolysis is confirmed by molecular weight decrease in age of the batteries, and the reaction of nylon with molecular oxygen is probably negligible, compared to hydrolysis. The extrapolated rate value from the high temperature experiment correlates well with experimental values at 35 degrees.

  6. Measurement of interfacial thermal conductance in Lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitonde, Aalok; Nimmagadda, Amulya; Marconnet, Amy

    2017-03-01

    Increasing usage and recent accidents due to Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries exploding or catching on fire has inspired research on the thermal management of these batteries. In cylindrical 18650 cells, heat generated during the charge/discharge cycle must dissipate to the surrounding through its metallic case due to the poor thermal conductivity of the jelly roll, which is spirally wound with many interfaces between electrodes and the polymeric separator. This work develops a technique to measure the thermal resistance across the case-separator interface, which ultimately limits heat transfer out of the jelly roll. Commercial 18650 batteries are discharged and opened using a battery disassembly tool, and the 25 μm thick separator and the 200 μm thick metallic case are harvested to make samples. A miniaturized version of the conventional reference bar method

  7. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  8. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  9. Aluminum-oxygen batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Wheeler, Douglas J.

    1987-01-01

    An aluminum oxygen fuel cell is under development. Several highly efficient cell designs were constructed and tested. Air cathodes catalyzed with cobalt tetramethoxy porphorin have demonstrated more than 2000 cycles in intermittant use conditions. Aluminum alloys have operated at 4.2 kWH/kg at 200 mA/sq cm. A novel separator device, an impeller fluidizer was coupled with the battery to remove the solid hydrargillite discharge product. A 60 kW, 720 kWH battery system is projected to weigh about 2200 lbs., for an energy density of 327 WH lb.

  10. Asian battery forecast report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-08-01

    A forecast battery production in Asia is a particularly relevant subject for an Australian lead man to speak of as the majority of our own business is in the region. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market of some 80-85 million units per annum, Asian economic growth in the next decade has the potential to result in the battery market matching or even exceeding the above figures.

  11. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  12. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  13. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  14. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  15. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  16. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  17. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  18. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  19. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  20. Direction of polyethylene separator development for the SLI market

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrete, J.

    1997-12-01

    Recent separator advancements have improved the oxidation stability and puncture resistance of Polyethylene (PE) separators. These improvements, at the same time, have been accomplished even as the market continues to demand separators with lower backweb thickness. Results of development work to evaluate improved oxidation resistance is presented. Evaluation of separator characteristics as well as separator performance in a battery are presented and form the basis for an improved separator design.

  1. Neptunium separations

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, J.F.

    1983-05-09

    Two procedures for the separation of Np are presented; the first involves separation of /sup 239/Np from irradiated /sup 238/U, and the second involves separation of /sup 237/Np from a solution representing that from a dissolved fuel element.

  2. Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery Thermal Balance Testing and Heat Dissipation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be on the thermal balance testing for the Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery. The Standard Bus thermal design required that the battery be isolated from the bus itself. This required the battery to have its own thermal control, including heaters and a radiator surface. Since the battery was not ready for testing during the overall bus thermal balance testing, a separate test was conducted to verify the thermal design for the battery. This paper will discuss in detail, the test set up, test procedure, and results from this test. Additionally this paper will consider the methods taken to determine the heat dissipation of the battery during charge and discharge. It seems that the heat dissipation for Lithium Ion batteries is relatively unknown and hard to quantify. The methods used during test and the post test analysis to estimate the heat dissipation of the battery will be discussed.

  3. Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery Thermal Balance Testing and Heat Dissipation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be on the thermal balance testing for the Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery. The Standard Bus thermal design required that the battery be isolated from the bus itself. This required the battery to have its own thermal control, including heaters and a radiator surface. Since the battery was not ready for testing during the overall bus thermal balance testing, a separate test was conducted to verify the thermal design for the battery. This paper will discuss in detail, the test set up, test procedure, and results from this test. Additionally this paper will consider the methods taken to determine the heat dissipation of the battery during charge and discharge. It seems that the heat dissipation for Lithium Ion batteries is relatively unknown and hard to quantify. The methods used during test and the post test analysis to estimate the heat dissipation of the battery will be discussed.

  4. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  5. Transcript of proceedings: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1972 GSFC Battery Workshop, first day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1972 NASA/Goddard Battery Workshop are reported. Topics discussed include: separators, materials and processing, test and storage experience, and improved energy density systems.

  6. Process of treating cellulosic membrane and alkaline with membrane separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The improvement of water-soluble cellulose ether membranes for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells is discussed. The process of contacting membranes with an aqueous alkali solution of concentration less than that of the alkali solution to be used in the battery but above that at which the membrane is soluble is described.

  7. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  8. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOEpatents

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  9. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  10. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  11. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li+ gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions. PMID:22949696

  12. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-09-18

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li(+) gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions.

  13. Spatiotemporal modeling of internal states distribution for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingliang; Li, Han-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical properties of the battery are described in partial differential equations that are impossible to compute online. These internal states are spatially distributed and thus difficult to measure in the battery operation. A space-time separation method is applied to model the electrochemical properties of the battery with the help of the extended Kalman filter. The model is efficiently optimized by using LASSO adaptation method and can be updated through data-based learning. The analytical model derived is able to offer a fast estimation of internal states of the battery, and thus has potential to become a prediction model for battery management system.

  14. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  15. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  16. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  17. Batteries: Getting solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Materials with high ionic conductivity are urgently needed for the development of solid-state lithium batteries. Now, an inorganic solid electrolyte is shown to have an exceptionally high ionic conductivity of 25 mS cm-1, which allows a solid-state battery to deliver 70% of its maximum capacity in just one minute at room temperature.

  18. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  19. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  20. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  1. Environmentally-friendly oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation technology for in situ recycling cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite from spent LiCoO2/graphite lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation to in situ recycle of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite from mixed electrode materials. The in situ recycling means to change waste into resources by its own components, which is an idea of "waste+waste→resources." After mechanical scraping the mixed electrode materials enrich powders of LiCoO2 and graphite. The possible reaction between LiCoO2 and graphite was obtained by thermodynamic analysis. The feasibility of the reaction at high temperature was studied with the simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis under standard atmospheric pressure. Then the oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation method was used to transfer the low added value mixed electrode materials to high added value products. The results indicated that, through the serious technologies of oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation, mixture materials consist with LiCoO2 and graphite powders are transferred to the individual products of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite. Because there is not any chemical solution added in the process, the cost of treating secondary pollution can be saved. This study provides a theoretical basis for industrial-scale recycling resources from spent LIBs.

  2. Characterization of Mechanical Stress Effects on Lithium-ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, Christina A.

    Lithium-ion batteries are the preferred energy storage devices for a variety of applications from electric vehicles to small scale portable electronics such as laptop computers and cellular telephones. In many of these applications the cycle lifetimes of current lithium-ion technologies are insufficient for the projected lifetime of the device. This is because the energy storage capabilities of batteries degrade over time regardless of usage conditions. The origin of this capacity fade and its corresponding impedance rise is poorly understood, though previous research has attributed it to chemical degradation mechanisms. In this thesis a mechanical mechanism that contributes to the lifetime limiting capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries is characterized. First, the mechanical response of pouch-type lithium-ion batteries is characterized under static and cyclic compressive loading. Using simplified battery systems composed of the polymer separator and foil current collectors in conjunction with viscoelastic creep models, the mechanical response of a battery to a static compressive stress is shown to be dominated by the nonelectroactive battery components. Then the analysis is taken one step further to show that the viscoelastic response of the battery can be attributed to the creep response of the polymer separator. The remainder of this dissertation focuses on characterizing the effects of viscoelastic creep of the polymer separator on the performance of a lithium-ion battery. Mechanical stresses on the polymer separator arise during normal battery operation due to external stresses applied to the cell and also constrained expansion of the electrodes during electrochemical intercalation. The viscoelastic creep of the separator is shown to result in pore closure which limits ion transport in the electrolyte phase of the battery, ultimately causing a rate limited capacity loss. Finally, the effect of separator porosity and composition on this viscoelastic creep

  3. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  4. Anode Improvement in Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tao; Lu, Shengguo; Fan, Ye; Lei, Weiwei; Huang, Shaoming; Chen, Ying

    2017-06-19

    Owing to their theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1) , lithium-sulfur batteries represent a promising future energy storage device to power electric vehicles. However, the practical applications of lithium-sulfur batteries suffer from poor cycle life and low Coulombic efficiency, which is attributed, in part, to the polysulfide shuttle and Li dendrite formation. Suppressing Li dendrite growth, blocking the unfavorable reaction between soluble polysulfides and Li, and improving the safety of Li-S batteries have become very important for the development of high-performance lithium sulfur batteries. A comprehensive review of various strategies is presented for enhancing the stability of the anode of lithium sulfur batteries, including inserting an interlayer, modifying the separator and electrolytes, employing artificial protection layers, and alternative anodes to replace the Li metal anode. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  6. Energy storage mechanism for hybrid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Chernova, Natasha; Omenya, Fredrick; Rastogi, Alok; Whittingham, Stanley

    Many devices require both high energy and high power density, and lithium ion batteries and super-capacitors cannot separately always meet the requirements. In this work, we study the operating mechanism of a hybrid battery, which combines the best properties of batteries and supercapacitors. We analyze the lithium ion storage mechanism using XRD, Raman, TEM and electrochemical measurements. The model system studied combines a non-intercalating carbon black anode with a LiFePO4 cathode. At 50% state of charge, XRD data for LiFePO4 cathode material shows a mixture of LiFePO4 and FePO4, indicating battery reaction. On the other hand, the activated carbon remains structurally unchanged. We also discuss the impact of a range of activated carbon/ LiFePO4 (AC/LFP) ratios. From cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge results, the system exhibits battery-domain characteristics when the AC/ LFP ratio is below one, but showing more supercapacitor-domain traits when the ratio is higher. Besides, the systems have higher rate capacity at AC/LFP ratio around four as compared to one. This research is supported by NSF under Award Number 1318202.

  7. Galileo probe battery system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Dagarin, B.P.; Taenaka, R.K.; Stofel, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    NASA`s Galileo 6-year trip to Jupiter is in its final phase. The mission consists of a Jovian Orbiter and an atmospheric entry Probe. The Probe is designed to coast autonomously for up to 190 days and turn itself on 6 hours prior to entry. It will then descend through the upper atmosphere for 50 to 75 minutes with the aid of an 8-foot parachute. This paper discusses sources of electrical power for the Probe and battery testing at the systems level. Described are the final production phase, qualification, and systems testing prior to and following launch, as well as decisions made regarding the Probe separation Li/SO{sub 2} battery configuration. In addition, the paper briefly describes the thermal battery verification program. The main power source comprises three Li/SO{sub 2} battery modules containing 13 D-sized cell strings per module. These modules are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years and support a 150-day clock, ending with a 7-hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 A to 9.5 A during the last 30 minutes. The main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO{sub 4}-Ca), which will be used for firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric entry.

  8. Chiral Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalcup, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of chiral separations to researchers who are versed in the area of analytical separations but unfamiliar with chiral separations. To researchers who are not familiar with this area, there is currently a bewildering array of commercially available chiral columns, chiral derivatizing reagents, and chiral selectors for approaches that span the range of analytical separation platforms (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical-fluid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis). This review begins with a brief discussion of chirality before examining the general strategies and commonalities among all of the chiral separation techniques. Rather than exhaustively listing all the chiral selectors and applications, this review highlights significant issues and differences between chiral and achiral separations, providing salient examples from specific classes of chiral selectors where appropriate.

  9. Polyacene (PAS) batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yata, Shizukuni

    1995-12-31

    Human activity has been recognized to seriously influence the earth`s environment. Therefore, a clean battery with long-life and safe-use is important and its demand has increased at present. Of the ``clean`` batteries proposed, polymer batteries are the best candidate for environment-friendly and highly-reliable because they do not contain a toxic heavy metal such as cadmium and mercury. The author has developed polyacenic semiconductor (PAS) materials prepared from pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. PAS is a conductive polymer which can be doped to either P-type or N-type quite successfully and is extremely resistant to oxidation, chemicals and heat. Because PAS can be doped with both electron acceptors and donors, it is possible to design an all polymer battery using PAS for both electrodes. By taking advantage of stability of PAS, PAS battery can embody greater and longer-lasting reliability than conventional secondary batteries. Usually, lithium metal, which is used in the lithium secondary batteries for an anode-active material, makes dendrites during charging/discharging cycles, which limits the life of the batteries to a few dozen cycles. Furthermore, the dendrites of lithium metal have a safety problem because of its reactivity with water. An investigation of a new anode-material aiming to replace the lithium metal with another safety electrode, is one of the major trend, in secondary batteries. In this paper, the author first describes the structure and the properties of the PAS material, and second its application as an electrode material for rechargeable batteries.

  10. Water separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. F.; Austin, I. G. (Inventor)

    1964-01-01

    An apparatus for separating liquids from gases or gaseous fluids is described. Features of the apparatus include: (1) the collection and removal of the moisture in the fluid is not dependent upon, or affected by gravity; (2) all the collected water is cyclically drained from the apparatus irrespective of the attitude of the separator; and (3) a fluid actuator is utilized to remove the collected water from the separator.

  11. Bipolar battery with array of sealed cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smaga, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery as a dipolar battery is disclosed with an array of stacked cells with the anode and cathode electrode materials in each cell sealed in a confining structure and separated from one another except across separator material interposed therebetween. The separator material is contained in a module having separate perforated metallic sheets that sandwich opposite sides of the separator material for the cell and an annular insulating spacer that surrounds the separator material beyond the perforations and is also sandwiched between and sealed to the sheets. The peripheral edges of the sheets project outwardly beyond the spacer, traverse the side edges of the adjacent electrode material to form cup-like electrode holders, and are fused to the adjacent current collector or end face members of the array. Electrolyte is infused into the electrolyte cavity through the perforations of one of the metallic sheets with the perforations also functioning to allow ionic conductance across the separator material between the adjacent electrodes. A gas-tight housing provides an enclosure of the array.

  12. Studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi

    The studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are included in this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, a linear sweep voltammetry method to study polysulfide transport through separators is presented. Shuttle of polysulfide from the sulfur cathode to lithium metal anode in rechargeable Li-S batteries is a critical issue hindering cycling efficiency and life. Several approaches have been developed to minimize it including polysulfide-blocking separators; there is a need for measuring polysulfide transport through separators. We have developed a linear sweep voltammetry method to measure the anodic (oxidization) current of polysulfides crossed separators, which can be used as a quantitative measurement of the polysulfide transport through separators. The electrochemical oxidation of polysulfide is diffusion controlled. The electrical charge in Coulombs produced by the oxidation of polysulfide is linearly related to the concentration of polysulfide within a certain range (≤ 0.5 M). Separators with a high porosity (large pore size) show high anodic currents, resulting in fast capacity degradation and low Coulombic efficiencies in Li-S cells. These results demonstrate this method can be used to correlate the polysulfide transport through separators with the separator structure and battery performance, therefore provide guidance for developing new separators for Li-S batteries. The second part includes a study on improving cycling performance of Li/polysulfide batteries by applying a functional polymer on carbon current collector. Significant capacity decay over cycling in Li-S batteries is a major impediment for their practical applications. Polysulfides Li2S x (3 < x ≤ 8) formed in the cycling are soluble in liquid electrolyte, which is the main reason for capacity loss and cycling instability. Functional polymers can tune the structure and property of sulfur electrodes, hold polysulfides, and improve cycle life. We have examined a

  13. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  14. Recovery of zinc and manganese from spent batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolozzi, Mauro; Braccini, Gaetano; Marconi, Filippo; Bonvini, Stefania

    1994-03-01

    The necessity of recycling spent batteries in order to recover metals and to protect the environment is emphasized. Some experiments have been made to develop a hydrometallurgical process for metal recovery in alkaline manganese batteries. The components are easily separated: zinc can be electroplated and manganese(II) can be oxidized to dioxide; Mn(IV) is solubilized in acidic hydrogen peroxide and reprecipitated by bases.

  15. Metal-Air Batteries: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of metal-air batteries. Topics include systems that possess different practical energy densities at specific powers. Coverage includes the operation of air electrodes at different densities and performance results. The systems are used in electric vehicles as a cost-effective method to achieve reliability and efficiency. Zinc-air batteries are covered more thoroughly in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Metal-Air Batteries: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of metal-air batteries. Topics include systems that possess different practical energy densities at specific powers. Coverage includes the operation of air electrodes at different densities and performance results. The systems are used in electric vehicles as a cost-effective method to achieve reliability and efficiency. Zinc-air batteries are covered more thoroughly in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. A new battery charger/discharger converter. [for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middlebrook, R. D.; Cuk, S.; Behen, W.

    1978-01-01

    A new optimum topology dc-to-dc switching converter is extended to provide bidirectional current flow. The resulting two-quadrant converter can be employed to eliminate the discontinuous current mode in normal unidirectional applications, but is especially suited for spacecraft battery conditioning as a charge-discharge regulator in place of the conventional separate converters. Implementation of the control features and the battery charge current and voltage limits are discussed.

  18. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  19. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  20. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  1. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  2. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  3. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  4. Sealed nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudszus, W.; Kiehne, H. A.; Cloke, F. R.

    1982-10-01

    The design, manufacture, and application of maintenance-free sealed NiCd batteries are surveyed. The principles of electrochemical power supplies and the history of the development of NiCd cells are reviewed. The batteries produced by Varta Batterie AG are presented; topics discussed include design parameters, electrical and physical characteristics, performance under adverse conditions, type range, production, and quality control. Application techniques, including cell-type choice, charging units and charging circuits, and the construction of standby power supplies, are considered, with reference to national and international standards of performance and classification. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  5. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  6. Synthetic battery cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

  7. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.F.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  8. High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

  9. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  10. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  11. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  12. Solid State Li-ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-23

    pellet and composite electrodes are cold-pressed sequentially between two Ti plunger- shaped current collectors inside a PEEK -lined Ti die. Cells are...Ti current collectors. The shell of our all- solid-state batteries is a titanium-polyaryletheretherketone ( PEEK ) test cell die (Figure 1). To...fabricate each cell, the glass SSE powder was compressed to 1 metric ton inside the Ti- PEEK die to form the separator pellet. 5 mg of the FeS + S cathode

  13. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-07-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  14. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  15. Organic cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid catholyte for a battery based on liquid metal such as sodium anode and a solid, ceramic separator such as beta alumina (BASE) comprises a mixture of a Group I-III metal salt such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a minor amount of an organic carbonitrile depolarizer having at least one adjacent ethylenic band such as 1 to 40 percent by weight of tetracyanoethylene. The tetracyanoethylene forms an adduct with the molten metal salt.

  16. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    PubMed

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. Copyright

  17. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  18. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  19. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  20. Corrugated battery electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  1. Honeycomb battery plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaer, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  2. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  3. Experimental investigation and model development of the Skylab ATM secondary nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of a Ni-Cd battery was evaluated and the cyclic battery controls to be used on the ATM batteries were determined. Cell and battery performance models were developed which to predict the performance of the secondary Ni-Cd batteries on the ATM. Capacity degradation and charge acceptance characteristics were considered. Mathematical models for each of these operating areas were developed based on data from two separate test programs. The capacity degradation model describes the expected usable battery capacity as a function of time, temperature, and depth-of-discharge. The charge acceptance model describes the cell charge acceptance as a function of charge rate, temperature, and state of charge. The models were designed for computer use and to facilitate possible battery modification. They can be used to predict expected performance or to compare real time performance during flight.

  4. Stereoisomers Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Piotr

    The use of capillary electrophoresis for enantiomer separation and optical purity determination is presented. The contents start with basic information about the nature of stereoizomers and the mechanism of enantioseparation using capillary electrophoresis techniques. The molecules to be separated show identical chemical structure and electrochemical behavior. Therefore, the chiral recognition of enantiomers is possible only by bonding to chiral selector and the separation based on very small differences in complexation energies of diastereomer complexes formed. This method is useful for this purpose due to the fact that different compounds can be used as chiral selectors. The mostly used chiral selectors like cyclodextrins, crown ethers, chiral surfactants, macrocyclic antibiotics, transition metal complexes, natural, and synthetic polymers and their application for this purpose is also discussed. Finally, examples of practical applications of electromigration techniques for enantiomers separation and determination are presented.

  5. Mist separator

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, T.M.

    1984-04-17

    An apparatus for the removal of particulates from a flowing gas stream and a process for its use are provided. A perforated screen separator formed as a plate having parallel rows of perforations formed by pushing alternating strips of the plate material forward and backward from the plane of the plate is used. The perforated screen separator may be used alone or with a fiber bed mist eliminator for increased particulate removal.

  6. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  7. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  8. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  9. Product separator

    DOEpatents

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  10. Multi-cell storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Brohm, Thomas; Bottcher, Friedhelm

    2000-01-01

    A multi-cell storage battery, in particular to a lithium storage battery, which contains a temperature control device and in which groups of one or more individual cells arranged alongside one another are separated from one another by a thermally insulating solid layer whose coefficient of thermal conductivity lies between 0.01 and 0.2 W/(m*K), the thermal resistance of the solid layer being greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell. The individual cell is connected, at least in a region free of insulating material, to a heat exchanger, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger in the direction toward the neighboring cell being selected to be greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell and, in addition, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger toward the temperature control medium being selected to be smaller by at least a factor of about 10 than the thermal resistance of the individual cell, and .lambda. being the ratio of the energy content of the individual cell to the amount of energy that is needed to trigger a thermally induced cell failure at a defined upper operating temperature limit.

  11. Novel aqueous dual-channel aluminum-hydrogen peroxide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart

    1994-06-01

    A dual-channel aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery is introduced with an open-circuit voltage of 1.9 volts, polarization losses of 0.9 mV cm(exp 2) mA(exp -1), and power densities of 1 W/cm(exp 2). Catholyte and anolyte cell compartments are separated by an Ir/Pd modified porous nickel cathode. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode. The battery is expressed by aluminum oxidation and aqueous solution phase hydrogen peroxide reduction for an overall battery discharge consisting of 2Al + 3H2O2 + 2OH(-) yields 2AlO2(-) + 4H2O E = 2.3 V. The search for electrical propulsion sources which fit the requirements for electrically powered vehicles has blurred the standard characteristics associated with electrochemical storage systems. Presently, electrochemical systems comprised of mechanically rechargeable primary batteries, secondary batteries, and fuel cells are candidates for electrochemical propulsion sources. While important advances in energy and power density continue for nonaqueous and molten electrolytes, aqueous electrolyte batteries often have an advantage in simplicity, conductivity, cost effectiveness, and environmental impact. Systems coupling aluminum anodes and aqueous electrolytes have been investigated. These systems include: aluminum/silver oxide, aluminum/manganese dioxide, aluminum air, aluminum/hydrogen peroxide aqueous batteries, and the recently introduced aluminum/ferricyanide and aluminum sulfur aqueous batteries. Conventional aqueous systems such as the nickel cadmium and lead-acid batteries are characterized by their relatively low energy densities and adverse environmental impact. Other systems have substantially higher theoretical energy capacities. While aluminum-silver oxide has demonstrated the highest steady-state power density, its high cost is an impediment for widespread utilization for electric propulsion.

  12. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  13. Quasi-bipolar battery construction and method of fabricating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A lightweight, battery construction for lead acid batteries in which biplates are formed from a continuous strip of thermoplastic material, one face of the strip being provided with a plurality of electrically isolated lead strip arrays, each having a transverse axis about which the strip is folded or pleated to provide pleated biplate walls. The pleated continuous strip is sealed along edge longitudinal portions to provide chambers for receiving a plurality of non-conductive thermoplastic separator-plates and to contain electrolyte liquid. Separator-plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats and scrim fabric in which active material is carried. The assembly of pleated biplates and separator-plates is maintained in pressure relation by exterior resilient means. A method of making such a continuous pleated biplate construction and of assembling one or more battery modules which may be connected in series or in parallel. A biplate construction having continuously wound lead stripes attached to a substrate.

  14. The Role of Dissolved Gas in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Secondary Lithium Metal Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-07

    devices use lithium - ion batteries comprised of a graphite anode and metal oxide cathode. Lithium , being the third-lightest element, is already synonymous...support shuttling lithium ions ( battery cycling) such as the separator, electrolyte, and cathode and anode superstructures contribute most of the...The Role of Dissolved Gas in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Secondary Lithium Metal Batteries Johanna K. Stark1, Yi Ding2, and Paul A. Kohl1

  15. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  16. Strain measurement based battery testing

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  17. Map Separates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps are printed using up to six colors (black, blue, green, red, brown, and purple). To prepare your own maps or artwork based on maps, you can order separate black-and-white film positives or negatives for any color printed on a USGS topographic map, or for one or more of the groups of related features printed in the same color on the map (such as drainage and drainage names from the blue plate.) In this document, examples are shown with appropriate ink color to illustrate the various separates. When purchased, separates are black-and-white film negatives or positives. After you receive a film separate or composite from the USGS, you can crop, enlarge or reduce, and edit to add or remove details to suit your special needs. For example, you can adapt the separates for making regional and local planning maps or for doing many kinds of studies or promotions by using the features you select and then printing them in colors of your choice.

  18. Recovery of valuable materials from spent NIMH batteries using spouted bed elutriation.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Eduardo H; Schlemmer, Diego F; Aguiar, Mônica L; Dotto, Guilherme L; Bertuol, Daniel A

    2016-04-15

    In recent years, a great increase in the generation of spent batteries occurred. Then, efficient recycling ways and correct disposal of hazardous wastes are necessary. An alternative to recover the valuable materials from spent NiMH batteries is the spouted bed elutriation. The aim of this study was to apply the mechanical processing (grinding and sieving) followed by spouted bed elutriation to separate the valuable materials present in spent NiMH batteries. The results of the manual characterization showed that about 62 wt.% of the batteries are composed by positive and negative electrodes. After the mechanical separation processes (grinding, sieving and spouted bed elutriation), three different fractions were obtained: 24.21 wt.% of metals, 28.20 wt.% of polymers and 42.00 wt.% of powder (the positive and negative electrodes). It was demonstrated that the different materials present in the spent NiMH batteries can be efficiently separated using a simple and inexpensive mechanical processing.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  1. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  2. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.

  4. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  5. Separator sub

    SciTech Connect

    Hayatdavoudi, A.

    1984-10-09

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed for drilling a well. A separator sub is used to separate a stream of drilling mud into a less dense first portion and more dense second portion. The less dense first portion of the stream of drilling mud is directed downward to a drill bit so that the drilling mud adjacent the drill bit has a density less than an initial density of the stream of drilling mud. The more dense second portion of the stream of drilling mud is ejected into a well annulus with an upward component of velocity and thereby reduces a hydrostatic drilling mud pressure adjacent the drill bit.

  6. Isotopic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.

    1981-03-10

    Method and apparatus for separating isotopes in an isotopic mixture of atoms or molecules by increasing the mass differential among isotopic species. The mixture containing a particular isotope is selectively irradiated so as to selectively excite the isotope. This preferentially excited species is then reacted rapidly with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product containing the specific isotope, but having a mass different than the original species initially containing the particular isotope. The product and the remaining balance of the mixture is then caused to flow through a device which separates the product from the mixture based upon the increased mass differential.

  7. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  8. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing; Keller, David Gerard; MacFadden, Kenneth Orville

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  9. Computational modeling of Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazioli, D.; Magri, M.; Salvadori, A.

    2016-12-01

    This review focuses on energy storage materials modeling, with particular emphasis on Li-ion batteries. Theoretical and computational analyses not only provide a better understanding of the intimate behavior of actual batteries under operational and extreme conditions, but they may tailor new materials and shape new architectures in a complementary way to experimental approaches. Modeling can therefore play a very valuable role in the design and lifetime prediction of energy storage materials and devices. Batteries are inherently multi-scale, in space and time. The macro-structural characteristic lengths (the thickness of a single cell, for instance) are order of magnitudes larger than the particles that form the microstructure of the porous electrodes, which in turn are scale-separated from interface layers at which atomistic intercalations occur. Multi-physics modeling concepts, methodologies, and simulations at different scales, as well as scale transition strategies proposed in the recent literature are here revised. Finally, computational challenges toward the next generation of Li-ion batteries are discussed.

  10. Development of a maintenance free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems in large military aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Vutetakis, D.G.

    1995-07-01

    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The US Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS Developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66% of the systems sold.

  11. Maintenance-free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Vutetakis, David G.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The United States Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and Air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66 percent of the systems sold.

  12. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM ALASKAN BATTERY ENTERPRISES SITE - BRICE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BESCORP Soil Washing System is an aqueous volume reduction system that utilizes trommel agitation, high-pressure washing, sizing, and density separation to remove lead, lead compounds, and battery casing chips from soil contaminated by broken lead batteries. The basic concept...

  14. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM ALASKAN BATTERY ENTERPRISES SITE - BRICE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BESCORP Soil Washing System is an aqueous volume reduction system that utilizes trommel agitation, high-pressure washing, sizing, and density separation to remove lead, lead compounds, and battery casing chips from soil contaminated by broken lead batteries. The basic concept...

  16. A User-Friendly Tool for Evaluationg the Thermal Response of High Power Battery Packaging Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-02

    Latest generation of high power battery cells are often comprised of multiple alternating layers of anode, cathode, separator and electrolyte. Macroscopically, battery cores represent an orthotropic material subject to a time variant heat source. Safety and performance considerations place a premium on packaging design and installation thermal maintenance. SAIC has developed a numerical solver tool to evaluate thermal performance of packaging alternatives.

  17. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  18. Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

    The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

  19. Plasma separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    This process employs a thermal plasma for the separation and production of oxygen and metals. It is a continuous process that requires no consumables and relies entirely on space resources. The almost complete absence of waste renders it relatively clean. It can be turned on or off without any undesirable side effects or residues. The prime disadvantage is its high power consumption.

  20. SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-10-24

    A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)