Science.gov

Sample records for battlefield phosgene poisoning

  1. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-04-02

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  3. [Phosgene poisoning: analysis of cases].

    PubMed

    Solińska-Lewna, Beata; Hermelin, Aleksander

    2010-01-01

    On April 9, 1998, there was a break-down in the Chemical Plant ZACHEM S.A. in Bydgoszcz, which resulted in two cases of lethal phosgene poisoning. Over ten years have passed since that accident. During that period there were new cases of exposure to phosgene, however, all of the victims recovered completely. The aim of this paper was to present stages and symptoms of phosgene poisoning and discuss the undertaken procedures, which led to the recovery of people exposed to toxic effect of phosgene.

  4. Development and testing of treatments for battlefield phosgene poisoning. Final report, 1 August 1994-31 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gutner, G.H.

    1996-03-01

    This project`s aim was to characterize changes in microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEpC) after exposure to phosgene in vitro for evaluation of prophylaxis and therapy. We measured release of eicosanoids from lung HMVEC: 6-ket-PGF1a and thromboxane B2 both increase approx. 2 h after exposure to 900 ppm-min phosgene. Smaller but statistically significant increases in leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 are also seen after 2 h. Over the same time course, phosgene-exposed HMVEC which were not killed by exposure accumulate intracytosolic calcium (measured with fluo-3), and generate reactive oxygen metabolites (detected with CDCFH). After a phosgene dose of 300 ppm-min, changes in HMVEC membranes result in loss of cytosolic esterase activity (detected with calcein-AM), along with increased binding of intercalating dyes to DNA. Additional signs of cell injury are decreased lysosomal uptake of acridine orange, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by rhodamine 123 uptake and JC-1 aggregation). These changes all occur rapidly after exposure and remain stable for several hours. Type II AEpC are more resistant to phosgene: measures of cytotoxic injury are minimally altered by phosgene levels up to 900 ppm-min and mitochondrial membrane potential is maintained even at this dose. Intracellular calcium levels stay low even after addition of ionophores to A549 AEpC. Permeability of both type II AEpC and HMVEC monolayers increases after exposure to 900 ppm%min phosgene, measured by decreased electrical resistance and increased mannitol permeation. Pretreatment with approx. 10-2 M N-acetyl cysteine and approx. 10-4 M pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate protects against some cytotoxic changes, suggesting that intracellular reactive oxygen species may contribute to phosgene induced injury.

  5. Development and testing of treatments for battlefield phosgene poisoning. Midterm report, 1 August 1994-30 April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gurtner, G.H.; Anderson, D.J.; Traganos, T.; Simon, S.R.

    1995-05-30

    The aim of the first phase of this project has been to characterize changes in microvascular endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells after exposure to phosgene in vitro, so that proposed prophylactic and therapeutic interventions can be evaluated in the second phase. In the first months, we showed that an anti-neutrophil antibody reduces both neutrophil infiltration into the lungs and the late-onset protein leak into the alveolar space after exposure of rats to phosgene. We have now characterized the time course of release of arachidonic acid metabolites from human lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro: levels of the cyclooxgyenase pathway products, 6-keto-PGF1(alpha) (a stable product of prostacyclin) and thromboxane B2 both increase -2 h after exposure to 900 ppm/min phosgene.

  6. Occupational phosgene poisoning: a case report and review.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J P; Allister, C A

    1995-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which some workers may be occupationally exposed. This case report demonstrates the possibility of refrigeration workers suffering phosgene poisoning after heating certain chlorinated fluorocarbons ('freons'). The need to suspect phosgene exposure and observe such patients is emphasized, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:8581252

  7. Phosgene

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths. Phosgene is not found naturally in the environment. Phosgene is used in industry to produce many other chemicals such as pesticides. Phosgene can be formed when chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds ...

  8. Phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Bast, Cheryl B; Glass-Mattie, Dana F

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation is the most important route of exposure for phosgene. A latency period occurs before phosgene affects the target organ, the lungs. The odor threshold is between 0.5 and 1.5 ppm, and the odor has been described as similar to newly-mown hay. Toxic effects have been reported at concentrations below the threshold. On initial exposure, phosgene can undergo hydrolysis and form hydrogen chloride which can be slightly irritating to the upper respiratory tract and eyes; the amount formed is limited by the low water solubility of phosgene. Once inhaled to the lower respiratory tract, phosgene undergoes an acylation reaction with amino, hydroxyl and sulfhydryl groups causing destruction of protein, lipids, and disruption of cellular functions. In response to this destruction, after a latency period of 1-24 hours, a breakdown in the blood-air barrier occurs and protein rich fluid accumulates in the lungs. Most commonly, death occurs within 48 hours after exposure from a progressive pulmonary edema and anoxia. At very high concentrations, death can occur from acute heart failure prior to the start of the pulmonary edema. Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene in World War I. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality. Animal studies also indicate little species variability as all species exposed developed similar clinical signs (dyspnea, pulmonary edema, labored breathing) and histopathological lesions in the lungs. While there are no chronic animal data, subchronic studies indicate little accumulation of phosgene or increased severity of lesions with continuous exposure.

  9. Phosgene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosgene ; CASRN 75 - 44 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  10. Phosgene Poisoning Caused by the Use of Chemical Paint Removers Containing Methylene Chloride in Ill-Ventilated Rooms Heated by Kerosene Stoves

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, W. B.; Buschmann, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    Two cases resembling poisoning by phosgene following the use of a paint remover containing methylene chloride in ill-ventilated rooms heated by an oil stove are described. Experiments carried out under similar conditions demonstrated the production of phosgene in toxic concentrations. The potential hazards from non-inflammable solvents are discussed. PMID:13827592

  11. [Observation on the protective effect of hyperoxia solution on the acute lung injury caused by phosgene poisoning.].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Li-xian; Hai, Chun-xu; Tang, Shi-rong; Qin, Xu-ju

    2005-02-01

    To study the protective effect of hyperoxia solution on acute lung injury caused by phosgene poisoning by observing the changes of PaO2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum and Glutathione (GSH/GSSG) contents in lung tissues. The rabbits were divided into normal control group, hyperoxia solution (H0) and balance salt (BS) groups. Group HO and Group BS inhaled phosgene and the former was given intravenously hyperoxia solution (which was replaced by balance salt solution in Group BS). The content of MDA and the activity of SOD in serum were observed at different time points, the amount of GSH and GSSG in lung tissue were also measured. (1) The serum MDA contents increased and PaO2, SOD activity decreased significantly in Group HO and Group BS along with time increasing as compared with control group. The contents of GSH in lung tissue decreased in two groups compared with that in control group, however the contents of GSSG ascended instead. (2) At 3 and 8 h of the experiment, PaO2 of Group HO [(9.91 +/- 0.49), (9.15 +/- 0.46) mm Hg respectively] were significantly higher than those of Group BS [(9.03 +/- 0.76), (8.11 +/- 0.57) mm Hg respectively] (P < 0.01). The contents of MDA of Group HO (3.66 +/- 0.35), (5.31 +/- 0.15) micromol/L respectively] were lower than those of Group BS [(4.32 +/- 0.26), (7.4 +/- 0.33) micromol/L respectively] (P < 0.01). SOD activity in Group HO [(237.37 +/- 29.96), (208.10 +/- 18.80) NU/ml respectively] were higher than those of Group BS [(195.02 +/- 21.44), (144.87 +/- 21.26) NU/ml respectively] (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The content of GSSG lung tissue in Group HO (423.67 +/- 38.21) micromol/L were lower than those of Group BS (523.85 +/- 43.14) mol/L (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the content of GSH in lung tissues between Group HO and group BS. Hyperoxia solution can reduce acute lung injury of rabbits following phosgene poisoning.

  12. Acute Lung Injury after Phosgene Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Chul; Yang, Ju-Yeoul; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Yong-Uk; Kim, Young-Chul; Choi, In-Seon; Park, Kyung-Ok

    1996-01-01

    Phosgene (COCl2) is a colorless oxidant gas which is heavier than air and the lethal exposure dose (LC50) in humans is 500 ppm/min. This gas was originally manufactured as an agent for chemical warfare during World War I and there had been a great deal of studies on phosgene poisoning during the early years of industrial use. It is still widely used in the synthesis of chemicals and plastics. In the modern era, however, phosgene poisoning is relatively uncommon except in accidental exposures. In Korea, there has been no report about lung injury from phosgene inhalation. We present a clinical experience with six patients accidentally exposed to phosgene. PMID:8882481

  13. Battlefield Acupuncture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    employed such as electrical and laser devices. For example, the author successfully used the "Battlefield Acupuncture " concept with the Laser Report...ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION BY MEDICAL ACUPUNCTURE (SEPT 2007) COPYRIGHT Battlefield Acupuncture Richard C. Niemtzow, MD, PHD, MPH COLONEL, USAF, MC...FS INTRODUCTION 1 Battlefield acupuncture was developed by the author in 200 1 in the course of researching a more efficient auriculotherapy

  14. Early diagnosis of phosgene overexposure

    SciTech Connect

    Diller, W.F.

    1985-10-01

    At the present time, the following parameters can be recommended for early diagnosis of phosgene overexposure: Phosgene indicator paper badges, to be worn by all persons involved in handling phosgene (these badges permit immediate estimation of the exposure dose in each individual case); Observation of the initial irritative symptoms of the eye and the upper respiratory tract after phosgene inhalation can provide a rough indication of the inhalation concentration and dose; X-ray photographs of the lungs make it possible to detect incipient toxic pulmonary edema at an early stage, during the clinical latent period. A number of additional parameters require further critical investigation.

  15. Rational design of fluorescent phosgene sensors.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Pradip; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2012-05-15

    Phosgene is a very toxic gas, which was used as a chemical weapon in World War I, and is currently widely used in industrial processes. So far, no any phosgene fluorescent sensor has been reported. In this study, we report rational design of unimolecular fluorescent phosgene sensors for the first time. Phosgene was used to initiate intramolecular cyclization and convert nonfluorescent molecules to highly fluorescent products. Bright blue fluorescence of phosgene reaction products can be easily visualized by naked eye. The detection limit for phosgene is as low as 1 nM in solutions at room temperature.

  16. Battlefield radiology

    PubMed Central

    Graham, R N J

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing tempo of military conflicts in the last decade, much has been learnt about imaging battlefield casualties in the acute setting. Ultrasound in the form of focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST) has proven invaluable in emergency triage of patients for immediate surgery. Multidetector CT allows accurate determination of battlefield trauma injuries. It permits the surgeons and anaesthetists to plan their interventions more thoroughly and to be made aware of clinically occult injuries. There are common injury patterns associated with blast injury, gunshot wounds and blunt trauma. While this body of knowledge is most applicable to the battlefield, there are parallels with peacetime radiology, particularly in terrorist attacks and industrial accidents. This pictorial review is based on the experiences of a UK radiologist deployed in Afghanistan in 2010. PMID:22806621

  17. A FRET approach to phosgene detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hexiang; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-03-28

    A FRET approach towards potential detection of phosgene is presented, which is based on a selective chemical reaction between phosgene (or triphosgene as a simulant) and donor and acceptor fluorophores.

  18. Mortality and causes of death among workers exposed to phosgene in 1943-45

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.; Hollis, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    Mortality and causes of death from death certificates were analyzed among workers exposed to phosgene while working at a uranium-processing plant in Tennessee in 1943-45. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by using death rates for U.S. white males. As of 1979, SMRs for all causes and for various selected causes were similar in 694 male chemical workers chronically exposed to low levels of phosgene in 1943-45 and in 9280 male controls who worked at the same plant. SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system were 107 (14 observed vs. 13.07 expected) in the chemical workers and 119 (292 observed vs. 245.75 expected) in the controls. In a group of 106 males who were acutely exposed to high levels of phosgene, there were 41 deaths observed vs. 33.87 expected (SMR = 121; 95% confidence limits = 86 and 165). One death, occurring within 24 hours of exposure, was from pulmonary edema due to phosgene poisoning (coded to accidental causes). Five deaths were coded to diseases of the respiratory system (SMR = 266; 95% CL = 86 and 622); in 2 of these 5 deaths, bronchitis due to phosgene exposure had been reported in 1945. Among 91 female workers with acute high-level phosgene exposure, frequencies of symptoms and early health effects (pneumonitis and bronchitis) differed from those reported for the 106 male cases; preliminary data on vital status of these females are too incomplete for analysis, and further follow-up is needed.

  19. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The container or bottle from the medicine or ...

  20. [Effect of acute phosgene inhalation on antioxidant enzymes, nitric oxide and nitric-oxide synthase in rats].

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-jun; Hai, Chun-xu; Liang, Xin; Wang, Peng; Chen, Hong-li; Liu, Rui

    2004-06-01

    To study the effect of acute phosgene inhalation on the antioxidant enzymes, nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rats. Phosgene was produced by decomposing bis (trichdomethyl) carbonate in the presence of N,N-dimethyl formamide. SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and phosgene exposure groups. In a special experimental device with equipment modulating the gas flow, phosgene exposed rats inhaled phosgene quantitatively for five minutes. Two hours later, all the rats were sacrificed and the ratio of wet weight to dried weight of lung (WW/DW) was calculated. Peripheral blood, serum and liver were collected to examine the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), NOS, and NO level. The total content of proteins were also determined. The WW/DW ratio of lung in phosgene exposure group was much higher than that in control group (P < 0.01). The activities of GST in serum and liver of phosgene exposure group increased significantly (P < 0.05). The activities of SOD, CAT, GSHPx and NOS in serum or blood and liver of phosgene exposure group were also increased significantly (P < 0.05). But the content of NO was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Acute phosgene inhalation may cause a dramatically changes of several antioxidant enzyme activities, and acute injury of liver to some extent in rats. The latter is related to reactive oxygen species. But the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities suggests that antioxidative treatment for acute phosgene poisoning should not be considered first.

  1. Battlefield Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-15

    A study analyzing battlefield visualization (BV) as a component of information dominance and superiority. This study outlines basic requirements for effective BV in terms of terrain data, information systems (synthetic environment; COA development and analysis tools) and BV development management, with a focus on technology insertion strategies. This study also reports on existing BV systems and provides 16 recommendations for Army BV support efforts, including interested organization, funding levels and duration of effort for each recommended action.

  2. Attenuation of phosgene toxicity. Final report, 30 November 1992-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, W.D.

    1995-10-01

    Certain inhaled toxins, e.g., phosgene and other oxidant gases, can trigger a debilitating and usually fatal form of respiratory distress. Presently, there is no antidote for such lung-damaging agents. We have completed a comprehensive examination of surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) as a counter-measure against these agents which damage the pulmonary surfactant system of the alveolar and respiratory bronchiolar airways. Exogenous pulmonary surfactant was administered either by intratracheal instillation or by aerosol to male Sprague-Dawley rats that had been exposed to 40.5 ppm phosgene gas for 10 minutes in a Cannon type (nose-only) chamber (the LCt50, 24-hour) in order to assess treatment effects on tissue edema, lung function and survival. Phosgene exposure was found to have an adverse effect on the surface activity of the endogenous pulmonary surfactant system in these exposed rats. Surfactant replacement helped to restore this activity. SRT did not prevent massive outpouring of edema water which marks the clinical phase of phosgene poisoning, nor did it alleviate the attending decline in lung function. Nonetheless, SRT was found to significantly reduce mortality from exposure to the toxin. Our findings suggest that SRT may be the first effective countermeasure for US military personnel following lethal phosgene exposure.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Phosgene (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Phosgene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Phosgene and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  4. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF PHOSGENE (2006 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Phosgene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Phosgene and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Phosgene (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Phosgene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Phosgene and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  6. Mortality among men occupationally exposed to phosgene in 1943-1945

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.

    1980-08-01

    Mortality and causes of death as reported on death certificates were described among white male workers exposed to phosgene in 1943 to 1945 at a uranium-processing plant in Tennessee. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by using death rates for United States white males. As of 1974, SMRs for all causes and for various selected causes were similar in 699 chemical workers chronically exposed to low levels of phosgene (and to daily episodes of levels above 1 ppM) and in 9352 controls who worked at the same plant. SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system were 78 and 113 in the chemical workers and controls, respectively. A group of 106 male chemical and other workers was acutely exposed to higher levels of phosgene (i.e., above 50 ppM, based on clinical symptoms), and 25 had X-ray evidence of acute pneumonitis. Among the 106 men, one death from pulmonary edema due to phosgene poisoning occurred less than 24 hr after exposure, and a total of 30 deaths occurred as of 1974 (SMR = 113); there were no deaths from lung cancer, but three deaths (vs 1.37 expected) were due to respiratory diseases. Further follow-up of these groups is needed, including data on morbidity as well as mortality.

  7. Battlefield Acupuncture: Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    ACUPUNCTURE UPDATE 3 4C FIG. 3. Near-infrared spectroscopic measurements during electrical stimulation of battlefield acupuncture points in a 35-year-old fe...However, we have demonstrated for the first time that electric stimulation of the Battlefield Acupuncture points using an electric current, (1 mA), a...Battlefield Acupuncture points leads to dis- tinctive, reproducible changes in brain function. Perhaps comparatively small electric currents lead to similar

  8. COLCHICINE DECREASES AIRWAY HYPERACTIVITY AFTER PHOSGENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene (COCl(2)) exposure affects an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung, which can be reduced in an animal model by pretreatment with colchicine. Inflammation in the respiratory tract can be associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity. We tested the hypotheses...

  9. Diffusion of phosgene (1); water (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) phosgene; (2) water

  10. Diffusion of air (1); phosgene (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) phosgene

  11. COLCHICINE DECREASES AIRWAY HYPERACTIVITY AFTER PHOSGENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene (COCl(2)) exposure affects an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung, which can be reduced in an animal model by pretreatment with colchicine. Inflammation in the respiratory tract can be associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity. We tested the hypotheses...

  12. Carbochlorination of a metal oxide mixture with phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.J.; Burnet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of the carbochlorination with phosgene of an alumina-silica mixture derived from power plant coal fly ash are reported for a temperature range of 450 to 800/sup 0/C and a phosgene partial pressure range of 0.02 to 0.90 atm. The reaction is first order with respect to phosgene partial pressure and the shrinking core model predicts conversion vs time.

  13. Research and development of a stationary source method for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Coppedge, E.A.; Johnson, L.D.; Steger, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Phosgene is listed as one of the hazardous air pollutants in title I of the Clean Air Act. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas at standard temperature and pressure and has been used in military applications and for a variety of industrial uses. Although various methods have been developed for detection of phosgene in ambient air, no method is directly applicable to stationary source emissions. The EPA has an on-going research project to develop a field ready protocol for phosgene from stationary source emissions. The results of the derivatization studies, sampling train experiments and other laboratory work will be shown.

  14. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with phosgene. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of phosgene in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on (1) the types of sources that may emit phosgene, (2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for phosgene release into the air from each operation.

  15. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    SciTech Connect

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  16. Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J C

    2012-12-01

    The combatant soldier on the battlefield remains protected from any claim in negligence by the doctrine of combat immunity for any negligent act or omission they may make when fighting. In other words, the combatant soldier does not owe a fellow soldier a duty of care on the battlefield, as the duty of care is non-justiciable. However, the non-combatant Military Healthcare Professional, although sometimes operating in the same hostile circumstances as the fighting soldier, is unlikely to benefit from combat immunity for any clinical negligence on the battlefield. This is because they continue to owe their patient a duty of care, although this has not been tested in the courts. This paper considers if any military healthcare professional could ever benefit from combat immunity, which is unlikely due to their non-combatant status. Instead, this paper suggests that a modified form of immunity; namely, Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity could be a new, unique and viable doctrine, however, this could only be granted in rare circumstances and to a much lesser degree than combat immunity.

  17. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    DOEpatents

    Freund, S.M.

    1983-09-20

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method. 5 figs.

  18. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, Samuel M.

    1983-01-01

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that is is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  19. Furosemide in the treatment of phosgene induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Grainge, C; Smith, A J; Jugg, B J; Fairhall, S J; Mann, T; Perrott, R; Jenner, J; Millar, T; Rice, P

    2010-12-01

    Using previously validated methods, 16 anaesthetised large white pigs were exposed to phosgene (target inhaled dose 0.3 mg kg(-1)), established on mechanical ventilation and randomised to treatment with either nebulised furosemide (4 ml of 10 mg x ml(-1) solution) or saline control. Treatments were given at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16 and 20 hours post phosgene exposure; the animals were monitored to 24 hours following phosgene exposure. Furosemide treatment had no effect on survival, and had a deleterious effect on PaO2: FiO2 ratio between 19 and 24 hours. All other measures investigated were unaffected by treatment. Nebulised furosemide treatment following phosgene induced acute lung injury does not improve survival and worsens PaO2: FiO2 ratio. Nebulised furosemide should be avoided following phosgene exposure.

  20. Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for phosgene (CG).

    PubMed

    Glass, Dana; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi

    2009-12-01

    The Provisional Advisory Level (PAL) protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. For background on the PAL program and a description of the methodology used in deriving PALs, the reader is referred to accompanying papers in this Supplement. Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in World War I. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality, with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30- and 90-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These inhalation values were also accepted as the 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values because severity of lesions in the key study did not increase when exposures were extended from 4 weeks to 12 weeks. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  1. Gas chromatographic determination of phosgene and dichloroacetylene in air1

    PubMed Central

    Jeltes, R.; Burghardt, E.; Breman, J.

    1971-01-01

    Jeltes, R., Burghardt, E., and Breman, J. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 96-99. Gas chromatographic determination of phosgene and dichloroacetylene in air. Phosgene and dichloroacetylene vapours may be present in the working environment near places where chlorinated hydrocarbons are used, including exposure chambers and the like in which people or animals are deliberately exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbons to investigate the effects of these substances. A gas liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sub-Threshold Limit Value concentrations of phosgene and dichloroacetylene. Using electron capture detection, concentrations from 0·02 ppm of each compound could be determined. Images PMID:5543634

  2. [Household gas poisonings].

    PubMed

    Maloca, Ivana; Macan, Jelena; Varnai, Veda Marija; Turk, Rajka

    2006-12-01

    Exposure to toxic gases which can induce serious health effects, can occur in the working as well as in general environment, including home. The severity of gas poisoning is determined by its physical and chemical characteristics, intensity and duration of exposure, and concomitant diseases and injuries in the poisoned person. Manifestations of gas toxic action involve simple asphyxia, local irritation of respiratory mucosa, systemic toxicity, and a combination of these mechanisms. This article describes the characteristics, modes of exposure and health effects of most common gases causing poisoning at home. These include gas fuels, carbon monoxide, ammonia, chlorine, and fire gases such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides, hydrogen cyanide and phosgene. First aid as well as preventive measures to avoid exposure to toxic gases and prevent fire at home are also given. The Croatian Poison Control Centre gathered data on toxic gas exposures in households between November 2005 and July 2006. During this period 30 persons (3 % of the total number of cases) were exposed to toxic gases at home, including carbon monoxide, irritating vapours from cleaning agents and disinfectants, gas fuels, septic tank gases, tear-gas, and chlorofluorocarbons from refrigerators.

  3. Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.

    1997-03-01

    One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

  4. Colchicine decreases airway hyperreactivity after phosgene exposure.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew; Lehmann, James; Winsett, Darrell; Richards, Judy; Costa, Daniel

    2005-05-01

    Phosgene (COCl(2)) exposure affects an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung, which can be reduced in an animal model by pretreatment with colchicine. Inflammation in the respiratory tract can be associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity. We tested the hypotheses that (1) phosgene exposure increases airway reactivity and (2) colchicine can decrease this elevation. Sprague Dawley rats (70 d old; male) were exposed to 1 ppm COCl(2) for 1 h. Airway reactivity was tested at 0, 4, and 24 h postexposure by infusing anesthetized animals intravenously with acetylcholine and assessing expiratory resistance and dynamic compliance. Immediately and 4 h postexposure, a significant change in expiratory resistance and dynamic compliance was observed in those animals exposed to COCl(2), while at 24 h this response was greater. A second experiment was performed in rats pretreated with colchicine (1 mg/kg) or saline given intraperitoneally, exposed to 1 ppm COCl(2) for 1 h, with both expiratory resistance and dynamic compliance assessed at 24 h. After exposure, cell differentials and protein in lavage were also quantitated. The results indicate that colchicine decreased neutrophil influx, protein accumulation, and changes in both expiratory resistance and dynamic compliance after COCl(2) exposure. Colchicine may affect injury and changes in expiratory resistance and dynamic compliance by diminishing the incursion of inflammatory cells, but other properties of this medication may also be responsible for the observed results.

  5. BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010892 TITLE: BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System DISTRIBUTION...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP010865 thru. ADP010894 UNCLASSIFIED 27-1 BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System Simon Julier... future military operations are expected to occur overload, we have developed an intelligent filter which in urban environments. These complex, 3D

  6. Global phosgene observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dejian; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Walker, Kaley A.; Nassar, Ray; Manney, Gloria L.; McLeod, Sean D.

    2007-09-01

    The first study of the global distribution of atmospheric phosgene (COCl2) has been performed using solar occultation measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission. A total of 5614 measured profiles spanning the period February 2004 through May 2006 were used in the study. The phosgene concentrations display a zonally symmetric pattern with the maximum concentration located approximately over the equator at about 25 km in altitude and the concentration decreases towards the poles. A layer of enhanced concentration of phosgene spans the lower stratosphere over all latitudes, with volume mixing ratios of 20-60 pptv. The ACE observations show lower phosgene concentrations in the stratosphere than were obtained from previous observations in the 1980s and 1990s. This has been attributed to a significant decrease in its source species, particularly two major sources CH3CCl3 and CCl4, since the introduction of restrictions required by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments.

  7. Quantitative determination of phosgene doses by reflectometric badge readout.

    PubMed

    Niessner, Reinhard

    2010-07-01

    Commercial phosgene dosimeter badges are lacking precise and sensitive analysis when used only by visual comparison to a color reference. To meet the discussed occupational standard set to 54 ppm min, objective quantification by reflectance measurement is proposed. At 573 nm, the pink dye ("Koenig's salt") formed at the membrane surface by reaction of phosgene, and aromatic amine shows a strict linear relationship in reflectance between doses of 10 and 300 ppm min. The detection limit is calculated to 29 ppm min.

  8. NOS-2 Inhibition in Phosgene-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Filipczak, Piotr T; Senft, Albert P; Seagrave, JeanClare; Weber, Waylon; Kuehl, Philip J; Fredenburgh, Laura E; McDonald, Jacob D; Baron, Rebecca M

    2015-07-01

    Phosgene exposure via an industrial or warfare release produces severe acute lung injury (ALI) with high mortality, characterized by massive pulmonary edema, disruption of epithelial tight junctions, surfactant dysfunction, and oxidative stress. There are no targeted treatments for phosgene-induced ALI. Previous studies demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) is upregulated in the lungs after phosgene exposure; however, the role of NOS-2 in the pathogenesis of phosgene-induced ALI remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that NOS-2 expression in lung epithelium exacerbates inhaled endotoxin-induced ALI in mice, mediated partially through downregulation of surfactant protein B (SP-B) expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that a selective NOS-2 inhibitor delivered to the lung epithelium by inhalation would mitigate phosgene-induced ALI. Inhaled phosgene produced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein, histologic lung injury, and lung NOS-2 expression at 24 h. Administration of the selective NOS-2 inhibitor 1400 W via inhalation, but not via systemic delivery, significantly attenuated phosgene-induced ALI and preserved epithelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, aerosolized 1400 W augmented expression of SP-B and prevented downregulation of tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), both critical for maintenance of normal lung physiology and barrier integrity. We also demonstrate for the first time that NOS-2-derived nitric oxide downregulates the ZO-1 expression at the transcriptional level in human lung epithelial cells, providing a novel target for ameliorating vascular leak in ALI. Our data demonstrate that lung NOS-2 plays a critical role in the development of phosgene-induced ALI and suggest that aerosolized NOS-2 inhibitors offer a novel therapeutic strategy for its treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  9. NOS-2 Inhibition in Phosgene-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Filipczak, Piotr T.; Senft, Albert P.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Weber, Waylon; Kuehl, Philip J.; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Baron, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Phosgene exposure via an industrial or warfare release produces severe acute lung injury (ALI) with high mortality, characterized by massive pulmonary edema, disruption of epithelial tight junctions, surfactant dysfunction, and oxidative stress. There are no targeted treatments for phosgene-induced ALI. Previous studies demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) is upregulated in the lungs after phosgene exposure; however, the role of NOS-2 in the pathogenesis of phosgene-induced ALI remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that NOS-2 expression in lung epithelium exacerbates inhaled endotoxin-induced ALI in mice, mediated partially through downregulation of surfactant protein B (SP-B) expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that a selective NOS-2 inhibitor delivered to the lung epithelium by inhalation would mitigate phosgene-induced ALI. Inhaled phosgene produced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein, histologic lung injury, and lung NOS-2 expression at 24 h. Administration of the selective NOS-2 inhibitor 1400 W via inhalation, but not via systemic delivery, significantly attenuated phosgene-induced ALI and preserved epithelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, aerosolized 1400 W augmented expression of SP-B and prevented downregulation of tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), both critical for maintenance of normal lung physiology and barrier integrity. We also demonstrate for the first time that NOS-2-derived nitric oxide downregulates the ZO-1 expression at the transcriptional level in human lung epithelial cells, providing a novel target for ameliorating vascular leak in ALI. Our data demonstrate that lung NOS-2 plays a critical role in the development of phosgene-induced ALI and suggest that aerosolized NOS-2 inhibitors offer a novel therapeutic strategy for its treatment. PMID:25870319

  10. Battlefield spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  11. An AIE-based fluorescent test strip for the portable detection of gaseous phosgene.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiting; Wu, Yinglong; Zeng, Fang; Chen, Junjie; Wu, Shuizhu

    2017-08-29

    An AIE-based fluorescent test strip (OPD-TPE-Py-2CN) for rapid and sensitive detection of gaseous phosgene was designed. The fluorescence changes from blue to green upon exposure to phosgene. And the detection limit (1.87 ppm) is lower than the "harmless" level of human response to acute phosgene exposure.

  12. Microsurveillance of the Urban Battlefield,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    dominance. The framework within which it is imag- ined that this can be done is the creation of a " digital battlefield" in which intelligence of all kinds is...the digital battlefield lives up to its military promise, its develop- ment would confer a substantial long-term military advantage on US forces over...communication links between the sensors and the users of data. The technology of UAVs per se is maturing rapidly, but, in this application, we need to

  13. Characterizing Injury among Battlefield Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2014-0014 Characterizing Injury among Battlefield Airmen Genny M. Maupin, MPH; Mark J. Kinchen, MS; Brittany...DATES COVERED (From – To) November 2011 – April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterizing Injury among Battlefield Airmen 5a. CONTRACT...required to train and maintain this elite group may be burdened by attrition and shortened careers due to illness and injury . Critical in aiding injury

  14. Battlefield applications of anemometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bober, Tomas; Rophael, David; Recchia, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    The work presented within examines the performance of mechanical and electronic anemometers in battlefield applications. The goals of the study were to determine the utility of a local anemometer in quasi-combat engagements for direct fire weapon systems, to observe the limitations of each type of anemometer, and to determine which measurement method results in the most accurate ballistic correction. These goals are accomplished by combining a ballistic trajectory model, a turbulent wind field model, a sensor response model, and a fire control model into a single larger scale simulation that utilizes a Monte Carlo approach. The results of this effort showed that utilizing either a mechanical anemometer or an electronic anemometer with a relatively long averaging window produced the most accurate ballistic wind correction.

  15. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... the person will have a complete recovery. Sniffing Freon is extremely dangerous and can lead to long- ...

  16. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Cristian R; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M; Fernández, Berta

    2013-05-09

    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and double augmented (Ne and Ar complexes) correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-ζ basis sets extended with a set of 3s3p2d1f1g midbond functions. These basis sets were selected after systematic basis set studies carried out at geometries close to those of the surface minima. The He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene surfaces were found to have absolute minima of -72.1, -140.4, and -326.6 cm(-1) at distances between the rare-gas atom and the phosgene center of mass of 3.184, 3.254, and 3.516 Å, respectively. The potentials were further used in the evaluation of rovibrational states and the rotational constants of the complexes, providing valuable results for future experimental investigations. Comparing our results to those previously available for other phosgene complexes, we suggest that the results for Cl2-phosgene should be revised.

  17. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  18. Results from the US industry-wide phosgene surveillance: the Diller Registry.

    PubMed

    Collins, James J; Molenaar, Donald M; Bowler, Larry O; Harbourt, Tom J; Carson, Michael; Avashia, Bipin; Calhoun, Teresa; Vitrano, Craig; Ameis, Paul; Chalfant, Richard; Howard, Pete

    2011-03-01

    In 2004, The American Chemistry Council Phosgene Panel established a phosgene exposure registry among US phosgene producers with the primary purpose of monitoring health outcome information for workers with acute exposure. We examine symptoms among 338 workers with phosgene exposure. The phosgene exposures averaged 8.3 ppm-minutes ranging up to 159 ppm-minutes with most exposures below 10 ppm-minutes. We found that the level of phosgene exposure in ppm-minutes was related to workers reporting mostly irritation symptoms of the nose, throat and eyes within 48 hours of exposure. However, we found no relationship between phosgene exposure and the presence of symptoms 30 days after exposure. These findings lend credence to the theory that prolonged respiratory effects do not occur with doses less than 150 ppm-minutes.

  19. On sources and sinks of phosgene in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, G.; Wilson, S. R.

    Source and sink processes of phosgene (COCl 2) in the troposphere are reviewed. Sources are identified as decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons in both troposphere and stratosphere, which can be expected to increase in the future. Sinks are dry deposition and hydrolysis which, within clouds, is of the time scale of hours, and photolysis, which will not be of importance in the troposphere. Though above the cloud layer the lifetime of phosgene is expected to be greater than 10 years, hydrolysis during the transit through clouds and dry deposition will be the dominant sink, leading to an estimated residence time of approximately a few days.

  20. Temporal changes in respiratory dynamics in mice exposed to phosgene.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Lee, Robyn B; Forster, Jeffry S; Cascio, Matthew B; Clapp, Diana L; Moran, Ted S

    2002-05-01

    One hallmark of phosgene inhalation toxicity is the latent formation of life-threatening, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosgene inhalation on respiratory dynamics over 12 h. CD-1 male mice, 25-30 g, were exposed to 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min (640 mg min/m(3)) followed by a 5-min air washout. A similar group of mice was exposed to room air for 25 min. After exposure, conscious mice were placed unrestrained in a whole-body plethysmograph to determine breathing frequency (f), inspiration (Ti) and expiration (Te) times, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (MV), end inspiratory pause (EIP), end expiratory (EEP) pause, peak inspiratory flows (PIF), peak expiratory flows (PEF), and a measure of bronchoconstriction (Penh). All parameters were evaluated every 15 min for 12 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein concentration and lung wet/dry weight ratios (W/D) were also determined at 1, 4, 8, and 12 h. A treatment x time repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between air and phosgene for EEP, EIP, PEF, PIF, TV, and MV, p < or =.05, across 12 h. Phosgene-exposed mice had a significantly longer mean Ti, p < or =.05, compared with air-exposed mice over time. Mice exposed to phosgene showed marked increases (approximately double) in Penh across all time points, beginning at 5 h, when compared with air-exposed mice, p < or =.05. BALF protein, an indicator of air/blood barrier integrity, and W/D were significantly higher, 10- to 12-fold, in phosgene-exposed than in air-exposed mice 4-12 h after exposure, p phosgene causes early bronchoconstriction, a temporal obstructivelike injury pattern, and disruption of mechanical rhythm largely regulated by the progressive production of pulmonary edema on airway flow. Potential therapeutic intervention may include compounds that

  1. Battlefield awareness computers: the engine of battlefield digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jackson; Chamseddine, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    To modernize the army for the 21st century, the U.S. Army Digitization Office (ADO) initiated in 1995 the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade-and-Below (FBCB2) Applique program which became a centerpiece in the U.S. Army's master plan to win future information wars. The Applique team led by TRW fielded a 'tactical Internet' for Brigade and below command to demonstrate the advantages of 'shared situation awareness' and battlefield digitization in advanced war-fighting experiments (AWE) to be conducted in March 1997 at the Army's National Training Center in California. Computing Devices is designated the primary hardware developer for the militarized version of the battlefield awareness computers. The first generation of militarized battlefield awareness computer, designated as the V3 computer, was an integration of off-the-shelf components developed to meet the agressive delivery requirements of the Task Force XXI AWE. The design efficiency and cost effectiveness of the computer hardware were secondary in importance to delivery deadlines imposed by the March 1997 AWE. However, declining defense budgets will impose cost constraints on the Force XXI production hardware that can only be met by rigorous value engineering to further improve design optimization for battlefield awareness without compromising the level of reliability the military has come to expect in modern military hardened vetronics. To answer the Army's needs for a more cost effective computing solution, Computing Devices developed a second generation 'combat ready' battlefield awareness computer, designated the V3+, which is designed specifically to meet the upcoming demands of Force XXI (FBCB2) and beyond. The primary design objective is to achieve a technologically superior design, value engineered to strike an optimal balance between reliability, life cycle cost, and procurement cost. Recognizing that the diverse digitization demands of Force XXI cannot be adequately met by any one computer hardware

  2. Diffusion of phosgene (1); water (2); sodium nitrate (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) phosgene; (2) water; (3) sodium nitrate

  3. Apoptosis of ATII cells in mice induced by phosgene.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Liang, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-di; Chen, Hong-li; Qin, Xu-jun; Liu, Riu; He, Wei; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Phosgene inhalation can induced pulmonary edema formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate cell of apoptosis in pulmonary edema mice induced by phosgene. Fifty-two BALB/c mice were random divided into a negative group and a positive group with 26 mice in each. Mice were exposed for 5 min to air and phosgene in the negative group and in the positive one, respectively. The dose of phosgene was 539 ppm. After 4 h of exposure, all mice were anesthetized. Lungs were analyzed for lung wet/dry weight ratio and pathological alternation. The method of isolation and culture of alveolar type II cells (ATII cells) was established to observe their apoptosis by electron microscope and flow cytometry. Apoptosis of lung cells was observed by DNA gel electrophoresis and TUNEL. The lung wet/dry weight ratio was significantly higher in the positive group (6.42 +/- 1.00) than in the negative group (4.25 +/- 0.47, p < 0.05). A large amount of fluid effusion was observed in the alveolus of mice induced by phosgene. Alveolar type II cells were identified by tannic acid staining and electron microscope. The apoptotic signs in alveolar type II cells, alveolar type I cells, eosinophils, macrophages, symphocytes, and ciliated cells were viewed under electron microscope in positive group. The ratio of apoptosis cells (40.26 +/- 7.74) in positive was higher than that (1.58 +/- 1.01, p < 0.001) in the negative group by flow cytometry. DNA ladder alternation was seen through DNA gel electrophoresis. Apoptosis of epithelia and vascular endothelia in lung were found by TUNEL. These results indicate that there is success in establishing a model of pulmonary edema and method of isolation and culture of AT II cells in BALB/c mice. Phosgene can induce apoptosis of cells in the lungs of BALB/c mice, and this indicates that pulmonary edema is related to apoptosis of lung cells in mice, induced by phosgene.

  4. Inhaled nitric oxide aggravates phosgene model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Li; Hai, Chun-Xu; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The principal acute mode of action of inhaled phosgene gas is related to an increase alveolar fluid exudation under pathologic conditions. This paper considers some aspects in modeling phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in an acute rat bioassay and whether edema formation can be modulated by inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Protein analysis in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is amongst the most sensitive method to quantify the phosgene-induced non-cardiogenic, pulmonary high-permeability edema following acute inhalation exposure. Maximum concentrations in BAL-protein occur within one day postexposure, typically within a latency period up to about 15 h as a consequence of an increasingly exhausted lymphatic drainage. An almost similar sensitivity was given by the functional endpoint 'enhanced pause (Penh)' when measured by non-invasive whole-body barometric plethysmography over a time period of 20 h. The magnitude of edema formation follows a concentration x time (C¹xt) relationship, although animal model-specific deviations may occur at very short exposure durations (1-20 min) due to a rodent-specific, reflexively induced transient decreased ventilation. This has to be accounted for when simulating accidental exposure scenarios to study the mechanisms involved in pharmacological modulation of fluid transport in this type of ALI. Therefore, a special focus has to be given to the dosimetry of inhaled phosgene, otherwise any change in effect magnitude, as a result of under-dosing of phosgene, may be misconceived as promising therapy. This study demonstrates that accidental exposures can be modeled best in rats by exposure durations of at least 20-30 min. Lung function measurements (Penh) show that pathophysiological effects appear to occur concomitant with the exposure to phosgene; however, its full clinical manifestation requires a gross imbalance of pulmonary fluid clearance. When applying this concept, post-phosgene exposure iNO at 1.5 ppm × 6 h or

  5. Kinetics of coal fly ash chlorination by phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between phosgene and a fly ash composed of 97 weight percent alumina and silica has been studied over a temperature range of 450 to 800/sup 0/C and a phosgene partial pressure range of 0.02 to 0.9 atm. A microbalance was used in obtaining initial conversion rate and extended conversion-time data, and B.E.T. surface areas and specific phosgene chemisorption weights as functions of conversion. Intrinsic kinetic parameters and constant alumina to silica molar reaction ratio were determined over a fly ash conversion range of 0 to 0.375. The reaction is first order with respect to phosgene partial pressure. The shrinking-core model was successfully applied to predict fly ash conversion versus time data for the full phosgene partial pressure range and for temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C. An activation energy of 40.8 kcal/M and a frequency factor of 4.7E07 cm/min were used in the model. The results of the kinetic study were utilized in the preliminary design of a fly ash chlorination reactor. It is predicted that four reactors with beds 3 m in diameter and 2.36 m tall could process the 272,000 metric tons of fly ash collected annually by a 1000 megawatt power station. Spherical pellets with a diameter of 0.25 cm would be reacted at 700/sup 0/C to recover 67% of the alumina and 13% of the silica. 71 references, 24 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Phosgene exposure: a case of accidental industrial exposure.

    PubMed

    Hardison, Lewis S; Wright, Edward; Pizon, Anthony F

    2014-03-01

    Phosgene is a rare exposure with strong clinical implications. We report a phosgene exposure that resulted in the patient's death. A 58 year-old man arrived to the emergency department 1 hour after exposure to phosgene with complaints of a sore throat. Initial vital signs were blood pressure 175/118 mmHg, heart rate 98/min, respirations 12/min, and oxygen saturation of 93% on room air. Physical exam revealed few scattered rhonchi, without signs of distress. Initial arterial blood gases (ABG's) revealed pH 7.42, pCO2 43 mmHg, pO2 68 mmHg, HCO3 27 meq/L, and oxygen saturation of 93% on room air. Initial chest x-ray 2 hours after the exposure demonstrated clear lung fields. Approximately 2.5 hours after the exposure, he began complaining of dyspnea, restlessness and his oxygen saturation dropped below 90%. He received nebulized albuterol, 1 gram intravenous methylprednisolone, and 100 % oxygen via face mask. Minimal improvement was noted and he was intubated. The post intubation chest x-ray, 3.5 hours after the exposure, revealed diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Acetylcysteine, terbutaline, and IV steroids were administered without improvement. The patient died 30 hours after exposure. There are many misunderstandings concerning phosgene due to its rare presentation. Traditional treatment modalities are often unproven in human trials and were unsuccessful in this case. This case highlights the significant toxicity that results from phosgene exposure and the challenges of the limited treatment modalities. There is concern for the use of this agent in chemical terrorism.

  7. Kinetics of coal fly ash chlorination by phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between phosgene and a fly ash composed of 97 weight percent alumina and silica was studied over a temperature range of 450 to 800/sup 0/C and a phosgene partial pressure range of 0.02 to 0.9 atm. A microbalance was used in obtaining initial conversion rate and extended conversion-time data, and B.E.T. surface areas and specific phosgene chemisorption weights as functions of conversion. Intrinsic kinetic parameters and a constant alumina to silica molar reaction ratio were determined over a fly ash conversion range of 0 to 0.375. The reaction is first order with respect to phosgene partial pressure. The shrinking-core model was successfully applied to predict fly ash conversion versus time data for the full phosgene partial pressure range and for temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C. An activation energy of 40.8 kcal/g-M and a frequency factor of 4.7EO7 cm/min were used in the model. The results of the kinetic study were utilized in the preliminary design of a fly ash chlorination reactor. It is predicted that four reactors with beds 3 m in diameter and 2.36 m tall could process the 272,000 metric tons of fly ash collected annually by a 1000 megawatt power station. Spherical pellets with a diameter of 0.25 cm would be reacted at 700/sup 0/C to recover 67% of the alumina and 13% of the silica.

  8. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... know what causes poison ivy rash? It’s the sap oil that’s made by poison ivy plants that’s ... poison ivy plant; stem, leaves, root, fruit, and sap can cause an allergic reaction or contact dermatitis ...

  9. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  10. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Cologne poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Jimsonweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Deodorant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Philodendron poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Adsorption of phosgene molecule on the transition metal-doped graphene: First principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Sun, Hao; Wang, Fengdi; Zhang, Wanqiao; Tang, Shuwei; Ma, Junmei; Gong, Hongwei; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-12-01

    The adsorption of the phosgene molecule on pristine graphene and transition metal doped (TM = Zr, Mo, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co) graphene is investigated using the first principles method based on density functional theory. The nature of interaction between the phosgene molecule and pristine graphene or transition metal doped graphene (TM-doped graphene) is discovered by geometries, adsorption energies, Mulliken charge distribution, density of states analysis and UV spectrum. Computational results show that the interaction between the phosgene molecule and pristine graphene is a weak physisorption. But doping with transition metals results in stronger chemical adsorption. This is due to the formation of a chemical bond between the metal atom and oxygen atom of phosgene, which makes TM-doped graphene really promising material for phosgene removal. TM-doped graphene also exhibits different electronic properties after adsorbing phosgene, compared with pristine graphene. Furthermore, the calculations reveal that UV spectrum of the TM-doped graphene is modified by the phosgene adsorption. Thus, the significant variations in electronic and optical properties of the TM-doped graphene sheet as interacting with the phosgene can be utilized to detect the phosgene.

  5. Therapeutic treatments of phosgene-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Hurt, Holcombe H

    2004-07-01

    A series of studies was performed to address treatment against the former chemical warfare edemagenic gas phosgene. Both in situ and in vivo models were used to assess the efficacy of postexposure treatment of phosgene-induced lung injury using clinically existing drugs. The degree of efficacy was judged by examining treatment effects on pulmonary edema formation (PEF) as measured by wet/dry weight (WW/DW) ratios, real-time (in situ) lung weight gain (LWG), survival rates (SR), odds ratios, and glutathione (GSH) redox states. Drugs included N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ibuprofen (IBU), aminophylline (AMIN), and isoproterenol (ISO). Using the in situ isolated perfused rabbit lung model (IPRLM), intratracheal (IT) NAC (40 mg/kg bolus) delivered 45-60 min after phosgene exposure (650 mg/m(3)) for10 min lowered pulmonary artery pressure, LWG, leukotrienes (LT) C(4)/D(4)/E(4), lipid peroxidation, and oxidized GSH. We concluded that NAC protected against phosgene-induced lung injury by acting as an antioxidant by maintaining protective levels of GSH, reducing both lipid peroxidation and production of arachidonic acid metabolites. Also in IPRLM, administration of AMIN (30 mg/kg) 80-90 min after phosgene exposure significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and perfusate LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4), reduced LWG, and prevented phosgene-induced decreases in lung tissue cAMP. These data suggest that protective mechanisms observed with AMIN involve decreased LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4) mediated pulmonary capillary permeability and attenuated lipid peroxidation. Direct antipermeability effects of AMIN-induced upregulation of cAMP on cellular contraction may also be important in protection against phosgene-induced lung injury. Posttreatment with ISO in the IPRLM by either combined intravascular (iv; infused into pulmonary artery at 24 microg/min infused) + IT (24 microg bolus) or IT route alone 50-60 min after phosgene exposure significantly lowered pulmonary artery pressure, tracheal pressure, and LWG. ISO

  6. A ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor for selective and visual detection of phosgene in solutions and in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Lin; Zhong, Lin; Song, Qin-Hua

    2017-01-26

    A ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor, Phos-1, was constructed with 4,5-diaminonaphthalimide as a fluorophore for selective and visual detection of phosgene. The sensing mechanism was demonstrated to be the phosgene molecule acylating both amine groups of Phos-1. A test paper with Phos-1 was fabricated for facile, selective and visual detection of phosgene gas.

  7. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  8. [Apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice exposed to phosgene].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Yang, Chen; Li, Bo; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-di

    2005-08-01

    To study apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice with pulmonary edema induced by phosgene exposure. Thirty-two mice were divided into normal group and phosgene group with 16 mice in each group. The mice in phosgene group were exposed to phosgene (11.9 mg/L) for 5 min and those in the control group to air. Four hours after exposure, alveolar type II cells were isolated and cultured to observe their apoptosis by electron microscope and flow cytometry. The lung tissues were also taken for DNA gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in alveolar type II cells under electron microscope in phosgene group, which had higher cell apoptosis rate than the control group [(40.26+/-7.74)% vs (1.58+/-1.01)%, P<0.001] as determined by flow cytometry. Ladder-like DNA fragmentation pattern was observed in DNA gel electrophoresis in phosgene group with apoptosis of the pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells observed by TUNEL. Phosgene can induce pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis in mice, suggesting that the mechanism of phosgene-induced pulmonary edema involves apoptosis of the lung cells.

  9. Correlation between sPLA2-IIA and phosgene-induced rat acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Liang, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-di; Liu, Riu; Qin, Xu-jun

    2009-02-01

    Secreted phospholipase A(2) of group IIA (sPLA(2)-IIA) has been involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including acute lung injury. However, the specific role of sPLA(2)-IIA in phosgene-induced acute lung injury remains unidentified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between sPLA(2)-IIA activity and the severity of phosgene-induced acute lung injury. Adult male rats were randomly exposed to either normal room air (control group) or a concentration of 400 ppm phosgene (phosgene-exposed group) for there are 5 phosgene-exposed groups altogether. For the time points of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-exposure, one phosgene-exposed group was sacrificed at each time point. The severity of acute lung injury was assessed by Pa(O2)/F(IO2) ratio, wet-to-dry lung-weight ratio, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid protein concentration. sPLA(2)-IIA activity in BAL fluid markedly increased between 1 h and 12 h after phosgene exposure, and reached its highest level at 6 h. Moreover, the trend of this elevation correlated well with the severity of lung injury. These results indicate that sPLA(2)-IIA probably participates in phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

  10. A highly sensitive fluorogenic chemodosimeter for rapid visual detection of phosgene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuanjun; Wu, Zhisheng; Yang, Yuhui; Han, Shoufa

    2012-02-11

    A highly sensitive chemodosimeter was identified from a panel of rhodamine derivatives for rapid and visual detection of phosgene with a detection limit of 50 nM triphosgene. Visual detection of gaseous phosgene with chemodosimeter absorbed paper strips was demonstrated. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  11. Selective removal of phosgene impurity from boron trichloride by photochemical dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, R.C.; Freund, S.M.; Hartford, A. Jr.; Atencio, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using either a KrF excimer laser or an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to reduce substantially the phosgene impurity in a binary mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this technique.

  12. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride. [DOE patent application; mercury arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Freund, S.M.

    1981-09-03

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  13. Health assessment of phosgene: approaches for derivation of reference concentration.

    PubMed

    Gift, Jeffrey S; McGaughy, Robert; Singh, Dharm V; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the derivation of the chronic reference concentration (RfC) for human inhalation of phosgene that was recently added to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) data base (U.S. EPA, 2005. Toxicological Review of Phosgene: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Available online at: ). The RfC is an estimate of daily phosgene exposure to the human population that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. [For this and other definitions relevant to EPA risk assessments refer to the glossary of terms in the US EPA IRIS website (http://www.epa.gov/IRIS).] Phosgene is a potential environmental pollutant that is primarily used as a catalyst in the polyurethane industry. It is a gas at room temperature, and in aqueous solution it rapidly hydrolyzes to CO2 and HCl. In the absence of chronic human health effects information and lifetime animal cancer bioassays, the RfC is based on two 12-week inhalation studies in F344 rats which measured immune response and pulmonary effects, respectively. The immune response study showed impaired clearance of bacteria that was administered into the lungs of rats immediately after exposure to phosgene at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. It also showed that the immune response in uninfected rats was stimulated by phosgene exposure at all concentrations. The pulmonary effects study showed a progressive concentration-related thickening and inflammation in the bronchiolar regions of the lung that was mild at 0.1 ppm and severe at 1.0 ppm. An increase in collagen content, as observed with histological collagen stains, was observed at 0.2 ppm and above. Though there is considerable uncertainty associated with the species and exposure duration employed, this endpoint is considered an indication of chronic lung injury of potential relevance to humans. Three different

  14. The Highest Battlefield of the World : Medical Problems and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Jindal, A K

    2009-04-01

    The Indian Armed Forces Medical Services has been engaged in providing medical to the soldiers serving on Siachen Glacier for the last 25 years. This paper attempts to highlight the medical problems faced by troops on the world's highest battlefield as perceived by a medical officer located on the forward most medical echelon on Siachen Glacier. The medical problems on the glacier include high altitude pulmonary oedema, acute mountain sickness, frost bite chilblains, hypothermia, snow blindness, injury non enemy action due to avalanches, crevasses and fires, carbon monoxide poisoning and problems in disposal of nightsoil. A large number of problems are taken care of by following a well documented acclimatisation drill. However under such conditions providing medical support is a difficult task and requires innovations and improvisations entailing a high degree of mental mobility on the part of medical commanders and the Regimental Medical Officers located on the forward posts.

  15. Conceptual approaches for treatment of phosgene inhalation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Wesley W; Keyser, Brian M; Paradiso, Danielle C; Ray, Radharaman; Andres, Devon K; Benton, Betty J; Rothwell, Cristin C; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi M; Dillman, James F; Sciuto, Alfred M; Anderson, Dana R

    2016-02-26

    Toxic industrial chemicals are used throughout the world to produce everyday products such as household and commercial cleaners, disinfectants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plastics, paper, and fertilizers. These chemicals are produced, stored, and transported in large quantities, which poses a threat to the local civilian population in cases of accidental or intentional release. Several of these chemicals have no known medical countermeasures for their toxic effects. Phosgene is a highly toxic industrial chemical which was used as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Exposure to phosgene causes latent, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which can result in respiratory failure and death. The mechanisms of phosgene-induced pulmonary injury are not fully identified, and currently there is no efficacious countermeasure. Here, we provide a proposed mechanism of phosgene-induced lung injury based on the literature and from studies conducted in our lab, as well as provide results from studies designed to evaluate survival efficacy of potential therapies following whole-body phosgene exposure in mice. Several therapies were able to significantly increase 24h survival following an LCt50-70 exposure to phosgene; however, no treatment was able to fully protect against phosgene-induced mortality. These studies provide evidence that mortality following phosgene toxicity can be mitigated by neuro- and calcium-regulators, antioxidants, phosphodiesterase and endothelin receptor antagonists, angiotensin converting enzymes, and transient receptor potential cation channel inhibitors. However, because the mechanism of phosgene toxicity is multifaceted, we conclude that a single therapeutic is unlikely to be sufficient to ameliorate the multitude of direct and secondary toxic effects caused by phosgene inhalation.

  16. Conceptual Approaches for Treatment of Phosgene Inhalation-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Wesley W.; Keyser, Brian M.; Paradiso, Danielle C.; Ray, Radharaman; Andres, Devon K.; Benton, Betty J.; Rothwell, Cristin C.; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi M.; Dillman, James F.; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Anderson, Dana R.

    2015-01-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals are used throughout the world to produce everyday products such as household and commercial cleaners, disinfectants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plastics, paper, and fertilizers. These chemicals are produced, stored, and transported in large quantities, which poses a threat to the local civilian population in cases of accidental or intentional release. Several of these chemicals have no known medical countermeasures for their toxic effects. Phosgene is a highly toxic industrial chemical which was used as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Exposure to phosgene causes latent, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which can result in respiratory failure and death. The mechanisms of phosgene-induced pulmonary injury are not fully identified, and currently there is no efficacious countermeasure. Here, we provide a proposed mechanism of phosgene-induced lung injury based on the literature and from studies conducted in our lab, as well as provide results from studies designed to evaluate survival efficacy of potential therapies following whole-body phosgene exposure in mice. Several therapies were able to significantly increase 24 hr survival following an LCt50–70 exposure to phosgene; however, no treatment was able to fully protect against phosgene-induced mortality. These studies provide evidence that mortality following phosgene toxicity can be mitigated by neuro- and calcium-regulators, antioxidants, phosphodiesterase and endothelin receptor antagonists, angiotensin converting enzymes, and transient receptor potential cation channel inhibitors. However, because the mechanism of phosgene toxicity is multifaceted, we conclude that a single therapeutic is unlikely to be sufficient to ameliorate the multitude of direct and secondary toxic effects caused by phosgene inhalation. PMID:26562770

  17. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  18. Varnish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a clear liquid that is used as coating on woodwork and other products. Varnish poisoning occurs ... NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. ...

  19. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  20. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  1. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Poisoning Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  2. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... Where Found The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant ...

  3. Oleander poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Oleander poisoning occurs when someone eats the flowers or chews the leaves or stems of the ... found in all parts of the oleander plant: Flowers Leaves Stems Twigs Symptoms Oleander poisoning can affect ...

  4. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  5. Pathophysiological responses following phosgene exposure in the anaesthetized pig.

    PubMed

    Brown, R F R; Jugg, B J A; Harban, F M J; Ashley, Z; Kenward, C E; Platt, J; Hill, A; Rice, P; Watkins, P E

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a reproducible model of phosgene-induced lung injury in the pig to facilitate the future development of therapeutic strategies. Ten female young adult large white pigs were used. Following induction of anaesthesia using a halothane/oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture, arterial and venous catheters were inserted together with a pulmonary artery thermodilution catheter, and a suprapubic urinary catheter by laparotomy. Anaesthesia was maintained throughout the experiment by intravenous infusion of ketamine, midazolam and alfentanil. On completion of surgery the animals were allowed to equilibrate for 1 h and then were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5) was exposed to phosgene for 10 min (mean Ct = 2443 +/- 35 mg min m(-3)) while spontaneously breathing, whereas control animals (Group 2 n = 5) were exposed to air. At 30 min post-exposure, anaesthesia was deepened in order to allow the initiation of intermittent positive pressure ventilation and the animals were monitored for up to 24 h. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were monitored every 30 min and blood samples were taken for arterial and mixed venous blood gas analysis and clinical chemistry. A detailed post-mortem and histopathology was carried out on all animals following death or euthanasia at the end of the 24-h monitoring period. Control animals (Group 2) all survived until the end of the 24-h monitoring period with normal pathophysiological parameters. Histopathology showed only minimal passive congestion of the lung. Following exposure to phosgene (Group 1) there was one survivor to 24 h, with the remainder dying between 16.5 and 23 h (mean = 20 h). Histopathology from these animals showed areas of widespread pulmonary oedema, petechial haemorrhage and bronchial epithelial necrosis. There was also a significant increase in lung wet weight/body weight ratio (P < 0.001). During and immediately following exposure, a transient decrease in oxygen saturation and stroke volume

  6. Initial cross section for photodissociation of phosgene on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.-L.; White, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The initial cross section for UV photodissociation of phosgene (Cl2CO) on Ag(111) at 100 K has been measured. With photon energies greater than 2.6 eV, submonolayer Cl2CO is readily photodissociated to surface Cl(a) and gas phase CO(g). The evolution of CO during photodissociation is readily monitored and used to calculate the initial photodissociation rate and cross section. The cross section is higher than the gas phase absorption cross section and is in the range of 10-18-10-19 cm2. It depends on the wavelength and the Cl2CO coverage.

  7. Traces of phosgene in chloroform: consequences for extraction of anthracyclines.

    PubMed

    Maudens, Kristof E; Wille, Sarah M R; Lambert, Willy E

    2007-04-01

    Chloroform is commonly used to extract anthracyclines from various biological matrices. However, their determination can be seriously compromised by phosgene traces present as a result of failing stabilization of chloroform. Out of the three varieties in which chloroform exists (not stabilized, stabilized with an alcohol and stabilized with a hydrocarbon) only the ethanol stabilized type minimizes chances on creating artifacts. Chromatographic separation after extraction of four anthracyclines (doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and idarubicin) and two metabolites (13-S-dihydrodoxorubicin and 13-S-dihydroepirubicin) with chloroform under various conditions indicate that the appropriate choice of stabilizer in this extraction solvent is highly relevant.

  8. BODIPY-Based Fluorescent Sensor for the Recognization of Phosgene in Solutions and in Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong-Cheng; Xu, Xiang-Hong; Song, Qin-Hua

    2017-04-04

    As a highly toxic and widely used chemical, phosgene has become a serious threat to humankind and public security because of its potential use by terrorists and unexpected release during industrial accidents. For this reason, it is an urgent need to develop facile, fast, and selective detection methods of phosgene. In this Article, we have constructed a highly selective fluorescent sensor o-Pab for phosgene with a BODIPY unit as a fluorophore and o-phenylenediamine as a reactive site. The sensor o-Pab exhibits rapid response (∼15 s) in both colorimetric and turn-on fluorescence modes, high selectivity for phosgene over nerve agent mimics and various acyl chlorides and a low detection limit (2.7 nM) in solutions. In contrast to most undistinguishable sensors reported, o-Pab can react with phosgene but not with its substitutes, triphosgene and biphosgene. The excellent discrimination of o-Pab has been demonstrated to be due to the difference in highly reactive and bifunctional phosgene relative to its substitutes. Furthermore, a facile testing paper has been fabricated with poly(ethylene oxide) immobilizing o-Pab on a filter paper for real-time selective monitoring of phosgene in gaseous phase.

  9. Disruption of gas exchange in mice after exposure to the chemical threat agent phosgene.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, A M; Moran, T S; Narula, A; Forster, J S

    2001-09-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents, such as the pulmonary irritant gas phosgene, is a real and constant threat not only from belligerent nations but from terrorist groups as well. Phosgene is both easy and inexpensive to produce and as such is a potential candidate for use as a threat agent. Phosgene attacks the deep lung after inhalation and can severely compromise pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange, rendering the exposed individual incapacitated. If exposure is severe, death can ensure by asphyxiation secondary to pulmonary edema formation. This paper examines the effects on lung tissue in mice over 24 hours after exposure to the irritant gas phosgene. Exposure to phosgene produced respiratory acidosis by decreasing pH, partial pressure of oxygen, O2 saturation, and increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Exposure to phosgene also induced temporal increases in lung tissue gravimetric parameters such as lung tissue wet weight/dry weight ratio, which is a positive indicator of pulmonary edema formation, and dry lung weight, an indicator of lung cellular hyperaggregation. Blood gases and pH tend to normalize within 24 hours, whereas gravimetric parameters remain increased. Temporal changes in these physiological indicators of lung injury may help to explain why past exposures to phosgene required lengthy hospitalization.

  10. Effects of rhCC10 as a Post-Treatment in Mice Challenged with Phosgene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    cause non- cardiogenic pulmonary edema and possibly death, within 6-24 hours after exposure.4 In this study we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a...therapy for phosgene. 15. SUBJECT TERMS rhCC10, lung protein, mucosal host defense proteins, phosgene, pulmonary edema , pulmonary inflammation, anti...of 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg 4 ofrhCC10 was also not able to show an improvement from saline in pulmonary edema formation. 120- - Phosgene

  11. Phosgene-rutile reaction at 550-1100 sup 0 C in a small, fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberg, A. )

    1988-01-01

    A study conducted at the Albany Research Center of the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, describes the reaction between rutile sand and phosgene to produce titanium tetrachloride. The effects of temperature, phosgene concentration, and rutile surface on this reaction were studied in a small fluidized bed between 550-1100{sup 0}C. Four distinct areas of reaction were found and characterized. The potential commercial importance of the use of phosgene in the production of titanium tetrachloride is discussed.

  12. Review of clinical experience in handling phosgene exposure cases

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    In summary, we have described our method of treating phosgene inhalation injury. We have presented two serious cases in detail which demonstrate that survival was associated with aggressive therapy. Several points should be mentioned. The pulmonary edema and resulting fluid and foam production can be so copious as to overwhelm efforts to place an endotracheal tube. The solution is early intubation by the nearest experienced person at the first hint of edema or pulmonary failure. Adequate support of the patient's blood volume is imperative to avert hypovolemic shock and renal failure. A balloon flotation catheter is desirable to monitor pulmonary wedge pressure and avoid overload. Follow-up pulmonary function studies and chest x-rays are recommended 2-3 months after hospital discharge. We have not yet found a reliable test to determine which cases will progress to pulmonary edema. The LDH appears to be the only consistently elevated sign in more serious cases. Finally, we would like to make a plea for the sharing of information from instances of fatal phosgene injury so that the facts can be studied and applied to future cases.

  13. Emergency battlefield cricothyrotomy complicated by tube occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Andrew C; Adams, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    Emergency cricothyrotomy is a technique used to secure an otherwise compromised or inaccessible airway and has been recommended for use in the battlefield under certain circumstances. This case reports an acute complication of emergency cricothyrotomy. An Iraqi soldier, injured in an improvised explosive device blast received an emergency battlefield cricothyrotomy. At the Combat Support Hospital, the patient became more difficult to ventilate and was taken to the operating room for tracheostomy. The cricothyrotomy tube was found to be occluded with blood. PMID:19561959

  14. Representing Ground Robotic Systems in Battlefield Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    representations of intelligent system performance for its battlefield simulation tools . These simulation tools differ considerably in their level of...simulation study, 2) the overall fidelity of the target simulation tool , and 3) the elements of the robotic system that are relevant to the...simulation study. In this paper, we discuss a framework for modeling robotic system performance in the context of a battlefield simulation tool . We apply

  15. Battlefields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Discusses parental involvement in a Title IX case that forced the Tempe, Arizona school district to provide equal funding for a girl's softball field when the district, for reasons of cost containment, had originally wanted the girls to use an adjacent church's field. Observations from both sides and the case's resolution are discussed. (GR)

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants 4. Saturated halogenated aliphatics: Methyl bromide, epichlorhydrin, phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms are outlined for the reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the saturated halogenated aliphatic contaminants methyl bromide, epichlorhydrin, and phosgene. In-situ formation is important only for phosgene and involves the reaction of OH with chloroethenes and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. A ranking of these phosgene precursors is given using data for precursor ambient concentrations and chemical reactivity. The three toxic compounds studied are long-lived in the atmosphere, where removal of phosgene and methyl bromide by chemical reactions is negligibly slow. Epichlorhydrin is removed slowly by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde, chloroacetaldehyde, and the chlorinated peroxyacyl nitrate CH{sub 2}ClC(O)OONO{sub 2}.

  17. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  18. [Poisonous plants].

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Mustonen, Harriet; Pohjalainen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Approximately ten species of dangerously poisonous plants are found in Finland. Severe plant poisonings are very rare. Edible plants eaten raw or wrongly processed may cause severe symptoms. As first aid, activated charcoal should be given to the person who has eaten a plant causing a risk of significant poisoning. In case of exposure to topically irritating plant fluids, the exposed person's eyes must be irrigated and mouth or skin washed with copious amounts of water. In combination with solar UV radiation, light-sensitizing plants cause local burns. The diagnosis of plant poisoning is usually based on incidental information; the plant should be identified in order to make the correct treatment decisions.

  19. Accidental inhalation injury of phosgene gas leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Kush, Luv; Kumar, Suraj; Garg, Atul; Shukla, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    Irritant gas exposure may lead to significant respiratory distress as is seen in the present case of 25 year old male worker who suffered accidental phosgene inhalation. He remained asymptomatic for six hours but later landed up in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the hospital and required ventilatory support. No investigative feature is diagnostic of the nature of irritant gas. Similarly there is no antidote available to the phosgene. Only timely administered supportive management may lead to successful outcome. PMID:23580841

  20. Kinetic studies of phosgene reduction via in-situ Fourier transform infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Chauvel, J. P., Jr.

    1991-04-01

    Phosgene, a common reactant in the production of polyurethanes and polycarbonates, is unfortunately hazardous (threshold limit value equals 0.1 ppm). Consequently, the detection and elimination of atmospheric releases are paramount safety and environmental concerns. Proper design of systems to mitigate phosgene requires knowledge of the reaction kinetics for the chemistry involved. This paper presents our investigation of the reactions for phosgene with steam and ammonia. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) equipped with a large volume (15 L), temperature controlled (+0.5 degree(s)C), 24.5 cm path length cell was used to measure the reaction kinetics. The reaction of phosgene with steam at 110 degree(s)C followed first order kinetics (t1/2 equals 10.2 min.) producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride. The reaction of phosgene with ammonia at 80 degree(s)C followed second order kinetics (t1/2 equals 1.2 min.) producing ammonium chloride and urea. It was found, however, that at 25 degree(s)C this reaction follows a previously unreported pathway producing ammonium chloride and ammonium isocyanate at a faster rate (t1/2 equals 15 sec.). Based on this reaction, a pilot scale scrubbing tower was built with a manifold to mix ammonia with ppm levels of phosgene. A complete description of the experimental conditions, the reaction pathways as a function of temperature, and the performance of the ammonia scrubbing tower are given.

  1. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuate phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junfeng; Shao, Yiru; Xu, Guoxiong; Lim, ChitChoon; Li, Jun; Xu, Daojian; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Accidental phosgene exposure could result in acute lung injury (ALI), effective therapy is needed for the patients with phosgene-induced ALI. As a type of cells with therapeutic potential, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been showed its efficacy in multiple diseases. Here, we assessed the therapeutic potential of MSCs in phosgene-induced ALI and explored the related mechanisms. After isolation and characterization of rat bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs), we transplanted BMMSCs into the rats exposed to phosgene and observed significant improvement on the lung wet-to-dry ratio and partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) at 6, 24, 48 h after phosgene exposure. Histological analyses revealed reduced sign of pathological changes in the lungs. Reduced level of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor α and increased level of anti-inflammatory factor interleukin-10 were found in both bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma. Significant increased expression of epithelial cell marker AQP5 and SP-C was also found in the lung tissue. In conclusion, treatment with MSC markedly decreases the severity of phosgene-induced ALI in rats, and these protection effects were closely related to the pulmonary air blood barrier repairment and inflammatory reaction regulation.

  3. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

  4. Kinetics and mechanism of phosgenation of aliphatic alcohols. V. Quantum-chemical investigation of the mechanism of the reaction of phosgene with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, S.I.; Varnek, A.A.; Chimishkyan, A.L.; Sel', O.B.

    1988-04-20

    Analysis of maps of the molecular electrostatic potential of phosgene showed that attack by methanol as nucleophile at the phosgene carbon atom takes place preferentially not in the plane of the molecule (the S/sub N/2 mechanism) but in a direction perpendicular to the COCl/sub 2/ plane (an AE addition-elimination mechanism). A fragment of the potential energy surface for the reaction of phosgene with methanol was calculated by the MNDO method. The reaction takes place by an AE-like mechanism through a late transition state, which represents a four-membered ring. There is not local minimum at a point corresponding to a tetrahedral intermediate, and this is explained by the absence of factors which stabilize it.

  5. Phosgene measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Schuster, G.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Helas, G.

    1988-08-01

    Industrial chlorofluorocarbons have now accumulated so much in the atmosphere that the ClOx radicals produced from their oxidation are causing substantial reductions in the ozone layer. Here we measure phosgene, which is one possible product from the oxidation of natural and industrial chlorinated hydrocarbons and which can oxidize further to form ClOx. Our measurements show a mixing ratio of 17 p.p.t.v. in the upper troposphere, and an average of 22 p.p.t.v. in the lower stratosphere. These values are substantially greater than those estimated with a model that only considers the photochemical breakdown of CCl4, indicating the possible significance of other more reactive chlorocarbon compounds, especially CHCl3, CH3CCl3, C2HCl3 and C2Cl4 and their oxidation products in supplying chlorine to the lower stratosphere.

  6. Spin selectivity in the ultraviolet photodissociation of phosgene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maul, Christof; Haas, Tobias; Gericke, Karl-Heinz; Comes, Franz Josef

    1995-02-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation of phosgene in its first absorption band 1A2←1A1 was investigated by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization and time of flight techniques. Nascent atomic chlorine fragments were observed and their state specific kinetic energy distributions were determined. Of the chlorine atoms 15% are produced in the excited 2P1/2 spin-orbit state with a mean kinetic energy of 3200 cm-1 compared to a value of 1500 cm-1 for the mean kinetic energy of the ground state chlorine atoms. The analysis of the kinetic energy spectra yielded evidence for a concerted three-body decay. The formation of intermediate COCl is of minor importance in the dissociation process, the formation of a stable final COCl product can be excluded. Competing pathways on the upper potential energy surface are discussed. A significant excitation of the carbon monoxide CO fragments is predicted.

  7. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  8. Pulmonary biochemical effects of inhaled phosgene in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Franch, S.; Hatch, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Three exposure regimens were used to study the time course of indicators of lung damage and recovery response to single or repeated exposures to phosgene (COCl/sub 2/). Rats were sacrificed (1) immediately or throughout a 38-d recovery period after inhalation of 1 ppm COCl/sub 2/ for 4 h, (2) at intervals during a 7-h exposure to 1 ppm phosgene, or (3) at several time points throughout a 17-d exposure to 0.125 and 0.25 ppm COCl/sub 2/ (4 h/d, 5 d/wk) and during a 21-d recovery period. Regimen 1 revealed significantly elevated lung wet weight, lung nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) content, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that stayed elevated for up to 14 d. A significant decrease in body weight and food intake was observed 1 d after exposure. Regimen 2 caused a slight depression in NPSH content but did not affect G6PD activity. Regimen 3 animals showed sustained elevations in lung wet weight, NPSH content, and G6PD activity after 7 d of exposure. No significant changes in these endpoints were observed for the 0.125 ppm COCl/sub 2/ group. No consistent elevation in hydroxyproline content was seen at either exposure concentration. Light microscopic examination of lung tissue exposed to COCl/sub 2/ for 17 d revealed moderate multifocal accumulation of mononuclear cells in the centriacinar region. In summary, exposure to COCl/sub 2/ caused changes similar in most ways to those observed for other lower-respiratory-tract irritants.

  9. Species comparison of acute inhalation toxicity of ozone and phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.; Stead, A.G.; Graham, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the concentration-response effects of inhaled ozone (O/sub 3/) and phosgene (COCl/sub 2/) in different species of laboratory animals was made in order to better understand the influence of the choice of species in inhalation toxicity studies. The effect of 4-h exposures to ozone at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppm, and to COCl/sub 2/ and 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm was determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, and mice. Lavage fluid protein (LFP) accumulation 18-20 h after exposure was used as the indicator of O3- and COCl/sub 2/-induced pulmonary edema. All species had similar basal levels of LFP (250-350 mg/ml) when a volume of saline that approximated the total lung capacity was used to lavage the collapsed lungs. Ozone effects were most marked in guinea pigs, which showed significant effects at 0.2 ppm and above. Mice, hamsters, and rats showed effects at 1.0 ppm O3 and above, while rabbits responded only at 2.0 ppm O3. Phosgene similarly affected mice, hamsters, and rats at 0.2 ppm and above, while guinea pigs and rabbits were affected at 0.5 ppm and above. Percent recovery of lavage fluid varied significantly between species, guinea pigs having lower recovery than other species with both gases. Lavage fluid recovery was lower following exposure to higher levels of O3 but not COCl/sub 2/. Results of this study indicate that significant species differences are seen in the response to low levels of O3 and COCl/sub 2/. These differences do not appear to be related in a simple manner to body weight.

  10. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  11. [Expression and role of mitogen activated protein kinases signaling pathway in lung injury induced by phosgene].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yi-ru; Shen, Jie; Yuan, Zhen; He, Dai-kun; Zhang, Lin

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression and role of the mitogen activated protein kinases (ERK1/2, P38, JNK) in phosgene induced lung injury in rats in vivo. 30 male wistar rats were randomized into the group as follows, Gas inhalation control group, Phosgene inhalation group, and the following groups of the inhibitors of MAPK, involving SP600125, PD98059 and SB203580, 6 animals in each group, we copy the model of phosgene-induced lung injury, used the directional flow-inhalation device, the air control group inhaled the air, and the intervention groups were given PD98059 (intraperitoneal injection), SB203580 (hypodermic injection), SP600125 (intravenous) respectively before the inhalation of phosgene. The locations and quantities of three subfamilies of MAPKs (ERK1/2, P38, JNK) and p-MAPKs (p-ERK1/2, p-P38, p-JNK) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis respectively; The histopathological changes of lung tissues, the number of neutrophil cells and the W/D were examined. There were rare p-ERK1/2, p-P38 and p-JNK positive expression in alveolar and airway epithelial cells in control group. while the positive cells increased strikingly in phosgene inhalation groups, these cells involved in this process mainly included alveolar epithelial cells, air way epithelial cells, pleural mesothelial cells, infiltrative inflammatory cells, interstitium fibrocytes. After the intervention of the specific inhibitor, the positive cells decreased. As Western Blot analysis show, Protein quantities of p-P38 and p-JNK were higher in phosgene inhalation groups than those in control group, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Protein quantities of p-ERK1/2, p-P38 and p-JNK were lower in intervention groups than phosgene inhalation group, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The lung injury in phosgene inhalation groups was more severer compared with the control group, the typical pathological characters of acute lung injury

  12. High-speed digital wireless battlefield network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Son K.; Zhang, Yongguang; Shek, Eddie C.; van Buer, Darrel

    1999-07-01

    In the past two years, the Digital Wireless Battlefield Network consortium that consists of HRL Laboratories, Hughes Network Systems, Raytheon, and Stanford University has participated in the DARPA TRP program to leverage the efforts in the development of commercial digital wireless products for use in the 21st century battlefield. The consortium has developed an infrastructure and application testbed to support the digitized battlefield. The consortium has implemented and demonstrated this network system. Each member is currently utilizing many of the technology developed in this program in commercial products and offerings. These new communication hardware/software and the demonstrated networking features will benefit military systems and will be applicable to the commercial communication marketplace for high speed voice/data multimedia distribution services.

  13. Adenovirus-delivered angiopoietin-1 treatment for phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Wang, Jing; Shao, Yi-Ru; He, Dai-Kun; Zhang, Lin; Nadeem, Lubna; Xu, Guoxiong

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to phosgene can result in an acute lung injury, leading to pulmonary edema and even death. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is a critical factor for vascular stabilization due to its ability to reduce endothelial permeability and inflammation. In this study, the histopathological changes of the lungs after exposure to phosgene and the effect of Ang1 treatment were examined. Rats were exposed to phosgene gas at 8.33 g/m³ for 5 min. Ang1 overexpressing rats were established by an intravenous injection of adenovirus-Ang1 (Ad/Ang1). The histological changes of the lung were examined by Haematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) staining and fluorescence microscopy. The inferior lobe was used for the determination of the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the lung. The concentration of cytokines in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pathological analysis showed signs of inflammation and edema, evident from a significant increase in the number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the ratio of wet to dry weight of the lungs. The lung injury induced by phosgene was markedly reduced after the injection of Ad/Ang1. The increase of IL-1β and IL-17 and decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of phosgene-exposed animals were abolished by the administration of Ad/Ang1. Ang1 has the beneficial effects on phosgene-induced lung injury. The adenovirus-delivered Ang1 may have the potential as a novel approach for the treatment of the acute lung injury caused by phosgene gas inhalation in humans.

  14. Characterization of a nose-only inhaled phosgene acute lung injury mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L.; Perry, Mark R.; Knostman, Katherine A.; Segal, Robert; Babin, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Phosgene’s primary mode of action is as a pulmonary irritant characterized by its early latent phase where life-threatening, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is typically observed 6–24 h post-exposure. Objective To develop an inhaled phosgene acute lung injury (ALI) model in C57BL/6 mice that can be used to screen potential medical countermeasures. Methods A Cannon style nose-only inhalation exposure tower was used to expose mice to phosgene (8 ppm) or air (sham). An inhalation lethality study was conducted to determine the 8 ppm median lethal exposure (LCt50) at 24 and 48 h post-exposure. The model was then developed at 1.2 times the 24 h LCt50. At predetermined serial sacrifice time points, survivors were euthanized, body and lung weights collected, and lung tissues processed for histopathology. Additionally, post-exposure clinical observations were used to assess quality of life. Results and discussion The 24-hour LCt50 was 226ppm*min (8 ppm for 28.2 min) and the 48-hour LCt50 was 215ppm*min (8 ppm for 26.9 min). The phosgene exposed animals had a distinct progression of clinical signs, histopathological changes and increased lung/body weight ratios. Early indicators of a 1.2 times the 24-hour LCt50 phosgene exposure were significant changes in the lung-to-body weight ratios by 4 h post-exposure. The progression of clinical signs and histopathological changes were important endpoints for characterizing phosgene-induced ALI for future countermeasure studies. Conclusion An 8 ppm phosgene exposure for 34 min (1.2 × LCt50) is the minimum challenge recommended for evaluating therapeutic interventions. The predicted higher mortality in the phosgene-only controls will help demonstrate efficacy of candidate treatments and increase the probability that a change in survival rate is statistically significant PMID:26671199

  15. Management of phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Grainge, Christopher; Rice, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Phosgene is a substance of immense importance in the chemical industry. Because of its widespread industrial use, there is potential for small-scale exposures within the workplace, large-scale accidental release, or even deliberate release into a built-up area. This review aims to examine all published studies concerning potential treatments for phosgene-induced acute lung injury and incorporate them into up-to-date clinical guidance. In addition, it aims to contrast the approaches when dealing with small numbers of patients known to be exposed (possibly with dose information) with the presentation of a large and heterogeneous population of casualties following a significant industrial accident or deliberate release; no published guidelines have specifically addressed this second problem. PubMed and Embase were searched for all available years till April 2010 and 584 papers were identified and considered. Because of the nature of the injury, there have been no human trials of patients exposed to phosgene. Multiple small and large animal studies have been performed to examine potential treatments of phosgene-induced acute lung injury, but many of these used isolated organ models, pretreatment regimens, or clinically improbable doses. Recent studies in large animals using both realistic time frames and dosing regimens have improved our knowledge, but clinical guidance remains based on incomplete data. Management of a small-scale, confirmed exposure. In the circumstance of a small-scale, confirmed industrial release where a few individuals are exposed and present rapidly, an intravenous bolus of high-dose corticosteroid (e.g., methylprednisolone 1 g) should be considered, although there are no experimental data to support this recommendation. The evidence is that there is no benefit from nebulized steroid even when administered 1 h after exposure, or methylprednisolone if administered intravenously ≥6 h after exposure. Consideration should also be given to

  16. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  17. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  18. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a more serious illness. Complications, such as pneumonia, muscle damage from lying on a hard surface for a prolonged period of time, or brain damage from lack of oxygen, may cause permanent disability. Aftershave poisoning is not usually deadly.

  19. Candles poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... of wax. Candle poisoning occurs when someone swallows candle wax. This can happen by accident or on purpose. ... Candle wax is considered nonpoisonous, but it may cause a blockage in the intestines if a large amount ...

  20. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  1. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of lead in household dust. DRINKING WATER: Lead may get into drinking water when materials used in plumbing materials, such as ... and dishware. Lead may also be in contaminated water. Lead poisoning is harmful to human health and ...

  2. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis (filtration) through a machine may be needed if the kidneys do not recover after acute mercury poisoning, Kidney failure and death can occur, even with small doses.

  5. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can kill a child, while ...

  6. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... color with the seasons. They may produce whitish flowers or berries. Symptoms of poison ivy The main ... symptoms. They will also examine your rash to make sure it’s not caused by an allergy or ...

  7. Sachet poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... Seek medical help right away. DO NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to.

  8. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little or ...

  9. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  10. Simple and effective method for producing [11C]phosgene using an environmental CCl4 gas detection tube.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masanao; Takada, Yuuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Nemoto, Kazuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled phosgene is an important labeling precursor for PET molecular probes. Despite the usefulness of [(11)C]phosgene, some difficulties, especially in the formation of [(11)C]phosgene process from [(11)C]CCl(4), hamper its use. The present article shows a simple preparation method for [(11)C]phosgene. [(11)C]CCl(4) was obtained using the conventional method by passing a mixture of [(11)C]CH(4) and Cl(2) through a heated quartz tube. The [(11)C]CCl(4) was transformed to [(11)C]phosgene simply by passing through a pretreatment tube of a Kitagawa gas detection system for the working-environmental CCl(4) concentration measurement at room temperature with a flow rate of 50 ml/min. This tube successfully transformed [(11)C]CCl(4) to [(11)C]phosgene at room temperature. [(11)C]Phosgene was obtained at nearly 80% radiochemical yield (EOB) in a short synthesis time with high reproducibility. A high yield and reliable [(11)C]phosgene production method using a gas detector tube system for working-environmental CCl(4) concentration measurement was developed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosgene effects on F-actin in cells grown from pulmonary tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Werrlein, R.J.; Madren-Whalley, J.; Kirby, S.D.

    1993-05-13

    Confocal laser microscopy has been used to study the effects of phosgene on cells of the lung. Results suggest that the F-actin cytoskeleton is a molecular target and sensitive indicator of phosgene toxicity. Ovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells, exposed at 0.145 to 5.39 x LCT(50) for sheep (3300 ppm.min) showed dose response decreases in F-actin content. Doses of 0.145 and 0.265 LCT(50) caused a significant (p < .01) 25% and 42% decrease in average F-actin per cell. Dense peripheral bands (DPBs) became indistinct at > or = 1.2 LCT(50) and disappeared at > or = 2.3 LCT(50). Organization of stress fibers was parallel to the cell's long axis and was not disrupted by < 1.21 LCT(50). In secretory cells from rat tracheal explants, studies indicate a threshold of resistance to phosgene at doses < 0.2 LCT(50). However, phosgene in excess of 0.2 LCT(50) produced precipitous decreases in secretory cell F-actin. Mature, contiguous populations of untreated secretory cells contained well defined DPBs and tightly connected cell-to-cell boundaries. Exposures to 1.0 and 1.5 LCT(50) did not disrupt boundaries between secretory cells but did cause separation of boundaries between secretory and other cell types. We conclude that concentration and organization are separate aspects of phosgene's effects on F-actin and that the lesions produced are cell-type specific.

  12. The dysfunction of ATPases due to impaired mitochondrial respiration in phosgene-induced pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jun; Li, Ying-Na; Liang, Xin; Wang, Peng; Hai, Chun-Xu

    2008-02-29

    Phosgene is a toxic gas that is widely used in modern industry, and its inhalation can cause severe pulmonary edema. There is no effective clinical treatment because the mechanism of phosgene-induced pulmonary edema still remains unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase plays a critical role in clearing pulmonary edema and the inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein expression has been found in many other pulmonary edema models. In the present study, after the mice were exposed to phosgene, there was serious pulmonary edema, indicating the dysfunction of the ATPases in mice. However, in vitro enzyme study showed that there were increases in the activities of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase. Further investigation showed that the ATP content and mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR) in the lungs decreased significantly. The oxidative stress product, malondialdehyde (MDA), increased while the antioxidants (GSH, SOD, and TAC) decreased significantly. These results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is the target of phosgene. The dysfunction of ATPases due to impaired mitochondrial respiration may be a new mechanism of phosgene-induced pulmonary edema.

  13. Phosgene in the UTLS: seasonal and latitudinal variations from MIPAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeri, Massimo; Carlotti, Massimo; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Raspollini, Piera; Ridolfi, Marco; Dinelli, Bianca Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a Fourier transform spectrometer that measured mid-infrared atmospheric limb emission spectra from July 2002 to April 2012 on board the polar-orbiting satellite ENVISAT. We have used MIPAS data to study the latitudinal variations of phosgene (COCl2 or carbonyl chloride) and, for the first time, its seasonal variation in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS). Retrievals of phosgene were made using the 830-860 cm-1 region, corresponding to the ν5 bands of COCl2. Unfortunately, in that region, the ν4 band of CFC-11, which is much stronger than COCl2 ν5, hides the phosgene emission. In order to evaluate seasonality and latitudinal distribution of phosgene we have analysed all the measurements made by MIPAS on days 18 and 20 of each month of 2008 with the optimized retrieval model (ORM) recently upgraded with the multi-target retrieval technique and with the optimal estimation functionality to apply external constraints to the state vector. Average seasonal profiles of phosgene show an evident latitudinal variability with the largest values observed in the tropical regions (maximum ≈ 35 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) at about 300 hPa). In the midlatitude and polar regions, the volume mixing ratio (VMR) values do not exceed 30 pptv and the vertical distributions are less peaked. Our analysis highlights that COCl2 seasonal variability is fairly low, apart from the polar regions.

  14. Battlefield Distribution: A Systems Thinking Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The purpose of this monograph is to analyze the U.S. Army battlefield distribution system from a " Systems Thinking " perspective. The method involves...important aspect of Systems Thinking , the subject matter of this monograph reaches beyond Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) to historical precedent. Whether for

  15. Fast Computation on the Modern Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    can help to distill data into actionable information that can lead to better decision-making and outcomes. However, computing power is limited on the...In such situations, battlefield computation can help to distill data into actionable information that can lead to better decision-making and outcomes

  16. Battlefield euthanasia - courageous compassion or war crime?

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Susan J

    2011-03-21

    Issues relating to voluntary euthanasia that are currently being debated by Australian society are distinctly different from those encountered by battlefield doctors. Doctors in war undertake to treat those affected by conflict; their participation in euthanasia challenges the profession's definition of "duty of care". Euthanasia must be distinguished from "triage" and medical withdrawal of care (which are decided within a medical facility where, although resources may be limited, comfort care can be provided in the face of treatment futility). Battlefield euthanasia is a decision made, often immediately after hostile action, in the face of apparently overwhelming injuries; there is often limited availability of pain relief, support systems or palliation that would be available in a civilian environment. The battlefield situation is further complicated by issues of personal danger, the immediacy of decision making and difficulties with distinguishing civilians from combatants. Regardless of the circumstances on a battlefield, doctors, whether they are civilians or members of a defence force, are subject to the laws of armed conflict, the special provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the ethical codes of the medical profession.

  17. Network Simulation of the Electronic Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Battlefield Richard A. Meyer and Steve Bob Ollerton Doug McKeon Boyle Space and Naval Warfare US Army Research, Development, and Scalable Network Systems...Command Engineering Command, Technologies, Inc., Culver (SPA WAR), San Diego, CA Communications-Electronics Research, City, CA ollerton @spawar.navy.mil

  18. Graphic Portrayal of Battlefield Information: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    PERCEPTRONICS, Inc. ,.o Battlefield Information Systems Technical Area Systems Research Laboratory DTIC $%ELECTE U. S . Army D Research Institute for the...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR...EDGAR M. JOHNSON Colonel, IN -. Technical Director Commander Research accomplished under contract for the Department of the Army Perceptronics, Inc

  19. Poison Ivy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Page Content Article Body Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac commonly cause skin rashes in ... swampy areas of the Mississippi River region. Poison oak grows as a shrub, and it is seen ...

  20. Anticoagulant rodenticides poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Rat killer poisoning; Rodenticide poisoning ... up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  1. Fluorescent Chemosensor for Selective Detection of Phosgene in Solutions and in Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong-Cheng; Xu, Xiang-Hong; Song, Qin-Hua

    2017-01-27

    The detection of highly toxic chemicals in a convenient, fast, and reliable manner is essential for coping with serious threats to humankind and public security caused by unexpected terrorist attacks and industrial accidents. In this paper, a highly selective fluorescent probe has been constructed through o-phenylenediamine covalently linking to coumarin (o-Pac), which can respond to phosgene in turn-on fluorescence mode. The response time is less than 0.5 min and the detection limit is as low as 3 nM in solutions. More importantly, the sensor exhibits good selectivity to phosgene over triphosgene and various acyl chlorides. Furthermore, a portable test paper has been fabricated with polystyrene membrane containing o-Pac for real-time selective monitoring of phosgene in gas phase.

  2. [Effect of melatonin on p38MAPKsignaling pathway in rats with phosgene-induced lung injury].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; He, Daikun; Shao, Yiru; Xu, Daojian; Shen, Jie

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of melatonin (MT) on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in rats with phosgene-induced lung injury. Fifty specific pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into phosgene inhalation group, air control group, saline control group, MT treatment group, and SB203580 (specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK) group, with 10 mice in each group. All groups except the air control group were exposed to phosgene, and the animals were sacrificed 6 h later. Lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The qualitative and quantitative expression of p38 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38) was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot, respectively. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level in lung tissue was determined by Western blot. Compared with the air control group, the phosgene inhalation group had significantly increased lung W/D ratio and neutrophil count in BALF (P < 0.01); the MT treatment group had significantly lower neutrophil count and lung W/D ratio than the phosgene inhalation group (P < 0.05). IHC demonstrated that the air control group had relatively weak expression of p-p38 in lung tissue; the expression of p-p38 was significantly up-regulated after phosgene inhalation, and it was mainly distributed in infiltrating inflammatory cells and vascular endothelial cells, positive in the cytoplasm and nucleus of many cells. The distribution of p-p38-positive cells in the MT treatment and SB203580 groups was similar to that in the phosgene inhalation group, but the MT treatment and SB203580 groups had a significantly reduced number of cells with p-p38-positive nuclei and a significantly reduced intensity of p-p38 expression signals. The phosgene inhalation group had significantly increased content of MDA and NO and activity of MPO compared with the air

  3. Low energy electron induced decomposition of phosgene on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.-L.; Coon, S. R.; White, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The decomposition, induced by low energy electrons (0-23 eV), of adsorbed phosgene (Cl2CO) on Ag(111) has been studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electron induced decomposition (EID) products are surface Cl(a) and gas phase CO(g). There is no electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular Cl2CO or atomic Cl. The evolution of CO during EID is readily monitored with a mass spectrometer. The electron kinetic energy threshold for the EID of Cl2CO is near zero eV. The EID cross section is in the range of 10-16-10-15 cm2 and increases with incident electron energy. The EID process is attributed to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) in which incident electrons attach themselves to adsorbed Cl2CO forming Cl2CO- ions as intermediates that dissociate. These results are compared with the photodissociation of Cl2CO on Ag(111).

  4. [Protective effect of melatonin in rats with phosgene-induced lung injury].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Shen, Jie; Gan, Zheng-yi; He, Dai-kun; Zhong, Zhi-yue

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the antioxidant effect of melatonin (MT) in the rats with phosgene-induced lung injury and its possible mechanism. Fifty male SD rats were equally randomized into phosgene exposure group, air control group, MT treatment group, dexamethasone (DX) treatment group, and negative control group. All groups except the air control group were exposed to 8.33 mg/L phosgene for 5 min, and the MT treatment group, DX treatment group, and negative control group were injected with MT (10 mg/kg), DX (2.5 mg/kg), and 1% ethanol saline (1 ml/kg), respectively, via the caudal vein 1 hour after exposure. The rats were sacrificed 6h later. Then, the wet/dry ratio of the lung, the total protein content and neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the malonaldehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities in lung homogenate were measured; pathological observation was made on the lung tissue under an optical microscope; the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NF-κB in the lung tissue was measured by Western blot. Compared with the air control group, the phosgene exposure group showed significantly increased wet/dry ratio of the lung and total protein content and neutrophil count in BALF (P < 0.01) as well as significantly increased MDA content and MPO activity in the lung tissue (P < 0.05). Compared with the phosgene exposure group, the MT treatment group showed significantly decreased MDA content and MPO activity and significantly increased SOD activity (P < 0.01), and the MT treatment group and DX treatment group showed significantly decreased protein expression of iNOS and NF-κB (P < 0.01). MT has protective effect in phosgene-induced lung injury, and its protective mechanism may be associated with scavenging free radicals and inhibiting expression of iNOS and NF-κB.

  5. Evaluation of an in vitro screening model to assess phosgene inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Dorian S; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic development against exposure to toxic gases is hindered by the lack of appropriate models to evaluate candidate compounds prior to animal efficacy studies. In this study, an in vitro, air-liquid interface exposure model has been tested to examine its potential application for screening treatments for phosgene (carbonyl chloride)-induced pulmonary injury. Epithelial cultures on Transwell(®) inserts, combined with a Vitrocell(®) exposure apparatus, provided a physiologically relevant exposure environment. Differentiated human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cultures were exposed for 8 min to phosgene ranging from 0 to 64 ppm and assessed for changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER, epithelial barrier integrity), cellular viability (XTT) and post-exposure (PE) cellular metabolic energy status. Exposure to phosgene concentrations ≥8 ppm caused dose-dependent and significant decreases in TEER and XTT which did not recover within 24-h PE. In addition, at 64 ppm the rate of oxidative glutamine metabolism was significantly inhibited at 6 and 24 h after exposure. Glycolytic activities (glucose utilization and lactate production) were also inhibited, but to a lesser extent. Decreased glycolytic function can translate to insufficient energy sources to counteract barrier function failure. Consistent and sensitive markers of phosgene exposure were TEER, cell viability and decreased metabolism. As such, we have assessed an appropriate in vitro model of phosgene inhalation that produced quantifiable alterations in markers of lung cell metabolism and injury in human airway epithelial cells. Data indicate the suitability of this model for testing classes of anti-edemagenic compounds such as corticosteroids or phosphodiesterase inhibitors for evaluating phosgene therapeutics.

  6. Recovery of metals from power plant fly ash by carbochlorination with phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.J.; Burnet, G.

    1983-01-01

    The HiChlor process for recovery of metals from power plant fly ash and other coal-conversion solid wastes is described. Results are presented for the production of volatile metal chlorides from fly ash by carbochlorination with phosgene. Data are included for reaction rates measured gravimetrically for temperatures of 450 to 800/sup 0/C and phosgene partial pressures of 10 to 100 kPa, and for chemisorption and B.E.T. isotherms used to determine active and total surface areas as a function of fly-ash conversion. Implications in terms of HiChlor reactor design are discussed.

  7. Bent Carbon Surface Moieties as Active Sites on Carbon Catalysts for Phosgene Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Navneet K; Pashigreva, Anastasia; Pidko, Evgeny A; Hensen, Emiel J M; Mleczko, Leslaw; Roggan, Stefan; Ember, Erika E; Lercher, Johannes A

    2016-01-26

    Active sites in carbon-catalyzed phosgene synthesis from gaseous CO and Cl2 have been identified using C60 fullerene as a model catalyst. The carbon atoms distorted from sp(2) coordination in non-planar carbon units are concluded to generate active Cl2 . Experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate the formation of a surface-bound [C60 ⋅⋅⋅Cl2 ] chlorine species with radical character as key intermediate during phosgene formation. It reacts rapidly with physisorbed CO in a two-step Eley-Rideal-type mechanism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterization of a nose-only inhaled phosgene acute lung injury mouse model.

    PubMed

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Perry, Mark R; Knostman, Katherine A; Segal, Robert; Babin, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Phosgene's primary mode of action is as a pulmonary irritant characterized by its early latent phase where life-threatening, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is typically observed 6-24 h post-exposure. To develop an inhaled phosgene acute lung injury (ALI) model in C57BL/6 mice that can be used to screen potential medical countermeasures. A Cannon style nose-only inhalation exposure tower was used to expose mice to phosgene (8 ppm) or air (sham). An inhalation lethality study was conducted to determine the 8 ppm median lethal exposure (LCt50) at 24 and 48 h post-exposure. The model was then developed at 1.2 times the 24 h LCt50. At predetermined serial sacrifice time points, survivors were euthanized, body and lung weights collected, and lung tissues processed for histopathology. Additionally, post-exposure clinical observations were used to assess quality of life. The 24-hour LCt50 was 226 ppm*min (8 ppm for 28.2 min) and the 48-hour LCt50 was 215 ppm*min (8 ppm for 26.9 min). The phosgene exposed animals had a distinct progression of clinical signs, histopathological changes and increased lung/body weight ratios. Early indicators of a 1.2 times the 24-hour LCt50 phosgene exposure were significant changes in the lung-to-body weight ratios by 4 h post-exposure. The progression of clinical signs and histopathological changes were important endpoints for characterizing phosgene-induced ALI for future countermeasure studies. An 8 ppm phosgene exposure for 34 min (1.2 × LCt50) is the minimum challenge recommended for evaluating therapeutic interventions. The predicted higher mortality in the phosgene-only controls will help demonstrate efficacy of candidate treatments and increase the probability that a change in survival rate is statistically significant.

  9. Pentachlorophenol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

  10. [Amitraz poisoning].

    PubMed

    Caprotta, C Gustavo; Martínez, Marcelo; Tiszler, Martín; Guerra, Verónica

    2009-10-01

    Poisoning due to amitraz together with its solvent xilene, is an unusual condition although may be increasing in rural areas where it is used as insecticide-ectoparasiticide.1-3 At present, there is scare references to orient physicians concerning its handling in childhood. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy who suffered an accidental intake of amitraz and was admitted into our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit requiring mechanical ventilation. We consider the usefulness of informing the medical community about this case so as to be aware of this rare kind of poisoning in our community.

  11. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  12. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  13. Chemical adsorption of phosgene on TiO 2 and its effect on the photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Soon-Kil; Amemiya, Takahashi; Murabayashi, Masayuki; Cai, R.; Itoh, Kiminori

    2005-12-01

    We observed the chemical adsorption with gas-phase phosgene on TiO 2 surfaces using in situ FT-IR, and examined its effect on the photocatalytic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE). The infrared spectrum of the adsorbed standard phosgene suggested that phosgene reacts with surface hydroxyl groups to form a bidentate carbonate compound, which binds to the TiO 2 surface through two Ti-O bonds. The surface species, adsorbed phosgene, derived from dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC), which is generated during the photocatalytic decomposition of TCE, was also found to yield the same bidentate carbonate when decomposed photocatalytically. The adsorbed phosgene was formed stably on TiO 2 and was found to play an important role in accelerating the decomposition of TCE under irradiation with visible light as well as with UV. The active species was considered to be active oxygen on the structure of phosgene stably adsorbed to bidentate carbonate. The surface structure of adsorbed phosgene, bidentate carbonate may be used for the surface improvement of photocatalysts under visible light as well as UV.

  14. Mechanism of acute lung injury due to phosgene exposition and its protection by cafeic acid phenethyl ester in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Ye, Xiao-long; Liu, Rui; Chen, Hong-li; Liang, Xin; Li, Wen-li; Zhang, Xiao-di; Qin, Xu-jun; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Hai, Chun-xu

    2013-03-01

    The mechanism of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains unclear and it is still lack of effective treatments. Previous study indicated that oxidative stress was involved in phosgene-induced ALI. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been proved to be an anti-inflammatory agent and a potent free radical scavenger. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of CAPE on phosgene-induced ALI and identify the mechanism, in which oxidative stress and inflammation were involved. The phosgene was used to induce ALI in rats. The results showed that after phosgene exposure, total protein content in BALF was not significantly changed. The increase of MDA level and SOD activity induced by phosgene was significantly reduced by CAPE administration, and the decrease of GSH level in BALF and lung were significantly reversed by CAPE. CAPE also partially blocked the translocation of NF-κB p65 to the nucleus, but it had little effect on the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. In conclusion, CAPE showed protective effects on lung against phosgene-induced ALI, which may be related with a combination of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions of CAPE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstructive challenges of complex battlefield injury.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Luke F; Mazurek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Throughout our current conflicts in both Iraq and Afghanistan, the likelihood of surviving a battlefield injury has been near 90% according to reports provided by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. This is the highest survival rate recorded in modern combat. Advancements in protective equipment, rapid evacuation of casualties from point of injury to both stabilization and definitive care, improved medic and corpsmen personnel, more readily available resuscitation, and forward positioned surgical units have all significantly decreased troop mortality. Along with this phenomenon of increased survival, however, has come a surge in the number and significance of injuries seen by the medical community. As a result, orthopaedists have been forced to confront reconstructive challenges and difficult decisions in an often highly motivated patient population with high functional expectations. The objective of this article is to outline a few examples of difficult challenges encountered in battlefield trauma care and discuss the treatments utilized.

  16. Tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The continuous development on the field of electro-optics has certainly a big influence on the field of military vehicles. The same way it increases the own visual and thereby the operational range, it also increases the danger of detection by enemy forces. This conflict between the enhancement of sensor performance on one side and the minimization of vehicle signature by design on the other side is the major issue in the field of battlefield reconnaissance. The understanding of the interaction between the theoretical sensor performance, its limitation caused by atmospheric effects and the constructive limitations in the vehicle's signature minimization is mandatory for a realistic assessment of sensor systems. This paper describes the tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance at the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Weapons and Ammunition (WTD 91) in Meppen (DEU).

  17. N-acetylcysteine attenuates phosgene-induced acute lung injury via up-regulation of Nrf2 expression.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lin; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao Di; Chen, Hong Li; Bai, Hua; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Hai Long; Liang, Xin; Hai, Chun Xu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that oxidative stress was involved in phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and many antioxidants had been used to prevent ALI. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had been used to protect ALI induced by various types of oxidative stress. Considering the limited information of NAC on phosgene-induced ALI, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of phosgene-induced ALI and the protective effects of NAC. This study discovered that intraperitoneal administration of NAC significantly alleviated phosgene-induced pulmonary edema, as confirmed by decreased lung wet to dry weight ratio and oxidative stress markers. The content of l-gamma-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine (glutathione; GSH) and the ratio of the reduced and disulfide forms (GSH/GSSG), significant indicators of the antioxidative ability, were apparently inhibited by phosgene exposure. However, both indicators could be reversed by NAC administration, indicating that dysregulation of redox status of glutathione might be the cause of phosgene-induced ALI. The nuclear factor (NF)-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which has been proven to up-regulate the expression of glutathione reductase (GR), was obviously decreased by phosgene exposure. However, NAC administration elevated Nrf2 expression significantly. In conclusion, these data provided the first evidences showing that it was the transcriptional factor Nrf2 that connected phosgene-induced ALI with GSH metabolism. NAC protected against oxidative stress through acting on this newly disclosed Nrf2/GR/GSH pathway, by which NAC elevated the biosynthesis of protective GSH to repair and reconstitute the defense system destroyed by phosgene.

  18. Ethyl pyruvate protects rats from phosgene-induced pulmonary edema by inhibiting cyclooxygenase2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-li; Bai, Hua; Xi, Miao-miao; Liu, Riu; Qin, Xu-jun; Liang, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-di; Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu

    2013-01-01

    Phosgene is a poorly water-soluble gas penetrating the lower respiratory tract which can induce acute lung injury characterized by a latent phase of fatal pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema caused by phosgene is believed to be a consequence of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in vivo and in vitro. The potential therapeutic role of EP in phosgene-induced pulmonary edema has not been addressed so far. In the present study, we aim to investigate the protective effects of EP on phosgene-induced pulmonary edema and the underlying mechanisms. Rats were administered with EP (40 mg kg(-1)) and RAW264.7 cells were also incubated with it (0, 2, 5 or 10 µm) immediately after phosgene (400 ppm, 1 min) or air exposure. Wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (W:D ratio), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and mitogen-activated protein kinases activities (MAPKs) were measured. Our results showed that EP treatment attenuated phosgene-induced pulmonary edema and decreased the level of NO and PGE(2) dose-dependently. Furthermore, EP significantly reduced COX-2 expression, iNOS expression and MAPK activation induced by phosgene. Moreover, specific inhibitors of MAPKs reduced COX-2 and iNOS expression induced by phosgene. These findings suggested that EP has a protective role against phosgene-induced pulmonary edema, which is mediated in part by inhibiting MAPK activation and subsequently down-regulating COX-2 and iNOS expression as well as decreasing the production of NO and PGE(2). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. POISONOUS BITES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Prevention of snakebite. Poisonous Arachnida: Painful sensations after the sting of a scorpion ; Clinical phenomena after the bite of a karakurt; Is the bite...of a tarantula dangerous. Hymenoptera: Clinical phenomena after a sting by wasps or bees; Treatment of stings of scorpions , karakurts, wasps and bees.

  20. Chlorine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chlorine reacts with water in and out of the body to form hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid. Both are extremely poisonous. ... chlorine) Throat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty) ... Severe change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads ...

  1. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  2. Total Intravenous Anesthesia on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    anesthesia, which provides amnesia and excellent analgesia. The ketamine-induced rise in blood pressure and heart rate seen in the normotensive patient...capnography, blood pressure monitors) to provide an anesthetic. However, space, superfluous equipment, and electri- city can become issues. Furthermore...the anesthetic. New vaporizers, airway equipment, and blood transfusions for treatment of shock were other battlefield advances made during WWII.1

  3. Battlefield Stress: Causes, Cures and Countermeasures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    COUNTERMEASURES ’ I A thesis presentod to the Faculty of the U.S.. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements...research question, a myriad of other included topics must be’addressed. Some of these are: defi-nition and history of battlefield stress, factors which...technology could make the next war more intense, more lethal, and overall more stressful to the soldier than any other war in history . Even if future war

  4. Program Oversight of Contractors on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    has a full understanding of it.7 The extensive use of contractors on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan has engendered strong emotion and...contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan . These steps include tracking contracting data, coordinating the movements of contractors throughout the battle space...workforce to manage contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan and updating DoD doctrine to incorporate the role of contractors. However, some of these efforts

  5. Computers on the Battlefield: Can They Survive?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    camouflage ). a Plan for using or constructing alternate nodes to critical links. * Bury the Bundespost (long line) in a manner similar to the...or a smaller vehicle/van combination could drastically reduce com- puter installation silhouettes, making camouflage easier and enemy detection more...development software support for battlefield systems. Thus, each system fielded has its own software and hardware uniqueness-and we have an octopus out of

  6. IBCT Operations on the Depopulated Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    operations. In both examples above, soldiers deployed into the conflict zone with an inadequate supply of water, food , and night vision goggles (NVGs), and...rationale behind this statement was that the battlefield would be so lethal that it would be impossible to establish hospital tents, and that it would be...recent deployment exercises, whether contingency or training, attests to the high levels of supply wastage that exists within the current CSS system. On a

  7. Analysis of chemical warfare agents III. Use of bis-nucleophiles in the trace level determination of phosgene and perfluoroisobutylene.

    PubMed

    Muir, Bob; Cooper, David B; Carrick, Wendy A; Timperley, Christopher M; Slater, Ben J; Quick, Suzanne

    2005-12-09

    The reactivity of phosgene and perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) towards 1,2-bis-nucleophiles was exploited to allow determination of these gases in air samples. 2-Aminothiophenol (ATP), 3,4-dimercaptotoluene (DMT) and 2-hydroxymethylpiperidine (HMP) were evaluated as bis-nucleophiles capable of forming thermally-stable derivatives with phosgene and PFIB when loaded with triethylamine onto Tenax TA. Experimental design was used to optimise thermal desorption conditions. Detection limits in the low ngm(-3) range were observed for the five derivatives investigated. This work represents the most sensitive analytical method for trace level quantitation of phosgene and PFIB published to date.

  8. Wavelength dependent mechanism of metal-adsorbate photochemistry: phosgene on Pd(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-Y.; Flores, C. R.; White, J. M.

    1991-10-01

    Polarization data are presented which show, for photolysis of phosgene on Pd(111), that substrate excitation dominates at 3.5 and 6.4 eV but that a significant contribution from direct excitation occurs at 5.0 eV.

  9. PHOSGENE AS AN EXAMPLE OF THE C X T TOXICITY PRINCIPLE: THE ROLE OF ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene as an example of the C x T toxicity principle: the role of adaptation

    Name/Title : Dr. Gary E. Hatch
    Organization: Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, EPA, RTP
    Mailing Address: Mail Drop 82, US EPA, Res. Tri. Park, NC 27...

  10. Wavelength dependent mechanism of metal-adsorbate photochemistry: phosgene on Pd(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-Y.; Flores, C. R.; White, J. M.

    Polarization data are presented which show, for photolysis of phosgene on Pd(111), that substrate excitation dominates at 3.5 and 6.4 eV but that a significant contribution from direct excitation occurs at 5.0 eV.

  11. Toxic effects following phosgene exposure of human epithelial lung cells in vitro using a CULTEX® system.

    PubMed

    Wijte, Dorien; Alblas, Marcel J; Noort, Daan; Langenberg, Jan P; van Helden, Herman P M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate toxic effects following phosgene exposure of human epithelial lung cells (A549) in vitro using a CULTEX® system. In particular, toxic effects regarding early biomarkers emerging during the latency period following exposure might be of great value for medical treatment. Cells cultured on semi-permeable membranes were directly exposed at the liquid-air interface to different concentrations of phosgene, or dry medical air. Cell membrane integrity (leakage of LDH), metabolic activity (reduction of Alamar Blue), oxidative damage (GSH, and HO-1, in cell lysates), and release of IL-8, were studied. For most of the above-mentioned biological end-point markers, significant changes could be assessed following a 20 min exposure to 1.0 ppm and 2.0 ppm phosgene. Moreover, except for IL-8, all biological marker profiles showed to be in line with results obtained by others in animal studies. The C×t value of 40 ppm min appeared to be constant. The overall results suggest that at 4 h post-exposure a maximal level of toxicity was achieved. Our results demonstrate the suitability of a CULTEX® system to detect toxic effects induced by phosgene on human epithelial lung cells, which may contribute to the discovery of early biomarkers for new medical countermeasures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A simplified and improved synthesis of [11C]phosgene with iron and iron (III) oxide.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Kuge, Yuji; Seki, Koh-ichi; Ohkura, Kazue; Motoki, Noriko; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Tanaka, Akira; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2002-04-01

    [11C]Phosgene ([11C]COCl2), a useful precursor for labeling several radiopharmaceuticals, is generally produced by catalytic oxidation of [11C]carbon tetrachloride over Fe granules, although in low yields or with poor reproducibility. In order to develop am improved synthesis of [11C]phosgene, two oxidizing agents, Fe2O3 and CuO, were examined. The yield of [11C]phosgene was significantly increased using Fe2O3 powder mixed with Fe granules, while the use of CuO alone, or CuO powder mixed with Fe granules resulted in an insignificant yield. The yield and specific activity of S- (-) [11C]CGP-12177 synthesized using Fe2O3 powder mixed with Fe granules were markedly higher than those synthesized by the previous methods using Fe granules alone or Fe granules mixed with Fe powder. Thus, in the present study, we developed a simple and practical method for the synthesis of [11C]phosgene, which provided an improved yield of S- (-) [11C]CGP-12177.

  13. Acute nose-only inhalation exposure of rats to di- and triphosgene relative to phosgene.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Groups of young adult Wistar rats were acutely exposed to trichloromethyl chloroformate (diphosgene) and bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (triphosgene) vapor atmospheres using a directed-flow nose-only mode of exposure. The exposure duration used was 240 min. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of diphosgene and triphosgene was 13.9 and 41.5 mg/m3, respectively. Based on the molar exposure concentrations, the LC50s of phosgene (previously published), diphosgene, and triphosgene were 0.07, 0.07, and 0.14 mmol/m3, respectively. Although the principal toxic mode of action of the volatile diphosgene was similar to phosgene gas, the vapor phase of triphosgene appeared to be different to that of phosgene and diphosgene based on a more persistent occurrence of signs of respiratory distress and a biphasic onset of mortality. While all substances caused mortality within 1 day postexposure, triphosgene induced a second phase of mortality 11?14 days postexposure. The vapor saturation concentration of triphosgene at ambient temperature is ?100 times its LC50. In summary, triphosgene-induced lung injury patterns are different from that of phosgene and diphosgene. More research is needed to close the substantial data gaps of triphosgene.

  14. AN "INJURY-TIME INTEGRAL" MODEL FOR RELATING ACUTE TO CHRONIC INJURY TO PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT
    The present study compares acute and subchronic episodic exposures to phosgene to test the applicability of the "concentration x time" (C x T) product as a measure of exposure dose, and to relate acute toxicity and adaptive responses to chronic toxicity. Rats (m...

  15. AN "INJURY-TIME INTEGRAL" MODEL FOR RELATING ACUTE TO CHRONIC INJURY TO PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT
    The present study compares acute and subchronic episodic exposures to phosgene to test the applicability of the "concentration x time" (C x T) product as a measure of exposure dose, and to relate acute toxicity and adaptive responses to chronic toxicity. Rats (m...

  16. Battlefield Damage Assessment and Repair: Is Improvised Maintenance the Battlefield Solution to the Repair Parts Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-14

    College Fort L eavenworth, Kansas First Term AY 92-93 Approved ror Public Release; Distribution Is Unlimited 93-0715098 o o III•I/II/IIil!/iIiI . 5 ,,, 121...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT )ATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED1 14/2/92MONOGRAPH 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS BATTLEFIELD...be even more important.1I -Field Manual 100- 5 As a smaller force, relying on high technolo gy weapons and operating on the modern, lethal battlefield

  17. Delayed low-dose supplemental oxygen improves survival following phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Grainge, C; Jugg, B J; Smith, A J; Brown, R F R; Jenner, J; Parkhouse, D A; Rice, P

    2010-06-01

    Phosgene is a chemical widely used in the plastics industry and has been used in warfare. It produces life-threatening pulmonary edema within hours of exposure; no antidote exists. This study examines pathophysiological changes seen following treatment with elevated inspired oxygen concentrations (Fi(O2)), in a model of phosgene-induced acute lung injury. Anesthetized pigs were exposed to phosgene (Ct 2500 mg min m(-3)) and ventilated (intermittent positive pressure ventilation, tidal volume 10 ml kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure 3 cm H(2)O, frequency 20 breaths min(-1)). The Fi(O2) was varied: group 1, Fi(O2) 0.30 (228 mm Hg) throughout; group 2, Fi(O2) 0.80 (608 mm Hg) immediately post exposure, to end; group 3, Fi(O2) 0.30 from 30 min post exposure, increased to 0.80 at 6 h post exposure; group 4, Fi(O2) 0.30 from 30 min post exposure, increased to 0.40 (304 mm Hg) at 6 h post exposure. Group 5, Fi(O2) 0.30 from 30 min post exposure, increased to 0.40 at 12 h post exposure. The current results demonstrate that oxygen is beneficial, with improved survival, arterial oxygen saturation, shunt fraction, and reduced lung wet weight to body weight ratio in all treatment groups, and improved arterial oxygen partial pressure in groups 2 and 3, compared to phosgene controls (group 1) animals. The authors recommend that treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury with inspired oxygen is delayed until signs or symptoms of hypoxia are present or arterial blood oxygenation falls. The lowest concentration of oxygen that maintains normal arterial oxygen saturation and absence of clinical signs of hypoxia is recommended.

  18. Intratracheal administration of DBcAMP attenuates edema formation in phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, A M; Strickland, P T; Kennedy, T P; Guo, Y L; Gurtner, G H

    1996-01-01

    Phosgene, a toxic gas widely used as an industrial chemical intermediate, is known to cause life-threatening latent noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Mechanisms related to its toxicity appear to involve lipoxygenase mediators of arachidonic acid (AA) and can be inhibited by pretreatment with drugs that increase adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). In the present study, we used the isolated buffer-perfused rabbit lung model to investigate the mechanisms by which cAMP protects against phosgene-induced lung injury. Posttreatment with dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) was given 60-85 min after exposure by an intravascular or intratracheal route. Lung weight gain (LWG) was measured continuously. AA metabolites leukotriene (LT) C4, LTD4, and LTE4 and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha were measured in the perfusate at 70, 90, 110, 130, and 150 min after exposure. Tissue malondialdehyde and reduced and oxidized glutathione were analyzed 150 min postexposure. Compared with measurements in the lungs of rabbits exposed to phosgene alone, posttreatment with DBcAMP significantly reduced LWG, pulmonary arterial pressure, and inhibited the release of LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. Intratracheal administration of DBcAMP was more effective than intravascular administration in reducing LWG. Posttreatment also decreased MDA and protected against glutathione oxidation observed with phosgene exposure. We conclude that phosgene causes marked glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, release of AA mediators, and increases LWG. Posttreatment with DBcAMP attenuates these effects, not only by previously described inhibition of pulmonary endothelial or epithelial cell contraction but also by inhibition of AA-mediator production and a novel antioxidant effect.

  19. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  20. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  1. Reducing Battlefield Fuel Demand: Mitigating a Marine Corp Critical Vulnerability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Marine Corps’ battlefield dependence on fossil fuels carries not only fiscal implications, but far more importantly, it is costing the lives of Marines...dangerous confluence of strategic energy dependence and the mammoth effort required to deliver that energy to the battlefield prompted General James

  2. Battlefield Tours and Staff Rides: A Useful Learning Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Nick

    2009-01-01

    A key component of current British military education is the battlefield tour and staff ride. These tours allow students to visit the location of military events, most commonly the battlefields of the First and Second World Wars in northern Europe, to facilitate their understanding of military history and draw contemporary parallels from the…

  3. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  4. The Cognitive Battlefield: A Framework for Strategic Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited The Cognitive Battlefield: A Framework for Strategic Communications A Monograph by...Monograph JAN 2011- DEC 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Cognitive Battlefield: A Framework for Strategic Communications 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...individual. This paper proposes a communication framework under which the military practitioner can visualize and verbalize intended cognitive effects

  5. [Cyanide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Møller, Søren; Hemmingsen, Claus

    2003-06-16

    Cyanide is a toxic compound which inhibits the cellular utilization of oxygen. A number of substances can give rise to cyanide intoxication, which in some cases may have a delayed onset. The symptoms are non-specific and reflect cellular hypoxia. Several strategies may be employed in the treatment. Hydroxycobalamine is an effective and non-toxic antidote. On the basis of a case story, the toxicology, symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning are discussed.

  6. A BODIPY-Based Fluorescent Probe for Detection of Subnanomolar Phosgene with Rapid Response and High Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanlin; Peng, Aidong; Jie, Xiaoke; Lv, Yanlin; Wang, Xuefei; Tian, Zhiyuan

    2017-04-26

    A new type of phosgene probe with a limit of detection down to 0.12 nM, response time of less than 1.5 s, and high selectivity over other similarly reactive toxic chemicals was developed using ethylenediamine as the recognition moiety and 8-substituted BODIPY unit as the fluorescence signaling component. The probe undergoes sequential phosgene-mediated nucleophilic substitution reaction and intramolecular cyclization reaction with high rate, yielding a product with the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process from amine to the BODIPY core significantly inhibited. Owing to the emission feature of 8-substituted BODIPY that is highly sensitive to the substituent's electronic nature, such inhibition on the ICT process strikingly generates strong fluorescence contrast by a factor of more than 23 300, and therefore creates the superhigh sensitivity of the probe for phosgene. Owing to the high reactivity of ethylenediamine of the probe in nucleophilic substitution reactions, the probe displays a very fast response rate to phosgene.

  7. Intravenous administration of hyperoxygenated solution attenuates pulmonary edema formation in phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Liu, Chunran; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Changjun; Chai, Wei; Xu, Ruifen; Wang, Hui-xia; Xu, Lixian

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the post-treatment effect of intravenous hyperoxygenated solution (HOS) on pulmonary parameters in rabbits whole-body-exposed to the toxic gas phosgene. Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups randomly: rabbits were exposed whole-body to either filtered room air or 539 ppm phosgene for 5 minutes followed by room air washout for 5 minutes. Phosgene-exposed group (exposed to phosgene without treatment, PH group); Control group (exposed to air, Control group); Lactate Ringer's solution (LRS)-treated group (intravenous infusion of LRS by 30 ml·kg-1 after phosgene exposure, LRS group); Hyperoxygenated solution (HOS)-treated group (intravenous infusion of HOS after phosgene exposure by 30 mL·kg-1, HOS group). Arterial blood was collected for blood gas analysis at 1, 3, 8, and 12 hours after phosgene or air exposure. Rabbits were put to death 12 hours after exposure. Lung edema was assessed gravimetrically by measuring tissue wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) and lung coefficient (LC). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and fluid was analyzed for total maloaldehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and protein concentration. Lungs were perfused with saline to remove blood, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen (N2), analyzed for tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Parts of lung tissues were reserved for histopathology examination. In the PH, LRS, and HOS groups, phosgene inhalation caused serious lung edema, W/D and LC, lung tissue GSSG, BALF MDA, and protein content increased significantly. Meanwhile, PaO2, lung tissue GSH, and BALF GSH-Px decreased markedly. However, after HOS treatment in the HOS group, PaO2 was clearly higher than that in the PH group and LRS group at 3, 8, 12 hours (P < 0.01). W/D and LC, lung tissue GSSG, BALF MDA, and protein content in the HOS group were apparently lower than that in the PH group and LRS group (P < 0.01). In the HOS group, lung tissue

  8. [Effects of dexamethasone pretreatment on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in rats with acute lung injury induced by phosgene].

    PubMed

    He, Dai-Kun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of dexamethasone on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in rats with acute lung injury induced by phosgene. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control group that consists of the rats with air exposure, phosgene group that consists of the rats with phosgene exposure and dexamethasone group that consists of the rats with phosgene exposure after 2.5 mg/kg dexamethasone being injected. Wet and dry ratio of the lung (W/D) was calculated, and leukocyte count and total protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were recorded at 2 h after exposure. The concentrations of MMP-9 in the serum and BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pathologic changes of lung tissues were observed under light microscopy. The immunohistochemistry and the RT-PCR were used to detect the contents of MMP-9 in the lung tissue. Compared with phosgene group, the lung W/D, protein content and WBC count in of BALF dexamethasone group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). MMP-9 levels of the serum and BALF in dexamethasone group were (4.799 +/- 0.043) microg/L and (15.052 +/- 0.029) microg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those [(9.439 +/- 0.100) and (20.640 +/- 0.446) microg/L] in phosgene group (P < 0.01). Compared with phosgene group (2.789 +/- 0.282),the expression level (1.183 +/- 0.260) of lung MMP-9 mRNA in dexamethasone group was significantly lower than that in phosgene group (P < 0.01). Histological experimental results showed the marked hyperemia and thickening of alveolar walls and stroma cells infiltrating and more visible alveolar structure damage of alveolar walls in phosgene group while the alveolar structure and the alveolar walls were clear and slightly thickened with inflammatory cells in dexamethasone group. Immunohistochemical results showed that MMP-9 protein expression levels of lung and bronchus tissues in normal control group and dexamethasone group were weakly

  9. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  10. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eaten Amount swallowed The time it was swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  16. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Cuticle remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Poisoning: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... about possible poisoning, call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional ... along with alcohol). Call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional ...

  12. Poison Ivy Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... to poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from ... Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a ...

  13. Pentoxifylline inhibits intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and lung injury in experimental phosgene-exposure rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-di; Hou, Jun-Feng; Qin, Xu-Jun; Li, Wen-Li; Chen, Hong-Li; Liu, Rui; Liang, Xin; Hai, Chun-Xu

    2010-09-01

    Phosgene inhalation results in acute lung injury (ALI) mostly, pulmonary edema and even acute respiratory distress syndrome, but there is no specific antidote. Inflammatory cells play an important role in the ALI caused by phosgene. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a critical factor for inflammatory organ injury. We hypothesized that pentoxifylline (PTX), an inhibitor of leukocyte activation, would have a protective effect on experimental phosgene-induced lung injury rats by inhibiting ICAM-1. To prove this hypothesis, we used rat models of phosgene (400 ppm x 1 min)-induced injury to investigate: (1) the time course of lung injury (control 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h group), including pathological changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscope, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by colorimetric method and ICAM-1 protein level detected by western blot, (2) At 3 h after phosgene exposure, protective effects of different dosages of PTX (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) administration were evaluated by MPO activity, ICAM-1 differential expression and WBC count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The results showed that inflammatory cells emerged out of lung blood vessels at 3 h after phosgene exposure. The MPO activity of lung tissue increased significantly from 3 to 48 h after phosgene exposure (P < 0.05) and ICAM-1 expression presented a similar change, especially at 3 h and 24 h (P < 0.05). After pretreatment and treatment with PTX (100 mg/kg), significant protective effects were shown (P < 0.05). These data supported our hypothesis that PTX reduced phosgene-induced lung injury, possibly by inhibiting ICAM-1 differential expression.

  14. Leadership and Command on the Battlefield. Operation JUST CAUSE and DESERT STORM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    battlefield leader- ship. How does a commander achieve effective battlefield leadership? Is battlefield leadership tied to equipment? Are those with...vision implemented. The result of effective command is direction, the coordinated effort of many soldiers, teams, and units. Command thus encompasses...leadership and all its vari- ables, communication, and structure. Effective battlefield command assumes quality leadership, proper and adequate training

  15. Natural killer activity in Fischer-344 rat lungs as a method to assess pulmonary immunocompetence: Immunosuppression by phosgene inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, G.R.; Keyes, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Phosgene is a hazardous air toxic and a potential occupational health hazard. Studies were initiated to determine whether exposure to phosgene resulted in local pulmonary or systemic immune dysfunction. The effect of phosgene on lung natural killer (NK) activity was quantified at different times after exposure. Acute phosgene exposure resulted in a suppressed pulmonary NK activity on days 1, 2, and 4 after exposure; however, normal levels of biological activity were observed 7 days after exposure. The suppressed NK activity was not restored after removal of adherent cells. Pulmonary immunotoxicity was also observed after exposure at 0.5 ppm, while no adverse effects were observed at 0.1 ppm phosgene. Systemic immunotoxic effects were observed for NK activity in the spleen, but not in the peripheral blood. The report is the first of a systemic immunotoxic effect after exposure to phosgene. It is thus important in pulmonary immunotoxicology to evaluate systemic immune functions, since secondary effects -- distant to the original interaction -- may occur with potential serious consequences.

  16. Early treatment with nebulised salbutamol worsens physiological measures and does not improve survival following phosgene induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Grainge, C; Brown, R; Jugg, B J; Smith, A J; Mann, T M; Jenner, J; Rice, P; Parkhouse, D A

    2009-06-01

    To examine the effectiveness of nebulised salbutamol in the treatment of phosgene induced acute lung injury. Using previously validated methods, 12 anaesthetised large white pigs were exposed to phosgene (Ct 1978 +/- 8 mg min m(-3)), established on mechanical ventilation and randomised to treatment with either nebulised salbutamol (2.5 mg per dose) or saline control. Treatments were given 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 hours following phosgene exposure. The animals were followed to 24 hours following phosgene exposure. Salbutamol treatment had no effect on mortality and had a deleterious effect on arterial oxygenation, shunt fraction and heart rate. There was a reduction in the number of neutrophils from 24.0% +/- 4.4 to 12.17% +/- 2.1 (p < 0.05) in bronchoalveolar lavage, with some small decreases in inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage but not in plasma. Nebulised salbutamol treatment following phosgene induced acute lung injury does not improve survival, and worsens various physiological parameters including arterial oxygen partial pressure and shunt fraction. Salbutamol treatment reduces neutrophil influx into the lung. Its sole use following phosgene exposure is not recommended.

  17. Network clusters analysis based on protein-protein interaction network constructed in phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenwei; Gao, Fengying; Hou, Lili; Qian, Yongbing; Tian, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by impairment in gas exchange and/or lung mechanics that leads to hypoxemia with the presence of diffuse pulmonary infiltrate. Assessments of lung injury play important roles in the development of rational medical countermeasures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of phosgene-induced lung injury. We downloaded the gene expression profile of lung tissue from mice exposed to air or phosgene from gene expression omnibus database and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ALI. Furthermore, we constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and identified network clusters. In total, 582 DEGs were found and 4 network clusters were identified in the constructed PPI network. Gene set enrichment analysis found that DEGs were mainly involved in mitochondrion organization and biogenesis, mRNA metabolic process, negative regulation of transferase activity or catalytic activity, and coenzyme metabolic process. Pathways of spliceosome, glutathione metabolism, and cell cycle were dysregulated in phosgene-induced ALI. Besides, we identified four genes, including F3, Meis1, Pvf, and Cdc6 in network clusters, which may be used as biomarkers of phosgene-induced ALI. Our results revealed biological processes and pathways involved in phosgene-induced ALI and may expand understandings of phosgene-induced ALI. However, further experiments are needed to confirm our findings.

  18. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chelating agent poisoning; Mineral deposit remover poisoning ... harmful chemicals in steam iron cleaner are: Chelating agents Hydroxyacetic acid Phosphoric acid Sodium hydroxide (dilute) Sulfuric ...

  19. [Psychiatric disorders of the contemporary battlefield].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    This article presents the factors exerted an influence on psychiatric health status of participants of military missions and psychiatric disorders forming on the contemporary battlefield. The main stressors are threats being a result of duty in warfare, also hard climatic conditions, long-lasting separation from family, foreign language of local population, other customs, religion, caused alienation of mission personnel. Significant factors seem also dependences on duty and unofficial relationships prevailing in military environment. The consequence of survived psychiatric trauma being a result of short-lived incident or prolonged event are often acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  20. Translating Battlefield Practices to Disaster Health.

    PubMed

    Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Yeskey, Kevin; Miller, Aubrey; Arnesen, Stacey; Goolsby, Craig

    2017-08-01

    We review aspects of the recently released National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report A National Trauma Care System: Integrating Military and Civilian Trauma Systems to Achieve Zero Preventable Deaths After Injury most relevant to disaster health, particularly the concepts of focused empiricism and building a learning health system. The article references battlefield success utilizing these concepts and the emerging Disaster Research Response Program. We call upon disaster health researchers to apply the report's recommendations to their work. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:510-511).

  1. Perceived poisons.

    PubMed

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.

  2. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  3. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  4. Toward consistent snapshot of the digitized battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Susanta P.; Richardson, Paul; Sieh, Larry

    1999-07-01

    A battlefield can be viewed as a collection of entities, enemy and friendly, during combat, each entity scans its surrounding with local sensors to be aware of the current situation. Through digitation of the battlefield, it is possible to share this locally sensed information among all the friendly entities. Significant war-fighting advantages can be realized, if this shared information is consistent. During one of the soldier-in-the-loop simulation exercises invovling ground-based enemy and friendly entities, it was found that achieving consistent snapshot at each friendly node is not a trivial problem. A few contributing factors are: suitable method for combining individual perspective to a global one, mode of communication, movement of all entities, different local perspective of each entity, sensor calibration, fault, and clock synchronization. At the US Army VETRONICS Technology Center, we are in the process of developing a family of algorithms capable of obtaining a consistent global picture invovling one of the critical properties, ground position of entities. In the first stage we have established that for point to point communicating entities, a vector clock based scheme uses fewer number of messages and arrives at the global picture earlier. However, this result does not scale to broadcast situations.

  5. Battlefield triage life signs detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lin, Jenshan; Park, Byung-Kwon; Li, Changzhi; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M.; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2008-04-01

    Getting to wounded soldiers on the battlefield is a precarious task, and medics have a very high casualty rate. It is therefore a vital importance to prioritize which soldiers to attend to first. The first step is to detect life signs - if a soldier is dead or alive, and prioritize recovery of live soldiers. The second step is to obtain vital signs from live soldiers, and use this to prioritize which are in most urgent need of attention. Our team at Kai Sensors, University of Hawaii and University of Florida is developing Doppler radar heart sensing technology that provides the means to detect life signs, respiration and/or heart beat, at a distance, even for subjects lying motionless, e.g., unconscious subjects, wearing body armor, and hidden from direct view. Since this technology can deliver heart rate information with high accuracy, it may also enable the assessment of a subject's physiological and psychological state based on heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Thus, the degree of a subject's injury may also be determined. The software and hardware developments and challenges for life signs detection and monitoring for battlefield triage will be discussed, including heart signal detection from all four sides of the human body, detection in the presence of body armor, and the feasibility of HRV parameter extraction.

  6. Automated military unit identification in battlefield simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Phillip D.; Gordon, Ray C.

    1997-06-01

    It is the nature of complex systems, composed of many interacting elements, that unanticipated phenomena develop. Computer simulation, in which the elements of a complex system are implemented as interacting software objects (actors), is an effective tool to study collective and emergent phenomena in complex systems. A new cognitive architecture is described for constructing simulation actors that can, like the intelligent elements they represent, adapt to unanticipated conditions. This cognitive architecture generates trial behaviors, estimates their fitness using an integral representation of the system, and has an internal apparatus for evolving a population of trial behaviors to changing environmental conditions. A specific simulation actor is developed to evaluate surveillance radar images of moving vehicles on battlefields. The vehicle cluster location, characterization and discrimination processes currently performed by intelligent human operators were implemented into a parameterized formation recognition process by using a newly developed family of 2D cluster filters. The mechanics of these cluster filters are described. Preliminary results are presented in which this GSM actor demonstrates the ability not only to recognize military formations under prescribed conditions, but to adapt its behavior to unanticipated conditions that develop in the complex simulated battlefield system.

  7. River as a part of ground battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  8. Automated military unit identification in battlefield simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.; Gordon, R.

    1997-05-01

    It is the nature of complex systems, composed of many interacting elements, that unanticipated phenomena develop. Computer simulation, in which the elements of a complex system are implemented as interacting software objects (actors), is an effective tool to study collective and emergent phenomena in complex systems. A new cognitive architecture is described for constructing simulation actors that can, like the intelligent elements they represent adapt to unanticipated conditions. This cognitive architecture generates trial behaviors, estimates their fitness using an internal representation of the system, and has an internal apparatus for evolving a population of trial behaviors to changing environmental conditions. A specific simulation actor is developed to evaluate surveillance radar images of moving vehicles on battlefields. The vehicle cluster location, characterization and discrimination processes currently performed by intelligent human operators were implemented into a parameterized formation recognition process by using a newly developed family of 2D cluster filters. The mechanics of these cluster filters are described. Preliminary results are presented in which this GSM actor demonstrates the ability not only to recognize military formations under prescribed conditions, but to adapt its behavior to unanticipated conditions that develop in the complex simulated battlefield system.

  9. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  10. A Fluorescent Sensor for Dual-Channel Discrimination between Phosgene and a Nerve-Gas Mimic.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Yiying; Liyan, Chen; Wu, Xue; Yoon, Juyoung

    2016-04-04

    The ability to analyze highly toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and related chemicals in a rapid and precise manner is essential in order to alleviate serious threats to humankind and public security caused by unexpected terrorist attacks and industrial accidents. In this investigation, we designed a o-phenylenediamine-pyronin linked dye that is capable of both fluorogenic and colorimetric discrimination between phosgene and the prototypical nerve-agent mimic, diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) in the solution or gas phase. Moreover, this dye has been used to construct a portable kit that can be employed for real-time monitoring of DCP and phosgene in the field, both in a discriminatory manner, and in a simple and safe way. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Role of the Fighting Vehicle on the Airland Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    the most critical responsibilities on the AirLand battlefield: the role of the infantry fighting vehicle. The forty plus years of peace in Europe are...DTJ 4 FIL 1 COPY AD-A227 430 THE ROLE OF THE FIGHTING VEHICLE ON THE AIRLAND BATTLEFIELD A thesis presented to the faculty of the U. S. Army Command...1 June 1990 Ma q1,I.q. 8-1989 t-. 6- 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Role of the Fighting Vehicle on the Airland Battlefield. 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  13. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  14. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  15. Phosgene Effects on F-Actin in Cells Grown from Pulmonary Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    Plato, N., Alexandersson, R ., Eklund, A., and Falkenberg , C. (1991). Pulmonary reactions caused by welding-induced decomposed trichlorethylene. Chest 99...CY) CO 0= Phosgene Effects on F-actin in Cells Grown on from Pulmonary Tissues I R . Werrlein, J. Madren-Whalley and S.D. Kirby United States Army...shape, the image in Fig. 1 shows organization that was characteristic of F-actin in untreated and sham-treated control populations. B 4000- DPB (7 r 3000

  16. Surface photochemistry of phosgene on clean and iodine-covered Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.L.; White, J.M. )

    1990-03-22

    The photochemistry of phosgene (Cl{sub 2}CO) on clean and partially iodine covered Ag(111) has been studied. Cl{sub 2}CO adsorbed on Ag(111) at 100 K desorbs molecularly with no detectable thermal decomposition. On clean Ag(111) K, UV photolysis occurs readily for both submonolayer and multilayer coverages. The photolysis products are chlorine, which remains on the surface, and CO, which desorbs during irradiation. There is no detectable photodesorption of molecular Cl{sub 2}CO.

  17. Equilibrium structure and anharmonic potential constants of phosgene derived from rotational constants and electron diffraction intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nakata, Munetaka; Kuchitsu, Kozo

    1985-07-01

    The third-order anharmonic constants of phosgene are determined from the rotational constants of the six fundamental vibrational states, those of eight isotopic species, and the rz structure obtained from the electron diffraction intensity by analyzing the changes in the average structures. The equilibrium structure is obtained as r e(CCl = 1.7365(12) Å, r e( CO) = 1.1766(22) Å, and ∠ e(ClCCl) = 111.91(12)°.

  18. Corticosteroids found ineffective for phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Pauluhn, Jürgen; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen

    2014-08-17

    Various therapeutic regimes have been proposed with limited success for treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI). Corticoids were shown to be efficacious against chlorine-induced lung injury but there is still controversy whether this applies also to P-ALI. This study investigates whether different regimen of curatively administered budesonide (BUD, 10 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid; 100 mg/m(3)×30 min, nose-only inhalation), mometasone (MOM, 3 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid) and dexamethasone (DEX, 10, 30 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid), show efficacy to alleviate P-ALI. Efficacy of drugs was judged by nitric oxide (eNO) and carbon dioxide (eCO2) in exhaled air and whether these non-invasive biomarkers are suitable to assess the degree of airway injury (chlorine) relative to alveolar injury (phosgene). P-ALI related analyses included lung function (enhanced pause, Penh), morbidity, increased lung weights, and protein in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) one day postexposure. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of P-ALI was indicated by increased Penh lasting for approximately 20 h postexposure. Following the administration of BUD, this increase could be suppressed; however, without significant improvement in survival and lung edema (increased lung weights and BALF-protein). Collectively, protocols shown to be efficacious for chlorine (Chen et al., 2013) were ineffective and even increased adversity in the P-ALI model. This outcome warrants further study to seek for early biomarkers suitable to differentiate chlorine- and phosgene-induced acute lung injury at yet asymptomatic stage. The patterns of eNO and eCO2 observed following exposure to chlorine and phosgene may be suitable to guide the specialized clinical interventions required for each type of ALI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet spectrum and quantum yield of the 193 nm photolysis of phosgene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Martin; Heydtmann, Horst; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    1996-12-01

    The VUV absorption spectrum of phosgene, COCl 2, was measured in the wavelength region between 161 and 220 nm using standard single-beam apparatus. Furthermore, quantum yield measurements were performed at 193 nm employing ArF laser photolysis and FTIR product analysis. Both the absorption cross section and quantum yield data are in reasonable agreement with data in the literature, while the occurrence of a pressure effect on the quantum yield still lacks a detailed explanation.

  20. Protective ventilation strategies in the management of phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Parkhouse, Duncan A; Brown, Roger F; Jugg, Bronwen J; Harban, Fraser M; Platt, Jan; Kenward, Christopher E; Jenner, John; Rice, Paul; Smith, Adam J

    2007-03-01

    Phosgene is a chemical widely used in the plastics industry and has been used in warfare. It produces a life-threatening pulmonary edema within hours of exposure, to which no specific antidote exists. This study aims to examine the pathophysiological changes seen with low tidal volume ventilation (protective ventilation (PV)) strategies compared to conventional ventilation (CV), in a model of phosgene-induced acute lung injury. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented and exposed to phosgene (concentration x time (Ct), 2,350 mg x min x m(-3)) and then ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (tidal volume (TV) = 10 ml x kg(-1); positive end expiratory pressure, 3 cm H2O; frequency, 20 breaths x min(-1); fractional concentration of inspired oxygen, 0.24), monitored for 6 hours after exposure, and then randomized into treatment groups: CV, PV (A) or (B) (TV, 8 or 6 ml x kg(-1); positive end expiratory pressure, 8 cm H2O; frequency, 20 or 25 breaths x min(-1); fractional concentration of inspired oxygen, 0.4). Pathophysiological parameters were measured for up to 24 hours. The results show that PV resulted in improved oxygenation, decreased shunt fraction, and mortality, with all animals surviving to 24 hours compared to only three of the CV animals. Microscopy confirmed reduced hemorrhage, neutrophilic infiltration, and intra-alveolar edema.

  1. Pulmonary pathological alterations in sheep exposed to a lethal dose of phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Assaad, A.; Nold, J.; Petrali, J.; Moore, D.; Mitcheltree, L.; Corcoran, K.; Phillips, K. )

    1991-03-11

    In this study, the authors demonstrated the acute pulmonary cellular changes associated with phosgene exposure, by both light (L.M.) and electron microscopy (E.M.). Adult, unanesthetized sheep were exposed for 10 minutes to either 767 ppm/min of phosgene or room air. Four hours post exposure, all animals were killed, wet lung weight was obtained, and lung tissue was collected for L.M. and E.M. In sheep exposed to phosgene, wet lung weight was significantly higher. Grossly, the lung was congested and edematous. Alveolar and interstitial edema, fibrin and neutrophil exudation in the air spaces, and increased alveolar macrophages, were prominent by L.M. E.M. of Type I pneumocytes showed intracellular swelling, necrosis, and denuding of basement membrane with preservation of the tight junctions. Type II pneumocytes showed loss of lamellar bodies, cytoplasmic swelling, and damage to the endoplasmic reticulum. Endothelial cells showed increased density and vesicular activity, cytoplasmic swelling, and displacement of basement membrane. This study supports the biochemical data the authors previously reported.

  2. Ciguatera poisoning.

    PubMed

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  3. The temporal profile of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice exposed to the industrial gas phosgene.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Alfred M; Clapp, Diana L; Hess, Zoe A; Moran, Ted S

    2003-06-01

    Diagnosis of an exposure to airborne toxicants can be problematic. Phosgene is used widely in industry for the production of many synthetic products, such as polyfoam rubber, plastics, and dyes. Although nearly 100% of the gas is consumed during processing, there is the potential problem of accidental or even intentional exposure to this irritant/choking agent. Exposure to phosgene has been known to cause latent life-threatening pulmonary edema. A major problem is that there is a clinical latency phase from 3 to 24 h in people before irreversible acute lung injury occurs. Assessment of markers of acute lung injury after a suspected exposure would be useful in developing rational treatment strategies. These experiments were designed to assess bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the presence of the early markers of exposure to phosgene in mice from 1 to 72 h after exposure. Separate groups of 40 CD-1 male mice (Crl:CD-1(ICR)BR) weighing 29 +/- 1 g were exposed whole-body to either air or a concentration x time (c x t) amount of 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min (640 mg x min/m(3)). BALF from air- or phosgene-exposed mice was taken at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure. After euthanasia, the trachea was excised, and 800 micro l saline was instilled into the lungs and washed 5x. BALF was assessed for interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, IL-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and IL-10. At 4 h postexposure, IL-6 was 15-fold higher for phosgene-exposed mice than for the time-matched air-exposed control group. At 8 and 12 h, IL-6, IL-1beta, MIP-2, and IL-10 were significantly higher in phosgene-exposed mice than in time-matched air-exposed controls, p < or = 0.05 to p < or = 0.001, whereas TNF alpha reached peak significance from 24 to 72 h. IL-4 was significantly lower in the phosgene-exposed mice than in the air-exposed mice from 4 to 8 h after exposure. These data show that BALF is an important tool in assessing pro

  4. Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopedic Implant Outcome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0138 TITLE: Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopedic Implant Outcome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...September 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopedic Implant Outcome 5b. GRANT NUMBER...of immune cells isolated during a typical blood draw (6 regular blood draw tubes totaling 60mL) from soldiers exposed to metals in battle and

  5. Eolian Modeling System: Predicting Windblown Dust Hazards in Battlefield Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-03

    environments and to understand the implications of eolian transport for environmental processes such as soil and desert pavement formation. The...REPORT Final Report for Eolian Modeling System (EMS): Predicting Windblown Sand and Dust Hazards in Battlefield Environments 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...Predicting Windblown Sand and Dust Hazards in Battlefield Environments ." The objectives of the research were to 1) develop numerical models for the

  6. A Framework for Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Wu, Biao; Yi, Renjie; Zhu, Jie

    With the development of high technology weapon, the execution and precision of weapon have made great improvement, which arouse many new challenge for treatment of war wounds. It is very urgent to research how to reduce casualty of individual solider. However, researches focus only on daily application recently. This paper discusses Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System (IBTS), and designs the framework of the service-oriented system based on WCF. The system has the following functions: testing the physical condition of a solider, disposing the distress signals intelligently, dispatching rescuers and assisting self-rescue or mutual-rescue to the wounded. The IBTS characteristics of data aggregate, multi-platform operation and data sharing can improve the treatment efficiency.

  7. Effective Strategy for Colorimetric and Fluorescence Sensing of Phosgene Based on Small Organic Dyes and Nanofiber Platforms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Chen, Liyan; Jung, Hyeseung; Zeng, Yiying; Lee, Songyi; Swamy, Kunemadihalli Mathada Kotraiah; Zhou, Xin; Kim, Myung Hwa; Yoon, Juyoung

    2016-08-31

    Three o-phenylendiamine (OPD) derivatives, containing 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazole (NBD-OPD), rhodamine (RB-OPD), and 1,8-naphthalimide (NAP-OPD) moieties, were prepared and tested as phosgene chemosensors. Unlike previously described methods to sense this toxic agent, which rely on chemical processes that transform alcohols and amines to respective phosphate esters and phosphoramides, the new sensors operate through a benzimidazolone-forming reaction between their OPD groups and phosgene. These processes promote either naked eye visible color changes and/or fluorescence intensity enhancements in conjunction with detection limits that range from 0.7 to 2.8 ppb. NBD-OPD and RB-OPD-embedded polymer fibers, prepared using the electrospinning technique, display distinct color and fluorescence changes upon exposure to phosgene even in the solid state.

  8. [Dynamic changes of a group of cytokines in phosgene-induced lung injury and the function of ulinastatin].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Zhiyue; He, Daikun; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Jie

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the dynamic changes of a group of cytokines in phosgene-induced lung injury and the function of different dose of ulinastatin through animal experiment. 104 male SD rats were randomly assigned into the control group, ulinastatin control group, phosgene treatment groups and different dose of ulinastatin intervention groups, 8 rats each group. Treatment groups were dynamic constant exposure in phosgene, and immediately injected ulinastatin intraperitoneal, and then the experimental animal, the lung tissue biopsy, lung wet/dry ratio, RT-PCR detection, the plasma for detection of Bio-Plex 18 cytokines. Compared with the control group, plasma concentrations of IL-1α, IL-6, GM-CSF, TNF-α, INF-γ, MIP-3α, VEGF were increased significantly first (2 h), and gradually decreased with the passage of time , the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 were decreased earlier (2h, 6 h) and increased later (24 h) (P < 0.05). The change of plasma concentration of IL-13 was not obvious earlier (2 h) and still rising later (24h), the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). After drug intervention, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines declined and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines raise by different degrees at different times in ulinastatin intervention groups, the difference was statistically significant. The degree of lung injury was improved than the phosgene treatment groups and better in high dose of ulinastatin intervention group. The expression of IL-10, IL-4, IL-13-mRNA of tissue increased in accordance with plasma results. A group of cytokines are dynamicly changed in phosgene-induced lung injury by time. High dose of ulinastatin can improved phosgene-induced lung injury, regulate the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines and inhibit inflammatory react in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Single high-dose dexamethasone and sodium salicylate failed to attenuate phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Pauluhn, Jürgen; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-06

    Life-threatening acute lung injury potentially occurs following high-level accidental exposures to phosgene gas. This situation was mirrored in rats exposed nose-only at 900-1000 mg phosgene/m(3)min. At this exposure level, previous studies on rats demonstrated sustained reflexively induced cardiopulmonary dysfunction and evidence of vascular fluid redistribution. These findings challenge the currently applied treatment strategies to mitigate the presumed non-cardiogenic lung edema by steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigates whether high doses of curatively administered dexamethasone (DX; 100 mg/kg bw, ip) and sodium salicylate (SS; 200 mg/kg bw, ip), alone or in combination, show efficacy to mitigate the phosgene-induced lung edema. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), animal morbidity and mortality, and increased lung weights one day postexposure served as endpoints of lung injury and drug efficacy. When applying this dosing regimen, SS showed minimal (if any) efficacy while DX, alone or in combination with SS, substantially aggravated the emerging lung edema (lung weights) with 40% mortality. The degree of acute lung injury (ALI) was mirrored by increased eNO. Its direct relationship to ALI-severity was evidenced by decreased eNO following NO-synthetase inhibitor administration (aminoguanidine-aerosol) and associated mitigation of ALI. All non-treated phosgene-exposed as well as treated but non-phosgene-exposed rats survived. This experimental evidence suggests that high-dose corticoid treatments may aggravate the pulmonary toxicity of phosgene. Similarly, this outcome supports the supposition that non-inflammatory, cardiogenic and/or neurogenic factors play a role in this type of acute lung injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bracken fern poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  11. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  13. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  14. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  15. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  16. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  17. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Shellfish Poisoning Causative organisms: Pseudo- ...

  18. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of phosgenation of aliphatic alcohols. VI. The role of the association of the alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, S.I.; Chimishkyan, A.L.; Negrebetskii, V.V.

    1988-07-10

    Investigation of the effect of the association of a series of alcohols on the phosgenation rate in heptane showed that the tetramer of the alcohol enters exclusively into reaction with phosgene. This is explained by the formation of a bicyclic transition state (or tetrahedral intermediate), which does not require previous desolvation or association of the alcohol and secures effective intramolecular assistance to the elimination of hydrogen chloride. The electronic structure was determined by CNDO/2 quantum-chemical calculations, which reproduces the three-dimensional structure and electron density distribution in the molecules fairly well. Methanol was chosen as model alcohol in order to simplify the calculations.

  20. [Natural toxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan.

  1. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  2. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  3. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  4. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  5. Purity analysis of hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride and phosgene by quantitative (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Terry J; Cullinan, David B

    2007-11-01

    Hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride and phosgene are produced in tremendously large quantities today by the chemical industry. The compounds are also particularly attractive to foreign states and terrorists seeking an inexpensive mass-destruction capability. Along with contemporary warfare agents, therefore, the US Army evaluates protective equipment used by warfighters and domestic emergency responders against the compounds, and requires their certification at > or = 95 carbon atom % before use. We have investigated the (13)C spin-lattice relaxation behavior of the compounds to develop a quantitative NMR method for characterizing chemical lots supplied to the Army. Behavior was assessed at 75 and 126 MHz for temperatures between 5 and 15 degrees C to hold the compounds in their liquid states, dramatically improving detection sensitivity. T(1) values for cyanogen chloride and phosgene were somewhat comparable, ranging between 20 and 31 s. Hydrogen cyanide values were significantly shorter at 10-18 s, most likely because of a (1)H--(13)C dipolar contribution to relaxation not possible for the other compounds. The T(1) measurements were used to derive relaxation delays for collecting the quantitative (13)C data sets. At 126 MHz, only a single data acquisition with a cryogenic probehead gave a signal-to-noise ratio exceeding that necessary for certifying the compounds at > or = 95 carbon atom % and 99% confidence. Data acquired at 75 MHz with a conventional probehead, however, required > or = 5 acquisitions to reach this certifying signal-to-noise ratio for phosgene, and >/= 12 acquisitions were required for the other compounds under these same conditions. In terms of accuracy and execution time, the NMR method rivals typical chromatographic methods.

  6. Scombroid poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2010-08-15

    Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used in regulation until more is known about the mechanism of scombroid poisoning. Scombroid poisoning and histamine are correlated but complicated. Victims of scombroid poisoning respond well to antihistamines, and chemical analyses of fish implicated in scombroid poisoning generally reveal elevated levels of histamine. Scombroid poisoning is unique among the seafood toxins since it results from product mishandling rather than contamination from other trophic levels. Inadequate cooling following harvest promotes bacterial histamine production, and can result in outbreaks of scombroid poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Laboratory methods and screening methods for detecting histamine are available in abundance, but need to be compared and validated to harmonize testing. Successful field testing, including dockside or on-board testing needed to augment HACCP efforts will have to integrate rapid and simplified detection methods with simplified and rapid sampling and extraction. Otherwise, time-consuming sample preparation reduces the impact of gains in detection speed on the overall analysis time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Battlefield conditions: different environment but the same duty of care.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Janet

    2010-09-01

    Using an interpretative research approach to ethical and legal literature, it is argued that nursing in the battlefield is distinctly different to civilian nursing, even in an emergency, and that the environment is so different that a duty of care owed by military nurses to wounded soldiers should not apply. Such distinct differences in wartime can override normal peacetime professional ethics to the extent that the duty of care owed by military nurses to their patients on the battlefield should not exist. It is also argued that as military nurses have legal and professional obligations to care for wounded soldiers on the battlefield, this obligation conflicts with following military orders, causing a dual loyalty conflict. This is because soldiers are part of the 'fighting force' and must be fit to fight and win the battle. This makes them more of a commodity rather than individual persons with distinct health care needs.

  8. Management of Battlefield Injuries to the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jayne R.; Brennan, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    High velocity skull base injuries on the battlefield are unique in comparison to most civilian sector trauma. With more than 43,000 United States military personnel injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF), the most recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have significantly expanded the understanding of the physiology of modern battlefield trauma and how to appropriately address these injuries. The acute care principles of effective triage, airway management, and hemorrhage control in these injuries can be life saving and are reviewed here. Specific injury patterns and battlefield examples are reviewed as well, with a review of some of the lessons learned while providing care in a deployed setting. Utilization of the knowledge learned in Iraq and Afghanistan, which have improved casualty care of deployed service members, can be used both in future military conflicts and in civilian trauma care. PMID:27648400

  9. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  11. Battlefield Acupuncture: Is It Ready for Widespread Dissemination?

    PubMed

    Federman, Daniel G; Gunderson, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    The use of prescription opioids for chronic pain has increased markedly within the past few decades; thus, death rates associated with opioid overdoses have increased dramatically. Nonopioid pharmacologic therapies also are associated with adverse effects. Other pain-abatement modalities such as acupuncture may be useful in the treatment of several painful conditions. Battlefield acupuncture is being promulgated as a potential low-risk, nonpharmacological therapy for pain. In this narrative review we examine the published literature to support battlefield acupuncture. We conclude that the amount and quality of published research presently do not justify wide adoption of this practice by those strictly adherent to evidence-based medicine.

  12. Use of Dried Plasma in Prehospital Battlefield Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-08

    acquisition and use of non-licensed dried plasma products , unless the products are used as INDs. a. The "Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...battlefield.4•17•69 Dried Plasma 17. Dried plasma is currently prepared either through a spray-drying technique, or a freeze drying and...could be administered.5•13•17•45•63•65•66 5 SUBJECT: Use of Dried Plasma in Prehospital Battlefield Resuscitation 2011-04 a. Freeze - Dried Plasma

  13. A framework for visualization of battlefield network behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perzov, Yury; Yurcik, William

    2006-05-01

    An extensible network simulation application was developed to study wireless battlefield communications. The application monitors node mobility and depicts broadcast and unicast traffic as expanding rings and directed links. The network simulation was specially designed to support fault injection to show the impact of air strikes on disabling nodes. The application takes standard ns-2 trace files as an input and provides for performance data output in different graphical forms (histograms and x/y plots). Network visualization via animation of simulation output can be saved in AVI format that may serve as a basis for a real-time battlefield awareness system.

  14. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  15. Hearts and Minds: Military Recruitment and the High School Battlefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, military recruitment has failed, with rare exceptions, to meet its quotas. The nations's high schools have thus become battlefields for the hearts and minds of young people as recruiters dangle gifts and promises of future benefits before teenagers in an effort to fill the ranks of an all-volunteer military. In this article, the…

  16. Battlefield Visualization and Database Creation System Using One Meter Terrain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    FHL ) developed a high fidelity battlefield replication system during the early 90’s. This system provided the capability to generate a 1 meter...are only practical if databases exist in the areas in which live operations are required. Operational test facilities such as Ft. Hood, YPG, and FHL

  17. Hearts and Minds: Military Recruitment and the High School Battlefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, military recruitment has failed, with rare exceptions, to meet its quotas. The nations's high schools have thus become battlefields for the hearts and minds of young people as recruiters dangle gifts and promises of future benefits before teenagers in an effort to fill the ranks of an all-volunteer military. In this article, the…

  18. Adapting military field water supplies to the asymmetric battlefield.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Arthur H; White, George H; Bonilla, Alejandro; Richards, Todd E; Richards, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    Army transformation to a brigade-centric force has created a distributed battlefield, challenging the surveillance and logistical supply of field water. The daily requirement of up to 15 gal of potable water per person per day from bulk water supplies has been achievable for many years using currently fielded ROWPUs. However, the need to reduce the transport of water and move towards a sustainable force has created a gap in materiel capable of producing safe water at the individual and unit level. While materiel development is slow, the PM community, tasked with doctrine development and battlefield oversight of field water, is beginning to address the requirements of field water on the changed battlefield. In addition to materiel gaps, the transformed battlefield has created a lack of trained personnel for water production and oversight. Without trained operators and PM oversight, to what level of health risk are consumers of this water exposing themselves? Currently PM is unable to answer this question but is working diligently with the RDT&E community to develop materiel solutions, and with the medical community to provide interim guidance to reduce the potential health risks to using such equipment.

  19. Modeling battlefield sensor environments with the views workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Hield, C.W.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Visual Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Simulation (VIEWS) Workbench software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to enable Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently build detailed IEW battlefield scenarios, or ``sensor environments,`` to drive he Army`s high-resolution IEW sensor performance models. VIEWS is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database.

  20. Building battlefield sensor environments with the VIEWS Workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Hield, C.W.; Christiansen, J.H.; Simunich, K.L.; Woyna, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The visual Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Simulation (VIEWS) Workbench software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) analysts at (UNIX) workstations to conveniently build detailed IEW battlefield scenarios, or ``sensor environments,`` to drive the Army`s high-resolution IEW sensor performance models. Views is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database.

  1. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-14

    carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.7 II. EXPERIMENTAL Figure 1 shows a...nitrogen) was purchased from Cross Company. Carbon dioxide (103 L of 4.97 ppm balance air), chlorine (103 L of 4.60 ppm balance air), phosgene (103 L of...1 Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region

  2. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400 1400 cm 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-24

    carbon dioxide (CO2) as the reference.7 II. EXPERIMENTAL Figure 1 shows a...nitrogen) was purchased from Cross Company. Carbon dioxide (103 L of 4.97 ppm balance air), chlorine (103 L 3 of 4.60 ppm balance air), phosgene (103...1 Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region

  3. Adduction of the chloroform metabolite phosgene to lysine residues of human histone H2B.

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Laura; Taylor, Graham W; Cañas, Benito; Boobis, Alan R; Edwards, Robert J

    2003-03-01

    Human exposure to trihalomethanes such as chloroform has been associated with both cancer and reproductive toxicity. While there is little evidence for chloroform mutagenicity or DNA adduct formation, in vivo studies in rats have demonstrated adduction to histones and other nuclear proteins. Histones play a key role in controlling DNA expression particularly through the acetylation of lysine residues in their N-termini. Therefore, we studied the reaction of phosgene, the major active metabolite of chloroform, with the N-terminus of human histone H2B (Hpep, Pro-Glu-Pro-Ala-Lys-Ser-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro-Lys-Lys-Gly-Ser-Lys-Lys-Ala-Val-Thr-Lys-Ala-Gln-Lys) in a model chemical system. The aim of this study was to assess whether phosgene is able to form irreversible adducts with this peptide and to investigate which residues are most susceptible. Hpep was reacted with a range of phosgene concentrations (0.03-36 mM) at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The products of these reactions, analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, showed that up to three CO moieties could be adducted to the peptide. The singly and doubly adducted peptides were purified by HPLC and then hydrolyzed with trypsin to produce a series of fragments that were analyzed by HPLC-MS. The tryptic products showed that adduction occurred principally at lysine residues, and that all seven lysine residues of the peptide were subject to adduction. Collision-induced dissociation analysis using ion trap MS-MS of the tryptic fragment [Pro-Glu-Pro-Ala-Lys-Ser-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro-Lys + CO] and of the full-length singly adducted peptide supported the role of lysine residues in adduction; the data also indicated that the N-terminal proline and the serine residues are susceptible. Addition of glutathione to the reaction mixture only partially attenuated adduct formation and allowed production of another adducted species, i.e., Hpep-CO-glutathione. The occurrence of such reactions to the N-termini of histones, if confirmed

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the battlefield.

    PubMed

    Verghese, George; Verma, Rohit; Bhutani, Sourabh

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is increasingly being used in a number of areas of medical practice. It is an accepted adjunctive therapy in conditions such as burns, crush injuries, head injuries, spinal cord injuries, reconstruction surgeries, gas poisonings, radiation injuries, various anaerobic and aerobic infections that are commonly encountered in combat. It is being evaluated as a potential therapy for a variety of illnesses such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and High Altitude Cerebral Oedema (HACO) that are typically encountered in a combat scenario. The latest hyperbaric chambers are lightweight, portable and easy to operate. Provisioning of such chambers in the zonal hospitals can prove to be an invaluable resource in combat casualty care and may result in improved outcomes.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the battlefield

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, George; Verma, Rohit; Bhutani, Sourabh

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is increasingly being used in a number of areas of medical practice. It is an accepted adjunctive therapy in conditions such as burns, crush injuries, head injuries, spinal cord injuries, reconstruction surgeries, gas poisonings, radiation injuries, various anaerobic and aerobic infections that are commonly encountered in combat. It is being evaluated as a potential therapy for a variety of illnesses such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and High Altitude Cerebral Oedema (HACO) that are typically encountered in a combat scenario. The latest hyperbaric chambers are lightweight, portable and easy to operate. Provisioning of such chambers in the zonal hospitals can prove to be an invaluable resource in combat casualty care and may result in improved outcomes. PMID:24532946

  6. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice.

  7. ACE-FTS and MIPAS observations of phosgene (COCl2) and comparisons with SLIMCAT chemical transport model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Moore, David; Boone, Christopher; Bernath, Peter; Hossaini, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    The majority of chlorine in the atmosphere has arisen from anthropogenic emissions of 'organic' species such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Due to their long lifetimes, many of these species reach the stratosphere where they break down, liberating chlorine which catalyses the destruction of ozone. The principal degradation products of Cl-containing organic species are carbonyl chloride (phosgene, COCl2), carbonyl chloride fluoride (COClF), and hydrogen chloride (HCl). Of these, phosgene is probably the most notorious, having been used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In the lower stratosphere, where the phosgene mixing ratios peak, the principal sources are the photolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and, to a lesser extent, methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3). Smaller contributions arise from very short-lived substances such as CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and C2Cl4. Due to the success of the Montreal Protocol in phasing out the use of CCl4 and CH3CCl3, the abundance of phosgene continues to fall. Observing and understanding phosgene in the stratosphere helps us better understand the chlorine budget, and particularly the atmospheric removal of CCl4, which has attracted particular interest recently on account of the inconsistency between observations of its abundance and estimated sources and sinks. This work presents global distributions and trends of COCl2 using data from two satellite limb instruments: the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). The ACE-FTS instrument, on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22) and CCl4, and the chlorine 'product' gases COCl2

  8. The role of direct and substrate excitation in ultraviolet photolysis of phosgene on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-Y.; White, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The photodissociation rate of phosgene (Cl2CO) adsorbed on Pt(111) has been measured as a function of photon energy at normal incidence and as a function of incident angle using p-polarized light. Compared to the gas phase, the wavelength dependence of the initial photolysis cross section on the surface is redshifted. The angular response to p-polarized light is wavelength dependent. Above 315 nm, the angular dependence correlates with calculated metal absorption. At 280 nm, the angular dependence is much too strong to be accounted for solely by substrate excitation. A combination of substrate and direct excitation is adequate. This is the first direct evidence, for monolayers on metals, that both direct and substrate excitation contribute to surface photochemistry but dominate at different wavelengths.

  9. Method for near-real-time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattin, Frank G.; Paul, Donald G.

    1996-11-01

    A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-sit use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

  10. A method for near real time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, F.G.; Paul, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-site use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average (TW) concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

  11. Spectral intensities of Rydberg transitions in carbonyl compounds. Formaldehyde, carbonyl fluoride and phosgene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla, E.; Lavín, C.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.

    2002-12-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths for electronic transitions involving Rydberg series (including the continuum) of formaldehyde, carbonyl fluoride and phosgene have been calculated with the molecular-adapted quantum defect orbital (MQDO) procedure. These compounds are known to play an important role in the evolution of the interstellar medium and the Earth's upper atmosphere. The results have been analysed on the grounds of the scarce comparative data found in the literature and by compliance with continuity across the ionisation threshold. The similarities observed between the calculated intensities of analogous transitions in the isovalent molecules F 2CO and Cl 2CO have served the purpose of assessing the quality of our calculations. New data, which may aid in future experimental measurements, are supplied.

  12. Radiosynthesis of [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene using [(11)C]phosgene for PET.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yuuki; Ogawa, Masanao; Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu

    2010-09-01

    Automated radiosynthesis of [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene, the substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), was performed for the first time through a multi-step/one-pot labeling sequence that started with ethyl 2-{2-[5-(4-nitrophenyl)furfurylidene]hydrazino}acetate and used [(11)C]phosgene as a labeling agent. After optimization of the automated synthesis conditions and parameters, [2-(11)C-carbonyl]dantrolene was obtained at a radiochemical yield of 34.0+/-8.4% (decay-corrected). The radiochemical purity was greater than 98% and the specific activity was 46.8+/-15.2GBq/micromol at the end of the synthesis.

  13. Phosgene at the complete basis set limit of CCSDT(Q): Molecular structure and rovibrational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kevin V.; Schaefer, Henry F.; Agarwal, Jay

    2017-09-01

    The ground-state (X∼1A″) equilibrium geometry of phosgene is examined with coupled-cluster theory, using derivatives extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit of CCSDT(Q). The C-O and C-Cl bond lengths are predicted to be 1.1768 Å and 1.7374 Å, respectively; the Cl-C-Cl bond angle is 124.03° and the O-C-Cl bond angle is 111.93°. Anharmonic frequencies are determined with VPT2, using CCSD(T)/cc-pCVQZ cubic and quartic force-fields and a CCSDT(Q)/CBS quadratic force field: ν1 = 1832.9 ; ν2 = 570.5 ; ν3 = 301.2 ; ν4 = 576.3 ; ν5 = 849.4 ; and ν6 = 438.9 cm-1.

  14. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  15. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  16. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - العربية (Arabic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - नेपाली (Nepali) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Pashto (Pax̌tō / پښتو ) Expand ...

  17. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  18. Sweet clover poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  19. Deliberate self-poisoning.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R

    1986-12-01

    As a widespread expression of human suffering, deliberate self-poisoning makes heavy demands on health care services. There have been recent changes in self-poisoning rates and recommended assessment procedures, as well as advances in our knowledge about aetiology. These have important implications for the clinician.

  20. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  1. Functional genomic assessment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Leikauf, George D; Concel, Vincent J; Bein, Kiflai; Liu, Pengyuan; Berndt, Annerose; Martin, Timothy M; Ganguly, Koustav; Jang, An Soo; Brant, Kelly A; Dopico, Richard A; Upadhyay, Swapna; Cario, Clinton; Di, Y P Peter; Vuga, Louis J; Kostem, Emrah; Eskin, Eleazar; You, Ming; Kaminski, Naftali; Prows, Daniel R; Knoell, Daren L; Fabisiak, James P

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a genetically diverse panel of 43 mouse strains was exposed to phosgene and genome-wide association mapping performed using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assembly. Transcriptomic analysis was also used to improve the genetic resolution in the identification of genetic determinants of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We prioritized the identified genes based on whether the encoded protein was previously associated with lung injury or contained a nonsynonymous SNP within a functional domain. Candidates were selected that contained a promoter SNP that could alter a putative transcription factor binding site and had variable expression by transcriptomic analyses. The latter two criteria also required that ≥10% of mice carried the minor allele and that this allele could account for ≥10% of the phenotypic difference noted between the strains at the phenotypic extremes. This integrative, functional approach revealed 14 candidate genes that included Atp1a1, Alox5, Galnt11, Hrh1, Mbd4, Phactr2, Plxnd1, Ptprt, Reln, and Zfand4, which had significant SNP associations, and Itga9, Man1a2, Mapk14, and Vwf, which had suggestive SNP associations. Of the genes with significant SNP associations, Atp1a1, Alox5, Plxnd1, Ptprt, and Zfand4 could be associated with ALI in several ways. Using a competitive electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, Atp1a1 promoter (rs215053185) oligonucleotide containing the minor G allele formed a major distinct faster-migrating complex. In addition, a gene with a suggestive SNP association, Itga9, is linked to transforming growth factor β1 signaling, which previously has been associated with the susceptibility to ALI in mice.

  2. Functional Genomic Assessment of Phosgene-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Concel, Vincent J.; Bein, Kiflai; Liu, Pengyuan; Berndt, Annerose; Martin, Timothy M.; Ganguly, Koustav; Jang, An Soo; Brant, Kelly A.; Dopico, Richard A.; Upadhyay, Swapna; Cario, Clinton; Di, Y. P. Peter; Vuga, Louis J.; Kostem, Emrah; Eskin, Eleazar; You, Ming; Kaminski, Naftali; Prows, Daniel R.; Knoell, Daren L.; Fabisiak, James P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a genetically diverse panel of 43 mouse strains was exposed to phosgene and genome-wide association mapping performed using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assembly. Transcriptomic analysis was also used to improve the genetic resolution in the identification of genetic determinants of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We prioritized the identified genes based on whether the encoded protein was previously associated with lung injury or contained a nonsynonymous SNP within a functional domain. Candidates were selected that contained a promoter SNP that could alter a putative transcription factor binding site and had variable expression by transcriptomic analyses. The latter two criteria also required that ≥10% of mice carried the minor allele and that this allele could account for ≥10% of the phenotypic difference noted between the strains at the phenotypic extremes. This integrative, functional approach revealed 14 candidate genes that included Atp1a1, Alox5, Galnt11, Hrh1, Mbd4, Phactr2, Plxnd1, Ptprt, Reln, and Zfand4, which had significant SNP associations, and Itga9, Man1a2, Mapk14, and Vwf, which had suggestive SNP associations. Of the genes with significant SNP associations, Atp1a1, Alox5, Plxnd1, Ptprt, and Zfand4 could be associated with ALI in several ways. Using a competitive electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, Atp1a1 promoter (rs215053185) oligonucleotide containing the minor G allele formed a major distinct faster-migrating complex. In addition, a gene with a suggestive SNP association, Itga9, is linked to transforming growth factor β1 signaling, which previously has been associated with the susceptibility to ALI in mice. PMID:23590305

  3. A hydrazine- and phosgene-free synthesis of tetrazinanones, precursors to 1,5-dialkyl-6-oxoverdazyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Bancerz, Matthew; Youn, Beom; DaCosta, Matthew V; Georges, Michael K

    2012-03-02

    A complementary approach to published synthetic methods for tetrazinanones, precursors to verdazyl radicals, is described herein. This approach uses carbohydrazide, a commercially available reagent, as a common starting material. Unlike previous methods described in the literature, this synthetic scheme does not rely on phosgene, phosgene substitutes, or the limited pool of commercially available monosubstituted hydrazines for its execution. A large variety of alkyl substitution patterns at the N-1 and N-5 positions of verdazyl radicals are possible, including both symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted products. An initial condensation reaction of carbohydrazide with a specific aldehyde introduces the desired C-3 substituent in the final verdazyl radical product and protects the NH(2) groups during the subsequent N-1 and N-5 alkylation reactions. A succeeding methanolysis and concomitant ring-closing reaction gives the tetrazinanone. A number of known oxidation methods can then be employed to form the final verdazyl radical product.

  4. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  5. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  6. [Effect of phosgene on apoptosis of alveolar type II cells and vascular endothelial growth factor in exposed mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Qin, Xu-jun; Liang, Xin; Chen, Hong-li

    2004-06-01

    To study the apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, alterations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (Flt1) in serum and lung and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung in pulmonary edema mice induced by phosgene. Twenty-six BALB/C mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group, exposed group (13 mice in each group). Mice of exposed group were intoxicated by inhalation of phosgene 11.9 mg/L for 5 minutes. Mice of control group were treated as the same way by inhalation of air. Isolation of mice alveolus type II cells 4 h after intoxication was carried out to observe their apoptosis under electron microscope. Contents of VEGF and Flt1 in lung and serum by ELISA, and expression of VEGF mRNA were determined. Alveolar type II cells were identified by tannic acid staining and electron microscopy. After exposed to 11.9 mg/L of phosgene for 5 minutes, the apoptotic body in alveolus type II cells was found in exposed group. The contents of VEGF in serum and lung and Flt1 in lung of exposed mice [(134.07 +/- 120.26), (477.76 +/- 98.06), (1,2818.48 +/- 2,304.15) pg/ml] were significantly lower than those of control group [(445.57 +/- 173.30), (1,026.87 +/- 474.56), (21,976.51 +/- 7,421.01) pg/ml, P < 0.05] but the content of Flt1 in serum [(2,369.56 +/- 381.70) pg/ml] was higher than that in control group [(1,898.00 +/- 453.69) pg/ml, P < 0.05]. The expression of VEGF mRNA in pulmonary edema mice was decreased. Phosgene can induce apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, and decrease in the content of VEGF and Flt1, and expression of VEGF mRNA in lung.

  7. [¹¹C]Phosgene: a versatile reagent for radioactive carbonyl insertion into medicinal radiotracers for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Roeda, Dirk; Dollé, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    [¹¹C]Phosgene has been playing a relatively modest but continuous and manifest role all along the history of radiochemistry for Positron Emission Tomography. It acts as a radiolabelling agent through carbonyl insertion, usually between heteroatoms, and benefits from a high chemical reactivity allowing for short reaction times. The aim of this review is to give an overview of this radiochemistry from its beginning until the present day. After drawing up the inventory of the various ways of its production, the reactions in which it has been employed and the labelled products that have been synthesised with it are catalogued. This comprises the reactions of [¹¹C]phosgene with primary, secondary and tertiary amines to labelled isocyanates and carbamoyl chlorides, which serve as intermediates for symmetrical and unsymmetrical [¹¹C]ureas and [¹¹C]carbamates, reactions with alcohols leading to labelled carbamates and carbonates via [¹¹C]chloroformates, cyclisation reactions to heterocycles and the radiochemistry of the secondary radiolabelling agents [¹¹C]urea and diethyl- or dimethyl [¹¹C]carbonate. Apart from this already vast field of chemical possibilities there should be room for extension of the use of [¹¹C]phosgene to other chemistry, notably that of C-¹¹C bond formation.

  8. Energy Efficient and Reliable Target Monitoring in the Tactical Battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Xiao; Guan, Hua; Zhang, Yue-Ling

    In the tactical battlefield target monitoring it is crucial to take into account the energy efficiency and data reliability issues for the purpose of military decision making, especially in large scale sensor networks. However, due to the inherent nature of power constraint and wireless communication medium it is a challenging problem in the process of actual application. An efficient and reliable data aggregation scheme is proposed to enhance the performance of wireless sensor network used in the target monitoring. Firstly, the energy consumption model is presented and analyzed in the multihop WSNs. Then idea of mobile sinks, adaptive energy saving mechanism is introduced and the concept of multiple sinks cooperation is used to assure the reliability of the data aggregation. The simulation and the associated analysis show the improved results of the presented schema. At last the future discussion about the large scale tactical battlefield application is made to broaden the coming research scope.

  9. Immunological battlefield in gastric cancer and role of immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minyu; Busuttil, Rita A; Pattison, Sharon; Neeson, Paul J; Boussioutas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Like the wars predating the First World War where human foot soldiers were deemed tools in the battlefield against an enemy, so too are the host immune cells of a patient battling a malignant gastric cancer. Indeed, the tumour microenvironment resembles a battlefield, where the patient’s immune cells are the defence against invading tumour cells. However, the relationship between different immune components of the host response to cancer is more complex than an “us against them” model. Components of the immune system inadvertently work against the interests of the host and become pro-tumourigenic while other components soldier on against the common enemy – the tumour cell. PMID:27605873

  10. Of Penguins, Pinnipeds, and Poisons: Anesthesia on Elephant Island.

    PubMed

    Firth, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3.8 mmHg), it would have been feasible to induce anesthesia at a low temperature. However, given the potentially lethal hazards of a light chloroform anesthetic, an adequate and constant depth of anesthesia was essential. The pharmacokinetics of the volatile anesthetic, administered via the open-drop technique in the frigid environment, would have been unfamiliar to the occasional anesthetist. To facilitate vaporization of the chloroform, the team burned penguin skins and seal blubber under overturned lifeboats to increase the ambient temperature from -0.5° to 26.6°C. Chloroform degrades with heat to chlorine and phosgene, but buildup of these poisonous gases did not occur due to venting of the confined space by the stove chimney. The anesthetic went well, and the patient-and all the ship's crew-survived to return home.

  11. Sensing of Living Casualties on the Modern Integrated Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    history, blood type , etc. This medical records aspect actually has limited use in the battlefield. but should prove to be useful for subsequent medical...tory, such as blood type , allergies, medications, prescription for glasses, etc., could be stored in the PMC. Some of this information is of value in...given soldier-- programming It with his name, rank, serial number, blood type , 34 past medical history, etc. Ideally this job could be done using any

  12. Battlefield Medical Research Development Training and Evaluation Priorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-20

    DEFENSE HEAL TH BOARD DEFENSE HEAL TH HEADQUARTERS 7700 ARLINGTON BOULEVARD, SUITE 5101 FALLS CHURCH, VA 22042-5101 DEC 2 0 2012 FOR: JONATHAN...combat fatalities. He noted that: 1) Approximately 25 percent of combat fatalities occurred in casualties with potentially survivable injuries; 2 ...accept the list provided by the Subcommittee as a Board recommended list of top priorities. 2 SUBJECT: Battlefield Medical Research, Development

  13. Enabling Battlefield Visualization: An Agent-Based Information Management Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    information management process. We describe an architecture for information management using intelligent interface agents to assist a commander with battlefield visualization. Our approach focuses on a knowledge-driven process of information management , in which the commander’s information requirements (CCIRs) are understood within the current context by automatically decomposing them into specific, sensor-relevant collection needs, tasking available collection assets to gather the data to answer the information

  14. Open Wound Drainage Versus Wound Excision on the Modern Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    D7J FILE COPk " ’I Institute Report No. 256 •! • N ,Lt) Open Wound Drainage Versus Wound Excision N -" Oa on the Modern Battlefield 0) M. L. Facklsr...provided with adequate open drainage and systemic penicillin, heals as rapidly when the body defense mechanisms handle the disrupted tissue as when...modern generation assault rifle, provided with adequate open drainage and systemic penicillin, heals as rapidly when the body defense mechanisms

  15. Lean methodology: supporting battlefield medical fitness by cutting process waste.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Elaine J

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare has long looked at decreasing risk in communication and patient care processes. Increasing the simplicity in communication and patient care process is a newer concept contained in Lean methodology. Lean is a strategy for achieving improvement in performance through the elimination of steps that use resources without contributing to customer value. This is known as cutting waste or nonvalue added steps. This article outlines how the use of Lean improved a key process that supports battlefield medical fitness.

  16. Civilian Contractors Providing Logistics and Support on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    compensated by contractors who are able to fill in and complete the tasks required for the mission. -Colonel Ronda G. Urey US Army...have continued to support 1 Colonel Ronda G. Urey , USAWC Strategy Research Project, Civilian...Contractors Killed in Iraq.” Associated Press, 23 Feb 2007 Urey , Ronda G., Colonel, USA. “Civilian Contractors on the 15 Battlefield.” (USAWC

  17. Saving Lives on the Battlefield (Part 2) - One Year Later

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-30

    to control non-compressible hemorrhage in the pre-hospital environment. 10. The authorization of ketamine as a pre-hospital pain management therapy...IAW TCCC Guidelines with clear Guideline indications to use low-dose ketamine as the battlefield analgesic of choice for casualties in severe pain ...N/A Do you have TXA in medics’ aid bags? 8% 92% N/A TCCC Pain Management Are you using TCCC guidelines pain medications? 4 42% 12% 46

  18. Low-cost uncooled IR sensor for battlefield surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Michael A.; Willits, David S.; Lubke, Roger A.; Thiede, Edwin C.

    1993-11-01

    Operation Desert Storm has identified the need for improved battlefield surveillance sensors to see and assess enemy threats under all battlefield conditions, including darkness. Current imaging sensors usually employ visible light cameras, Low Light Level (L3), Image Intensified (I2), or conventional Infrared (IR) cameras to detect and observe hostile forces. However, these sensors have serious deficiencies. The visible TV camera requires well lighted areas and cannot image in darkness. The L3 TV cameras have a difficult time operating in bright sunlight or in total darkness. Image intensifiers require some ambient light and cannot penetrate camouflage or battlefield obscurants. Conventional FLIRS are costly, require an initial cool down period, and need additional power for cooling pump or periodic gas replenishment for long-term operation. Uncooled Focal Plane Array (FPA) LWIR sensors offer advantages over other imaging sensors. Uncooled IR sensors operating from 8 to 12 microns can easily operate in bright sunlight, or total darkness. They use the naturally radiated IR scene energy to create high resolution images and are not dependent on artificial light sources. Their long wave-length of operation also provides better weather penetration. Enemy vehicles and soldiers can easily camouflage themselves in the visible, but cannot hide their thermal emissions from the IR sensor.

  19. Helmet-mounted displays on the modern battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    1999-07-01

    The increasing need for information being demanded by the battlefield commander in order to increase and maintain overall situational awareness in execution of the battle plan has caused a proliferation of devices and methods to be evaluated in Army Warfighting Experiments (AWEs). The results are often technology driving requirements without sufficient consideration given to the requirements of the soldier in battle. We are witnessing an overload of information being imposed on both the commander and the individual soldier, employing equipment capable of providing information from numerous sources across multiple, non-compatible platforms. Displays for this information range from large, power-hungry, big screen TVs to small, rugged computers and head-mounted displays (HMDs) for the individual combat soldier. The former requires large power supplies and is not suitable for a mobile army; the latter offers poor resolution and interferes with the duties of a soldier in combat. While we must continue to explore technology to solve some of the problems on the modern battlefield, we, as developers of technology, cannot lose sight of the purpose of the combat soldier: To wage war on a highly complex and mobile battlefield, whether it be in a country or urban environment; to seek out the enemy, engage him, destroy his ability to fight.

  20. Topical and effective hemostatic medicines in the battlefield

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin-Juan; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage has been considered as one of the most important factors for causing death on the battlefront. If given timely and efficient hemostatic medicines in pre-hospital setting, patients will obtain more time and chance to wait for medical treatment so as to save their lives. However, there is not a certain answer about which kind of hemostatic drugs can achieve efficacious effect to hemostasis in the battle. This review aims to summarize effective hemostatic medicines applied in battlefield from 41 articles. After analyzing and comparing the efficacy and complications of those products, we conclude that Fibrin Sealant Dressing, Celox and Woundstat are prior to other materials to stanch life-threatening extremity hemorrhage on the battlefield based on present research in the related area. Therefore, in the prevalence of some inevitable battlefield throughout the world, especially in the Middle Eastern countries, our findings suggest for the first time that the effective hemostatic device is not only a key point to link pre-hospital and hospital care but also an essential way to increase the survival rate of battlefront in the foreseeable future. PMID:25784969

  1. Digitization of the battlefield using unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, David C.

    1996-06-01

    Recent research in unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems has established the basis for significant advances in determining the local conditions in a tactical battlefield environment. In particular, new technology allows the creation of `throw-away' sensors which can be placed in a battlefield environment and are capable of self-location (via low cost global positioning satellite system technology), self-calibration using a portfolio of sensors to monitor the local environment, and inter-sensor site communications, e.g. via low level commercially available ethernet spread spectrum transceivers and peer-to-peer networking. At the Penn State University Applied Research Laboratory, such a capability has been developed and demonstrated at the breadboard level. Each node of a multi-node system involves a suite of sensors for acoustic/seismic target identification, sound propagation monitoring (depends greatly on weather conditions), barometric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature vertical gradient, wind, soil temperature, moisture, salinity, dielectric constant, and resistance. A small network of UGS nodes can be distributed widely in an array for non-line-of-sight target identification and tracking as well as real time characterization of the battlefield environment. This paper briefly describes the UGS implementation and unclassified experimental results showing a significant impact of the changing environment of acoustic detection.

  2. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-04

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  3. Effect of PEEP on phosgene-induced lung edema: pilot study on dogs using protective ventilation strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenli; Rosenbruch, Martin; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Various therapeutic regimes have been proposed for treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI). Most of these treatments rely on late-stage supportive measures to maintain the oxygenation of the lung. This exploratory proof-of-concept study on Beagle dogs focused on protective positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation, initiated early at the yet asymptomatic stage after phosgene exposure. Conscious, spontaneously breathing dogs were head-only exposed to a potentially lethal inhalation dose of phosgene (870 ppm × min). Shortly after exposure, the dogs were anesthetized, intubated and then subjected to mechanical ventilation (PEEP; tidal volume (VT)=10-12 mL/kg body weight, 40 breaths/min) at 0, 4, or 12 cm H2O over a post-exposure period of 8h (one dog per setting). For reference, one additional dog received the same dose of phosgene without anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. Time-course changes of hematocrit, leukocytes, and thrombocytes were determined in peripheral blood. At necropsy, changes lung weights, bronchoalveolar lavage, and histology were used to assess the efficacy of treatment. The most salient outcome in the non-ventilated dog was a time-related hemoconcentration and leukocytosis and autopsy findings suggestive of pulmonary congestion and edema. The pulmonary epithelium of the major airways was generally intact; however, in their lumen inflammatory cells, cellular debris and mucus were present. Relative to the dog receiving no intervention, the lung edema was markedly alleviated by PEEP at both 4 and 12 cm H2O but not at 0 cm H2O PEEP. In summary, the time-dependent progression into a life-threatening pulmonary edema can effectively be suppressed by protective, low-pressure PEEP when implemented early enough after exposure to phosgene. However, due to the exploratory nature of this study, the findings may suggest an association between PEEP and protection from pulmonary edema. However, definite conclusions and

  4. Bracken fern poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  5. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  6. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic fixatives are chemicals used to develop photographs. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing such chemicals. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an ...

  7. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from ... Potassium carbonate is found in: Glass Some dishwasher soaps Some ... that is used in fertilizers) Some home permanent-wave solutions ...

  8. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  9. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning include: Carbon monoxide gas (from furnaces, gas engines, fires, space heaters) Certain foods Chemicals in the ... Center or a doctor. Use any "cure-all" type antidote. Wait for symptoms to develop if you ...

  10. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  11. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  12. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called " ...

  13. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  14. Asphalt cement poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  15. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  16. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... except Maricopa County Mail donation to: College of Pharmacy, Development Office PO Box 210202, Tucson, AZ 85721 ... gl/xomtXD Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/ Email: boesen at pharmacy ...

  17. Overview of Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... products (see Caustic Substances Poisoning ), agricultural products, plants , heavy metals (for example, iron and lead ), vitamins, animal venom, ... digoxin ) and plants (oleander, foxglove) Digoxin -specific antibodies Heavy metals (such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc) ...

  18. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Resources STEADI Initiative for Health Care Providers Water-Related Injuries Get the Facts Publications Poisoning Tips ... containers. Do not use food containers such as cups, bottles, or jars to store chemical products such ...

  19. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wart removers are medicines used to get rid of warts. Warts are small growths on the skin that are caused by a virus. They are usually painless. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows or uses ...

  20. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The outcome depends on the extent of this damage. Poisoning from dye containing an alkali may result in continuing injury to these tissues for weeks or months. If the person swallowed a nonpoisonous household dye, recovery is likely.

  1. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  2. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  3. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  4. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... For swallowed poison, the person may receive: Endoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ... the nose or mouth into the lungs Bronchoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ...

  5. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  6. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  7. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  8. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick; Murray, Peter; Nesdale, Annette; Peckler, Brad

    2016-10-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed.

  9. Collection and chemical derivatization of airborne phosgene with 1-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine and determination by high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Rando, R.J.; Poovey, H.G. . Section of Bioenvironmental Research); Chang, Shau-nong . Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    As an alternative to currently available measurement methods, Chromosorb coated with 1-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine (PYP) was evaluated for collection/derivatization of phosgene gas. Solid sorbent tubes contained 100 mg of 2.5% PYP coated on Chromosorb. Phosgene reacts with two equivalents of PYP to form a substituted urea derivative which is desorbed with acetonitrile and determined by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection. In comparison to the 4,4[prime]-nitrobenzyl pyridine in diethylphthalate colorimetric technique, the recovery of phosgene from the sorbent tube was quantitative from 0.02 to 1 ppm phosgene and was unaffected by humidity. The limit of detection for a 20 L air sample was estimated to be 0.005 ppm. The utility of the method was further improved by demonstrating the use of triphosgene (bis-(trichloromethyl)-carbonate) in the synthesis of the urea derivative used for standardization, thus eliminating the need for working with gaseous phosgene in preparing analytical standards.

  10. Photocatalysis of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) over TiO2: the effect of oxygen and relative humidity on the generation of dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) and phosgene.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hsin-Hung; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2007-07-19

    Batch photocatalytic degradation of 80+/-2.5 ppm V trichloroethylene (TCE) was conducted to investigate the effect of the oxygen and relative humidity (RH) on the formation of the dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) and phosgene. Based on the simultaneous ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the reaction rate constants of TCE ((2.31+/-0.28) approximately (9.41+/-0.63)x10(-2) min(-1)) are generally larger than that of DCAC ((0.94+/-1.25) approximately (9.35+/-1.71)x10(-3) min(-1)) by approximate one order. The phenomenon indicates the degradation potential of TCE is superior to that of DCAC. DCAC appreciably delivers the same degradation behavior with TCE that means there exists an optimum RH and oxygen concentration for photocatalysis of TCE and DCAC. At the time the peak yield of DCAC appears, the conversion ratio based on the carbon atom from TCE to DCAC is within the range of 30-83% suggesting that the DCAC generation is significantly attributed to TCE degradation. Regarding the phosgene formation, the increasing oxygen amount leads to the inhibitory effect on the phosgene yield which fall within the range of 5-15%. The formation mechanism of phosgene was also inferred that the Cl atoms attacking the C-C bond of DCAC results to the generation of phosgene rather than directly from the TCE destruction.

  11. Multireference configuration-interaction studies on the UV and photoelectron spectrum of phosgene, Cl 2CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachey, M. R. J.; Grein, F.

    1997-11-01

    Multireference configuration-interaction (MR-CI) calculations, using basis sets between double to triple-zeta quality with added polarization and Rydberg functions, have been performed on the ground state and excited singlet states of phosgene, Cl 2CO, in C 2v symmetry. Vertical excitation energies and CO potential functions for the four lowest 1A 1, 1B 1, 1B 2 and 1A 2 states were calculated. On the basis of the CO potentials, the A ← X system corresponds to 1 1A2 ← X ( n O → π ∗) . The B ← X system can clearly be assigned to 2 1A1 ← X, 3 b1 → π ∗, where 3b 1 is a Cl nonbonding MO at the ground state equilibrium geometry, but changes into πCO at larger CO separations. Contrary to the situation in formaldehyde, the 3 b1 → π ∗ (π → π ∗) potential is well separated from the higher-lying n O → Rydberg potentials. On the basis of vertical excitation energies, other calculated valence transitions ( n O → σ CCl∗, 3 b1 → σ CCl∗and n Cl → π ∗) lie (vertically) in the range of the B ← X and C ← X systems. Several higher valence states are expected, but have not been found among the four lowest roots of each symmetry species calculated. The n O → 4s Rydberg transition is best associated with the D ← X system, and the n O → 4p transitions with E ← X. MR-CI calculations were also performed on low-lying states of Cl 2CO +. The maximum deviation of calculated vertical ionization energies of phosgene from those obtained via the photoelectron spectrum is 0.5 eV, much smaller than deviations based on orbital energies. The third photoelectron band is now assigned to 2a 2, and the fourth to 3b 1, opposite to the Koopmans' ordering.

  12. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of ... Centers Celebrates the 55th Annual National Poison Prevention Week › View more Find Your Local Poison Center Poison ...

  13. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  14. 75 FR 69125 - River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... National Park Service River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495 AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notification of a New National Park, River Raisin National Battlefield Park. SUMMARY: As authorized by Section 7003 of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act...

  15. Poisoning in children: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A K; Seth, A; Goyal, P K; Aggarwal, V; Mittal, S K; Sharma, R; Bahl, L; Thakur, J S; Verma, M; Chhatwal, J; Chacko, B; Saini, V; Singhal, A; Sharma, P; Sharma, U; Chaturvedi, P; Kumar, S; Prajapati, N C; Vaidya, J; Garg, N; Basu, S N; Lahiri, M; Das, C K; Pal, D K; Lall, S B

    1998-01-01

    The retrospective data on childhood poisoning from eight regional hospitals in India has been reviewed. The demographic features and types of poisonings encountered have been compared. The analysis of the data indicated that pediatric poisonings constituted 0.23-3.3% of the total poisoning. The mortality ranged from 0.64-11.6% with highest being from Shimla. Accidental poisoning was common involving 50-90% of children below 5 years of age and males outnumbered the females. Suicidal poisoning was seen after 13 years of age and was due to drugs and household chemicals. One of the hospitals in Delhi recorded a very high incidence (66.6%) of drug poisoning in children. The drugs consumed belonged to phenothiazines, antiepileptics and antipyretics. Iron poisoning was seen in younger children. Kerosene was one of the causes of accidental poisoning at all hospitals except Shimla and rural Maharashtra were probably wood charcoal is widely used. Pesticide poisoning was more prevalent in Punjab and West Bengal whereas plant poisoning was very common in Shimla. Significant number of snake envenomation has been recorded from rural Maharashtra. Other less common accidental poisonings in children included alcohol, corrosives, heavy metals, rodenticides, detergents and disinfectants. Thus various regions in the country showed some variation in types and frequency of childhood poisoning which could be attributed to different geographical and socio-economic background.

  16. Novel insights into phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats: role of dysregulated cardiopulmonary reflexes and nitric oxide in lung edema pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenli; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Chen; Truebel, Hubert; Pauluhn, Juergen

    2013-02-01

    Phosgene gas is a lower respiratory tract irritant. As such, it stimulates nociceptive vagal C-fiber-related reflexes in a dose-rate and concentration × exposure duration (C × t)-dependent manner. In rats, this reflex is characterized by extended apnea time periods, bradycardia, and hypothermia. Although inhalation exposures at nonlethal C × t products show rapid reversibility of reflexively induced changes in respiratory patterns, lethal C × t products seem to cause prolonged stimulation after discontinued exposure to phosgene. This observation has been taken as indirect evidence that phosgene-induced lethal lung edema is likely to be associated with a dysfunctional neurogenic control of cardiopulmonary and microvascular physiology. In order to verify this hypothesis, data from respiratory function measurements during and after the inhalation exposure to phosgene gas were compared with time-course measurements of cardiac function over 20 h post-phosgene exposure. These data were complemented by time-course analyses of nitric oxide (NO(e)) and carbon dioxide in exhaled breath, including time-dependent changes of extravasated protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and hemoglobin in blood. The nitric oxidase synthetase inhibitors L-NAME and L-NIL were used to further elucidate the role of NO(e) in this type of acute lung injury and whether its analysis can serve as an early biomarker of pulmonary injury. Collectively, the sequence and time course of pathological events in phosgene-induced lung edema appear to suggest that overstimulated, continued sensorimotor vagal reflexes affect cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. A continued parasympathetic tone appears to be involved in this etiopathology.

  17. Phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI): differences from chlorine-induced ALI and attempts to translate toxicology to clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenli; Pauluhn, Juergen

    2017-12-01

    Phosgene (carbonyl dichloride) gas is an indispensable chemical inter-mediate used in numerous industrial processes. There is no clear consensus as to its time- and inhaled-dose-dependent etiopathologies and associated preventive or therapeutic treatment strategies. Cardiopulmonary function was examined in rats exposed by inhalation to the alveolar irritant phosgene or to the airway irritant chlorine during and following exposure. Terminal measurements focused on hematology, protein extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and increased lung weight. Noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic endpoints in exhaled breath (carbon dioxide and nitric oxide) were used to detect the clinically occult stage of pulmonary edema. The first event observed in rats following high but sublethal acute exposure to phosgene was the stimulation of alveolar nociceptive vagal receptors. This afferent stimulation resulted in dramatic changes in cardiopulmonary functions, ventilation: perfusion imbalances, and progressive pulmonary edema and phospholipoproteinosis. Hematology revealed hemoconcentration to be an early marker of pulmonary edema and fibrin as a discriminating endpoint that was positive for the airway irritant chlorine and negative for the alveolar irritant phosgene. The application of each gas produced typical ALI/ARDS (acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome) characteristics. Phosgene-induced ALI showed evidence of persistent apnea periods, bradycardia, and shifts of vascular fluid from the peripheral to the pulmonary circulation. Carbon dioxide in expired gas was suggestive of increased ventilation dead space and appeared to be a harbinger of progressively developing lung edema. Treatment with the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine aerosol by inhalation reduced the severity of phosgene-induced ALI when applied at low dose-rates. Symptomatic treatment regimens were considered inferior to causal modes of treatment.

  18. Time course for expression of VEGF and its receptor and regulator levels of contraction and relaxation in increased vascular permeability of lung induced by phosgene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-di; Hai, Chun-Xu; Cai, Feng-Lei; Liang, Xin; Liu, Rui; Chen, Hong-Li; Qin, Xu-Jun; Feng, An-Ji

    2008-07-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by phosgene increases risk of serious edema and mortality. Increased permeability of the microvascular endothelium is implicated in the progression of ALI, but the processing interaction and time course activity of the vascular regulators in exudation are still not understood. The main aim of this study was to investigate the time course and potential role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors, and some vascular function regulators related to increased vascular permeability of lung induced by phosgene. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups according to time post phosgene exposure (control, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h groups). Lung tissue was removed to evaluate VEGF isoforms, fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (Flt-1), and kinase insert domain containing region (KDR/Flk-1) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) level. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression profile of the VEGF system after phosgene exposure was time dependent. The VEGF system expression in lung tissue was related closely to the level of ET-1 and NO. In conclusion, increased permeability of the lung microvascular endothelium induced by phosgene was primarily a result of differential expression of VEGF and its receptors, and was related to the level of ET-1 and NO. The results suggest that the cooperation of VEGF system, ET-1, and NO plays a critical role, and all those parameters emerge as time dependent in the early phase of the permeability process induced by phosgene exposure.

  19. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    PubMed

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  20. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  1. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  2. The fishes of Wilson's Creek National Battlefield, Missouri, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    An inventory of fishes of Wilson's Creek National Battlefield was conducted at eight sites on three streams, two springs, a pond, and within a cave. Fish were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment during July 2003. Approximately 325 fish were collected and identified from five of the eight sampling sites. A total of 30 species of fish was collected from the eight sampling sites. The number of species collected at the sampling sites ranged from 0 to 23. Many of the 'most commonly' collected fish species are typical of Ozark streams. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 12 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. A thirteenth species (the Ozark cavefish, Amblyopsis rosae) is listed as 'unexpected.' However, this designation is uncertain because Ozark cavefish have been reported from several caves and springs in Greene County. Upon revising the list of expected species, the inventory yielded 30 of the 53 species (57 percent). Ten of the 30 fish species collected in this inventory previously had not been collected at Wilson's Creek National Battlefield. However, eight species collected in one or more of the two previous inventories were not collected in this effort. It is unknown if any change in environmental conditions has occurred that is responsible for the absence of these species. Although none of the species collected in this study are federally-listed threatened or endangered species, five species collected at Wilson's Creek National Battlefield may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others because they are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus. The duskystripe shiner (Luxilus pilsbryi), Ozark bass (Ambloplites constellatus), Ozark chub (Erimystax harryi), and stippled darter (Etheostoma punctulatum) are common and found throughout much of the Ozark Plateaus. However, the Ozark sculpin (Cottus hypselurus) has a more limited range and more specific habitat requirements.

  3. Matrix reaction of the oxygen atom with the CBrCl 3 molecule Identification of phosgene complexes with Cl 2 and Br 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelaoui, O.; Schriver, L.; Schriver, A.

    1992-05-01

    Ft-IR spectroscopy has been coupled with the matrix isolation technique to investigate the mechanism of the CBrCl 3 photooxidation by ozone at 12 K by UV light. COCl 2 is observed as the only primary product and CO as a secondary photolysis product. A 35 K warm up after photolysis generated phosgene complexes with Cl 2 and Br 2. Identification of these molecular complexes was performed with mixtures of laboratory synthesized phosgene with X (X=Cl 2, Br 2) trapped in argon matrices.

  4. [The changes of the ratio of angiopoietin-2 to angiopoietin-1 in the acute lung injury induced by phosgene in rats].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhao, Jie; Shen, Jie

    2011-08-01

    To observe the relationship between the indicators of lung injury and the ratio of angiopoietin-2 (ang-2) to angiopoietin-1 (ang-1) in serum of rats with acute lung injury induced by phosgene. Eighty four adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 13 phosgene groups and 1 control group. Control group was exposed to fresh air for 5 minutes; the phosgene groups were exposed to phosgene (100% purity of 8.33 mg/L phosgene ) for 5 minutes. At different time points after exposure, the wet/dry weight ratio of mouse lungs was examined, the levels of ang-1 and ang-2 in serum of rats were detected with ELISA assay, and the white blood cell count and total protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats were measured. In 48 h after exposure,the serum ang-2, lung wet/dry weight ratio, BALF white blood cell count, protein concentration tended to increase with time, and the serum ang-1 tended to decrease with time. The ratios of ang-2 to ang-1 at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 48 h after exposure in phosgene groups were significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). There were the positive correlations between ang-2 and lung wet/dry ratio, BALF white blood cell count or protein concentration (P < 0.01). There were the negative correlations between ang-1 and lung wet/dry ratio or BALF white blood cell count (P < 0.01). There were the positive correlations between the ratio of ang-2 to ang-1 and lung wet/dry ratio, BALF white blood cell count or protein concentration (P < 0.01). After exposure of rats to phosgene, there is a positive correlation between the ratio of ang-2 to ang-1 and lung injury indicators, which may be an early indicator of the severity of phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

  5. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  6. Water resources management plan, Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Moberg, Roger M.; Allen, Kristen G.; Vana-Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    Richmond National Battlefield Park (Richmond NBP) consists of 1,366 acres in 11 geographically separate units that are located primarily east, northeast, and southeast of the city of Richmond, Virginia. This Water Resources Management Plan addresses nine of the units: Beaver Dam Creek, Chickahominy Bluff, Cold Harbor (including the Garthright House), Drewry’s Bluff, Fort Harrison, Gaines’ Mill, and Glendale and Malvern Hill. The units are in the Atlantic Coastal Plain Physiographic Province between the James and York rivers. The small streams that drain each of the units are tributaries of either the Chickahominy River or James River and ultimately contribute to the Chesapeake Bay.

  7. BCIS digital data link as part of the digitized battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynesworth, Linnie M.

    1996-06-01

    As proven in Desert Storm, the confusion of a rapidly moving air-land battle involving multinational forces is a situational awareness (SA) nightmare. Current methods of communication require traversing layers of networking or searching for frequencies to reach users in different outfits, which is time consuming and frustrating. The digital data link increases realtime SA in the digitized battlefield by providing mechanized platoons with a wireless horizontal local area network SA data passing capability. This increased real-time SA data acts both as a force multiplier and helps reduce the incidence of fratricide.

  8. Information Management for an Automated Battlefield Command and Control System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    information management concepts and procedures for automated battlefield command and control (ABCC) systems. ARI research Report 1248 (AD-A107 297) describes considerations in and procedures for the management of contemporary ABCC systems. ARI Technical Report 458 (AD- A107 329) presents an analysis of procedures for the extraction, summarization and presentation of critical information. ARI Research Note 80-12 (AD-A092 205) describes an analysis of information flow in the Tactical Operations System (TOS), an example ABCC system. ARI Research Note 80-13 (AD-A092 206)

  9. Analysis of Medical Events among Battlefield Airmen Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    disorders of the joint , most of which were joint pain of the lower leg. The largest subcategory within “injury and poisoning” was “sprains and...strains of joints and adjacent muscles,” most of which were of the knee/leg. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Special operations forces, battlefield airmen, tech...disorders of the joint , most of which were joint pain of the lower leg. The largest subcategory within “injury and poisoning” was “sprains and strains

  10. [Protective effects of ulinastatin on phosgene-induced acute lung injury and relation to matrix metalloproteinase-9].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-bin; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Lin; He, Dai-kun; Xu, Tie

    2010-07-01

    To observe the protective mechanism of ulinastatin on mice with acute lung injury induced by exposure to phosgene and its relationship to the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the lung tissues. Sixty-four healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group. 32 rats in the experiment group were randomly subdivided into four groups: rats with phosgene exposure group, rats with phosgene exposure after saline injected group, rats with phosgene exposure after dexamethasone injected group. 32 rats in the control group were randomly subdivided into four groups: rats with air exposure group, pretreated with ulinastatin before air exposure group, pretreated with saline before air exposure group, pretreated with dexamethasone before air exposure group, 8 animals in each group. After pretreated with the same dose of ulinastatin, saline, dexamethasone respectively, 32 rats in the control groups were exposed to the air on the same condition respectively for 5 min. While after pretreated with the same dose of ulinastatin, saline, dexamethasone respectively, 32 rats in the experiment groups were exposed to the phosgene which the concentration was 8.33 mg/L and with 100% purity for 5 min. The lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio was calculated, and total protein content and BALF leukocyte count were detected. The immunohistochemistry was used to detect lung tissue protein expression MMP-9 while enzyme-linked immunosorbent method was employed to detect MMP-9 in serum levels and enzyme original gelatinases spectrum method to detect BALF MMP-9 enzyme original content. Compared with A1, A2, A3, A4 group, the lung W/D, BALF of protein content and WBC count in B1 and B2 group rats were significantly increased, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There was statistically significant difference in lung W/D, BALF of protein content and white blood cell count between B1,B2 group and the B3 and B4 rats

  11. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  12. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  13. Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Acres, J.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning after ingestion of mussels occurred in October 1977 in Nova Scotia. The incidence of this type of poisoning is relatively high among persons living on the coast of the Bay of Fundy and the estuary of the St. Lawrence River. The causative organism, Gonyaulax tamarensis, elaborates an endotoxin, saxitoxin, that blocks neuromuscular transmission in the motor axon and muscle membrane while leaving the end-plate unaffected; it also suppresses conduction in the atrioventricular node and inhibits the respiratory centre. The clinical manifestations are unique and include numbness of the lips, tongue and fingertips within minutes of ingestion of the poisoned shellfish, then numbness of the legs, arms and neck, with general muscular incoordination, and finally respiratory distress and muscular paralysis. Treatment is symptomatic and prevention can only occur by public education. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:570450

  14. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings.

  15. [Acute pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Durán-Nah, J J; Collí-Quintal, J

    2000-01-01

    To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze information. Males were frequently affected (82%), specially those coming from rural areas (60%). The mean age of the group was 34 +/- 15.8 years. In 79% of the cases, pesticides were used to commit suicide and 33% of poisoning cases were due to organophospate pesticides. The mortality rate was 12%. In this small sample, acute poisoning from pesticides in the agricultural setting may be underestimated, since it was less frequent than in the general population. APP was more commonly used by indigent people to commit suicide.

  16. Black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  17. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  18. Mushrooms and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varma, Amit; Gaur, K J B S; Bhatia, Payal

    2011-11-01

    The mushrooms are probably one of the oldest consumption of mankind having mythological and spiritual significance apart from being a great delicacy. Its poisoning is a common yet poorly recognised. There are more than 2000 varieties which are edible, and nearly 80 varieties are non-edible (or poisonous) type. Not only they resemble some of the edible types, they even grow long with them. Most of the toxic events go unnoticed, yet, sometimes it may be life threatening as some mushrooms are one of the most toxic fungi known to manking. Awareness is pobably the only prevention.

  19. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jorge A

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of death as a result of unintentional poisoning in the United States. CO toxicity is the result of a combination of tissue hypoxia-ischemia secondary to carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct CO-mediated damage at a cellular level. Presenting symptoms are mostly nonspecific and depend on the duration of exposure and levels of CO. Diagnosis is made by prompt measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels. Treatment consists of the patient's removal from the source of exposure and the immediate administration of 100% supplemental oxygen in addition to aggressive supportive measures. The use of hyperbaric oxygen is controversial.

  1. Metoclopramide poisoning in children.

    PubMed Central

    Low, L C; Goel, K M

    1980-01-01

    15 children with metoclopramide (Maxolon) poisoning are reported. One of the 5 children accidentally poisoned developed slight extrapyramidal signs. All 10 children who experienced extrapyramidal side effects while being treated with metoclopramide had received a dose greater than that recommended by the manufacturer of 0.5 mg/kg per day. Dystonic reactions are likely to occur if the recommended dose is exceeded, but individual susceptibility to metoclopramide and the cumulative effect of repeated doses of the drug may also be important. PMID:7416782

  2. Equilibrium structure and anharmonic potential function of phosgene: Diode laser spectra of the ν1 and ν5 bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nakanaga, Taisuke; Takeo, Harutoshi; Matsumura, Chi; Nakata, Munetaka; Kuchitsu, Kozo

    1984-08-01

    The vibration-rotation spectra of the ν1 and ν5 bands of phosgene ( 35Cl 2CO) were measured and analyzed with the aid of Stark modulation spectra for assignment of complicated spectral features. The rotational constants for the ν1 state were determined to be A1 = 7885.65(17), B1 = 3470.25(9), and C1 = 2406.85(9) MHz. They were used with the ones for the ν2 ˜ ν6 states reported previously for derivation of the equilibrium rotational constants of 35Cl 2CO: Ae = 7950.35(22), Be = 3490.22(11), and Ce = 2425.44(22) MHz.

  3. Battlefield innovation: a case-study of remote sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orson, Jay A.; Hague, Tyler N.

    2007-10-01

    Evolving threats encountered by coalition forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom drive the need for innovations in airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities. In many cases, disruptive capabilities are created by linking existing technologies and new radical technologies in a novel way. Some of the radical technologies used in achieving these disruptive capabilities are existing prototypes or one-of-a-kind systems that are thrust into the field to quickly react to emerging threats. Horned Owl is one such rapidly developed innovative technical solution designed to meet immediate battlefield needs. This paper focuses on two key areas of this initiative. The first is the innovation champion establishing a collaborative environment which fosters creativity and allows the project to mature the disruptive capability. The second is the practical implication, or challenges of deploying experimental systems in a battlefield environment. Discussions of these two areas provide valuable lessons to guide future innovation champions when presented with the dual task of balancing system maturation with meeting operational demand. Contents of this paper are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed by the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, or the Department of the Air Force.

  4. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  5. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  6. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  7. Kerosene poisoning in children

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  8. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  9. Metal polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  10. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  11. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  12. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  13. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  14. State resolved probe of an energetic surface reaction: Phosgene on silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Q.-S.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    1996-03-01

    State resolved characterization of nascent gas phase products is used as probe for the dynamics of an energetic surface reaction. This is achieved in the photodissociation of monolayer phosgene adsorbed on Ag(110). Irradiation of adsorbed Cl2CO in a broad photon energy range (hν=1.9-6.4 eV) leads to dissociation, with Cl retained on the surface and CO desorbing into the gas phase. The translational energy of product CO (g), =0.26 eV, is independent of hν, even at the threshold photon energy (1.9 eV). This result establishes a dissociative electron attachment mechanism involving a reactive intermediate, ClCO, whose prompt dissociation serves as a probe to surface dissociation dynamics. Consistent with translation, internal state distribution of product CO (g) also shows an energetic origin: The rotational distribution, with an overall flux-weighted mean rotational energy of =0.17 eV, can be approximated by a bimodal Boltzmann distribution with rotational temperatures of 700 K at low J(s) and 7000 K at high J(s); the relative vibrational population is Nν=1/Nν=0=0.30. Contrary to common expectation based on quenching rates, both translational and rotational energies of CO (g) from monolayer photodissociation are much higher than those from the direct photodissociation in multilayers. This is taken as evidence for concerted reaction dynamics on the surface: The high exothermicity in the Cl-Ag bond formation on the surface exerts part of the energy to the Cl-CO coordinate, leading to higher energies in CO (g).

  15. Ulinastatin reduces pathogenesis of phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Gan, Zhengyi; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming; Xu, Guoxiong

    2014-10-01

    Phosgene (CG) is an industrial chemical used to make plastics, rubbers, dyestuff, and pesticides. Although the inhalation of CG is relatively uncommon, its accidental exposure can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). Ulinastatin, a urinary trypsin inhibitor, has been emerged to use for the treatment of acute inflammatory state of a number of organs including the lung. In this study, we examined the pathogenic changes in the lungs after the inhalation of CG gas and also examined the effect of ulinastatin treatment in reversing these changes in rats. We found that the rats exposed to CG gas at a dose of 5.0 g/m(3) for 5 min led to ALI after 6 h. The signs of lung injury include pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and cellular infiltration in pulmonary alveoli. In addition, interleukin-15 (IL-15) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were significantly increased in CG-inhaled animals. Ulinastatin administration at 1 h postexposure significantly reduced the intensity of all the pathological changes in the lungs of these CG-exposed animals. Ulinastatin at a dose of 400 U/g was shown to decrease the total number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the levels of IL-15 and ICAM-1 in the serum. We also found that the structure of the lung was protected by ulinastatin treatment. Thus, our data suggest that ulinastatin can be used as an effective drug for the treatment of CG-induced ALI. The serum levels of IL-15 and ICAM-1 can be used as the markers of lung injury after exposure to CG and may also serve as useful therapeutic targets at an early stage. The effects of long-term treatment of ulinastatin and the mechanisms by which ulinastatin decreases the infiltration of blood cells and reduces cytokines need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-02-15

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 2005 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' national poisoning and exposure database.

    PubMed

    Lai, Melisa W; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Rodgers, George C; Abrams, Joseph Y; Haber, Deborah A; Bronstein, Alvin C; Wruk, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC; http://www.aapcc.org) maintains the national database of information logged by the country's 61 Poison Control Centers (PCCs). Case records in this database are from self-reported calls: they reflect only information provided when the public or healthcare professionals report an actual or potential exposure to a substance (e.g., an ingestion, inhalation, or topical exposure.), or request information/educational materials. Exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning or overdose. The AAPCC is not able to completely verify the accuracy of every report made to member centers. Additional exposures may go unreported to PCCs, and data referenced from the AAPCC should not be construed to represent the complete incidence of national exposures to any substance(s). U.S. Poison Centers make possible the compilation and reporting of this report through their staffs' meticulous documentation of each case using standardized definitions and compatible computer systems. The 61 participating poison centers in 2005 are: Regional Poison Control Center, Birmingham, AL; Alabama Poison Center, Tuscaloosa, AL; Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center, Tucson, AZ; Banner Poison Control Center, Phoenix, AZ; Arkansas Poison and Drug Information Center, Little Rock, AK; California Poison Control System-Fresno/Madera Division, CA; California Poison Control System-Sacramento Division, CA; California Poison Control System-San Diego Division, CA; California Poison Control System-San Francisco Division, CA; Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver, CO; Connecticut Poison Control Center, Farmington, CT; National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC; Florida Poison Information Center, Tampa, FL; Florida Poison Information Center, Jacksonville, FL; Florida Poison Information Center, Miami, FL; Georgia Poison Center, Atlanta, GA; Illinois Poison Center, Chicago, IL; Indiana

  18. The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl4, C2Cl4, C2HCl3, CH3CCl3, and CHCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindler, T. P.; Chameides, W. L.; Wine, P. H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; Franklin, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the tropospheric and stratospheric cycles of phosgene is carried out to determine its fate and ultimate role in controlling the ozone depletion potentials of its parent compounds (CCl4, C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, CHCl3, and C2HCl3). Tropospheric phosgene is produced from the OH-initiated oxidation of C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, CHCl3, and C2HCl3. Simulations using a two-dimensional model indicate that these processes produce about 90 pptv/yr of tropospheric phosgene with an average concentration of about 18 pptv, in reasonable agreement with observations. We estimate a residence time of about 70 days for tropospheric phosgene, with the vast majority being removed by hydrolysis in cloudwater. Only about 0.4% of the phosgene produced in the troposphere avoids wet removal and is transported to the stratosphere, where its chlorine can be released to participate in the catalytic destruction of ozone. Stratospheric phosgene is produced from the photochemical degradation of CCl4, C2Cl4, CHCl3, and CH3CCl3 and is removed by photolysis and downward transport to the troposphere. Model calculations, in good agreement with observations, indicate that these processes produce a peak stratospheric concentration of about 25-30 pptv at an altitude of about 25 km. In contrast to tropospheric phosgene, stratospheric phosgene is found to have a lifetime against photochemical removal of the order of years. As a result, we find that a significant portion of the phosgene that is produced in the stratosphere is ultimately returned to the troposphere, where it is rapidly removed by clouds. This phenomenon effectively decreases the amount of reactive chlorine injected into the stratosphere and available for ozone depletion from phosgene's parent compounds; we estimate approximate decreases of 14, 3, 15, and 25% for the stratospheric chlorine loadings of CCl4, CH3CCl3, C2Cl4, and CHCl3, respectively. A similar phenomenon due to the downward transport of stratospheric COFCl produced from CFC-11 is

  19. The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl4, C2Cl4, C2HCL3, CH3CCl3, and CHCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, T. P.; Chameides, W. L.; Wine, P. H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; Franklin, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the tropospheric and stratospheric cycles of phosgene is carried out to determine its fate and ultimate role in controlling the ozone depletion potentials of its parent compounds. Tropospheric phosgene is produced from the OH-initiated oxidation of C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, CHCl3, and C2HCl3. Simulations using a two-dimensional model indicate that these processes produce about 90 pptv/yr of tropospheric phosgene with an average concentration of about 18 pptv, in reasonable agreement with observations. We estimate a residence time of about 70 days for tropospheric phosgene, with the vast majority being removed by hydrolysis in cloudwater. Only about 0.4% of the phosgene produced in the troposphere avoids wet removal and is transported to the stratosphere, where its chlorine can be released to participate in the catalytic destruction of ozone. Stratospheric phosgene is produced from the photochemical degradation of CCl4, C2Cl4, CHCl3, and CH3CCl3 and is removed by photolysis and downward transport to the troposphere. Model calculations, in good agreement with observations, indicate that these processes produce a peak stratospheric concentration of about 25-30 pptv at an altitude of about 25 km. In contrast to tropospheric phosgene, stratospheric phosgene is found to have a lifetime against photochemical removal of the order of years. As a result, a significant portion of the phosgene that is produced in the stratosphere is ultimately returned to the troposphere, where it is rapidly removed by clouds. This phenomenon effectively decreases the amount of reactive chlorine injected into the stratosphere and available for ozone depletion from phosgene's parent compounds. A similar phenomenon due to the downward transport of stratospheric COFCl produced from CFC-11 is estimated to cause a 7% decrease in the amount of reactive chlorine injected into the stratosphere from this compound. Our results are potentially sensitive to a variety of parameters, most notably the rate

  20. The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl4, C2Cl4, C2HCL3, CH3CCl3, and CHCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, T. P.; Chameides, W. L.; Wine, P. H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; Franklin, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the tropospheric and stratospheric cycles of phosgene is carried out to determine its fate and ultimate role in controlling the ozone depletion potentials of its parent compounds. Tropospheric phosgene is produced from the OH-initiated oxidation of C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, CHCl3, and C2HCl3. Simulations using a two-dimensional model indicate that these processes produce about 90 pptv/yr of tropospheric phosgene with an average concentration of about 18 pptv, in reasonable agreement with observations. We estimate a residence time of about 70 days for tropospheric phosgene, with the vast majority being removed by hydrolysis in cloudwater. Only about 0.4% of the phosgene produced in the troposphere avoids wet removal and is transported to the stratosphere, where its chlorine can be released to participate in the catalytic destruction of ozone. Stratospheric phosgene is produced from the photochemical degradation of CCl4, C2Cl4, CHCl3, and CH3CCl3 and is removed by photolysis and downward transport to the troposphere. Model calculations, in good agreement with observations, indicate that these processes produce a peak stratospheric concentration of about 25-30 pptv at an altitude of about 25 km. In contrast to tropospheric phosgene, stratospheric phosgene is found to have a lifetime against photochemical removal of the order of years. As a result, a significant portion of the phosgene that is produced in the stratosphere is ultimately returned to the troposphere, where it is rapidly removed by clouds. This phenomenon effectively decreases the amount of reactive chlorine injected into the stratosphere and available for ozone depletion from phosgene's parent compounds. A similar phenomenon due to the downward transport of stratospheric COFCl produced from CFC-11 is estimated to cause a 7% decrease in the amount of reactive chlorine injected into the stratosphere from this compound. Our results are potentially sensitive to a variety of parameters, most notably the rate

  1. Base-promoted coupling of carbon dioxide, amines, and diaryliodonium salts: a phosgene- and metal-free route to O-aryl carbamates.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenfang; Qi, Chaorong; Peng, Youbin; Guo, Tianzuo; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2015-10-05

    A phosgene- and metal-free synthesis of O-aryl carbamates is realized through a three-component coupling of carbon dioxide, amines and diaryliodonium salts. The reaction only requires a base as the promoter, providing access to a diverse array of O-aryl carbamates in moderate to high yields with excellent chemoselectivity.

  2. The effect of steroid treatment with inhaled budesonide or intravenous methylprednisolone on phosgene-induced acute lung injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam; Brown, Roger; Jugg, Bronwen; Platt, Janet; Mann, Thomas; Masey, Charles; Jenner, John; Rice, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals e.g., phosgene, are widely used as reactive intermediates in industrial processes. Inhalation exposure to these chemicals can result in life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI), to which no specific antidote exists. This study aimed to assess the potential benefit of steroids in treating phosgene induced ALI. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented, exposed to phosgene Ct 2000 mg.min.m(-3) (Ct is the product of concentration [mg.m(-3)] x time [min]), and ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation before being randomized to study part 1: treatment with intravenous glucose saline (20 mL) or methylprednisolone (12.5 mg.kg(-1) in 20 mL) 6 h postexposure or study part 2: treatment with inhaled glucose saline (2 mL) or budesonide (2 mL of 0.5 mg.mL(-1) solution) at 1, 6, 12, and 18 h postexposure. Biochemical parameters and animal physiology were monitored to 24 h postexposure. The results show no change in mortality, lung edema, or shunt fraction; however, some beneficial effects on cardiac parameters e.g., stroke volume, left ventricular stroke work, were noted. Steroids were neither beneficial nor detrimental in the treatment of phosgene induced ALI. This study does not support the use of steroids alone as a treatment, but their use in a combined therapy strategy should be investigated.

  3. Effects of depletion of ascorbic acid or nonprotein sulfhydryls on the acute inhalation toxicity of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Slade, R.; Highfill, J.W.; Hatch, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of depleting lung ascorbic acid (AH{sub 2}) and nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) on the acute inhalation toxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), ozone (O{sub 3}), and phosgene (COCl{sub 2}) was investigated in guinea pigs. The increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid protein (an indicator of alveolar-capillary damage leading to increased permeability) was measured 16 to 18 hr following a 4 hr exposure to the gas in animals deficient in (AH{sub 2}) or NPSH. Gas concentrations were chosen which produced low but significant increases in BAL protein. Lung (AH{sub 2}) was lowered to about 20% of control by feeding rabbit chow for 2 weeks. Lung NPSH was lowered to about 50% of control by injecting a mixture of buthionine S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM) (2.7 and 1.2 mmol/kg respectively). BSO/DEM did not affect the lung concentrations of (AH{sub 2}) or alpha-tocopherol. AH{sub 2} depletion caused a 6 fold and a 3 fold enhancement in the toxicity of 5 ppm and 10 ppm (NO{sub 2}), and a 6 fold enhancement in the toxicity of 0.5 ppm (O{sub 3}), but did not affect toxicity of 1.0 ppm (O{sub 3}). AH{sub 2} depletion did not affect phosgene toxicity (at 0.25 ppm and 0.5 ppm).

  4. Attempts to counteract phosgene-induced acute lung injury by instant high-dose aerosol exposure to hexamethylenetetramine, cysteine or glutathione.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen; Hai, Chun Xue

    2011-01-01

    Phosgene is an important high-production-volume intermediate with widespread industrial use. Consistent with other lung irritants causing ALI (acute lung injury), mode-of-action-based countermeasures remain rudimentary. This study was conducted to analyze whether extremely short high-level exposure to phosgene gas could be mitigated using three different inhaled nucleophiles administered by inhalation instantly after exposure to phosgene. Groups of young adult male Wistar rats were acutely exposed to carbonyl chloride (phosgene) using a directed-flow nose-only mode of exposure of 600 mg/m³ for 1.5 min (225 ppm × min). Immediately after exposure to phosgene gas the rats were similarly exposed to three strong nucleophiles with and without antioxidant properties for 5 or 15 min. The following nucleophiles were used: hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), l-cysteine (Cys), and l-glutathione (GSH). The concentration of the aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter 1.7-2 µm) was targeted to be in the range of 1 mg/L. Cys and GSH have antioxidant properties in addition. The calculated alveolar molar dosage of phosgene was 9 µmol/kg. At 15-min exposure duration, the respective inhaled dose of HMT, Csy, and GSH were 111, 103, and 46 µmol/kg, respectively. The alveolar dose of drugs was ~10-times lower. The efficacy of treatment was judged by protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected 1 day post-exposure. In spite of using optimized aerosolization techniques, none of the nucleophiles chosen had any mitigating effect on BALF-protein extravasation. This finding appear to suggest that inhaled phosgene gas acylates instantly nucleophilic moieties at the site of initial deposition and that the resultant reaction products can not be reactivated even following instant inhalation treatment with competing nucleophilic agents. In spite of using maximal technically attainable concentrations, it appears to be experimentally challenging to deliver

  5. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride

  6. Xuebijing for paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Huo, Dongmei; Wu, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Lin; Liao, Yunhua

    2013-07-29

    At present, there is a lack of effective treatments for paraquat poisoning. Xuebijing injection is a complex traditional Chinese prescription consisting of Flos Carthami, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae and Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Although clinical experience suggests that Xuebijing injection might have potential in the management of paraquat poisoning, there is no conclusion on the effectiveness of this treatment. To assess the effects of Xuebijing injection in patients with paraquat poisoning. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, Chinese bio-medical literature and retrieval system (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database. The search was run on the 29th May 2013. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Xuebijing injection combined with conventional care against conventional care alone. Two or three authors independently selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted data. We calculated the mortality risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Data on all-cause mortality at the end of follow-up were summarised in a meta-analysis. We identified two trials including 84 people. Although there were fewer deaths in people treated with Xuebijing injection, meta-analysis showed that it did not provide a statistically significant benefit in reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning as compared to control (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.04; P = 0.08). Based on the findings of two small RCTs, Xuebijing injection did not have a statistically significant benefit on reducing all-cause mortality in people with paraquat poisoning. However, both

  7. Acute poisoning: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment of the patient who has taken an overdose of a harmful substance includes support of vital functions and toxicologic analysis. Early recognition of signs and symptoms indicating poisoning by a specific agent or group of related chemicals is essential since specific antidotes may be lifesaving. Activated charcoal is an effective gastrointestinal decontaminant that adsorbs many common drugs. Administration of weak acids as an antidote to alkali ingestion is to be condemned; the only treatment should be dilution with water. The use of physostigmine as a specific antidote for the anticholinergic syndrome has been very successful; the incidence of this syndrome as a result of poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants is increasing. Effective therapy for acetaminophen overdose is still being investigated, but activated charcoal and methionine, if given early enough, seem to be effective. PMID:890634

  8. Small dose... big poison.

    PubMed

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  9. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  10. Evaluating System Capabilities and User Performance in the Battlefield Augmented Reality System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    future military operations on ur- banized terrain, July 1997. [3] J. E. Cutting. How the eye measures reality and virtual real- ity. Behavior Research...Evaluating System Capabilities and User Performance in the Battlefield Augmented Reality System∗ Mark A. Livingston† J. Edward Swan II† Simon J...Abstract We describe a first experiment in evaluating the system capabilities of the Battlefield Augmented Reality System, an interactive system

  11. 120-MM Cargo Mortar Bombs-Complying with the Modern Battlefield Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    1 ISRAEL MILITARY INDUSTRIES LTD. (I.M.I.) Ammunition Group 120-MM CARGO MORTAR BOMBS - COMPLYING WITH THE MODERN BATTLEFIELD NEEDS Presented by Ltc...MM Cargo Mortar Bombs -Complying with the Modern Battlefield Needs Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Eis, Mottie...Ammunition Group 120-MM CARGO MORTAR BOMB M971 MODE OF OPERATION FUZE FUNCTIONING EXPULSION OF PAYLOAD GAS-GENERATOR FUNCTIONINGDIESPERSION OF

  12. Evaluating the Measure of Effectiveness of Using a Deployed Command and Control System on Land Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    improve. 14. SUBJECT TERMS command and control (C2), measure of effectiveness (MOE), land battlefield 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 103 16. PRICE CODE 17...MEASURE OF EFFECTIVENESS OF USING A DEPLOYED COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM ON LAND BATTLEFIELD by William Goh September 2015 Thesis Advisor...DATE September 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATING THE MEASURE OF EFFECTIVENESS OF USING A

  13. Cricothyroidotomy bottom-up training review: battlefield lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Cailteux-Zevallos, Barbara; Kotora, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Challenges with surgical cricothyroidotomy on the battlefield can be attributed to limited frequency of use, procedure unfamiliarity, and limited knowledge base of anatomical landmarks of which is further heighten in the tactical environment. The objective was to identify ways to enhance the cricothyroidotomy training to minimize potential preventable procedural errors. A training review was conducted to determine the gaps in the cricothyroidotomy training in a 4-day Tactical Combat Casualty Care course at the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth. An ad hoc Working Group team identified five specific gap areas in the cricothyroidotomy training: (1) limited gross airway anatomy review; (2) lack of "hands-on" human laryngeal anatomy; (3) nonstandardized step-by-step surgical incision skill procedure; (4) inferior standards for anatomically correct cricothyroid mannequins; (5) lack of standardized refresher training frequency. Specific training enhancements are recommended across each day in the classroom, simulation laboratory, and field exercise.

  14. Scalable singular 3D modeling for digital battlefield applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2000-10-01

    We propose a new classification algorithm to detect and classify targets of interest. It is based on an advanced brand of analytic geometry of manifolds, called theory of catastrophes. Physical Optics Corporation's (POC) scalable 3D model representation provides automatic and real-time analysis of a discrete frame of a sensed 2D imagery of terrain, urban, and target features. It then transforms this frame of discrete different-perspective 2D views of a target into a 3D continuous model called a pictogram. The unique local stereopsis feature of this modeling is the surprising ability to locally obtain a 3D pictogram from a single monoscopic photograph. The proposed 3D modeling, combined with more standard change detection algorithms and 3D terrain feature models, will constitute a novel classification algorithm and a new type of digital battlefield imagery for Imaging Systems.

  15. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities.

  16. Vascular access on the 21st century military battlefield.

    PubMed

    Hulse, E J; Thomas, G O R

    2010-12-01

    Timely and appropriate access to the vascular circulation is critical in the management of 21st century battlefield trauma. It allows the administration of emergency drugs, analgesics and rapid replacement of blood volume. Methods used to gain access can include; the cannulation of peripheral and central veins, venous cut-down and intraosseus devices. This article reviews the current literature on the benefits and complications of each vascular access method. We conclude that intraosseus devices are best for quick access to the circulation, with central venous access via the subclavian route for large volume resuscitation and low complication rates. Military clinicians involved with the care of trauma patients either in Role 2 and 3 or as part of the medical emergency response team (MERT), must have the skill set to use these vascular access techniques by incorporating them into their core medical training.

  17. Improvements of cyberspace and effects to the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedıklı, Münir

    2014-06-01

    Wars previously being executed at land and sea have also become applicable in air and space due to the advancements of aircraft and satellite systems. Rapid improvements in information technologies have triggered the concept of cyberspace which is considered as the fifth dimension of war. While transferring information quickly from physical area to electronic/digital area, cyberspace has caused to emerge a lot of threats and methods like cyber-attack, cyber-crime, cyber war which are spreading too rapidly. Individuals, institutions and establishments have begun to take their own cyber security precautions to cope with these threats. This study gives information about the concepts and advances on cyberspace in order to raise comprehensive awareness. The study also focuses on the effects of these improvements in the battlefield, and analyzes them.

  18. [Jimson weed poisoning].

    PubMed

    Berger, Ehud; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2003-05-01

    Datura stramonium abuse causes a potentially lethal anticholinergic intoxication. Today, with the internet widely available, our youth are potentially exposed to partial and quite often dangerous information that systematically disregards the danger of Datura use. The authors suspect that without educational efforts regarding the dark side of Datura use, we shall see a rise in poisoning by this dangerous substance. This review outlines the general management of the intoxication.

  19. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  20. [Familial lead poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ríos, E; Dal Borgo, P; Riveros, A; Díaz, S M

    1989-06-01

    A 1 year and 9 month old patient was admitted with ataxia. CBC showed a microcytic, hypocromic anemia with intense basophilic sttipling of erythrocytes. Lead poisoning was suspected and confirmed with a blood lead level of 167 micrograms/dl. The patient was treated with EDTA and BAL. It was discovered that family burned old car batteries for food cooking. Four members were intoxicated, with blood lead levels at or above 50 micrograms/dl.

  1. Poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Baer, R L

    1986-06-01

    Eruptions caused by poison ivy (see Cover) and related plants are almost always a form of allergic contact dermatitis. Usually they can be readily recognized because of their characteristic streak- or line-like appearance. They usually clear within one to three weeks unless there is continued exposure to the allergen. Local treatment suffices in mild to moderate cases, but in more severe cases systemic corticosteroids can be added.

  2. Childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Linakis, J G

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been referred to as the most important environmental health hazard for children in New England. Medical professionals are in a unique position to perform a number of interventions that could make a lasting impact. First, physicians and nurses, particularly in the areas of pediatrics and family medicine, can provide anticipatory guidance to all families with young children. Lead poisoning, in contrast to long held beliefs, is an affliction that affects all socioeconomic groups. Parents should thus be informed regarding sources of lead, including occupational and hobby sources, and basic nutritional and abatement information should be provided. Second, health care workers should encourage lead screening in appropriately aged children at recommended intervals based on known risk factors. Once a blood lead concentration greater than 20[symbol: see text]g/dl has been obtained in a child, treatment or referral to an established lead clinic should be undertaken in a timely fashion. For children with low or moderate lead levels, many pediatricians or family physicians prefer to supervise their patients' treatment, including chelation therapy. For children with higher levels or in instances when the health care professional elects to refer, there are several lead clinics throughout New England whose clinicians are experienced in the treatment of childhood lead poisoning. Finally the medical profession needs to publicly recognize, as child advocates, that lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States and that it is entirely preventable. Fortunately, after many years and much hard work, Rhode Island finally has laws that start to deal with the lead problem in an appropriately aggressive fashion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales.

  4. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    challenging position as professor ordinarius at the Depart- ment of Anaesthesiology . I pioneered from scratch in this position until 2009. My academic... experience in the Paris Fire Brigade. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006; 44 (Suppl 1):37 44. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Kurt Anseeuwa*, Nicolas Delvaub...hydro- xocobalamin higher than 150 mg/kg. Given the theoretically synergistic action and given the experience in the treatment of the toxicity of

  5. [Acute zincteral oral poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kamenczak, A; Pokorska, M; Wołek, E; Kobyłecka, K

    Zinc vapour poisoning by inhalation in the form of zinc fever is more frequent than oral zinc product poisoning, the product used in therapy. The main aim of the study was the evaluation of clinical manifestation present after Zincteral ingestion as well as attempt to find the relationship between the presence and aggravation of the clinical manifestation and zinc level in the blood. The course of acute clinical suicidal poisoning by ingestion of Zincteral 50 tablets (10.0 g) and 100 tablets (20.0 g) is presented. The clinical picture revealed the following symptoms and signs: tachycardia, changes of arterial BP, vascular shock; dyspeptic nausea, vomiting cramps in abdominal region, diarrhoea. Damage of the parenchymatous organs, mainly liver was evident. In pregnant woman (9-week-pregnancy) on the 12-th day of her stay in the Clinic complete miscarriage took place accompanied by haemorrhage from reproductive organs. The kind and exacerbation of the clinical manifestations in relation to the zinc level in body fluid were analysed.

  6. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management.

  7. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  8. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  9. NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Guidelines Accessibility of NCHS Materials NCHS NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths Format: Select One PDF [ ... on health, and health outcomes. NCHS Drug-poisoning Data Poisoning is the leading cause of injury death ...

  10. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Paraquat Poisoning: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Veer Bahadur; Meena, Babu Lal; Gaur, Subhash; Singla, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is commonly used herbicide by farmers in North West Rajasthan. Despite its easy availability, poisoning of its not common. Fatal dose of paraquat is so small that >10 ml poison can damage lungs permanently. Diagnosis is often difficult without proper history, absence of specific clinical feature and lack of diagnostic test. Inhalation exposures represent one of the most important routes of poisoning. We are reporting a case of inhaled paraquat poisoning with complication of irreversible acute kidney, liver and lung injury. PMID:27042505

  13. Was it poisoning?

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J

    The aim of post-mortem toxicology is to help establish the role that drugs or other poisons played in a death, or in events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected then the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that may be required is confirmation of the agents involved. If the cause of death is not immediately obvious, however, then suspicion of possible poisoning is of course crucial. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, e.g. femoral, ideally after proximal ligation) before opening the body, minimises the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. The site of blood sampling should always be recorded. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor) may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The availability of ante-mortem specimens should not preclude post-mortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of post-mortem toxicology must take into account what is known of the clinical pharmacology, including pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the agent(s) in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the possible mechanism(s) of exposure, and other factors such as the sample(s) analysed and the analytical methods used. It was thought that concentrations of poisons measured in blood obtained at autopsy reflected the situation peri-mortem. However, we now know that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater with centrally-acting drugs such as clozapine with large volumes of distribution, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly. Better training in analytical toxicology is needed for pathologists and others who may be called upon to interpret toxicological data for the Courts. Undue reliance on

  14. Analysis of Multiple Source Obscurants on the Realistic Battlefield (AMSORB). Volume 1. Mathematical Models and Computer Program Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    CR-82-0i22-1 Reports Control Symbol OSD. 1366 41-~41,•) 1, ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE SOURCE OBSCURANTS ON THE REALISTIC BATTLEFIELD (AMSORB) VOLLME I...PERIOD COVERED ANALYSIS O)F MULTIPLE SOURCE OBSCURANTS ON THE FnlRpr REALISIIC BATTLEFIELD (AMSORB)______________ VOLUME I - MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND...ROUTINES 102 4.1 Mixitng-Layer Analysis Routine 102 4.2 Battlefield Source Characteristics Routine 118 4.3 Dispersion Model Routines and Meteorological

  15. Workshop summary: phosgene-induced pulmonary toxicity revisited: appraisal of early and late markers of pulmonary injury from animal models with emphasis on human significance.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, J; Carson, A; Costa, D L; Gordon, T; Kodavanti, U; Last, J A; Matthay, M A; Pinkerton, K E; Sciuto, A M

    2007-08-01

    A workshop was held February 14, 2007, in Arlington, VA, under the auspices of the Phosgene Panel of the American Chemistry Council. The objective of this workshop was to convene inhalation toxicologists and medical experts from academia, industry and regulatory authorities to critically discuss past and recent inhalation studies of phosgene in controlled animal models. This included presentations addressing the benefits and limitations of rodent (mice, rats) and nonrodent (dogs) species to study concentration x time (C x t) relationships of acute and chronic types of pulmonary changes. Toxicological endpoints focused on the primary pulmonary effects associated with the acute inhalation exposure to phosgene gas and responses secondary to injury. A consensus was reached that the phosgene-induced increased pulmonary extravasation of fluid and protein can suitably be probed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) techniques. BAL fluid analyses rank among the most sensitive methods to detect phosgene-induced noncardiogenic, pulmonary high-permeability edema following acute inhalation exposure. Maximum protein concentrations in BAL fluid occurred within 1 day after exposure, typically followed by a latency period up to about 15 h, which is reciprocal to the C x t exposure relationship. The C x t relationship was constant over a wide range of concentrations and single exposure durations. Following intermittent, repeated exposures of fixed duration, increased tolerance to recurrent exposures occurred. For such exposure regimens, chronic effects appear to be clearly dependent on the concentration rather than the cumulative concentration x time relationship. The threshold C x t product based on an increased BAL fluid protein following single exposure was essentially identical to the respective C x t product following subchronic exposure of rats based on increased pulmonary collagen and influx of inflammatory cells. Thus, the chronic outcome appears to be contingent upon the acute

  16. Research and development of a field-ready protocol for sampling of phosgene from stationary source emissions: Diethylamine reagent studies. Research report, 11 July 1995--30 September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Steger, J.L.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; Epperson, D.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory studies to develop and evaluate a method for the sampling and analysis of phosgene from stationary sources of air emissions using diethylamine (DEA) in toluene as the collection media. The method extracts stack gas from emission sources and stabilizes the reactive gas for subsequent analysis. DEA was evaluated both in a benchtop study and in a laboratory train spiking study. This report includes results for both the benchtop study and the train spiking study. Benchtop studies to evaluate the suitability of DEA for collecting and analyzing phosgene investigated five variables: storage time, DEA concentration, moisture/pH, phosgene concentration, and sample storage temperature. Prototype sampling train studies were performed to determine if the benchtop chemical studies were transferable to a Modified Method 5 sampling train collecting phosgene in the presence of clean air mixed with typical stack gas components. Four conditions, which varied the moisture and phosgene spike were evaluated in triplicate. In addition to research results, the report includes a detailed draft method for sampling and analysis of phosgene from stationary source emissions.

  17. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    PubMed

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  20. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

  1. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  2. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  3. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  4. Juniper tar poisoning.

    PubMed

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  5. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Four children with colchicine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Bülent; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, Oğuz; Kirimi, Ercan; Akgün, Cihangir; Odabaş, Dursun

    2004-07-01

    Colchicine poisoning is a rare event. It is characterized by multiorgan involvement and by poor prognosis associated with overdose. In this article we present four children with colchicine poisoning to emphasize that colchicine poisoning has a large spectrum in childhood. The children's ages ranged between 1 year and 3.5 years. The ingested dosage of colchicine was between 0.37 and 1.72 mg/kg. Most of the findings of colchicine poisoning such as gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hypocalcaemia and hair loss were diagnosed in our patients. Two children receiving 0.37 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg colchicine and admitted 13 and 19 hours after poisoning, respectively, died. Our findings suggest that in addition to amounts of the drug, mortality was also related to the duration between drug ingestion and admission to hospital.

  7. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. American Observers on the Battlefields of the Western Front and the Tactical Evolution of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    battlefields of the Western Front. Immersed in an environment of rapidly evolving tactical doctrine, the battlefield observers had the potential to postively ...BATTLEFIELDS OF THE WESTERN FRONT. IMMERSED IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF RAPIDLY EVOLVING TACTICAL DOCTRINE, THE BATTLEFIELD OBSERVERS HAD THE POTENTIAL TO POSTIVELY ...two reasons. First, most field artillery was unable to damage reinforced concrete fortifications deep in the ground. Second, defense in depth allow

  9. Saving Lives on the Battlefield: A Joint Trauma System Review of Pre-Hospital Trauma Care in Combined Joint Operating Area - Afghanistan (CJOA-A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    What makes military medicine unique? 2. Why do military medical providers exist? 3. What is the leading cause of death on the battlefield? 4. Where do...the advocate for medics and pre-hospital battlefield trauma care? 13. Who owns battlefield medicine ? Unclassified 3 Unclassified SECTION II. EXECUTIVE...customized for use on the battlefield. [Maughon JS. An inquiry into the nature of wounds resulting in killed in action in Vietnam. Military Medicine 1970; 135

  10. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  11. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons".

  12. Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Anger, F; Paysant, F; Brousse, F; Le Normand, I; Develay, P; Gaillard, Y; Baert, A; Le Gueut, M A; Pepin, G; Anger, J P

    2000-03-01

    A 39-year-old man committed suicide by ingestion of aluminum phosphide, a potent mole pesticide, which was available at the victim's workplace. The judicial authority ordered an autopsy, which ruled out any other cause of death. The victim was discovered 10 days after the ingestion of the pesticide. When aluminum phosphide comes into contact with humidity, it releases large quantities of hydrogen phosphine (PH3), a very toxic gas. Macroscopic examination during the autopsy revealed a very important asphyxia syndrome with major visceral congestion. Blood, urine, liver, kidney, adrenal, and heart samples were analyzed. Phosphine gas was absent in the blood and urine but present in the brain (94 mL/g), the liver (24 mL/g), and the kidneys (41 mL/g). High levels of phosphorus were found in the blood (76.3 mg/L) and liver (8.22 mg/g). Aluminum concentrations were very high in the blood (1.54 mg/L), brain (36 microg/g), and liver (75 microg/g) compared to the usual published values. Microscopic examination revealed congestion of all the organs studied and obvious asphyxia lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma. All these results confirmed a diagnosis of poisoning by aluminum phosphide. This report points out that this type of poisoning is rare and that hydrogen phosphine is very toxic. The phosphorus and aluminum concentrations observed and their distribution in the different viscera are discussed in relation to data in the literature.

  13. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. The development of the norm against the use of poison: what literature tells us.

    PubMed

    Moon, John Ellis van Courtland

    2008-03-01

    The use of chemical and biological weapons on the battlefield is considered by most commentators--and by international law--as more abhorrent than the use of nearly all other weapons, including ones meant either to kill secretly or to kill terribly, as do fire or burial alive. I ask why this is so. I explore this question through the study of imagery patterns in Western literature and campaigns against food contamination and environmental pollution. I find that the norm against chemical and biological weapons builds upon a taboo against poisons, a prohibition widely accepted in military manuals as distinguishing soldierly conduct from criminal conduct, especially those forms of conduct made criminal by the employment of treachery, invisibility, and transformation.

  15. Studies toward labeling cytisine with [11C]phosgene: rapid synthesis of a delta-lactam involving a new chemoselective lithiation-annulation method.

    PubMed

    Rouden, Jacques; Seitz, Thomas; Lemoucheux, Laurent; Lasne, Marie-Claire

    2004-05-28

    With the aim of the radiolabeling of cytisine, a potent agonist of nicotinic receptors, with [(11)C]phosgene, the rapid synthesis of a lactam model of our target has been studied. The key step of the delta-lactam formation is a new chemoselective lithiation-annulation method, under high dilution, of a suitable piperidinylcarbamoyl chloride. This precursor was obtained from (2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine in a linear synthetic sequence involving a Corey-Fuchs olefination of the corresponding aldehyde, followed by a selective reduction, using a diimide equivalent, of an iodoalkyne into a (Z)-iodopropene piperidine. This alkene served as main precursor to study the cyclization according to several procedures using phosgene as the required carbonylating reagent.

  16. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  17. FT-IR identification, characterization and ab initio vibrational analysis of phosgene, oxalyl chloride and 1,2-dichlorocyclobutene-3,4-dione trapped in argon cryogenic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincu, Ileana; Allouche, Alain; Cossu, Michèle; Aycard, Jean-Pierre; Pourcin, Jean

    1995-03-01

    Optimized equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies and valence force field in the complete set of internal coordinates, including redundancies, are calculated ab initio, in the 4-31G∗ basis set, for phosgene, oxalyl chloride and 1,2-dichlorocyclobutene-3,4-dione. The reliability of the scaled valence force fields is checked out by the computation of isotopic frequency shift. The cis high-energy conformer of oxalyl chloride is clearly identified from its theoretically predicted spectrum.

  18. First High-Resolution Analysis of Phosgene 35CL2CO and 35CL37CLCO Fundamentals in the 250 - 480 wn Spectral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwabia Tchana, F.; Ndao, M.; Manceron, Laurent; Perrin, Agnes; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Lafferty, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Phosgene (COCl_2) is relatively more abundant in the stratosphere, but is also present in the troposphere in spite of a shorter lifetime (seventy days). Monitoring its concentration by remote sounding of the upper atmosphere is of importance, since some of its strong infrared absorptions, occurring in the important 8-12 μm atmospheric window, hinder the correct retrieval of Freon-11 concentration profiles. Indeed, the infrared absorptions used to retrieve this ozone depleting compound occur in the same spectral region. Phosgene, presents two fundamental bands in the 250 - 480 wn spectral region, with the lowest (ν_3) near 285 wn. These are responsible for hot bands, not yet analysed but of great importance for accurate modeling of the 5.47 μm (ν_1) and 11.75 μm (ν_5) spectral regions and consequently the correct retrieval of Freon-11 atmospheric absorption profiles. High-resolution absorption spectra of phosgene have been recorded at 0.00102 wn resolution in the 250-480 wn region by Fourier transform spectroscopy at synchrotron SOLEIL. Due to the spectral congestion, the spectra have been recorded at low temperature (197 K) using a 93.15 m optical path length cryogenic cell. This enables the first detailed far-infrared analyzes of the ν_3 and ν_6 bands of the 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO isotopologues of phosgene. Using a Watson-type Hamiltonian, it was possible to reproduce the upper state rovibrational infrared energy levels to within the experimental accuracy. The results will be presented in this talk. G. Toon, J.F. Blavier, B. Sen and B.J. Drouin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28/14 (2001) 2835. F. Kwabia Tchana, F. Willaert, X. Landsheere, J.-M. Flaud, L. Lago, M. Chapuis, P. Roy and L. Manceron, Rev. Sci. Inst., 84 (2013) 093101.

  19. Revolutionary optical sensor for physiological monitoring in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Stuart A.; Sriram, Sriram; Pollick, Andrea; Marsh, John

    2004-09-01

    SRICO has developed a revolutionary approach to physiological status monitoring using state-of-the-art optical chip technology. The company"s patent pending Photrode is a photonic electrode that uses unique optical voltage sensing technology to measure and monitor electrophysiological parameters. The optical-based monitoring system enables dry-contact measurements of EEG and ECG signals that require no surface preparation or conductive gel and non-contact measurements of ECG signals through the clothing. The Photrode applies high performance optical integrated circuit technology, that has been successfully implemented in military & commercial aerospace, missile, and communications applications for sensing and signal transmission. SRICO"s award winning Photrode represents a new paradigm for the measurement of biopotentials in a reliable, convenient, and non-intrusive manner. Photrode technology has significant applications on the battlefield for rapid triage to determine the brain dead from those with viable brain function. An ECG may be obtained over the clothing without any direct skin contact. Such applications would enable the combat medic to receive timely medical information and to make important decisions regarding identification, location, triage priority and treatment of casualties. Other applications for the Photrode include anesthesia awareness monitoring, sleep medicine, mobile medical monitoring for space flight, emergency patient care, functional magnetic resonance imaging, various biopotential signal acquisition (EMG, EOG), and routine neuro and cardio diagnostics.

  20. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  1. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  2. Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Delahaye, Arnaud; Goldgran-Tolédano, Dany; Baud, Frédéric J

    2003-04-01

    Cyanide poisoning may result from different exposures: residential fires, industrial accidents, drug and plant intoxication. Clinical features include coma, respiratory arrest and cardiovascular collapse. The biological hallmark is lactic acidosis. A plasma lactate concentration > or = 10 mmol/L in fire victims without severe burns and > or = 8 mmol/L in pure cyanide poisoned patients is a sensitive and specific indicator of cyanide intoxication. Many antidotes are available and efficient. However, therapeutic strategies are still debated. Our objective was to compare conventional treatments to hydroxocobalamin. This article reviews the literature on cyanide poisoning treatment. Conventional treatment of cyanide poisoning includes decontamination, supportive and specific treatment. Decontamination should be adapted to the route of poisoning and never postpone supportive treatment. Basic life support includes immediate administration of high flow of oxygen, airway protection and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Advanced life support includes mechanical ventilation, catecholamine and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Supportive treatment is efficient but does not modify the time course or the body burden of cyanide. Numerous antidotes are available. Oxygen counteracts efficiently cyanide action at the mitochondrial level. Sodium thiosulfate, methemoglobin forming agents and cobalt compounds act efficiently by complexing or transforming cyanide into non-toxic stable derivatives. However, regarding the main clinical condition of cyanide poisoning, i.e. smoke inhalation, we should take into account not only the efficiency of antidotes but also their safety. Sodium thiosulfate is both efficient and safe, but acts with delay. Methemoglobin-forming agents are potent, but due to the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, they impair tissue delivery of oxygen. Experimental data showed increased mortality in carbon monoxide- and cyanide-poisoned rats treated with these

  3. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems.

  4. The general approach to the poisoned patient.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevonne M; Theobald, Jillian; Lu, Jenny; Erickson, Timothy B

    2014-11-01

    The poisoned patient can present many challenges to the healthcare practitioner. An organized and thoughtful approach to the poisoned patient is necessary. Understanding the nuances of a toxicological history and physical examination can aid in the management of these patients. Supportive care with attention to the body systems at risk from the poisoning is the mainstay of therapy. Consultation with a medical toxicologist or regional poison control center can positively impact diagnosis, management, and disposition of poisoned patients.

  5. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  6. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  7. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  8. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  9. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  10. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  11. The treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T F

    2004-03-01

    Cyanide has gained historical notoriety as a poison used with intent to cause fatality. Its occurrence in industry is confined to a small number of uses in a relatively narrow range of industries, including the manufacture of Perspex and nylon and in electroplating. With proper controls in these settings, episodes of poisoning are extremely rare. However, because of the potential for a fatal outcome, procedures for the treatment of acute poisoning are essential. Antidotes include methaemoglobin generators, direct binding agents and sulphur donors, but there is a lack of international consensus about the treatment of choice. This article reviews the mechanisms and treatment of cyanide intoxication and emphasizes the importance of having agreed local procedures for the emergency treatment of poisoning.

  12. Army Battlefield Distribution Through the Lens of OIF: Logical Failures and the Way Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    able to come to the knowledge of the truth.” II Timothy 3:7 Chapter 3 introduced the notion of OIF snap-back as a possible wake up call to the...Abel, Timothy W. “Is Battlefield Distribution the Answer?” Army Logistician 29 (January- February 1997): 30-32. Akin, George G. “Battlefield...23. Leiphart, Kristine L. “Creating a Military Supply Chain Management Model.” Army Logistician 33 (July-August 2001): 36-39. 68 Maloney

  13. Developing defensive aids suite technology on a virtual battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapanotti, John L.; DeMontigny-Leboeuf, Annie; Palmarini, Marc; Cantin, Andre

    2002-07-01

    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment are limiting the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. The integration of various technologies into a Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) can be designed and analyzed by combining field trials and laboratory data with modeling and simulation. MATLAB is used as a quick prototyping tool to model DAS systems and facilitate transfer to other researchers. The DAS model can be transferred from MATLAB or programmed directly in ModSAF (Modular Semi-Automated Forces), which is used to construct the virtual battlefield. Through scripted input files, a fixed battle approach ensures implementation and analysis meeting the requirements of three different interests. These three communities include the scientists and engineers, military and operations research. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. A system can be modelled phenomenologically until more information is available. Further processing of the simulation can be used to optimize the vehicle for a specific mission. ModSAF will be used to analyze and plan trials and develop DAS technology for future vehicles. Survivability of a DAS-equipped vehicle can be assessed relative to a basic vehicle without a DAS. In later stages, more complete DAS systems will be analyzed to determine the optimum configuration of the DAS components and the effectiveness of a DAS-equipped vehicle for specific missions. These concepts and approach will be discussed in the paper.

  14. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  15. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  16. Acetylcysteine for Acetaminophen Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Heard, Kennon J.

    2009-01-01

    A 25-year-old man presents to the emergency department with a toothache. During the evaluation, the physician determines that the patient has been taking large doses of over-the-counter acetaminophen along with an acetaminophen–hydrocodone product for the past 5 days. His daily dose of acetaminophen has been 12 g per day (maximum recommended dose, 4 g per day). He has no other medical problems and typically consumes two beers a day. The patient has no symptoms beyond his toothache, is not icteric, and has no hepatomegaly or right-upper-quadrant tenderness. His serum acetaminophen concentration 8 hours after the most recent dose is undetectable. His serum alanine aminotransferase concentration is 75 IU per liter, his serum bilirubin concentration is 1.2 mg per deciliter (20.5 μmol per liter), and his international normalized ratio (INR) is 1.1. The emergency department physician contacts the regional poison-control center, which recommends treatment with acetylcysteine. PMID:18635433

  17. Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

    1965-01-01

    Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice. PMID:5831217

  18. Carbon dioxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Langford, Nigel J

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases.

  19. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  20. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.