Science.gov

Sample records for battlefield phosgene poisoning

  1. Phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Bast, Cheryl B; Glass-Mattie, Dana F

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation is the most important route of exposure for phosgene. A latency period occurs before phosgene affects the target organ, the lungs. The odor threshold is between 0.5 and 1.5 ppm, and the odor has been described as similar to newly-mown hay. Toxic effects have been reported at concentrations below the threshold. On initial exposure, phosgene can undergo hydrolysis and form hydrogen chloride which can be slightly irritating to the upper respiratory tract and eyes; the amount formed is limited by the low water solubility of phosgene. Once inhaled to the lower respiratory tract, phosgene undergoes an acylation reaction with amino, hydroxyl and sulfhydryl groups causing destruction of protein, lipids, and disruption of cellular functions. In response to this destruction, after a latency period of 1-24 hours, a breakdown in the blood-air barrier occurs and protein rich fluid accumulates in the lungs. Most commonly, death occurs within 48 hours after exposure from a progressive pulmonary edema and anoxia. At very high concentrations, death can occur from acute heart failure prior to the start of the pulmonary edema. Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene in World War I. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality. Animal studies also indicate little species variability as all species exposed developed similar clinical signs (dyspnea, pulmonary edema, labored breathing) and histopathological lesions in the lungs. While there are no chronic animal data, subchronic studies indicate little accumulation of phosgene or increased severity of lesions with continuous exposure.

  2. Phosgene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 06 / 001 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF PHOSGENE ( CAS No . 75 - 44 - 5 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 2005 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in

  3. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... as poison ivy and poison oakvenom from certain snakes and insects. How is poisoning diagnosed? The doctor ... poison, poison control, poison symptoms, poison treatments, poisoning, snake bite, syrup of ipecac First Aid and Injury ...

  4. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF PHOSGENE (2006 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Phosgene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Phosgene and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Phosgene (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Phosgene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Phosgene and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  6. Phosgene

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & Training Related Bioterrorism Resources Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) Brucella species ( ...

  7. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

  8. COLCHICINE DECREASES AIRWAY HYPERACTIVITY AFTER PHOSGENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene (COCl(2)) exposure affects an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung, which can be reduced in an animal model by pretreatment with colchicine. Inflammation in the respiratory tract can be associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity. We tested the hypotheses...

  9. Battlefield Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A study analyzing battlefield visualization (BV) as a component of information dominance and superiority. This study outlines basic requirements for effective BV in terms of terrain data, information systems (synthetic environment; COA development and analysis tools) and BV development management, with a focus on technology insertion strategies. This study also reports on existing BV systems and provides 16 recommendations for Army BV support efforts, including interested organization, funding levels and duration of effort for each recommended action.

  10. Research and development of a stationary source method for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Coppedge, E.A.; Johnson, L.D.; Steger, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Phosgene is listed as one of the hazardous air pollutants in title I of the Clean Air Act. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas at standard temperature and pressure and has been used in military applications and for a variety of industrial uses. Although various methods have been developed for detection of phosgene in ambient air, no method is directly applicable to stationary source emissions. The EPA has an on-going research project to develop a field ready protocol for phosgene from stationary source emissions. The results of the derivatization studies, sampling train experiments and other laboratory work will be shown.

  11. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    SciTech Connect

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  12. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    DOEpatents

    Freund, S.M.

    1983-09-20

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method. 5 figs.

  13. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride

    DOEpatents

    Freund, Samuel M.

    1983-01-01

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that is is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  14. Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.

    1997-03-01

    One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

  15. Quantitative determination of phosgene doses by reflectometric badge readout.

    PubMed

    Niessner, Reinhard

    2010-07-01

    Commercial phosgene dosimeter badges are lacking precise and sensitive analysis when used only by visual comparison to a color reference. To meet the discussed occupational standard set to 54 ppm min, objective quantification by reflectance measurement is proposed. At 573 nm, the pink dye ("Koenig's salt") formed at the membrane surface by reaction of phosgene, and aromatic amine shows a strict linear relationship in reflectance between doses of 10 and 300 ppm min. The detection limit is calculated to 29 ppm min.

  16. Battlefield Acupuncture: Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the development of the Voltaic pile by Alessandro Volta in the 1800s.2 By inserting both a gold ASP needle and a second stain- less steel or silver ASP...to the “Battlefield Acupuncture”1 technique, as recommended by Niemtzow, consists of first following the orginal protocol to determine the dominant ear...Figure 2). First Measurements Using Electrical Stimulation of Battlefield Acupoints To demonstrate for the first time that an electrical stim- ulation of

  17. Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J C

    2012-12-01

    The combatant soldier on the battlefield remains protected from any claim in negligence by the doctrine of combat immunity for any negligent act or omission they may make when fighting. In other words, the combatant soldier does not owe a fellow soldier a duty of care on the battlefield, as the duty of care is non-justiciable. However, the non-combatant Military Healthcare Professional, although sometimes operating in the same hostile circumstances as the fighting soldier, is unlikely to benefit from combat immunity for any clinical negligence on the battlefield. This is because they continue to owe their patient a duty of care, although this has not been tested in the courts. This paper considers if any military healthcare professional could ever benefit from combat immunity, which is unlikely due to their non-combatant status. Instead, this paper suggests that a modified form of immunity; namely, Military Healthcare Battlefield Immunity could be a new, unique and viable doctrine, however, this could only be granted in rare circumstances and to a much lesser degree than combat immunity.

  18. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride. [DOE patent application; mercury arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Freund, S.M.

    1981-09-03

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  19. Conceptual approaches for treatment of phosgene inhalation-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Wesley W; Keyser, Brian M; Paradiso, Danielle C; Ray, Radharaman; Andres, Devon K; Benton, Betty J; Rothwell, Cristin C; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi M; Dillman, James F; Sciuto, Alfred M; Anderson, Dana R

    2016-02-26

    Toxic industrial chemicals are used throughout the world to produce everyday products such as household and commercial cleaners, disinfectants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plastics, paper, and fertilizers. These chemicals are produced, stored, and transported in large quantities, which poses a threat to the local civilian population in cases of accidental or intentional release. Several of these chemicals have no known medical countermeasures for their toxic effects. Phosgene is a highly toxic industrial chemical which was used as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Exposure to phosgene causes latent, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which can result in respiratory failure and death. The mechanisms of phosgene-induced pulmonary injury are not fully identified, and currently there is no efficacious countermeasure. Here, we provide a proposed mechanism of phosgene-induced lung injury based on the literature and from studies conducted in our lab, as well as provide results from studies designed to evaluate survival efficacy of potential therapies following whole-body phosgene exposure in mice. Several therapies were able to significantly increase 24h survival following an LCt50-70 exposure to phosgene; however, no treatment was able to fully protect against phosgene-induced mortality. These studies provide evidence that mortality following phosgene toxicity can be mitigated by neuro- and calcium-regulators, antioxidants, phosphodiesterase and endothelin receptor antagonists, angiotensin converting enzymes, and transient receptor potential cation channel inhibitors. However, because the mechanism of phosgene toxicity is multifaceted, we conclude that a single therapeutic is unlikely to be sufficient to ameliorate the multitude of direct and secondary toxic effects caused by phosgene inhalation.

  20. Conceptual Approaches for Treatment of Phosgene Inhalation-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Wesley W.; Keyser, Brian M.; Paradiso, Danielle C.; Ray, Radharaman; Andres, Devon K.; Benton, Betty J.; Rothwell, Cristin C.; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi M.; Dillman, James F.; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Anderson, Dana R.

    2015-01-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals are used throughout the world to produce everyday products such as household and commercial cleaners, disinfectants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plastics, paper, and fertilizers. These chemicals are produced, stored, and transported in large quantities, which poses a threat to the local civilian population in cases of accidental or intentional release. Several of these chemicals have no known medical countermeasures for their toxic effects. Phosgene is a highly toxic industrial chemical which was used as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Exposure to phosgene causes latent, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which can result in respiratory failure and death. The mechanisms of phosgene-induced pulmonary injury are not fully identified, and currently there is no efficacious countermeasure. Here, we provide a proposed mechanism of phosgene-induced lung injury based on the literature and from studies conducted in our lab, as well as provide results from studies designed to evaluate survival efficacy of potential therapies following whole-body phosgene exposure in mice. Several therapies were able to significantly increase 24 hr survival following an LCt50–70 exposure to phosgene; however, no treatment was able to fully protect against phosgene-induced mortality. These studies provide evidence that mortality following phosgene toxicity can be mitigated by neuro- and calcium-regulators, antioxidants, phosphodiesterase and endothelin receptor antagonists, angiotensin converting enzymes, and transient receptor potential cation channel inhibitors. However, because the mechanism of phosgene toxicity is multifaceted, we conclude that a single therapeutic is unlikely to be sufficient to ameliorate the multitude of direct and secondary toxic effects caused by phosgene inhalation. PMID:26562770

  1. Effects of rhCC10 as a Post-Treatment in Mice Challenged with Phosgene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    cause non- cardiogenic pulmonary edema and possibly death, within 6-24 hours after exposure.4 In this study we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a...therapy for phosgene. 15. SUBJECT TERMS rhCC10, lung protein, mucosal host defense proteins, phosgene, pulmonary edema , pulmonary inflammation, anti...of 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg 4 ofrhCC10 was also not able to show an improvement from saline in pulmonary edema formation. 120- - Phosgene

  2. Battlefield spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, C.

    1997-06-01

    Modern tactical communications systems rely on radios to support network and user connectivity. One of the challenges for network planners and managers is to make best use of scarce and vulnerable frequency spectrum resources to support the communication needs of war fighters. With the wide variety of Iris radio types typically to be deployed in the battlefield (ranging from high frequency to super high frequency), a comprehensive suite of tools is necessary to ensure that frequency interference is kept minimum. Without a sophisticated frequency spectrum management system, the most advanced tactical communications systems could be rendered useless, jeopardizing human life and national security. For these reasons, it is important to develop an Iris wide battlefield spectrum management capability that takes full advantage of current frequency spectrum management research and development (R&D), related tools, and supporting technology for assigning frequencies. This session briefly describes various assignment strategies being adopted in the Iris BFSM for overcoming cosite/collocated/farsite interferences along with the propagation models [from high frequency (HF) to super high frequency (SHF)] used for the assignment of frequencies. Also a brief thread outlining the process for generating frequency allocation/assignment request and analysis of frequency interference is discussed.

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of phosgenation of aliphatic alcohols. V. Quantum-chemical investigation of the mechanism of the reaction of phosgene with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, S.I.; Varnek, A.A.; Chimishkyan, A.L.; Sel', O.B.

    1988-04-20

    Analysis of maps of the molecular electrostatic potential of phosgene showed that attack by methanol as nucleophile at the phosgene carbon atom takes place preferentially not in the plane of the molecule (the S/sub N/2 mechanism) but in a direction perpendicular to the COCl/sub 2/ plane (an AE addition-elimination mechanism). A fragment of the potential energy surface for the reaction of phosgene with methanol was calculated by the MNDO method. The reaction takes place by an AE-like mechanism through a late transition state, which represents a four-membered ring. There is not local minimum at a point corresponding to a tetrahedral intermediate, and this is explained by the absence of factors which stabilize it.

  4. Kinetic studies of phosgene reduction via in-situ Fourier transform infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Chauvel, J. P., Jr.

    1991-04-01

    Phosgene, a common reactant in the production of polyurethanes and polycarbonates, is unfortunately hazardous (threshold limit value equals 0.1 ppm). Consequently, the detection and elimination of atmospheric releases are paramount safety and environmental concerns. Proper design of systems to mitigate phosgene requires knowledge of the reaction kinetics for the chemistry involved. This paper presents our investigation of the reactions for phosgene with steam and ammonia. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) equipped with a large volume (15 L), temperature controlled (+0.5 degree(s)C), 24.5 cm path length cell was used to measure the reaction kinetics. The reaction of phosgene with steam at 110 degree(s)C followed first order kinetics (t1/2 equals 10.2 min.) producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride. The reaction of phosgene with ammonia at 80 degree(s)C followed second order kinetics (t1/2 equals 1.2 min.) producing ammonium chloride and urea. It was found, however, that at 25 degree(s)C this reaction follows a previously unreported pathway producing ammonium chloride and ammonium isocyanate at a faster rate (t1/2 equals 15 sec.). Based on this reaction, a pilot scale scrubbing tower was built with a manifold to mix ammonia with ppm levels of phosgene. A complete description of the experimental conditions, the reaction pathways as a function of temperature, and the performance of the ammonia scrubbing tower are given.

  5. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  6. Characterization of a nose-only inhaled phosgene acute lung injury mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L.; Perry, Mark R.; Knostman, Katherine A.; Segal, Robert; Babin, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Phosgene’s primary mode of action is as a pulmonary irritant characterized by its early latent phase where life-threatening, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is typically observed 6–24 h post-exposure. Objective To develop an inhaled phosgene acute lung injury (ALI) model in C57BL/6 mice that can be used to screen potential medical countermeasures. Methods A Cannon style nose-only inhalation exposure tower was used to expose mice to phosgene (8 ppm) or air (sham). An inhalation lethality study was conducted to determine the 8 ppm median lethal exposure (LCt50) at 24 and 48 h post-exposure. The model was then developed at 1.2 times the 24 h LCt50. At predetermined serial sacrifice time points, survivors were euthanized, body and lung weights collected, and lung tissues processed for histopathology. Additionally, post-exposure clinical observations were used to assess quality of life. Results and discussion The 24-hour LCt50 was 226ppm*min (8 ppm for 28.2 min) and the 48-hour LCt50 was 215ppm*min (8 ppm for 26.9 min). The phosgene exposed animals had a distinct progression of clinical signs, histopathological changes and increased lung/body weight ratios. Early indicators of a 1.2 times the 24-hour LCt50 phosgene exposure were significant changes in the lung-to-body weight ratios by 4 h post-exposure. The progression of clinical signs and histopathological changes were important endpoints for characterizing phosgene-induced ALI for future countermeasure studies. Conclusion An 8 ppm phosgene exposure for 34 min (1.2 × LCt50) is the minimum challenge recommended for evaluating therapeutic interventions. The predicted higher mortality in the phosgene-only controls will help demonstrate efficacy of candidate treatments and increase the probability that a change in survival rate is statistically significant PMID:26671199

  7. Phosgene in the UTLS: seasonal and latitudinal variations from MIPAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeri, Massimo; Carlotti, Massimo; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Raspollini, Piera; Ridolfi, Marco; Dinelli, Bianca Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a Fourier transform spectrometer that measured mid-infrared atmospheric limb emission spectra from July 2002 to April 2012 on board the polar-orbiting satellite ENVISAT. We have used MIPAS data to study the latitudinal variations of phosgene (COCl2 or carbonyl chloride) and, for the first time, its seasonal variation in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region (UTLS). Retrievals of phosgene were made using the 830-860 cm-1 region, corresponding to the ν5 bands of COCl2. Unfortunately, in that region, the ν4 band of CFC-11, which is much stronger than COCl2 ν5, hides the phosgene emission. In order to evaluate seasonality and latitudinal distribution of phosgene we have analysed all the measurements made by MIPAS on days 18 and 20 of each month of 2008 with the optimized retrieval model (ORM) recently upgraded with the multi-target retrieval technique and with the optimal estimation functionality to apply external constraints to the state vector. Average seasonal profiles of phosgene show an evident latitudinal variability with the largest values observed in the tropical regions (maximum ≈ 35 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) at about 300 hPa). In the midlatitude and polar regions, the volume mixing ratio (VMR) values do not exceed 30 pptv and the vertical distributions are less peaked. Our analysis highlights that COCl2 seasonal variability is fairly low, apart from the polar regions.

  8. Battlefield awareness computers: the engine of battlefield digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jackson; Chamseddine, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    To modernize the army for the 21st century, the U.S. Army Digitization Office (ADO) initiated in 1995 the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade-and-Below (FBCB2) Applique program which became a centerpiece in the U.S. Army's master plan to win future information wars. The Applique team led by TRW fielded a 'tactical Internet' for Brigade and below command to demonstrate the advantages of 'shared situation awareness' and battlefield digitization in advanced war-fighting experiments (AWE) to be conducted in March 1997 at the Army's National Training Center in California. Computing Devices is designated the primary hardware developer for the militarized version of the battlefield awareness computers. The first generation of militarized battlefield awareness computer, designated as the V3 computer, was an integration of off-the-shelf components developed to meet the agressive delivery requirements of the Task Force XXI AWE. The design efficiency and cost effectiveness of the computer hardware were secondary in importance to delivery deadlines imposed by the March 1997 AWE. However, declining defense budgets will impose cost constraints on the Force XXI production hardware that can only be met by rigorous value engineering to further improve design optimization for battlefield awareness without compromising the level of reliability the military has come to expect in modern military hardened vetronics. To answer the Army's needs for a more cost effective computing solution, Computing Devices developed a second generation 'combat ready' battlefield awareness computer, designated the V3+, which is designed specifically to meet the upcoming demands of Force XXI (FBCB2) and beyond. The primary design objective is to achieve a technologically superior design, value engineered to strike an optimal balance between reliability, life cycle cost, and procurement cost. Recognizing that the diverse digitization demands of Force XXI cannot be adequately met by any one computer hardware

  9. Cologne poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Deodorant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Bee poison

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  13. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Oleander poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Nicotine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Hydrocarbons, substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. Where ... oil poisoning; Coal oil poisoning References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  19. AN "INJURY-TIME INTEGRAL" MODEL FOR RELATING ACUTE TO CHRONIC INJURY TO PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT
    The present study compares acute and subchronic episodic exposures to phosgene to test the applicability of the "concentration x time" (C x T) product as a measure of exposure dose, and to relate acute toxicity and adaptive responses to chronic toxicity. Rats (m...

  20. Solder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethylene glycol is extremely poisonous. Complete recovery from lead poisoning takes a year or more. It may cause ... Long-term poisoning with antimony and cadmium may lead to lung cancer. Recovery from acid poisoning depends on how much tissue has been damaged.

  1. Natural killer activity in Fischer-344 rat lungs as a method to assess pulmonary immunocompetence: Immunosuppression by phosgene inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, G.R.; Keyes, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Phosgene is a hazardous air toxic and a potential occupational health hazard. Studies were initiated to determine whether exposure to phosgene resulted in local pulmonary or systemic immune dysfunction. The effect of phosgene on lung natural killer (NK) activity was quantified at different times after exposure. Acute phosgene exposure resulted in a suppressed pulmonary NK activity on days 1, 2, and 4 after exposure; however, normal levels of biological activity were observed 7 days after exposure. The suppressed NK activity was not restored after removal of adherent cells. Pulmonary immunotoxicity was also observed after exposure at 0.5 ppm, while no adverse effects were observed at 0.1 ppm phosgene. Systemic immunotoxic effects were observed for NK activity in the spleen, but not in the peripheral blood. The report is the first of a systemic immunotoxic effect after exposure to phosgene. It is thus important in pulmonary immunotoxicology to evaluate systemic immune functions, since secondary effects -- distant to the original interaction -- may occur with potential serious consequences.

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... from lead poisoning in New Hampshire and in Alabama. Lead poisoning has also been associated with juvenile ... for decades—after it first enters the blood stream. (The same process can occur with the onset ...

  3. Varnish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a clear liquid that is used as coating on woodwork and other products. Varnish poisoning occurs ... NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. ...

  4. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  5. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Poisoning Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  6. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  7. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  8. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  9. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with white berries. Mistletoe poisoning occurs when someone eats any part of this plant. Poisoning can also occur if you drink tea ...

  10. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  11. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  12. Methylmercury poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Methylmercury is a type of mercury , a metal that is liquid at room temperature. A nickname for mercury is quicksilver. Most compounds containing mercury are poisonous. Methylmercury is a very poisonous ...

  13. Phosgene Effects on F-Actin in Cells Grown from Pulmonary Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    Plato, N., Alexandersson, R ., Eklund, A., and Falkenberg , C. (1991). Pulmonary reactions caused by welding-induced decomposed trichlorethylene. Chest 99...CY) CO 0= Phosgene Effects on F-actin in Cells Grown on from Pulmonary Tissues I R . Werrlein, J. Madren-Whalley and S.D. Kirby United States Army...shape, the image in Fig. 1 shows organization that was characteristic of F-actin in untreated and sham-treated control populations. B 4000- DPB (7 r 3000

  14. Overview of Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Caustic Substances Poisoning Hydrocarbon Poisoning Insecticide Poisoning Iron Poisoning Lead Poisoning Overview of Food ... in their original containers. Toxic substances, such as insecticides and cleaning agents, should not be put in ...

  15. Representing Ground Robotic Systems in Battlefield Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    representations of intelligent system performance for its battlefield simulation tools . These simulation tools differ considerably in their level of...simulation study, 2) the overall fidelity of the target simulation tool , and 3) the elements of the robotic system that are relevant to the...simulation study. In this paper, we discuss a framework for modeling robotic system performance in the context of a battlefield simulation tool . We apply

  16. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  17. [Poisonous plants].

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Mustonen, Harriet; Pohjalainen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Approximately ten species of dangerously poisonous plants are found in Finland. Severe plant poisonings are very rare. Edible plants eaten raw or wrongly processed may cause severe symptoms. As first aid, activated charcoal should be given to the person who has eaten a plant causing a risk of significant poisoning. In case of exposure to topically irritating plant fluids, the exposed person's eyes must be irrigated and mouth or skin washed with copious amounts of water. In combination with solar UV radiation, light-sensitizing plants cause local burns. The diagnosis of plant poisoning is usually based on incidental information; the plant should be identified in order to make the correct treatment decisions.

  18. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of phosgenation of aliphatic alcohols. VI. The role of the association of the alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, S.I.; Chimishkyan, A.L.; Negrebetskii, V.V.

    1988-07-10

    Investigation of the effect of the association of a series of alcohols on the phosgenation rate in heptane showed that the tetramer of the alcohol enters exclusively into reaction with phosgene. This is explained by the formation of a bicyclic transition state (or tetrahedral intermediate), which does not require previous desolvation or association of the alcohol and secures effective intramolecular assistance to the elimination of hydrogen chloride. The electronic structure was determined by CNDO/2 quantum-chemical calculations, which reproduces the three-dimensional structure and electron density distribution in the molecules fairly well. Methanol was chosen as model alcohol in order to simplify the calculations.

  20. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  1. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  2. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can kill a child, while ...

  3. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Shannon MW. Emergency management of poisoning. In: Shannon MW, ed. Haddad and ...

  4. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  5. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  6. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  7. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  8. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... dangerous and is not advised. References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  9. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  10. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  11. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Failure at school Hearing problems Kidney damage Reduced IQ Slowed body growth The symptoms of lead poisoning ... can have a permanent impact on attention and IQ. People with higher lead levels have a greater ...

  12. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  13. Naphthalene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ... Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  14. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little ...

  15. Battlefield Distribution: A Systems Thinking Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The purpose of this monograph is to analyze the U.S. Army battlefield distribution system from a " Systems Thinking " perspective. The method involves...important aspect of Systems Thinking , the subject matter of this monograph reaches beyond Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) to historical precedent. Whether for

  16. Battlefield euthanasia - courageous compassion or war crime?

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Susan J

    2011-03-21

    Issues relating to voluntary euthanasia that are currently being debated by Australian society are distinctly different from those encountered by battlefield doctors. Doctors in war undertake to treat those affected by conflict; their participation in euthanasia challenges the profession's definition of "duty of care". Euthanasia must be distinguished from "triage" and medical withdrawal of care (which are decided within a medical facility where, although resources may be limited, comfort care can be provided in the face of treatment futility). Battlefield euthanasia is a decision made, often immediately after hostile action, in the face of apparently overwhelming injuries; there is often limited availability of pain relief, support systems or palliation that would be available in a civilian environment. The battlefield situation is further complicated by issues of personal danger, the immediacy of decision making and difficulties with distinguishing civilians from combatants. Regardless of the circumstances on a battlefield, doctors, whether they are civilians or members of a defence force, are subject to the laws of armed conflict, the special provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the ethical codes of the medical profession.

  17. Graphic Portrayal of Battlefield Information: Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    PERCEPTRONICS, Inc. ,.o Battlefield Information Systems Technical Area Systems Research Laboratory DTIC $%ELECTE U. S . Army D Research Institute for the...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR...EDGAR M. JOHNSON Colonel, IN -. Technical Director Commander Research accomplished under contract for the Department of the Army Perceptronics, Inc

  18. Poison Ivy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Page Content Article Body Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac commonly cause skin rashes in ... swampy areas of the Mississippi River region. Poison oak grows as a shrub, and it is seen ...

  19. Anticoagulant rodenticides poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Rat killer poisoning; Rodenticide poisoning ... up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  20. Functional Genomic Assessment of Phosgene-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Concel, Vincent J.; Bein, Kiflai; Liu, Pengyuan; Berndt, Annerose; Martin, Timothy M.; Ganguly, Koustav; Jang, An Soo; Brant, Kelly A.; Dopico, Richard A.; Upadhyay, Swapna; Cario, Clinton; Di, Y. P. Peter; Vuga, Louis J.; Kostem, Emrah; Eskin, Eleazar; You, Ming; Kaminski, Naftali; Prows, Daniel R.; Knoell, Daren L.; Fabisiak, James P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a genetically diverse panel of 43 mouse strains was exposed to phosgene and genome-wide association mapping performed using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assembly. Transcriptomic analysis was also used to improve the genetic resolution in the identification of genetic determinants of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). We prioritized the identified genes based on whether the encoded protein was previously associated with lung injury or contained a nonsynonymous SNP within a functional domain. Candidates were selected that contained a promoter SNP that could alter a putative transcription factor binding site and had variable expression by transcriptomic analyses. The latter two criteria also required that ≥10% of mice carried the minor allele and that this allele could account for ≥10% of the phenotypic difference noted between the strains at the phenotypic extremes. This integrative, functional approach revealed 14 candidate genes that included Atp1a1, Alox5, Galnt11, Hrh1, Mbd4, Phactr2, Plxnd1, Ptprt, Reln, and Zfand4, which had significant SNP associations, and Itga9, Man1a2, Mapk14, and Vwf, which had suggestive SNP associations. Of the genes with significant SNP associations, Atp1a1, Alox5, Plxnd1, Ptprt, and Zfand4 could be associated with ALI in several ways. Using a competitive electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, Atp1a1 promoter (rs215053185) oligonucleotide containing the minor G allele formed a major distinct faster-migrating complex. In addition, a gene with a suggestive SNP association, Itga9, is linked to transforming growth factor β1 signaling, which previously has been associated with the susceptibility to ALI in mice. PMID:23590305

  1. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  2. Pentachlorophenol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

  3. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  4. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  5. Tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The continuous development on the field of electro-optics has certainly a big influence on the field of military vehicles. The same way it increases the own visual and thereby the operational range, it also increases the danger of detection by enemy forces. This conflict between the enhancement of sensor performance on one side and the minimization of vehicle signature by design on the other side is the major issue in the field of battlefield reconnaissance. The understanding of the interaction between the theoretical sensor performance, its limitation caused by atmospheric effects and the constructive limitations in the vehicle's signature minimization is mandatory for a realistic assessment of sensor systems. This paper describes the tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance at the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Weapons and Ammunition (WTD 91) in Meppen (DEU).

  6. IBCT Operations on the Depopulated Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    operations. In both examples above, soldiers deployed into the conflict zone with an inadequate supply of water, food , and night vision goggles (NVGs), and...rationale behind this statement was that the battlefield would be so lethal that it would be impossible to establish hospital tents, and that it would be...recent deployment exercises, whether contingency or training, attests to the high levels of supply wastage that exists within the current CSS system. On a

  7. Total Intravenous Anesthesia on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    anesthesia, which provides amnesia and excellent analgesia. The ketamine-induced rise in blood pressure and heart rate seen in the normotensive patient...capnography, blood pressure monitors) to provide an anesthetic. However, space, superfluous equipment, and electri- city can become issues. Furthermore...the anesthetic. New vaporizers, airway equipment, and blood transfusions for treatment of shock were other battlefield advances made during WWII.1

  8. Computers on the Battlefield: Can They Survive?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    camouflage ). a Plan for using or constructing alternate nodes to critical links. * Bury the Bundespost (long line) in a manner similar to the...or a smaller vehicle/van combination could drastically reduce com- puter installation silhouettes, making camouflage easier and enemy detection more...development software support for battlefield systems. Thus, each system fielded has its own software and hardware uniqueness-and we have an octopus out of

  9. Program Oversight of Contractors on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    has a full understanding of it.7 The extensive use of contractors on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan has engendered strong emotion and...contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan . These steps include tracking contracting data, coordinating the movements of contractors throughout the battle space...workforce to manage contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan and updating DoD doctrine to incorporate the role of contractors. However, some of these efforts

  10. Battlefield Damage Assessment and Repair: Is Improvised Maintenance the Battlefield Solution to the Repair Parts Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-14

    College Fort L eavenworth, Kansas First Term AY 92-93 Approved ror Public Release; Distribution Is Unlimited 93-0715098 o o III•I/II/IIil!/iIiI . 5 ,,, 121...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT )ATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED1 14/2/92MONOGRAPH 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS BATTLEFIELD...be even more important.1I -Field Manual 100- 5 As a smaller force, relying on high technolo gy weapons and operating on the modern, lethal battlefield

  11. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-04

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  12. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  13. [Cyanide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Møller, Søren; Hemmingsen, Claus

    2003-06-16

    Cyanide is a toxic compound which inhibits the cellular utilization of oxygen. A number of substances can give rise to cyanide intoxication, which in some cases may have a delayed onset. The symptoms are non-specific and reflect cellular hypoxia. Several strategies may be employed in the treatment. Hydroxycobalamine is an effective and non-toxic antidote. On the basis of a case story, the toxicology, symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning are discussed.

  14. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  15. Reducing Battlefield Fuel Demand: Mitigating a Marine Corp Critical Vulnerability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Marine Corps’ battlefield dependence on fossil fuels carries not only fiscal implications, but far more importantly, it is costing the lives of Marines...dangerous confluence of strategic energy dependence and the mammoth effort required to deliver that energy to the battlefield prompted General James

  16. Poison Ivy Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... to poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from ... Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a ...

  17. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Cuticle remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  9. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eaten Amount swallowed The time it was swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  11. Leadership and Command on the Battlefield. Operation JUST CAUSE and DESERT STORM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    battlefield leader- ship. How does a commander achieve effective battlefield leadership? Is battlefield leadership tied to equipment? Are those with...vision implemented. The result of effective command is direction, the coordinated effort of many soldiers, teams, and units. Command thus encompasses...leadership and all its vari- ables, communication, and structure. Effective battlefield command assumes quality leadership, proper and adequate training

  12. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  13. [Psychiatric disorders of the contemporary battlefield].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    This article presents the factors exerted an influence on psychiatric health status of participants of military missions and psychiatric disorders forming on the contemporary battlefield. The main stressors are threats being a result of duty in warfare, also hard climatic conditions, long-lasting separation from family, foreign language of local population, other customs, religion, caused alienation of mission personnel. Significant factors seem also dependences on duty and unofficial relationships prevailing in military environment. The consequence of survived psychiatric trauma being a result of short-lived incident or prolonged event are often acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  14. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  15. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  16. River as a part of ground battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag

    2013-05-01

    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  17. Automated military unit identification in battlefield simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.; Gordon, R.

    1997-05-01

    It is the nature of complex systems, composed of many interacting elements, that unanticipated phenomena develop. Computer simulation, in which the elements of a complex system are implemented as interacting software objects (actors), is an effective tool to study collective and emergent phenomena in complex systems. A new cognitive architecture is described for constructing simulation actors that can, like the intelligent elements they represent adapt to unanticipated conditions. This cognitive architecture generates trial behaviors, estimates their fitness using an internal representation of the system, and has an internal apparatus for evolving a population of trial behaviors to changing environmental conditions. A specific simulation actor is developed to evaluate surveillance radar images of moving vehicles on battlefields. The vehicle cluster location, characterization and discrimination processes currently performed by intelligent human operators were implemented into a parameterized formation recognition process by using a newly developed family of 2D cluster filters. The mechanics of these cluster filters are described. Preliminary results are presented in which this GSM actor demonstrates the ability not only to recognize military formations under prescribed conditions, but to adapt its behavior to unanticipated conditions that develop in the complex simulated battlefield system.

  18. Toward consistent snapshot of the digitized battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Susanta P.; Richardson, Paul; Sieh, Larry

    1999-07-01

    A battlefield can be viewed as a collection of entities, enemy and friendly, during combat, each entity scans its surrounding with local sensors to be aware of the current situation. Through digitation of the battlefield, it is possible to share this locally sensed information among all the friendly entities. Significant war-fighting advantages can be realized, if this shared information is consistent. During one of the soldier-in-the-loop simulation exercises invovling ground-based enemy and friendly entities, it was found that achieving consistent snapshot at each friendly node is not a trivial problem. A few contributing factors are: suitable method for combining individual perspective to a global one, mode of communication, movement of all entities, different local perspective of each entity, sensor calibration, fault, and clock synchronization. At the US Army VETRONICS Technology Center, we are in the process of developing a family of algorithms capable of obtaining a consistent global picture invovling one of the critical properties, ground position of entities. In the first stage we have established that for point to point communicating entities, a vector clock based scheme uses fewer number of messages and arrives at the global picture earlier. However, this result does not scale to broadcast situations.

  19. Battlefield triage life signs detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lin, Jenshan; Park, Byung-Kwon; Li, Changzhi; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M.; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2008-04-01

    Getting to wounded soldiers on the battlefield is a precarious task, and medics have a very high casualty rate. It is therefore a vital importance to prioritize which soldiers to attend to first. The first step is to detect life signs - if a soldier is dead or alive, and prioritize recovery of live soldiers. The second step is to obtain vital signs from live soldiers, and use this to prioritize which are in most urgent need of attention. Our team at Kai Sensors, University of Hawaii and University of Florida is developing Doppler radar heart sensing technology that provides the means to detect life signs, respiration and/or heart beat, at a distance, even for subjects lying motionless, e.g., unconscious subjects, wearing body armor, and hidden from direct view. Since this technology can deliver heart rate information with high accuracy, it may also enable the assessment of a subject's physiological and psychological state based on heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Thus, the degree of a subject's injury may also be determined. The software and hardware developments and challenges for life signs detection and monitoring for battlefield triage will be discussed, including heart signal detection from all four sides of the human body, detection in the presence of body armor, and the feasibility of HRV parameter extraction.

  20. Automated military unit identification in battlefield simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Phillip D.; Gordon, Ray C.

    1997-06-01

    It is the nature of complex systems, composed of many interacting elements, that unanticipated phenomena develop. Computer simulation, in which the elements of a complex system are implemented as interacting software objects (actors), is an effective tool to study collective and emergent phenomena in complex systems. A new cognitive architecture is described for constructing simulation actors that can, like the intelligent elements they represent, adapt to unanticipated conditions. This cognitive architecture generates trial behaviors, estimates their fitness using an integral representation of the system, and has an internal apparatus for evolving a population of trial behaviors to changing environmental conditions. A specific simulation actor is developed to evaluate surveillance radar images of moving vehicles on battlefields. The vehicle cluster location, characterization and discrimination processes currently performed by intelligent human operators were implemented into a parameterized formation recognition process by using a newly developed family of 2D cluster filters. The mechanics of these cluster filters are described. Preliminary results are presented in which this GSM actor demonstrates the ability not only to recognize military formations under prescribed conditions, but to adapt its behavior to unanticipated conditions that develop in the complex simulated battlefield system.

  1. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  2. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  3. The Role of the Fighting Vehicle on the Airland Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    the most critical responsibilities on the AirLand battlefield: the role of the infantry fighting vehicle. The forty plus years of peace in Europe are...DTJ 4 FIL 1 COPY AD-A227 430 THE ROLE OF THE FIGHTING VEHICLE ON THE AIRLAND BATTLEFIELD A thesis presented to the faculty of the U. S. Army Command...1 June 1990 Ma q1,I.q. 8-1989 t-. 6- 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Role of the Fighting Vehicle on the Airland Battlefield. 6. AUTHOR(S

  4. Ciguatera poisoning.

    PubMed

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  5. A Framework for Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Wu, Biao; Yi, Renjie; Zhu, Jie

    With the development of high technology weapon, the execution and precision of weapon have made great improvement, which arouse many new challenge for treatment of war wounds. It is very urgent to research how to reduce casualty of individual solider. However, researches focus only on daily application recently. This paper discusses Intelligent Battlefield Treatment System (IBTS), and designs the framework of the service-oriented system based on WCF. The system has the following functions: testing the physical condition of a solider, disposing the distress signals intelligently, dispatching rescuers and assisting self-rescue or mutual-rescue to the wounded. The IBTS characteristics of data aggregate, multi-platform operation and data sharing can improve the treatment efficiency.

  6. Base-promoted coupling of carbon dioxide, amines, and diaryliodonium salts: a phosgene- and metal-free route to O-aryl carbamates.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenfang; Qi, Chaorong; Peng, Youbin; Guo, Tianzuo; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2015-10-05

    A phosgene- and metal-free synthesis of O-aryl carbamates is realized through a three-component coupling of carbon dioxide, amines and diaryliodonium salts. The reaction only requires a base as the promoter, providing access to a diverse array of O-aryl carbamates in moderate to high yields with excellent chemoselectivity.

  7. Attempts to counteract phosgene-induced acute lung injury by instant high-dose aerosol exposure to hexamethylenetetramine, cysteine or glutathione.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen; Hai, Chun Xue

    2011-01-01

    Phosgene is an important high-production-volume intermediate with widespread industrial use. Consistent with other lung irritants causing ALI (acute lung injury), mode-of-action-based countermeasures remain rudimentary. This study was conducted to analyze whether extremely short high-level exposure to phosgene gas could be mitigated using three different inhaled nucleophiles administered by inhalation instantly after exposure to phosgene. Groups of young adult male Wistar rats were acutely exposed to carbonyl chloride (phosgene) using a directed-flow nose-only mode of exposure of 600 mg/m³ for 1.5 min (225 ppm × min). Immediately after exposure to phosgene gas the rats were similarly exposed to three strong nucleophiles with and without antioxidant properties for 5 or 15 min. The following nucleophiles were used: hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), l-cysteine (Cys), and l-glutathione (GSH). The concentration of the aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter 1.7-2 µm) was targeted to be in the range of 1 mg/L. Cys and GSH have antioxidant properties in addition. The calculated alveolar molar dosage of phosgene was 9 µmol/kg. At 15-min exposure duration, the respective inhaled dose of HMT, Csy, and GSH were 111, 103, and 46 µmol/kg, respectively. The alveolar dose of drugs was ~10-times lower. The efficacy of treatment was judged by protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected 1 day post-exposure. In spite of using optimized aerosolization techniques, none of the nucleophiles chosen had any mitigating effect on BALF-protein extravasation. This finding appear to suggest that inhaled phosgene gas acylates instantly nucleophilic moieties at the site of initial deposition and that the resultant reaction products can not be reactivated even following instant inhalation treatment with competing nucleophilic agents. In spite of using maximal technically attainable concentrations, it appears to be experimentally challenging to deliver

  8. The fate of atmospheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CCl4, C2Cl4, C2HCL3, CH3CCl3, and CHCl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, T. P.; Chameides, W. L.; Wine, P. H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; Franklin, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the tropospheric and stratospheric cycles of phosgene is carried out to determine its fate and ultimate role in controlling the ozone depletion potentials of its parent compounds. Tropospheric phosgene is produced from the OH-initiated oxidation of C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, CHCl3, and C2HCl3. Simulations using a two-dimensional model indicate that these processes produce about 90 pptv/yr of tropospheric phosgene with an average concentration of about 18 pptv, in reasonable agreement with observations. We estimate a residence time of about 70 days for tropospheric phosgene, with the vast majority being removed by hydrolysis in cloudwater. Only about 0.4% of the phosgene produced in the troposphere avoids wet removal and is transported to the stratosphere, where its chlorine can be released to participate in the catalytic destruction of ozone. Stratospheric phosgene is produced from the photochemical degradation of CCl4, C2Cl4, CHCl3, and CH3CCl3 and is removed by photolysis and downward transport to the troposphere. Model calculations, in good agreement with observations, indicate that these processes produce a peak stratospheric concentration of about 25-30 pptv at an altitude of about 25 km. In contrast to tropospheric phosgene, stratospheric phosgene is found to have a lifetime against photochemical removal of the order of years. As a result, a significant portion of the phosgene that is produced in the stratosphere is ultimately returned to the troposphere, where it is rapidly removed by clouds. This phenomenon effectively decreases the amount of reactive chlorine injected into the stratosphere and available for ozone depletion from phosgene's parent compounds. A similar phenomenon due to the downward transport of stratospheric COFCl produced from CFC-11 is estimated to cause a 7% decrease in the amount of reactive chlorine injected into the stratosphere from this compound. Our results are potentially sensitive to a variety of parameters, most notably the rate

  9. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  10. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  11. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  12. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a ... American Association of Poison Control Centers, Inc. CDC: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Prevention Guidelines U.S. Food and Drug ...

  13. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  14. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  15. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  16. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  17. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  18. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  19. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  20. Commercial communications technology on the digital battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomiris, Vasilios E.; Hafer, Tom

    1996-06-01

    To meet its objectives of winning the information ware and digitizing the battlefield, the U.S. Army must leverage advances in commercial technology. The Department of Defense has adopted a new approach to acquiring and fielding systems in response to economic realities and the need to incorporate rapidly advancing commercial technology into Army systems. This approach calls for the evaluation of commercial breakthroughs in a laboratory environment followed by evaluation by the user in a warfighting experiment. The most promising products are then transitioned to a program executive officer/project manager for accelerated acquisition and fielding. The U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) Research, Development and Engineering Center Space & Terrestrial Communications Directorate is working with the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to study the applicability of personal communications systems and related technologies for Army applications. The results of this cooperative effort were demonstrated in 1995 through the use of the trunked Land Mobile Radio (LMR) during field exercises. This paper will describe the joint CECOM/ARPA programs that sponsor the evaluation of commercial technologies, characteristics of the LMR and the details of its interface with the legacy systems, and current plans for further experimentation/evaluation.

  1. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  2. Research and development of a field-ready protocol for sampling of phosgene from stationary source emissions: Diethylamine reagent studies. Research report, 11 July 1995--30 September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Steger, J.L.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; Epperson, D.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory studies to develop and evaluate a method for the sampling and analysis of phosgene from stationary sources of air emissions using diethylamine (DEA) in toluene as the collection media. The method extracts stack gas from emission sources and stabilizes the reactive gas for subsequent analysis. DEA was evaluated both in a benchtop study and in a laboratory train spiking study. This report includes results for both the benchtop study and the train spiking study. Benchtop studies to evaluate the suitability of DEA for collecting and analyzing phosgene investigated five variables: storage time, DEA concentration, moisture/pH, phosgene concentration, and sample storage temperature. Prototype sampling train studies were performed to determine if the benchtop chemical studies were transferable to a Modified Method 5 sampling train collecting phosgene in the presence of clean air mixed with typical stack gas components. Four conditions, which varied the moisture and phosgene spike were evaluated in triplicate. In addition to research results, the report includes a detailed draft method for sampling and analysis of phosgene from stationary source emissions.

  3. Battlefield Acupuncture: Is It Ready for Widespread Dissemination?

    PubMed

    Federman, Daniel G; Gunderson, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    The use of prescription opioids for chronic pain has increased markedly within the past few decades; thus, death rates associated with opioid overdoses have increased dramatically. Nonopioid pharmacologic therapies also are associated with adverse effects. Other pain-abatement modalities such as acupuncture may be useful in the treatment of several painful conditions. Battlefield acupuncture is being promulgated as a potential low-risk, nonpharmacological therapy for pain. In this narrative review we examine the published literature to support battlefield acupuncture. We conclude that the amount and quality of published research presently do not justify wide adoption of this practice by those strictly adherent to evidence-based medicine.

  4. Studies toward labeling cytisine with [11C]phosgene: rapid synthesis of a delta-lactam involving a new chemoselective lithiation-annulation method.

    PubMed

    Rouden, Jacques; Seitz, Thomas; Lemoucheux, Laurent; Lasne, Marie-Claire

    2004-05-28

    With the aim of the radiolabeling of cytisine, a potent agonist of nicotinic receptors, with [(11)C]phosgene, the rapid synthesis of a lactam model of our target has been studied. The key step of the delta-lactam formation is a new chemoselective lithiation-annulation method, under high dilution, of a suitable piperidinylcarbamoyl chloride. This precursor was obtained from (2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine in a linear synthetic sequence involving a Corey-Fuchs olefination of the corresponding aldehyde, followed by a selective reduction, using a diimide equivalent, of an iodoalkyne into a (Z)-iodopropene piperidine. This alkene served as main precursor to study the cyclization according to several procedures using phosgene as the required carbonylating reagent.

  5. First High-Resolution Analysis of Phosgene 35CL2CO and 35CL37CLCO Fundamentals in the 250 - 480 wn Spectral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwabia Tchana, F.; Ndao, M.; Manceron, Laurent; Perrin, Agnes; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Lafferty, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Phosgene (COCl_2) is relatively more abundant in the stratosphere, but is also present in the troposphere in spite of a shorter lifetime (seventy days). Monitoring its concentration by remote sounding of the upper atmosphere is of importance, since some of its strong infrared absorptions, occurring in the important 8-12 μm atmospheric window, hinder the correct retrieval of Freon-11 concentration profiles. Indeed, the infrared absorptions used to retrieve this ozone depleting compound occur in the same spectral region. Phosgene, presents two fundamental bands in the 250 - 480 wn spectral region, with the lowest (ν_3) near 285 wn. These are responsible for hot bands, not yet analysed but of great importance for accurate modeling of the 5.47 μm (ν_1) and 11.75 μm (ν_5) spectral regions and consequently the correct retrieval of Freon-11 atmospheric absorption profiles. High-resolution absorption spectra of phosgene have been recorded at 0.00102 wn resolution in the 250-480 wn region by Fourier transform spectroscopy at synchrotron SOLEIL. Due to the spectral congestion, the spectra have been recorded at low temperature (197 K) using a 93.15 m optical path length cryogenic cell. This enables the first detailed far-infrared analyzes of the ν_3 and ν_6 bands of the 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO isotopologues of phosgene. Using a Watson-type Hamiltonian, it was possible to reproduce the upper state rovibrational infrared energy levels to within the experimental accuracy. The results will be presented in this talk. G. Toon, J.F. Blavier, B. Sen and B.J. Drouin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28/14 (2001) 2835. F. Kwabia Tchana, F. Willaert, X. Landsheere, J.-M. Flaud, L. Lago, M. Chapuis, P. Roy and L. Manceron, Rev. Sci. Inst., 84 (2013) 093101.

  6. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  7. Of Penguins, Pinnipeds, and Poisons: Anesthesia on Elephant Island.

    PubMed

    Firth, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3.8 mmHg), it would have been feasible to induce anesthesia at a low temperature. However, given the potentially lethal hazards of a light chloroform anesthetic, an adequate and constant depth of anesthesia was essential. The pharmacokinetics of the volatile anesthetic, administered via the open-drop technique in the frigid environment, would have been unfamiliar to the occasional anesthetist. To facilitate vaporization of the chloroform, the team burned penguin skins and seal blubber under overturned lifeboats to increase the ambient temperature from -0.5° to 26.6°C. Chloroform degrades with heat to chlorine and phosgene, but buildup of these poisonous gases did not occur due to venting of the confined space by the stove chimney. The anesthetic went well, and the patient-and all the ship's crew-survived to return home.

  8. Hearts and Minds: Military Recruitment and the High School Battlefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, military recruitment has failed, with rare exceptions, to meet its quotas. The nations's high schools have thus become battlefields for the hearts and minds of young people as recruiters dangle gifts and promises of future benefits before teenagers in an effort to fill the ranks of an all-volunteer military. In this article, the…

  9. Building battlefield sensor environments with the VIEWS Workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Hield, C.W.; Christiansen, J.H.; Simunich, K.L.; Woyna, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The visual Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Simulation (VIEWS) Workbench software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable Army intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) analysts at (UNIX) workstations to conveniently build detailed IEW battlefield scenarios, or ``sensor environments,`` to drive the Army`s high-resolution IEW sensor performance models. Views is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database.

  10. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice.

  11. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  12. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  13. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  14. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  15. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  16. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as a therapeutic target for intervention of respiratory effects and lethality from phosgene.

    PubMed

    Andres, Devon; Keyser, Brian; Benton, Betty; Melber, Ashley; Olivera, Dorian; Holmes, Wesley; Paradiso, Danielle; Anderson, Dana; Ray, Radharaman

    2016-02-26

    Phosgene (CG), a toxic inhalation and industrial hazard, causes bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction and associated pathological effects that could be life threatening. Ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family have been identified to act as specific chemosensory molecules in the respiratory tract in the detection, control of adaptive responses and initiation of detrimental signaling cascades upon exposure to various toxic inhalation hazards (TIH); their activation due to TIH exposure may result in broncho- and vasoconstriction. We studied changes in the regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultures of human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) exposed to CG (16ppm, 8min), using an air/liquid interface exposure system. CG increased [Ca(2+)]i (p<0.05) in both cell types, The CG-induced [Ca(2+)]i was blocked (p<0.05) by two types of TRP channel blockers, SKF-96365, a general TRP channel blocker, and RR, a general TRPV (vanilloid type) blocker, in both BSMC and HPMEC. These effects correlate with the in vivo efficacies of these compounds to protect against lung injury and 24h lethality from whole body CG inhalation exposure in mice (8-10ppm×20min). Thus the TRP channel mechanism appears to be a potential target for intervention in CG toxicity.

  17. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  18. Immunological battlefield in gastric cancer and role of immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minyu; Busuttil, Rita A; Pattison, Sharon; Neeson, Paul J; Boussioutas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Like the wars predating the First World War where human foot soldiers were deemed tools in the battlefield against an enemy, so too are the host immune cells of a patient battling a malignant gastric cancer. Indeed, the tumour microenvironment resembles a battlefield, where the patient’s immune cells are the defence against invading tumour cells. However, the relationship between different immune components of the host response to cancer is more complex than an “us against them” model. Components of the immune system inadvertently work against the interests of the host and become pro-tumourigenic while other components soldier on against the common enemy – the tumour cell. PMID:27605873

  19. Adding Economic Analysis to Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-07

    Adding Economic Analysis to Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield” Clay D. Murray, Jr. Second Lieutenant, Military Intelligence US Army...Reserve 07 March 2008 Today, more than ever, economic analysis must be accounted for in Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB). Army...in all of our fights around the world; economics. Throughout history, economic factors have been the tinder that feeds the flames of war. Economics

  20. Lean methodology: supporting battlefield medical fitness by cutting process waste.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Elaine J

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare has long looked at decreasing risk in communication and patient care processes. Increasing the simplicity in communication and patient care process is a newer concept contained in Lean methodology. Lean is a strategy for achieving improvement in performance through the elimination of steps that use resources without contributing to customer value. This is known as cutting waste or nonvalue added steps. This article outlines how the use of Lean improved a key process that supports battlefield medical fitness.

  1. Sensing of Living Casualties on the Modern Integrated Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    history, blood type , etc. This medical records aspect actually has limited use in the battlefield. but should prove to be useful for subsequent medical...tory, such as blood type , allergies, medications, prescription for glasses, etc., could be stored in the PMC. Some of this information is of value in...given soldier-- programming It with his name, rank, serial number, blood type , 34 past medical history, etc. Ideally this job could be done using any

  2. Topical and effective hemostatic medicines in the battlefield

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin-Juan; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage has been considered as one of the most important factors for causing death on the battlefront. If given timely and efficient hemostatic medicines in pre-hospital setting, patients will obtain more time and chance to wait for medical treatment so as to save their lives. However, there is not a certain answer about which kind of hemostatic drugs can achieve efficacious effect to hemostasis in the battle. This review aims to summarize effective hemostatic medicines applied in battlefield from 41 articles. After analyzing and comparing the efficacy and complications of those products, we conclude that Fibrin Sealant Dressing, Celox and Woundstat are prior to other materials to stanch life-threatening extremity hemorrhage on the battlefield based on present research in the related area. Therefore, in the prevalence of some inevitable battlefield throughout the world, especially in the Middle Eastern countries, our findings suggest for the first time that the effective hemostatic device is not only a key point to link pre-hospital and hospital care but also an essential way to increase the survival rate of battlefront in the foreseeable future. PMID:25784969

  3. Low-cost uncooled IR sensor for battlefield surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Michael A.; Willits, David S.; Lubke, Roger A.; Thiede, Edwin C.

    1993-11-01

    Operation Desert Storm has identified the need for improved battlefield surveillance sensors to see and assess enemy threats under all battlefield conditions, including darkness. Current imaging sensors usually employ visible light cameras, Low Light Level (L3), Image Intensified (I2), or conventional Infrared (IR) cameras to detect and observe hostile forces. However, these sensors have serious deficiencies. The visible TV camera requires well lighted areas and cannot image in darkness. The L3 TV cameras have a difficult time operating in bright sunlight or in total darkness. Image intensifiers require some ambient light and cannot penetrate camouflage or battlefield obscurants. Conventional FLIRS are costly, require an initial cool down period, and need additional power for cooling pump or periodic gas replenishment for long-term operation. Uncooled Focal Plane Array (FPA) LWIR sensors offer advantages over other imaging sensors. Uncooled IR sensors operating from 8 to 12 microns can easily operate in bright sunlight, or total darkness. They use the naturally radiated IR scene energy to create high resolution images and are not dependent on artificial light sources. Their long wave-length of operation also provides better weather penetration. Enemy vehicles and soldiers can easily camouflage themselves in the visible, but cannot hide their thermal emissions from the IR sensor.

  4. Helmet-mounted displays on the modern battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    1999-07-01

    The increasing need for information being demanded by the battlefield commander in order to increase and maintain overall situational awareness in execution of the battle plan has caused a proliferation of devices and methods to be evaluated in Army Warfighting Experiments (AWEs). The results are often technology driving requirements without sufficient consideration given to the requirements of the soldier in battle. We are witnessing an overload of information being imposed on both the commander and the individual soldier, employing equipment capable of providing information from numerous sources across multiple, non-compatible platforms. Displays for this information range from large, power-hungry, big screen TVs to small, rugged computers and head-mounted displays (HMDs) for the individual combat soldier. The former requires large power supplies and is not suitable for a mobile army; the latter offers poor resolution and interferes with the duties of a soldier in combat. While we must continue to explore technology to solve some of the problems on the modern battlefield, we, as developers of technology, cannot lose sight of the purpose of the combat soldier: To wage war on a highly complex and mobile battlefield, whether it be in a country or urban environment; to seek out the enemy, engage him, destroy his ability to fight.

  5. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  6. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  7. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... except Maricopa County Mail donation to: College of Pharmacy, Development Office PO Box 210202, Tucson, AZ 85721 ... gl/xomtXD Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/ Email: boesen at pharmacy ...

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... be adversely affected by toxic or harmful marine algae. + Causative algae implicated, not confirmed. Medical Community Ciguatera Fish Poisoning ... Contact Us | Related Links | Site Map The Harmful Algae Page is supported by a National Oceanic and ...

  9. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wart removers are medicines used to get rid of warts. Warts are small growths on the skin that are caused by a virus. They are usually painless. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows or uses ...

  10. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  11. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  13. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  14. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  15. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from ... Potassium carbonate is found in: Glass Some dishwasher soaps Some ... that is used in fertilizers) Some home permanent-wave solutions ...

  16. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... considered if the person is found near a furnace, car, fire, or in an area that is ... can cause poisoning include: Carbon monoxide gas (from furnaces, gas engines, fires, space heaters) Certain foods Chemicals ...

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... any major gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters are being used ...

  18. Asphalt cement poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  19. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called " ...

  20. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  1. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  2. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  3. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in: Fingernail polish Glues and adhesives Lacquers Octane booster in gasoline Paints Paint thinners Printing and ... anywhere in the United States.This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ...

  4. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Found Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. Symptoms ...

  5. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... that make it hard to swallow. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move them to fresh air.

  6. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic fixatives are chemicals used to develop photographs. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing such chemicals. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an ...

  7. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... For swallowed poison, the person may receive: Endoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ... the nose or mouth into the lungs Bronchoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ...

  8. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  9. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick; Murray, Peter; Nesdale, Annette; Peckler, Brad

    2016-10-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed.

  11. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of ... Centers Celebrates the 55th Annual National Poison Prevention Week › View more Find Your Local Poison Center Poison ...

  12. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the woods. Alternative Names Arisaema triphyllum poisoning; Bog onion poisoning; Brown dragon poisoning; Indian turnip poisoning; Wake ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  13. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  14. 75 FR 69125 - River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... National Park Service River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495 AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notification of a New National Park, River Raisin National Battlefield Park. SUMMARY: As authorized by Section 7003 of the Omnibus Public Land Management...

  15. First far-infrared high resolution analysis of the ν3 band of phosgene 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndao, M.; Perrin, A.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.; Flaud, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The high-resolution absorption spectra of phosgene (Cl2CO) has been recorded at 0.001 cm-1 resolution in the 250-350 cm-1 region by Fourier transform spectroscopy at synchrotron SOLEIL. To reduce the spectral congestion, the spectra have been recorded at low temperature (197 K) using a 93.14 m optical path length cryogenic cell. This enables the first detailed infrared analysis of the ν3 bands of the 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO isotopologues of phosgene. Using a Watson-type Hamiltonian, it was possible to reproduce the upper state rovibrational infrared energy levels, together with, for 35Cl2CO, the available microwave data in the 31 excited state (Yamamoto et al. 1984) to within their experimental accuracy. In this way, accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants together with the following band centers: ν0(ν3, 35Cl2CO) = 301.545622(17) cm-1 and ν0(ν3, 35Cl37ClCO) = 298.199194(81) cm-1, were derived for the ν3 bands of 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO.

  16. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  17. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  18. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  19. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  20. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  1. Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Acres, J.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning after ingestion of mussels occurred in October 1977 in Nova Scotia. The incidence of this type of poisoning is relatively high among persons living on the coast of the Bay of Fundy and the estuary of the St. Lawrence River. The causative organism, Gonyaulax tamarensis, elaborates an endotoxin, saxitoxin, that blocks neuromuscular transmission in the motor axon and muscle membrane while leaving the end-plate unaffected; it also suppresses conduction in the atrioventricular node and inhibits the respiratory centre. The clinical manifestations are unique and include numbness of the lips, tongue and fingertips within minutes of ingestion of the poisoned shellfish, then numbness of the legs, arms and neck, with general muscular incoordination, and finally respiratory distress and muscular paralysis. Treatment is symptomatic and prevention can only occur by public education. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:570450

  2. Water resources management plan, Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Moberg, Roger M.; Allen, Kristen G.; Vana-Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    Richmond National Battlefield Park (Richmond NBP) consists of 1,366 acres in 11 geographically separate units that are located primarily east, northeast, and southeast of the city of Richmond, Virginia. This Water Resources Management Plan addresses nine of the units: Beaver Dam Creek, Chickahominy Bluff, Cold Harbor (including the Garthright House), Drewry’s Bluff, Fort Harrison, Gaines’ Mill, and Glendale and Malvern Hill. The units are in the Atlantic Coastal Plain Physiographic Province between the James and York rivers. The small streams that drain each of the units are tributaries of either the Chickahominy River or James River and ultimately contribute to the Chesapeake Bay.

  3. BCIS digital data link as part of the digitized battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynesworth, Linnie M.

    1996-06-01

    As proven in Desert Storm, the confusion of a rapidly moving air-land battle involving multinational forces is a situational awareness (SA) nightmare. Current methods of communication require traversing layers of networking or searching for frequencies to reach users in different outfits, which is time consuming and frustrating. The digital data link increases realtime SA in the digitized battlefield by providing mechanized platoons with a wireless horizontal local area network SA data passing capability. This increased real-time SA data acts both as a force multiplier and helps reduce the incidence of fratricide.

  4. Analysis of Medical Events among Battlefield Airmen Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    disorders of the joint , most of which were joint pain of the lower leg. The largest subcategory within “injury and poisoning” was “sprains and...strains of joints and adjacent muscles,” most of which were of the knee/leg. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Special operations forces, battlefield airmen, tech...disorders of the joint , most of which were joint pain of the lower leg. The largest subcategory within “injury and poisoning” was “sprains and strains

  5. [Poisoning by household products].

    PubMed

    Lambert, H; Manel, J; Gabrion, I

    2000-02-15

    Caustic products are responsible for the most serious cases of poisoning, which are always emergency cases. Application of current intervention procedures has decreased both morbidity and mortality. Water-diluted bleach, the ingestion of which remains extremely frequent, is a moderate irritant rather than a caustic product. Emission of gas produced when mixing bleach with other agents can be responsible for choking gas poisoning. Anionic and nonionic detergents are mostly dangerous because of their foam-producing properties. Mercury vapours and methanol are other potentially hazardous products.

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jorge A

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of death as a result of unintentional poisoning in the United States. CO toxicity is the result of a combination of tissue hypoxia-ischemia secondary to carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct CO-mediated damage at a cellular level. Presenting symptoms are mostly nonspecific and depend on the duration of exposure and levels of CO. Diagnosis is made by prompt measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels. Treatment consists of the patient's removal from the source of exposure and the immediate administration of 100% supplemental oxygen in addition to aggressive supportive measures. The use of hyperbaric oxygen is controversial.

  7. Mushrooms and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varma, Amit; Gaur, K J B S; Bhatia, Payal

    2011-11-01

    The mushrooms are probably one of the oldest consumption of mankind having mythological and spiritual significance apart from being a great delicacy. Its poisoning is a common yet poorly recognised. There are more than 2000 varieties which are edible, and nearly 80 varieties are non-edible (or poisonous) type. Not only they resemble some of the edible types, they even grow long with them. Most of the toxic events go unnoticed, yet, sometimes it may be life threatening as some mushrooms are one of the most toxic fungi known to manking. Awareness is pobably the only prevention.

  8. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  9. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  10. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  11. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  12. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  13. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... that make it hard to swallow. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  14. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  15. Metal polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  16. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxide may be found in some: Button batteries (batteries containing mercury are no longer sold in the United States) Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: This list may ...

  17. Battlefield innovation: a case-study of remote sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orson, Jay A.; Hague, Tyler N.

    2007-10-01

    Evolving threats encountered by coalition forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom drive the need for innovations in airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities. In many cases, disruptive capabilities are created by linking existing technologies and new radical technologies in a novel way. Some of the radical technologies used in achieving these disruptive capabilities are existing prototypes or one-of-a-kind systems that are thrust into the field to quickly react to emerging threats. Horned Owl is one such rapidly developed innovative technical solution designed to meet immediate battlefield needs. This paper focuses on two key areas of this initiative. The first is the innovation champion establishing a collaborative environment which fosters creativity and allows the project to mature the disruptive capability. The second is the practical implication, or challenges of deploying experimental systems in a battlefield environment. Discussions of these two areas provide valuable lessons to guide future innovation champions when presented with the dual task of balancing system maturation with meeting operational demand. Contents of this paper are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed by the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, or the Department of the Air Force.

  18. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride

  19. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  20. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales.

  1. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    challenging position as professor ordinarius at the Depart- ment of Anaesthesiology . I pioneered from scratch in this position until 2009. My academic... experience in the Paris Fire Brigade. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006; 44 (Suppl 1):37 44. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Kurt Anseeuwa*, Nicolas Delvaub...hydro- xocobalamin higher than 150 mg/kg. Given the theoretically synergistic action and given the experience in the treatment of the toxicity of

  2. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  3. Childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Linakis, J G

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been referred to as the most important environmental health hazard for children in New England. Medical professionals are in a unique position to perform a number of interventions that could make a lasting impact. First, physicians and nurses, particularly in the areas of pediatrics and family medicine, can provide anticipatory guidance to all families with young children. Lead poisoning, in contrast to long held beliefs, is an affliction that affects all socioeconomic groups. Parents should thus be informed regarding sources of lead, including occupational and hobby sources, and basic nutritional and abatement information should be provided. Second, health care workers should encourage lead screening in appropriately aged children at recommended intervals based on known risk factors. Once a blood lead concentration greater than 20[symbol: see text]g/dl has been obtained in a child, treatment or referral to an established lead clinic should be undertaken in a timely fashion. For children with low or moderate lead levels, many pediatricians or family physicians prefer to supervise their patients' treatment, including chelation therapy. For children with higher levels or in instances when the health care professional elects to refer, there are several lead clinics throughout New England whose clinicians are experienced in the treatment of childhood lead poisoning. Finally the medical profession needs to publicly recognize, as child advocates, that lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States and that it is entirely preventable. Fortunately, after many years and much hard work, Rhode Island finally has laws that start to deal with the lead problem in an appropriately aggressive fashion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management.

  5. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  6. [Acute zincteral oral poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kamenczak, A; Pokorska, M; Wołek, E; Kobyłecka, K

    Zinc vapour poisoning by inhalation in the form of zinc fever is more frequent than oral zinc product poisoning, the product used in therapy. The main aim of the study was the evaluation of clinical manifestation present after Zincteral ingestion as well as attempt to find the relationship between the presence and aggravation of the clinical manifestation and zinc level in the blood. The course of acute clinical suicidal poisoning by ingestion of Zincteral 50 tablets (10.0 g) and 100 tablets (20.0 g) is presented. The clinical picture revealed the following symptoms and signs: tachycardia, changes of arterial BP, vascular shock; dyspeptic nausea, vomiting cramps in abdominal region, diarrhoea. Damage of the parenchymatous organs, mainly liver was evident. In pregnant woman (9-week-pregnancy) on the 12-th day of her stay in the Clinic complete miscarriage took place accompanied by haemorrhage from reproductive organs. The kind and exacerbation of the clinical manifestations in relation to the zinc level in body fluid were analysed.

  7. Cricothyroidotomy bottom-up training review: battlefield lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Cailteux-Zevallos, Barbara; Kotora, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Challenges with surgical cricothyroidotomy on the battlefield can be attributed to limited frequency of use, procedure unfamiliarity, and limited knowledge base of anatomical landmarks of which is further heighten in the tactical environment. The objective was to identify ways to enhance the cricothyroidotomy training to minimize potential preventable procedural errors. A training review was conducted to determine the gaps in the cricothyroidotomy training in a 4-day Tactical Combat Casualty Care course at the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth. An ad hoc Working Group team identified five specific gap areas in the cricothyroidotomy training: (1) limited gross airway anatomy review; (2) lack of "hands-on" human laryngeal anatomy; (3) nonstandardized step-by-step surgical incision skill procedure; (4) inferior standards for anatomically correct cricothyroid mannequins; (5) lack of standardized refresher training frequency. Specific training enhancements are recommended across each day in the classroom, simulation laboratory, and field exercise.

  8. Improvements of cyberspace and effects to the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedıklı, Münir

    2014-06-01

    Wars previously being executed at land and sea have also become applicable in air and space due to the advancements of aircraft and satellite systems. Rapid improvements in information technologies have triggered the concept of cyberspace which is considered as the fifth dimension of war. While transferring information quickly from physical area to electronic/digital area, cyberspace has caused to emerge a lot of threats and methods like cyber-attack, cyber-crime, cyber war which are spreading too rapidly. Individuals, institutions and establishments have begun to take their own cyber security precautions to cope with these threats. This study gives information about the concepts and advances on cyberspace in order to raise comprehensive awareness. The study also focuses on the effects of these improvements in the battlefield, and analyzes them.

  9. 7000 miles and 7 days from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Margaret M

    2010-01-01

    Critically injured combat casualties are rapidly evacuated from the battlefield, and within hours of their injuries they begin a 7000-mile journey home, often arriving in the United States within 7 days. National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is a major facility for wounded warrior care in the Military Health System. Throughout the facility, the staff from a variety of disciplines and all military services provides care for military personnel with injuries and illnesses, with the goal of optimizing recovery and quality of life. The foundational evidence for select aspects of this care is discussed. Innovations in training and care delivery include the Air Force Nurse Corps' Critical Care Fellowship, the new inpatient Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, and the National Intrepid Center for Excellence for Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health. The future of the Medical Center includes a new name, expanded staff, and newly constructed space by Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure activities.

  10. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Was it poisoning?

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J

    The aim of post-mortem toxicology is to help establish the role that drugs or other poisons played in a death, or in events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected then the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that may be required is confirmation of the agents involved. If the cause of death is not immediately obvious, however, then suspicion of possible poisoning is of course crucial. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, e.g. femoral, ideally after proximal ligation) before opening the body, minimises the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. The site of blood sampling should always be recorded. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor) may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The availability of ante-mortem specimens should not preclude post-mortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of post-mortem toxicology must take into account what is known of the clinical pharmacology, including pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the agent(s) in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the possible mechanism(s) of exposure, and other factors such as the sample(s) analysed and the analytical methods used. It was thought that concentrations of poisons measured in blood obtained at autopsy reflected the situation peri-mortem. However, we now know that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater with centrally-acting drugs such as clozapine with large volumes of distribution, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly. Better training in analytical toxicology is needed for pathologists and others who may be called upon to interpret toxicological data for the Courts. Undue reliance on

  12. Paraquat Poisoning: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Veer Bahadur; Meena, Babu Lal; Gaur, Subhash; Singla, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is commonly used herbicide by farmers in North West Rajasthan. Despite its easy availability, poisoning of its not common. Fatal dose of paraquat is so small that >10 ml poison can damage lungs permanently. Diagnosis is often difficult without proper history, absence of specific clinical feature and lack of diagnostic test. Inhalation exposures represent one of the most important routes of poisoning. We are reporting a case of inhaled paraquat poisoning with complication of irreversible acute kidney, liver and lung injury. PMID:27042505

  13. The Analysis of Information Exchange Capability for Battlefield Networks Using M&S Techniques of the NetSPIN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    battlefield network, which are modeled and simulated using the OPNET . In this paper, we suggest the analysis method of information exchange capability for...battlefield network, which are modeled and simulated using the OPNET . In this paper, we suggest the analysis method of information exchange capability...SPIDER, ATCIS, OPNET 1. INTRODUCTION For the NCW (Network Centric Warfare) that networks of a battlefield are interconnected in real time, the

  14. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  15. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  16. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

  17. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  18. Juniper tar poisoning.

    PubMed

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  19. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  20. Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Anger, F; Paysant, F; Brousse, F; Le Normand, I; Develay, P; Gaillard, Y; Baert, A; Le Gueut, M A; Pepin, G; Anger, J P

    2000-03-01

    A 39-year-old man committed suicide by ingestion of aluminum phosphide, a potent mole pesticide, which was available at the victim's workplace. The judicial authority ordered an autopsy, which ruled out any other cause of death. The victim was discovered 10 days after the ingestion of the pesticide. When aluminum phosphide comes into contact with humidity, it releases large quantities of hydrogen phosphine (PH3), a very toxic gas. Macroscopic examination during the autopsy revealed a very important asphyxia syndrome with major visceral congestion. Blood, urine, liver, kidney, adrenal, and heart samples were analyzed. Phosphine gas was absent in the blood and urine but present in the brain (94 mL/g), the liver (24 mL/g), and the kidneys (41 mL/g). High levels of phosphorus were found in the blood (76.3 mg/L) and liver (8.22 mg/g). Aluminum concentrations were very high in the blood (1.54 mg/L), brain (36 microg/g), and liver (75 microg/g) compared to the usual published values. Microscopic examination revealed congestion of all the organs studied and obvious asphyxia lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma. All these results confirmed a diagnosis of poisoning by aluminum phosphide. This report points out that this type of poisoning is rare and that hydrogen phosphine is very toxic. The phosphorus and aluminum concentrations observed and their distribution in the different viscera are discussed in relation to data in the literature.

  1. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  2. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons".

  3. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  4. American Observers on the Battlefields of the Western Front and the Tactical Evolution of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    battlefields of the Western Front. Immersed in an environment of rapidly evolving tactical doctrine, the battlefield observers had the potential to postively ...BATTLEFIELDS OF THE WESTERN FRONT. IMMERSED IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF RAPIDLY EVOLVING TACTICAL DOCTRINE, THE BATTLEFIELD OBSERVERS HAD THE POTENTIAL TO POSTIVELY ...two reasons. First, most field artillery was unable to damage reinforced concrete fortifications deep in the ground. Second, defense in depth allow

  5. Saving Lives on the Battlefield: A Joint Trauma System Review of Pre-Hospital Trauma Care in Combined Joint Operating Area - Afghanistan (CJOA-A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    What makes military medicine unique? 2. Why do military medical providers exist? 3. What is the leading cause of death on the battlefield? 4. Where do...the advocate for medics and pre-hospital battlefield trauma care? 13. Who owns battlefield medicine ? Unclassified 3 Unclassified SECTION II. EXECUTIVE...customized for use on the battlefield. [Maughon JS. An inquiry into the nature of wounds resulting in killed in action in Vietnam. Military Medicine 1970; 135

  6. The development of the norm against the use of poison: what literature tells us.

    PubMed

    Moon, John Ellis van Courtland

    2008-03-01

    The use of chemical and biological weapons on the battlefield is considered by most commentators--and by international law--as more abhorrent than the use of nearly all other weapons, including ones meant either to kill secretly or to kill terribly, as do fire or burial alive. I ask why this is so. I explore this question through the study of imagery patterns in Western literature and campaigns against food contamination and environmental pollution. I find that the norm against chemical and biological weapons builds upon a taboo against poisons, a prohibition widely accepted in military manuals as distinguishing soldierly conduct from criminal conduct, especially those forms of conduct made criminal by the employment of treachery, invisibility, and transformation.

  7. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  8. Revolutionary optical sensor for physiological monitoring in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Stuart A.; Sriram, Sriram; Pollick, Andrea; Marsh, John

    2004-09-01

    SRICO has developed a revolutionary approach to physiological status monitoring using state-of-the-art optical chip technology. The company"s patent pending Photrode is a photonic electrode that uses unique optical voltage sensing technology to measure and monitor electrophysiological parameters. The optical-based monitoring system enables dry-contact measurements of EEG and ECG signals that require no surface preparation or conductive gel and non-contact measurements of ECG signals through the clothing. The Photrode applies high performance optical integrated circuit technology, that has been successfully implemented in military & commercial aerospace, missile, and communications applications for sensing and signal transmission. SRICO"s award winning Photrode represents a new paradigm for the measurement of biopotentials in a reliable, convenient, and non-intrusive manner. Photrode technology has significant applications on the battlefield for rapid triage to determine the brain dead from those with viable brain function. An ECG may be obtained over the clothing without any direct skin contact. Such applications would enable the combat medic to receive timely medical information and to make important decisions regarding identification, location, triage priority and treatment of casualties. Other applications for the Photrode include anesthesia awareness monitoring, sleep medicine, mobile medical monitoring for space flight, emergency patient care, functional magnetic resonance imaging, various biopotential signal acquisition (EMG, EOG), and routine neuro and cardio diagnostics.

  9. Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Delahaye, Arnaud; Goldgran-Tolédano, Dany; Baud, Frédéric J

    2003-04-01

    Cyanide poisoning may result from different exposures: residential fires, industrial accidents, drug and plant intoxication. Clinical features include coma, respiratory arrest and cardiovascular collapse. The biological hallmark is lactic acidosis. A plasma lactate concentration > or = 10 mmol/L in fire victims without severe burns and > or = 8 mmol/L in pure cyanide poisoned patients is a sensitive and specific indicator of cyanide intoxication. Many antidotes are available and efficient. However, therapeutic strategies are still debated. Our objective was to compare conventional treatments to hydroxocobalamin. This article reviews the literature on cyanide poisoning treatment. Conventional treatment of cyanide poisoning includes decontamination, supportive and specific treatment. Decontamination should be adapted to the route of poisoning and never postpone supportive treatment. Basic life support includes immediate administration of high flow of oxygen, airway protection and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Advanced life support includes mechanical ventilation, catecholamine and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Supportive treatment is efficient but does not modify the time course or the body burden of cyanide. Numerous antidotes are available. Oxygen counteracts efficiently cyanide action at the mitochondrial level. Sodium thiosulfate, methemoglobin forming agents and cobalt compounds act efficiently by complexing or transforming cyanide into non-toxic stable derivatives. However, regarding the main clinical condition of cyanide poisoning, i.e. smoke inhalation, we should take into account not only the efficiency of antidotes but also their safety. Sodium thiosulfate is both efficient and safe, but acts with delay. Methemoglobin-forming agents are potent, but due to the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, they impair tissue delivery of oxygen. Experimental data showed increased mortality in carbon monoxide- and cyanide-poisoned rats treated with these

  10. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems.

  11. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  12. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  13. First far-infrared high resolution analysis of the ν6 band of phosgene 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaud, J.-M.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Lafferty, W. J.; Manceron, L.; Ndao, M.

    2016-08-01

    A Fourier transform spectrum of phosgene (Cl2CO) has been recorded in the 22.5 μm spectral region at a resolution of 0.00102 cm-1 using a Bruker IFS125HR spectrometer coupled to synchrotron radiation leading to the observation of the ν6 vibrational bands of the two isotopologues 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO. The corresponding upper state ro-vibrational levels were fit using Watson-type Hamiltonians. In this way it was possible to reproduce the upper state ro-vibrational levels to within the experimental uncertainty i.e. ∼0.30 × 10-3 cm-1. Very accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were derived from the fit together with the following band centers: ν0(ν6,35Cl2CO) = 443.172062(15) cm-1, ν0(ν6,35Cl37ClCO) = 440.534956(17) cm-1.

  14. High-resolution analysis of the ν1 and ν5 bands of phosgene 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwabia Tchana, F.; Lafferty, W. J.; Flaud, J.-M.; Manceron, L.; Ndao, M.

    2015-11-01

    Fourier transform spectra of phosgene (Cl2CO) have been recorded in the 11.75 and 5.47 μm spectral regions using a Bruker IFS125HR spectrometer at resolutions of 0.00102 and 0.0015 cm-1, respectively, leading to the observation of the ν5 and ν1 vibrational bands of the two isotopologues 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO. The corresponding upper state ro-vibrational levels were fit using Watson-type Hamiltonians and/or a Hamiltonian matrix accounting for resonance effects when necessary. In this way, it was possible to reproduce the upper state ro-vibrational levels to within the experimental accuracy, i.e. ∼0.17 × 10-3 cm-1. Very accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were derived from the fit together with the following band centres: ν0(ν5, 35Cl2CO) = 851.012737(20) cm-1, ν0(ν5, 35Cl37ClCO) = 849.995451(90) cm-1, ν0(ν2 + ν3, 35Cl37ClCO) = 864.42370(50) cm-1, ν0(ν1, 35Cl2CO) = 1828.202514(40) cm-1 and ν0(ν1, 35Cl37ClCO) = 1827.246444(20) cm-1.

  15. The treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T F

    2004-03-01

    Cyanide has gained historical notoriety as a poison used with intent to cause fatality. Its occurrence in industry is confined to a small number of uses in a relatively narrow range of industries, including the manufacture of Perspex and nylon and in electroplating. With proper controls in these settings, episodes of poisoning are extremely rare. However, because of the potential for a fatal outcome, procedures for the treatment of acute poisoning are essential. Antidotes include methaemoglobin generators, direct binding agents and sulphur donors, but there is a lack of international consensus about the treatment of choice. This article reviews the mechanisms and treatment of cyanide intoxication and emphasizes the importance of having agreed local procedures for the emergency treatment of poisoning.

  16. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  17. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ...

  18. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  19. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  2. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  3. Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

    1965-01-01

    Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice. PMID:5831217

  4. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  5. Unit Ministry Team Religious Support to Casualties on the Airland Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-28

    airplane crash on 25 September 1978, Dr. Alan Davidson, a clinical end forensic psychologist, discovered that many attending veteran police officers had...Medicine (Sanitation) Preventive Medicine ( Entomology ) Division Medical Battalions Medical Command UNIT MDHSISY TEAM OBGAHIZATKH Unit Ministry...battlefield. In the aftermath of the San Diego airplane crash on 25 September 1978, Dr. Alan Davidson, a clinical and forensic psychologist, discovered

  6. Epidemiology of Modern Battlefield Colorectal Trauma: A Review of 977 Coalition Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology of modern battlefield colorectal trauma: A review of 977 coalition casualties Sean C. Glasgow, MD, Scott R. Steele, MD, James E. Duncan...management of colon and rectal injuries in the forward areas. Ann Surg. 1945;122:398Y407. 2. Welling DR, Hutton JE, Minken SL, Place RJ, Burris DG

  7. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  8. High Power Microwaves on the Future Battlefield: Implications for U.S. Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HIGH POWER MICROWAVES ON THE FUTURE BATTLEFIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. DEFENSE by Robert J. Capozzella...2 HPM Weapons’ Capabilities, Today and in the Future...into its greatest liability as recent advances in the area of high power microwave (HPM) weapons are garnering interest around the world. Current

  9. Ensuring Good Medicine in Bad Places: Utilization of Forward Surgical Teams on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    BATTLEFIELD “He who wishes to be a surgeon should go to war”- Hippocrates 1 The mission of the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) is to conserve the fighting...new technologies, the AMEDD will continue to project medical power into the 21 st Century. Endnotes 1 Hippocrates , In Medical Wit and Wisdom, Jess M

  10. Exploring Diversity at GCSE: Making a First World War Battlefields Visit Meaningful to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Joanne; Guiney, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Having already reflected on ways of improving their students' understanding of historical diversity at Key Stage 3, Joanne Philpott and Daniel Guiney set themselves the challenge of extending this to post-14 students by means of fieldwork activities at First World War battlefields sites. In addition, they wanted to link the study of past diversity…

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on the Future Tactical Battlefield - Are UAVs and Essential Joint Force Multiplier?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-12

    MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Major Roald L. MOgoniale Title of Monograph: Untanned Aerial Vj!ji.UAVs) on the Future Tactical Battlefield - Are UAVa an Essential...New York: Hill and Wang , 1984. Lambeth, Benjamin S. Moscow’s Lessons Learned from the 1982 Lebanon Air War. Santa Monica, CA.: Rand Corporation, 1984

  12. Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis Caused by Battlefield Injuries: The Primary Source of Disability in Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    results for wounded warriors from a previously described cohort were reviewed to identify permanently disabling conditions and whether the conditions...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the... reviewed to identify permanently disabling conditions and whether the conditions were preexisting or caused by battlefield injury. Arthritis was the most

  13. Implementation and Dissemination of a Military Trauma System: Utilizing Medical Lessons Learned from the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    instituted as standards of care within the theater trauma system, including deep venous thrombosis ( DVT ) prophylaxis, hypothermia prevention , and...for massive transfusion / damage control resuscitation, burn care, hypothermia prevention and management, wound and amputation management have been...advances in numerous components of battlefield injury care. PREVENTION Since the implementation of the military trauma system, the effect of new

  14. [Accidental poisoning in the home].

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J

    1989-09-25

    During a period of one year, a total of 79 cases of accidental poisoning were registered prospectively in the County Hospital in Aarhus and the City Hospital in Randers. The female/male ratio was 1/1.5. The incidence in children aged 0-14 years of age was 13 per 10,000. In Denmark as a whole, a total of 1,300 cases of accidental poisoning were estimated to occur during a period of one year. Sixty-four (81%) of the accidents occurred in small children aged 0-4 years. Twenty-five patients (32%) were hospitalized. The average duration of hospitalization was 2.4 days (1-4 days) and 84% of the inpatients were aged 0-4 years. The survey revealed that 27 case of accidental poisoning were due to medicine, 20 to organic solvents, eight to chemicals, 22 to poison and two to asphyxiation. It is concluded that the special legal regulations about packing and labelling are not sufficient when storage of the potential poison is not safe enough.

  15. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  16. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the sharing features ... Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ...

  17. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident.

  19. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  1. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  2. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  3. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  4. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  5. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  6. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

  7. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  8. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  9. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  10. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  11. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  12. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  13. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  14. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  15. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  16. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  17. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  18. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  19. Parathion Poisoning from Flannelette Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L. S.; Warner, D. L.; Parker, J. E.; Bluman, N.; Page, B. D.

    1965-01-01

    Two small boys were admitted to the Lions Gate Hospital in coma and acute respiratory distress. They improved and the first boy was sent home; after two nights he was back in hospital in a worsened state. Poisoning with organic phosphate was suspected, and after investigation some flannelette sheets were taken from his home for testing. They proved to have been contaminated with parathion (“nerve gas”) in the hold of a ship sailing from Antwerp to Vancouver; the parathion had been offloaded in California. The remainder of the sheets were traced. The symptomatology and treatment of organic phosphate ester poisoning and the chemical testing of parathion are discussed. PMID:14272498

  20. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries.

  1. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  2. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    PubMed

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  3. Treatment of the Poisoned Child

    PubMed Central

    Reid, David H. S.

    1970-01-01

    Syrup of ipecac has measurable advantages over gastric lavage in evacuating the stomach of children with accidental poisoning, in terms of safety, effectiveness, and rapidity of action. The average period for action with ipecac is likely to be about 17 minutes, or 82 minutes, depending on whether the child is treated at home or in hospital. In contrast, the mean delay to completion of gastric lavage is estimated at 126 minutes, and this procedure has little place in the treatment of the child with poisoning. PMID:4393311

  4. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  5. Neuropsychic Disorders in Trichlorfon Poisoning,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-21

    timidity and obsessive fears. Attention was drawn to the persistence of autonomic disorders in these patients. Complaints of impotence were not...I ADAO~g939 OREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSDN AFS 0DH F/G 6/20 E NUR OPSY(CHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHL ORFON POISONING,(U) IAUG 7 9 V I BAR A 3AS...SHEET DTIC OCT79 70A oc’r 7, ’K FTD-ID (RS)T-1179-79 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION NEUROPSYCHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHLORFON POISONING by 7,- I. Barabash

  6. Multifunctional drugs as novel antidotes for organophosphates' poisoning.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Ben Avi; Raveh, Lily

    2011-12-18

    Some organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are nerve agents that continue to concern military personnel and civilians as potential battlefield and terrorist threats. Additionally, OPs are used in agriculture where they are associated with numerous cases of intentional and accidental misuse. These toxicants induce an array of deleterious effects including respiratory distress, convulsions and ultimately death. A mechanism involving a rapid and potent inhibition of peripheral and central cholinesterases leading to a massive buildup of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts was suggested as the underlying trigger of the toxic events. Indeed, therapy comprised of an acetylcholinesterase reactivator (i.e., oxime) and a cholinergic antagonist (e.g., atropine) is the accepted major paradigm for protection. This approach yields a remarkable survival rate but fails to prevent neurological and behavioral deficits. Extensive research revealed a complex picture consisting of an early activation of several neurotransmitter systems, in which the glutamatergic plays a pivotal role., Data accumulated in recent years support the concept that multi-targeting of pathways including glutamatergic and cholinergic circuits is required for an effective treatment. Drugs that demonstrate the ability to interact with several systems (e.g., caramiphen) were found to afford a superior protection against OPs as compared to specific antimuscarinic ligands (e.g., scopolamine). Compounds that potently block muscarinic receptors, interact with the NMDA ion channel and in addition are able to modulate σ(1) sites and/or GABAergic transmission seem to represent the emerging backbone for novel antidotes against OP poisoning. Several multifunctional drugs are already used for complex diseases e.g., cancer and depression.

  7. The Battlefield Health and Trauma Research Institute Scientific Ethics Committee: An Evolving Model for Fostering a Culture of Integrity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    The Battlefield Health and Trauma Research Institute Scientific Ethics Committee: An evolving model for fostering a culture of integrity Kathy L...which he acted as a paid consultant.4 The article that launched the concern that the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine causes autism has re- cently...The Battlefield Health and Trauma Research Institute Scientific Ethics Committee: An evolving model for fostering a culture of integrity 5a. CONTRACT

  8. The Dose Makes the Poison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottoboni, Alice

    1992-01-01

    A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

  9. Antifreeze poisoning: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofei; Lu, Guoyu; Qi, Benquan; Wang, Ran; Guo, Daohua; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    The current study reported the case of a 35-year-old male that presented with antifreeze poisoning. The clinical manifestations, laboratory investigations and treatments were analyzed, and the obtained results were compared with those in previous reports. Subsequent to consuming antifreeze, the patient mainly presented nausea and agitation, without disturbance of consciousness. Laboratory investigations indicated severe metabolic acidosis, renal dysfunction and hyperkalemia. The patient underwent hemodialysis and his condition was significantly improved on the day of admission. Renal function gradually deteriorated, but was eventually improved due to treatment, including hemodialysis, mannitol for catharsis, furosemide for diuresis, Xuebijing for the removal of blood stasis and detoxication, and reduced glutathione for the protection of major organs. The patient was discharged 1 month after hospital admission. In conclusion, the significance and clinical manifestations of antifreeze poisoning should be identified in clinical practice, and active hemodialysis should be provided. The aim of the current study was to summarize the clinical manifestations and treatments of patients with antifreeze poisoning, and to advance the recognition of antifreeze poisoning. PMID:28352354

  10. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  11. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  12. The Kidney in Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Radošević, Zdenko; Šarić, Marko; Beritić, Tihomil; Knežević, Jelica

    1961-01-01

    Kidney damage due to lead is still an interesting problem of industrial toxicology. In spite of abundant literature data, much still remains to be explained. There are controversial opinions, not only on the type of renal lesions due to lead, but also on whether lead affects the kidney at all. In this paper our clinical observations on the effect of lead upon the kidney in 53 patients suffering from lead poisoning are presented. In 44 patients (40 men and four women) lead poisoning was due to occupation, and in nine (five men and four women) to the use of lead-glazed pottery. The length of exposure varied from two months to 35 years. In all cases the diagnosis of lead poisoning was made clinically and confirmed by laboratory tests. Permanent changes in the form of chronic nephropathy were observed in only two patients. These were the two cases in which exposure to lead was the longest and most intense. Twenty-three patients showed functional renal lesions tending to normalize. In addition to the cases of organic nephropathy, blood pressure was persistently raised in one further patient; in two patients a raised blood pressure was observed only in the acute stage of poisoning. On the basis of these findings we consider that lead intoxication can cause renal lesions. These lesions are for the most part functional and temporary. In cases of long and severe exposure and repeated lead intoxication, organic renal lesions seem possible. The disturbances of renal function observed in this study may be ascribed to disordered intrarenal circulation, due to the spastic effect of lead on intrarenal blood vessels, and to a direct toxic or indirect hypoxic effect of lead on the tubules. When investigating renal function, we have observed that the timing of individual tests is of paramount importance. Some lesions are subject to changes in the natural course of lead poisoning, and unless this is borne in mind, apparently contradictory results may be obtained. PMID:13739013

  13. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Jeys, T. H.

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectra of ammonia (NH3), chlorine (Cl2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), phosgene (COCl2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) toxic gases have been measured in the fingerprint region 400-1400 cm-1. A relatively compact (<2'x2'x2'), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double-pass laser and double-sided collection was used for these measurements. Two Raman modes are observed at 934 and 967 cm-1 in NH3. Three Raman modes are observed in Cl2 at 554, 547, and 539 cm-1, which are due to the 35/35 35/37, and 37/37 Cl isotopes, respectively. Raman modes are observed at 870, 570, and 1151 cm-1 in H2S, COCl2, and SO2, respectively. Values of 3.68 ± 0.26x10-32 cm2/sr (3.68 ± 0.26x10-36 m2/sr), 1.37 ± 0.10x10-30 cm2/sr (1.37 ± 0.10x10-34 m2/sr), 3.25 ± 0.23x10-31 cm2/sr (3.25 ± 0.23x10-35 m2/sr), 1.63 ± 0.14x10-30 cm2/sr (1.63 ± 0.14x10-34 m2/sr), and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-30 cm2/sr (and 3.08 ± 0.22x10-34 m2/sr) were determined for the differential Raman cross section of the 967 cm-1 mode of NH3, sum of the 554, 547, and 539 cm-1 modes of Cl2, 870 cm-1 mode of H2S, 570 cm-1 mode of COCl2, and 1151 cm-1 mode of SO2, respectively, using the differential Raman cross section of 3.56 ± 0.14x10-31 cm2/sr (3.56 ± 0.14x10-35 m2/sr) for the 1285 cm-1 mode of CO2 as the reference.

  14. Army Battlefield Distribution Through the Lens of OIF: Logical Failures and the Way Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    without adequate regard for examining the battlefield effectiveness of such a business-oriented model . Clausewitz wrote in Book Two, Chapter One of...make the systems in use more efficient on the model of industry, unfortunately a more efficient system served only to treat a symptom of the underlying...transportation network ( GTN ) and create a single data warehouse that operational and tactical distribution managers will be able to use in order to meet

  15. Training Requirements for the Battlefield Management System (BMS): A preliminary Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    C) 0C Ls4 00. D C TOOT $LECTE9 Research Product 87-18 7 Training Requirements for the Battlefield Management System (BMS): A Preliminary Analysis ARI...FipId Unit at Fort Knox, Kentucky Training Research Laboratory May 1987 __ __87 10 8 019 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE for the BEHAVIORAL and SOCIAL ...SCIENCES Approved for public r6eese: distribuatiou enied. U. S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency

  16. Army Direct Fire Accuracy: Precision and Its Effects on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    away ( Loeb 2003). This capability, which provides the tanker a fifty power zoom to see this extended range, is 42 critical to today’s complex...battlefield mixed with enemy and civilian vehicles ( Loeb 2003). Tanks commanders have the option of destroying the target itself, at a new effective range... Loeb 2003). This combination of units supports the military’s desire to enforce more combined arms and joint participation in order to maximize

  17. Commemoration and Preservation: An Administrative History of Big Hole National Battlefield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catton, Theodore; Hubber, Ann

    Few places in the west are as evocative of the tragic story of the Indian Wars as Big Hole (Montana) National Battlefield. The site memorializes the bravery of the Nez Perce and U.S. soldiers and volunteers who fought there during the epic flight of the Nez Perce in 1877. Big Hole preserves the scene of one of the most famous battles of the Indian…

  18. Rapid Extremity Pain Relief by Battlefield Acupuncture after Orthopedic Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-21

    FINAL REPORT Project Title: Rapid Extremity Pain Relief by Battlefield Acupuncture after Orthopedic Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial...surgeries. These invasive procedures result in swelling and pain . The side effects of the pain medications are well known and a decrease in their use could...relieving acute extremity pain , reducing medication use, decreasing time to full ambulation and improving quality of life than placebo acupuncture or

  19. The Proliferation of Contractors on the Battlefield a Changing Dynamic that Necessitates a Strategic Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    use of contractors on the battlefield. The basic premise focuses on the notion that our weapons and equipment are becoming increasingly more complex...initiative will continue to expand the privatization of basic core competencies that are vital to success in forward regional defense options. Contractors... technique DOD routinely employs is to reduce our logistics footprint. Implied in this procedure is the movement of logistics functions out of our rear areas

  20. Controlling the Beast Within. The Key to Success on 21st-Century Battlefields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    little to do with expensive information technology , even less to do with knowing the exact locations of friendly units, and nothing at all to do with...they need to thrive. Thus, as surreal as it sometimes seems to those of us who served in the 1990s, battlefield technology , armored vehicles...information technology improves. In the future, even conventional wars—at least if these wars are to be sustained by mature democracies like the

  1. Simulation in Combined Arms Training: A Platoon-Level Battlefield Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    the ability of each player to see the entire battlefield (Lampton, 1985; Bessemer & Lampton, 1985). Since existing tactical simulations are at the...operation, vehicle commanders complete a voice enrollment process during which they speak the words and phrases necessary to operate the vehicle...Voice Terminal is a hardware and software system that recognizes and processes , but does not synthesize, speech. 13 * -v V’’.~.Q--------IVA selected for

  2. Battlefield Orthopaedic Injuries Cause the Majority of Long-Term Disabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    battlefield-injured service members, the documentation includes details on the injuries, the recovery process, and residual im- pairments from the wounds...al1 (%) Present Cohort (%) Explosion 79 75 Gunshot wound 19 20 Motor vehicle collision, helicop- ter crash, fall 2 5 Table 5 Ranking of Unfitting...that psychiatric condi- tions make up 16% of permanent disability. We also demonstrated that the residual conditions from abdomi- nal and chest

  3. Died of Wounds on the Battlefield: Causation and Implications for Improving Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Died of Wounds on the Battlefield: Causation and Implications for Improving Combat Casualty Care Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Mark Hardin ...Medical Command, Department of the Army, or the Department of Defense. Address for reprints: Brian J. Eastridge, MD, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eastridge B. J., Hardin M., Cantrell J., Oetjen-Gerdes L., Zubko T., Mallak C., Wade C. E

  4. The Future Battlefield: Human Dimensions and Implications for Doctrine and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    ences. Comments to the senior author are welcome. 7- -. This work was sup.orted by Research Area III -- Health Hazards of Military Systems -- of the...battlefield environments. Opiates, cannabinoids , depres- sants, and stimulants have also been used whenever avail- able. The usage patterns of these and...combat activity during the hours of darkness and bad weather. Weapon systems whose target acquisition, aiming, and navigation systems habitually

  5. The poisoning women of Tiszazug.

    PubMed

    Bodó, B

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the social causes of the infamous Tiszazug murders (i.e., the poisoning of more than forty people, mainly men, by their female relatives) in interwar Hungary. First, it looks at those elements in peasant culture, such as the traditional neglect of the sick elderly and the disabled, which proved conducive to a violent solution of family problems. Then, the essay analyzes the changes in family structures and inheritance patterns and discusses the impact of political events such as the end of overseas migration, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the autarchic policies of the "successor states" and the failure of land reform on peasants' lives. Finally, the article looks at the discovery of the murders and the peasants' interpretations of the poisonings.

  6. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.

  7. [Poisoning by foodstuffs, plants and mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Pinillos, M A; Gómez, J; Elizalde, J; Dueñas, A

    2003-01-01

    Food poisoning is defined as poisoning caused by any foodstuff or alimentary product that causes poisoning because it contains toxic substances, germs, metals, additives, hormones, etc. It forms an important part of Clinical Toxicology, although in the majority of statistics, alimentary toxic infections provoked by bacteria, protozoa and viruses are not classified as poisonings, since they are caused by germs, and are classified as infections. Reference is made within this subject to all types of pathologies due to food, with special emphasis given to botulism. The clinical picture of botulism is discussed in its different clinical forms, but above all in its adult form which is contracted through the consumption of undercooked or badly preserved foods; poisoning by fish and seafood. Also described are the toxicological pictures that can be caused by the consumption of plants containing toxic substances, framed by the different symptomologies they produce; finally, poisonings by mushrooms are set out according to the period of incubation and possible confusions.

  8. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  9. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

    2013-03-01

    Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

  10. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  11. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-06-26

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper.

  12. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    AD____ AD-A 194 466 DNOFLACU.ATh TOXINS RESIONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING Annual Summary Report 0 Donald M. Miller 10 December 1987 Supported...21701-5012 62770A 162770A87] AA 7 7 A11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DINOFLAGELLATE TOXINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING .12...occurring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from

  13. Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

    1968-01-01

    This paper presents a study of renal function in 102 patients with lead poisoning admitted to the Occupational Diseases Clinic in Bucharest during the past 10 years; nearly half the patients had no history of lead colic. Every possible cause of renal damage, other than lead, was excluded by a careful differential diagnosis. Renal function was investigated by repeated determinations of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid, urea clearance, and endogenous creatinine clearance tests. Significant decreases of the clearance values (less than 50 ml./min. urea clearance and less than 80 ml./min. creatinine clearance), persistent high blood urea (more than 50 mg./100 ml.), and high blood creatinine (more than 1·2 mg./100 ml.) were found in a significant number of cases. These signs of impaired renal function were more frequent in the group of patients with chronic lead poisoning who had had several episodes of colic and an occupational exposure of more than 10 years. A high blood pressure was also found more frequently in this group of patients. Undercompensated and decompensated renal failure was found in 17 patients, most of whom had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years and had a history of several attacks of colic. Arterial hypertension accompanied the chronic renal failure in 13 patients, the renal impairment generally preceding the rise in blood pressure by several years. The duration of occupational lead exposure, the high absorption in the past, and the long period of observation of these patients, most of whom were repeatedly hospitalized, may explain the relatively high incidence (17 cases) of nephropathy with chronic renal failure in the present group. Impairment of urea clearance seems to be the earliest sign, at a time when the creatinine clearance is still normal. As the duration of exposure lengthens and the patient is subjected to active episodes of poisoning the creatinine clearance also deteriorates. Persistent urea retention and high creatininaemia

  14. The Plans of the Thirty Year's War Battlefields in the Czech Republic in the Work Theatrum Europaeum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matousek, Vaclav; Blazkova, Tereza

    2010-05-01

    The publicistic work Theatrum Europaeum depicts among others the engravings of sixteen Thirty Yeaŕs War battlefields in the Czech Republic. In most of the cases, the plans made by military engineers were the basis for the engravings. The base of depicting of a battlefield is mostly a particural project documentation of field fortifications, systems of siege trenches, eventually plans of city walls. These ground plans are displayed in simplified but generally very truly depicted plans of landscape, in which the battle took place. The plans of the battlefield landscapes are usually built-up from higher number of fragmental observations. Identification of particular observational points is possible by visual observing right in the terrain, or by using digital 3D models of landscape.

  15. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  16. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  17. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  18. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  19. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  20. Antidote review: fomepizole for methanol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mycyk, Mark B; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2003-01-01

    Fomepizole (Antizol) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of methanol poisoning. By inhibiting the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, it presents formation of toxic metabolites with far fewer consequences than traditional ethanol therapy. It appears that fomepizole will become standard therapy for methanol intoxication as it is for ethylene glycol poisoning.

  1. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  2. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  3. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  4. Death by poison in Elizabethan theatre.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giovanni R

    2009-12-01

    In Elizabethan theatre, many deaths and attempted murders are based on the use of poison and Shakespearean works are not an exception. This article reviews the plots of a number of Elizabethan plays, some of which are based on real events, where poisoning is the preferred method of murder.

  5. Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.


Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

  6. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  7. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    PubMed

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  8. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Oreihaka, E

    1992-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands.

  10. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  11. Comparison of fatal poisonings by prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Launiainen, Terhi; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2012-10-10

    There is a rising trend of fatal poisonings due to medicinal opioids in several countries. The present study evaluates the drug and alcohol findings as well as the cause and manner of death in opioid-related post-mortem cases in Finland from 2000 to 2008. During this period, fatal poisonings by prescription opioids (buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, tramadol) increased as a share of all drug poisonings from 9.5% to 32.4%, being 22.3% over the whole period. A detailed study including the most prevalent opioids was carried out for the age group of 14-44 years, which is the most susceptible age for drug abuse in Finland. Poisonings by the weak opioids, codeine and tramadol, were found to be associated with large, often suicidal overdoses resulting in high drug concentrations in blood. Methadone poisonings were associated with accidental overdoses with the drug concentration in blood remaining within a therapeutic range. The manner of death was accidental in 43%, 55% and 94% of cases in codeine, tramadol and methadone poisonings, respectively. The median concentration of codeine and the median codeine/morphine concentration ratio were higher in codeine poisonings (1.4 and 22.5 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.09 and 5.9 mg/l, respectively). The median concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were higher in tramadol poisonings (5.3 and 0.8 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.6 and 0.2 mg/l, respectively). In methadone poisonings, the median concentration of methadone (0.35 mg/l) was not different from that in other causes of death (0.30 mg/l). Sedative drugs and/or alcohol were very frequently found in fatal poisonings involving these prescription opioids.

  12. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Spann, James W.; Sileo, Louis; Franson, J. Christian

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  13. Cellular phones for reducing battlefield stress: rationale and a preliminary research.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Grassi, Alessandra; Villani, Daniela; Preziosa, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Battlefield stress is the consequence of man being exposed to the hostile environment of combat. Combat stress is specifically caused by man's feat of the dangers of combat, and is fueled and tempered by other variables such as morale, cohesion, fatigue, confidence, training and intensity of the combat. Treatment is often as simple as giving soldiers time to rest for a few hours or days, to get a shower and some sleep, to talk about the feelings they have in the presence of a counselor. Only in rare cases soldiers undergo more serious psychological treatment. One of the best strategies for dealing with stress is learning how to relax. However, relaxing is difficult to achieve in a battlefield. In this chapter we suggest the use of mobile multimedia technology--PDA/cellular phones--for the provision of advanced coping techniques suitable to the battlefield context. Specifically, we developed a protocol based on mobile narratives, to be experienced on mobile multimedia technology--3G cellular phones or PDAs--like the one now under development by the US Army within the "Soldier as a System--SaaS" and "Future Combat Systems--FCS" projects. Mobile narratives are audio-visual experiences, implemented on mobile devices, in which the narrative component is a critical aspect to induce a feeling of presence and engagement. Through the link between the feeling of presence and the emotional state, mobile narratives may be used to improve the mood state in their users. The rationale of the approach and a preliminary test of the proposed method are presented and discussed.

  14. COMBAT: mobile-Cloud-based cOmpute/coMmunications infrastructure for BATtlefield applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyata, Tolga; Muraleedharan, Rajani; Langdon, Jonathan; Funai, Colin; Ames, Scott; Kwon, Minseok; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2012-05-01

    The amount of data processed annually over the Internet has crossed the zetabyte boundary, yet this Big Data cannot be efficiently processed or stored using today's mobile devices. Parallel to this explosive growth in data, a substantial increase in mobile compute-capability and the advances in cloud computing have brought the state-of-the- art in mobile-cloud computing to an inflection point, where the right architecture may allow mobile devices to run applications utilizing Big Data and intensive computing. In this paper, we propose the MObile Cloud-based Hybrid Architecture (MOCHA), which formulates a solution to permit mobile-cloud computing applications such as object recognition in the battlefield by introducing a mid-stage compute- and storage-layer, called the cloudlet. MOCHA is built on the key observation that many mobile-cloud applications have the following characteristics: 1) they are compute-intensive, requiring the compute-power of a supercomputer, and 2) they use Big Data, requiring a communications link to cloud-based database sources in near-real-time. In this paper, we describe the operation of MOCHA in battlefield applications, by formulating the aforementioned mobile and cloudlet to be housed within a soldier's vest and inside a military vehicle, respectively, and enabling access to the cloud through high latency satellite links. We provide simulations using the traditional mobile-cloud approach as well as utilizing MOCHA with a mid-stage cloudlet to quantify the utility of this architecture. We show that the MOCHA platform for mobile-cloud computing promises a future for critical battlefield applications that access Big Data, which is currently not possible using existing technology.

  15. Visual Dysfunction Following Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury from the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-27

    0.4% 2 0.1% 366 Cataract 1 0.1% 1 ɘ.1% 367 Disorders of refraction and accommodation 61 7.3% 82 5.8% 368 Visual disturbances* 16 1.9% 8 0.6% 369...and Surgery , Washington, DC, under Work Unit No. 60808. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official...Casler JD. Analysis of battlefield head and neck injuries in Iraq and Afghanistan. Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery 2005;133: 497–504. 5. Wade AL

  16. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since 1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from unintentional poisonings...

  17. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  18. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  19. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  20. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  1. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  2. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... they create a deadly gas.Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers.Label everything inside your medicine cabinet.Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Dispose of them safely, per FDA and hazardous ...

  3. Recognition and management of acute pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William M; Schuman, Stanley H

    2002-04-15

    Most poisonings from pesticides do not have a specific antidote, making decontamination the most important intervention. For maximal benefit to the patient, skin, eye, and gastric decontamination should be undertaken while specifics of the poisoning are being determined. As in most illnesses and injuries, the history of the poisoning is of great importance and will determine specific needs for decontamination and therapy, if any exist. Protection of health care workers during the decontamination process is important and frequently overlooked. Skin decontamination is primarily accomplished with large volumes of water, soap, and shampoo. Gastric decontamination by lavage is indicated if ingestion of the poisoning has occurred within 60 minutes of patient presentation. Activated charcoal, combined with a cathartic, is also indicated in most poisonings presenting within 60 minutes of ingestion. With large volume ingestion poisonings, activated charcoal may be used after 60 minutes, but little data exist to support this practice. Syrup of ipecac is no longer recommended for routine use. The cholinergic syndrome "all faucets on" characterizes poisoning by organophosphates and carbamates. Organochlorine insecticides (lindane and other treatments for scabies and lice) can produce seizures with excessive use or use on large areas of nonintact skin. Non-dipyridyl herbicides, biocides (including pyrethrins, pyrethroids, and Bacillus thuringiensis) rarely produce anything other than mild skin, eye, and/or gastrointestinal irritation on topical exposure or ingestion.

  4. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: ‘amitraz’, ‘poisoning’, ‘toxicity’, ‘intoxication’ and ‘overdose’. Articles published in a language other than English, abstracts and those not providing sufficient clinical information were excluded. Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children) of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%). Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management. PMID:28139533

  5. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  6. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    PubMed

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  7. Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1996-10-14

    Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

  8. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, Oğuz; Ataş, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  9. Lead poisoning in Canada geese in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagley, George E.; Locke, Louis N.; Nightingale, Gordon T.

    1967-01-01

    Trainer and Hunt (9) stated that lead poisoning of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) had been reported from three states: North Carolina, Indiana, and Wisconsin. More recently, the Mississippi Flyway Council (8) cited suspected cases of lead poisoning of Canada geese in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, and Maryland. Hanson and Smith (6) also cited cases in widely separated areas of the country, including Texas and Michigan. this paper reports lead poisoning among Canada geese in Delaware, and presents evidence that it is a recurring problem among wintering flocks of Canada geese along the Middle Atlantic Coast.

  10. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2016-08-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  11. Lead poisoning in children: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jouhadi, Zineb; Bensabbahia, Dalal; Chafiq, Fouad; Oukkache, Bouchra; Guebessi, Nisrine Bennani; Abdellah, El Abidi; Najib, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Lead colic is a rare cause of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lead poisoning is most often mentioned in at risk populations (children, psychotic). We report the case of a 2 year old child that was presented for acute abdomen. Abdominal plain radiograph showed multiple intra-colonic metallic particles and suggested lead poisoning diagnosis. Anamnesis found a notion of pica and consumption of peeling paint. Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) confirmed the diagnosis. The lead poisoning is a public health problem especially in children, but its manifestation by a lead colic is rare and could simulate an acute abdomen table.

  12. A review of selected seafood poisonings.

    PubMed

    Clark, R F; Williams, S R; Nordt, S P; Manoguerra, A S

    1999-01-01

    Seafood poisoning has been recognized as a problem in both coastal and inland populations for millennia. Many types of sea creatures from shellfish to the largest fish have been implicated. Severe cases of many different types of seafood poisonings can result in fatalities. While the pathophysiology of the toxins is well known in some cases, others, like ciguatera, remain somewhat confusing. As a result, the treatment of these conditions remains controversial, although supportive care continues to be the mainstay of therapy. In this manuscript, we review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of some of the most common and toxic varieties of seafood poisoning resulting from toxins.

  13. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  14. Lead poisoning in children: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jouhadi, Zineb; Bensabbahia, Dalal; Chafiq, Fouad; Oukkache, Bouchra; Guebessi, Nisrine Bennani; Abdellah, El Abidi; Najib, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Lead colic is a rare cause of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lead poisoning is most often mentioned in at risk populations (children, psychotic). We report the case of a 2 year old child that was presented for acute abdomen. Abdominal plain radiograph showed multiple intra-colonic metallic particles and suggested lead poisoning diagnosis. Anamnesis found a notion of pica and consumption of peeling paint. Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) confirmed the diagnosis. The lead poisoning is a public health problem especially in children, but its manifestation by a lead colic is rare and could simulate an acute abdomen table. PMID:28154671

  15. Development of a high-fidelity simulation capability for battlefield acoustics.

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, David Franklin; Marlin, David H.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Liu, Lanbo; Symons, Neill Phillip; Moran, Mark L.; Wilson, D. Keith

    2003-07-01

    Findings are presented from the first year of a joint project between the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, and the Sandia National Laboratories. The purpose of the project is to develop a finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) capability for simulating the acoustic signals received by battlefield acoustic sensors. Many important effects, such as scattering from trees and buildings, interactions with dynamic atmospheric wind and temperature fields, and nonstationary target properties, can be accommodated by the simulation. Such a capability has much potential for mitigating the need for costly field data collection and furthering the development of robust identification and tracking algorithms. The FDTD code is based on a carefully derived set of first-order differential equations that is more general and accurate than most current sound propagation formulations. For application to three-dimensional problems of practical interest in battlefield acoustics, the code must be run on massively parallel computers. Some example computations involving sound propagation in a moving atmosphere and propagation in the presence of trees and barriers are presented.

  16. Acoustic classification of battlefield transient events using wavelet sub-band features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi-Sadjadi, M. R.; Jiang, Y.; Srinivasan, S.

    2007-04-01

    Detection, localization and classification of battlefield acoustic transient events are of great importance especially for military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). Generally, there can be a wide variety of battlefield acoustic transient events such as different caliber gunshots, artillery fires, and mortar fires. The discrimination of different types of transient sources is plagued by highly non-stationary nature of these signals, which makes the extraction of representative features a challenging task. This is compounded by the variations in the environmental and operating conditions and existence of a wide range of possible interference. This paper presents new approaches for transient signal estimation and feature extraction from acoustic signatures collected by several distributed sensor nodes. A maximum likelihood (ML)-based method is developed to remove noise/interference and fading effects and restore the acoustic transient signals. The estimated transient signals are then represented using wavelets. The multi-resolution property of the wavelets allows for capturing fine details in the transient signals that can be utilized to successfully classify them. Wavelet sub-band higher order moments and energy-based features are used to characterize the transient signals. The discrimination ability of the subband features for transient signal classification has been demonstrated on several different caliber gunshots. Important findings and observations on these results are also presented.

  17. Performance of a wavelength-diversified FSO tracking algorithm for real-time battlefield communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Akkoumi, Mouhammad K.; Harris, Alan; Huck, Robert C.; Sluss, James J., Jr.; Giuma, Tayeb A.

    2008-02-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communications links are envisioned as a viable option for the provision of temporary high-bandwidth communication links between moving platforms, especially for deployment in battlefield situations. For successful deployment in such real-time environments, fast and accurate alignment and tracking of the FSO equipment is essential. In this paper, a two-wavelength diversity scheme using 1.55 μm and 10 μm is investigated in conjunction with a previously described tracking algorithm to maintain line-of-sight connectivity battlefield scenarios. An analytical model of a mobile FSO communications link is described. Following the analytical model, simulation results are presented for an FSO link between an unmanned aerial surveillance vehicle, the Global Hawk, with a mobile ground vehicle, an M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank. The scenario is analyzed under varying weather conditions to verify continuous connectivity is available through the tracking algorithm. Simulation results are generated to describe the performance of the tracking algorithm with respect to both received optical power levels and variations in beam divergence. Advances to any proposed tracking algorithm due to these power and divergence variations are described for future tracking algorithm development.

  18. Development of a lightweight portable ventilator for far-forward battlefield combat casualty support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Wiesmann, William P.; Pranger, L. Alex

    1999-07-01

    Immediate medical provision substantially reduces the number of fatalities sustained during military operations. However, the shift from large-scale regional conflicts to smaller peacekeeping and humanitarian missions has reduced the military medical support infrastructure. Civilian emergency medical services have long emphasized the 'golden hour' during which a patient must receive definitive medical attention. Without on-scene medical support, injured soldiers must be transported significant distances before receiving advanced medical care, and rapid transport to a medical facility is not always a viable option. Technological solutions enable military medics to deliver advanced medical care on the battlefield. We report here on the development of a small lightweight portable respirator for the treatment of far- forward battlefield casualties. The Far Forward Life Support System (FFLSS) utilizes a combination of COTS (commercial off the shelf) components and custom designed systems to provide ventilatory support to injured combatants. It also incorporates a small IV fluid pump and IV fluids for resuscitation. A microcompressor control system monitors both system performance and patient parameters for system control. Telemetry to a pager-like device worn by the front line medic alerts of any anomalies in ventilator or patient parameters, which will add greatly to triage decisions and resource management. Novel elements of the FLSS design include oxygen generation, low-pressure air generation, available patient suction, and the absence of any high pressure air cylinders. A prototype developed for animal testing will be described in detail as well as further design requirements for the human rated prototype.

  19. Moldy Sweetclover Poisoning in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Radostits, O. M.; Searcy, G. P.; Mitchall, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Some selected clinical and laboratory aspects of moldy sweetclover poisoning in cattle are reviewed. The prothrombin time is preferred when the disease is suspected. The bleeding time and whole blood clotting time test are also used. Dicoumarol is not always detectable in the suspected feed which may be due to sampling technique or inaccuracy in the laboratory assay. The most effective treatment is a whole blood transfusion. Vitamin K1 (naturally occurring vitamin K) is an effective antidote but too expensive. Vitamin K3 (synthetic vitamin K) in both the injectable and oral forms are not as effective as K1 but are used extensively for treatment and prevention. Feeding the suspected feed for two weeks followed by a one week withdrawal successively or by dilution with other feeds will help to reduce the incidence of disease if other feeds are not available. Suspected feed should not be fed to cattle for at least three weeks before surgery or parturition. PMID:6159060

  20. Prognostic Aspects of Benzene Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hernberg, S.; Savilahti, M.; Ahlman, K.; Asp, S.

    1966-01-01

    In 1955, a benzene mass-poisoning was detected in a shoe factory in Finland. One hundred and forty-seven persons were heavily exposed, and more than 100 had abnormal blood counts. One died and 10 required hospital treatment. This paper deals with a re-examination of the involved workers nine years later. One hundred and twenty-five persons attended for re-examination. Eight had died, two refused, and 11 could not be located. The possibility of death due to benzene poisoning having occurred among these persons was ruled out by checking the national death register. Each of the subjects underwent a haematological examination which included the haemoglobin value and the erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leucocyte, and thrombocyte counts. A differential count of the leucocytes was also made. A randomly chosen group of 86 persons served as a control group. The thrombocytes of the whole patient group and the erythrocytes of the men were significantly lower than those of the controls, whereas the leucocytes of the whole group and the erythrocytes of the women failed to show any statistical difference. In a multiple discriminant function analysis, considering all three counts at the same time, only the men differed slightly from the controls at the re-examination. The analysis also showed that the prognosis of the severe cases did not differ from that of the mild ones, provided the acute stage had been passed. Some illustrative case reports are added. One patient developed leukaemia after a latency of seven years, whereas most of the others—chosen because of grave symptoms in the initial stage—have recovered. The results are discussed from the point of view of prognosis. PMID:5946130

  1. Channel modeling of light signals propagating through a battlefield environment: analysis of channel spatial, angular, and temporal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binbin; Marchant, Brian; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2007-09-01

    Free-space optical communication (FSOC) is used to transmit a modulated beam of light through the atmosphere for broadband applications. Fundamental limitations of FSOC arise from the environment through which light propagates. We address transmitted light signal dispersion (spatial, angular, and temporal dispersion) in FSOC that operates in the battlefield environment. Light signals (photons) transmitted through the battlefield environment will interact with particles of man-made smoke such as fog oil, along the propagation path. Photon-particle interaction causes dispersion of light signals, which has significant effects on signal attenuation and pulse spread. We show that physical properties of battlefield particles play important roles in determining dispersion of received light signals. The correlation between spatial and angular dispersion is investigated as well, which has significant effects on receiver design issues. Moreover, our research indicates that temporal dispersion (delay spread) and the received power strongly depend on the receiver aperture size, field of view (FOV), and the position of the receiver relative to the optical axis of the transmitter. The results describe only specific scenarios for given types of battlefield particles. Generalization of the results requires additional work. Based on properties of the correlation, a sensitive receiver with a small FOV is needed that can find the line-of-sight photons and work with them.

  2. Remote Sensing Plant Stress Using Combined Fluorescence and Reflectance Measurements for Early Detection of Defoliants within the Battlefield Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-02

    REPORT Remote sensing plant stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied...stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied environment Report Title...combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefield environment ARO Proposal # (49364-EV

  3. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration.

  4. Is intramuscular morphine satisfying frontline medical personnels’ requirement for battlefield analgesia in Helmand Province, Afghanistan? A questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Lorna M; Claydon, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Background: All deployed British Army personnel carry intramuscular (IM) morphine auto-injectors to treat battlefield casualties. No other nation supplies parenteral opiate analgesia on individual issue. Studies highlight this agent’s inefficacy and safety issues, but are limited by a relative lack of inclusion of frontline personnel. We aimed to determine the opinions of frontline medical personnel on current battlefield analgesia. Methods: We surveyed 88 British Army frontline medical personnel (medical officers (n = 12), nurses (n = 7), combat medical technicians (CMTs) (n = 67), paramedics (n = 1) and health-care assistants (n = 1)) upon completion of a six-month deployment (September 2011 to April 2012) to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, using Likert scale questions on the efficacy of battlefield analgesia, complications of IM morphine, safety of morphine auto-injectors and its suitability for treating child casualties. Results: A total of 88/88 questionnaires were returned. Of these, 61/88 had treated casualties on the battlefield, 26/86 agreed that current battlefield analgesia is effective, 80/87 agreed that a more potent analgesic with a faster onset than IM morphine is desirable in the first hour following injury, 47/65 CMTs agreed that they can manage complications of current battlefield analgesia and 53/86 respondents correctly disagreed that current battlefield analgesia is suitable for child casualties. The potential for accidental self-injection was reported. Conclusions: A more potent, faster onset analgesic than IM morphine is desirable in the first hour following injury. Pre-deployment training should emphasise management of complications of opiate analgesics and treatment of child casualties. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate is now being issued to all frontline medical personnel. IM morphine will remain on individual issue to all deployed soldiers for environments where an oral agent is not suitable, for example, chemical, biological

  5. Blood Poisoning: When to See a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... I have blood poisoning. Should I see my doctor? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. "Blood ... requires prompt medical attention. When to see a doctor If you recently had a medical or dental ...

  6. PRN 66 Federal Registration of Economic Poisons

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the regulations promulgated thereunder, provide that an economic poison is misbranded if its labeling bears any statement, graphic epresentation, or design which is falae or misleading

  7. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  8. Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

  9. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bart

    1973-01-01

    An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

  11. Aging Factsheets: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Prevention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Everyone is at risk of being poisoned by carbon monoxide exposure. Older adults with pre-existing conditions, such as chronic heart disease, anemia, or respiratory problems, are even more susceptible to the effects of this odorless, colorless gas.

  12. Two cases of lethal nitrazepam poisoning.

    PubMed

    Brødsgaard, I; Hansen, A C; Vesterby, A

    1995-06-01

    This case report describes two cases of lethal poisoning caused by a combination of advanced chronic disease and an overdose of nitrazepam. In both cases, a relatively small blood concentration of nitrazepam was found postmortem.

  13. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  14. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  15. Lead Poisoning in Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Miracle, Vickie Ann

    Lead poisoning is receiving much attention and increased awareness lately owing to the tainted water supply crisis in Flint, Michigan. This article provides an important review about lead poisoning in both children and adults, potential causes, signs and symptoms, long-term effects, prevention, and recommendations for nursing practice. This article is not an in-depth examination of the topic, but rather a quick review.

  16. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  17. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. S. Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management. PMID:22346036

  18. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  19. Pulmonary Phototherapy for Treating Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zazzeron, Luca; Liu, Chen; Franco, Walfre; Nakagawa, Akito; Farinelli, William A.; Bloch, Donald B.; Anderson, R. Rox

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure is a leading cause of poison-related mortality. CO binds to Hb, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and produces tissue damage. Treatment of CO poisoning requires rapid removal of CO and restoration of oxygen delivery. Visible light is known to effectively dissociate CO from Hb, with a single photon dissociating one CO molecule. Objectives: To determine whether illumination of the lungs of CO-poisoned mice causes dissociation of COHb from blood transiting the lungs, releasing CO into alveoli and thereby enhancing the rate of CO elimination. Methods: We developed a model of CO poisoning in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mice to assess the effects of direct lung illumination (phototherapy) on the CO elimination rate. Light at wavelengths between 532 and 690 nm was tested. The effect of lung phototherapy administered during CO poisoning was also studied. To avoid a thoracotomy, we assessed the effect of lung phototherapy delivered to murine lungs via an optical fiber placed in the esophagus. Measurements and Main Results: In CO-poisoned mice, phototherapy of exposed lungs at 532, 570, 592, and 628 nm dissociated CO from Hb and doubled the CO elimination rate. Phototherapy administered during severe CO poisoning limited the blood COHb increase and improved the survival rate. Noninvasive transesophageal phototherapy delivered to murine lungs via an optical fiber increased the rate of CO elimination while avoiding a thoracotomy. Conclusions: Future development and scaling up of lung phototherapy for patients with CO exposure may provide a significant advance for treating and preventing CO poisoning. PMID:26214119

  20. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. PMID:24966268

  1. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    PubMed

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available.

  2. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  3. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  4. [Antidotal treatment of acebutolol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O

    1984-01-01

    In rats, the intravenous infusion with acebutolol lead to a dose dependent decrease of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance, to sinus bradycardia, widening of the QRS complex, 1st and 2nd degree AV-block and intraventricular conductance disturbances. Nine possible antidotes were administered i.v. to rats which had been infused with 2 mg/kg X min acebutolol for 60 min. Isoprenaline proved the best antidote against acebutolol antagonizing the bradycardia by 88% and the hypotension completely. The activities of orciprenaline and prenalterol were lower than those of isoprenaline. Dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine antagonized acebutolol-induced hypotension, but did not influence considerably the bradycardia. Glucagon, on the other hand, antagonized the acebutolol-induced bradycardia by 47% but exerted only a small activity on the hypotension. Aminophyllin and calcium were nearly ineffective as antidotes against acebutolol. Isoprenaline and dopamine infused simultaneously restored heart rate, arterial blood pressure and cardiac output of acebutol-poisoned rats. The survival time of rats infused with 4 mg/kg X min acebutolol was doubled by the additional infusion of 0.2 mg/kg X min isoprenaline. The antagonistic activity of a treatment with isoprenaline and dopamine against the cardiovascular toxicity of acebutolol was confirmed in rabbits.

  5. [Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD].

    PubMed

    Frölich, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD is exemplified by a reinterpretation of artefacts found in the sacrificial bogs at Thorsbjerg, Nydam, Ejsbøl, Illerup Adal, Vimose and Kragehul, reinterpreted in the light of classic European and Egyptian archaeological finds and ethno-archaeological parallels against the background of the author's years of experience as a practicing specialist in gynaecology and obstetrics. No surgical instruments from the Iron Age have previously been construed or identified as such in Denmark or Schleswig-Holstein. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible finding and identificiation of surgical instruments - or what could be construed as a battlefield surgeons instruments - among artefacts deposited in the above-mentioned sacrificial bogs in the Iron Age. In this paper, the term 'surgical instrument' is defined as an instrument used in teh practice of medicine. Material for the study was collected in a review of illustrations in published works about these bog finds, localising these artefacts and examining them at the museums at which they were located. Also examined was museum storage of artefacts that had been excavated in the above-mentioned bogs. In an effort to reinterpret the function of the artefacts, they were compared with known surgical instruments found in the geographical areas controlled by the Greeks and later the Romans and with pictures of artefacts and a few written sources form the same area. They were also compared with ethnographic parallels. The material upon which the paper is based consists of a total of 67 artefacts, each identified as being from one of the above-mentioned bogs. Of these 67 artefacts, 40 can be indentifed and reinterpreted as being surgical instruments and 27 are toilet sets, i.e. tweezers for personal use or sets consisting of tweezers connected by a metal ring to either an ear pick or a nail cutter. Analysis of the artefacts revealed

  6. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Megan M.; Jetly, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness. PMID:25206947

  7. A Highly Agile Ground Assessment Robot (HAGAR) for military battlefield and support missions

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.

    1994-04-01

    A mobile robotic vehicle with potential for use in military field applications is described. Based on a Sandia design intended for use in exploration of the Lunar surface, the Highly Agile Ground Assessment Robot (HAGAR) is a four wheeled all-wheel-drive dual-body vehicle. A uniquely simple method of chassis articulation is employed which allows all four wheels to remain in contact with the ground, even while operating in very rough terrain and climbing over obstacles as large as a wheel diameter. Skid steering and modular construction are used to produce a simple, rugged, lightweight, highly agile mobility chassis with a reduction in the number of parts required when compared to conventional vehicle designs for military battlefield and support missions. The design configuration, mobility parameters, potential mission configurations, and performance of existing and proposed HAGAR prototypes are discussed.

  8. In search of technological solutions to battlefield management of combat casualties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Day, Keith; Rhee, Peter; Ecklund, James M.

    1999-07-01

    It is accepted that so long as men and women are sent into combat, some will be wounded or killed. In order to minimize those that are killed, efforts must be made to optimize medical treatment for those who are not fatally wounded. The nature of warfare is changing. The pattern of wounding is changing as well. However, what remains constant is the need to provide effective treatment as soon as possible. In war, it means acting at the level of the battlefield. To be effective demands new approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Novel diagnostic tools are needed to identify location of foreign bodies, determine extents of injury, monitor vital signs, and ascertain adequacy of resuscitation. Treatment devices that can provide hemostasis, support organ perfusion, stabilize limbs and neck and relieve a pneumothorax are lacking. Our young soldiers of tomorrow need solutions to their injuries today.

  9. Unethical battlefield conduct reported by soldiers serving in the Iraq war.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Joshua E; Bliese, Paul D; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wood, Michael D; McGurk, Dennis; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W

    2013-04-01

    Research involving military service members has shown a strong relationship between combat experiences and increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems. Comparatively little research has examined the relationship between combat experiences, PTSD, aggression, and unethical conduct on the battlefield, although news stories sometimes suggest links between unethical conduct and disorders such as PTSD. This study systematically examined whether unethical conduct is a proxy for aggression and whether specific combat experiences and PTSD are independently associated with unethical behavior. The results of this study indicate that aggression (β = 0.30) and specific combat experiences (particularly, witnessing war atrocities [β = 0.14] and fighting [β = 0.13]) are much more strongly associated with unethical conduct than is PTSD (β = 0.04).

  10. Military morality transformed: weapons and soldiers on the nineteenth-century battlefield.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gervase

    2011-01-01

    The increased lethality of nineteenth-century “arms of precision” caused military formations to disperse in combat, transforming the ordinary soldier from a near automaton, drilled to deliver random fire under close supervision, into a moral agent who exercised a degree of choice about where, when, and how to fire his weapon. The emerging autonomy of the soldier became a central theme in contemporary tactical debates, which struggled to reconcile the desire for discipline with the individual initiative necessary on the battlefield. This tactical conundrum offers revealing insights about human aggression and mass violence. Its dark legacy was the propagation of military values into civilian society, thus paving the way for the political soldiers of the twentieth century.

  11. Second-generation flat panel displays for the enhanced Abrahms M1 battlefield tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Ken F.; Wyrembelski, Rick J.; Hatton, Terry J.

    1997-07-01

    The Abrams M1 Battlefield Tank has undergone several phases of performance enhancements since its introduction, improvements have covered updates to all the major components of the vehicle with major emphasis on the vetronics and man-machine interface. Through these enhancements of M1 has pioneered the utilization of flat panel display (FPD) technologies and the M1A2 version has an FPD at both the driver and gunner stations and a third at the commander position. These FPDs all employ electroluminescent (EL) imaging technology that is well suited for the severe vetronics environment. The latest M1A2 enhancements, being introduced as part of the M1A2 System Enhancement Package, include a flat panel AMLCD color tactical display which supersedes the earlier monochrome EL FPD used in this application, and a high resolution monochrome EL FPD for the second generation FLIR sensor, which supersedes the earlier bulky CRT display.

  12. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  13. Three-dimensional simulation and auto-stereoscopic 3D display of the battlefield environment based on the particle system algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Jiwei; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Cui, Huilong; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    The army's combat training is very important now, and the simulation of the real battlefield environment is of great significance. Two-dimensional information has been unable to meet the demand at present. With the development of virtual reality technology, three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the battlefield environment is possible. In the simulation of 3D battlefield environment, in addition to the terrain, combat personnel and the combat tool ,the simulation of explosions, fire, smoke and other effects is also very important, since these effects can enhance senses of realism and immersion of the 3D scene. However, these special effects are irregular objects, which make it difficult to simulate with the general geometry. Therefore, the simulation of irregular objects is always a hot and difficult research topic in computer graphics. Here, the particle system algorithm is used for simulating irregular objects. We design the simulation of the explosion, fire, smoke based on the particle system and applied it to the battlefield 3D scene. Besides, the battlefield 3D scene simulation with the glasses-free 3D display is carried out with an algorithm based on GPU 4K super-multiview 3D video real-time transformation method. At the same time, with the human-computer interaction function, we ultimately realized glasses-free 3D display of the simulated more realistic and immersed 3D battlefield environment.

  14. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jayamanne, Shaluka F.; Jayasinghe, Chamilka Y.

    2017-01-01

    Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management. PMID:28377789

  15. Battlefield MRI

    DOE PAGES

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  16. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  17. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  18. [Poisoning by the autumn crocus plant].

    PubMed

    Hermanns-Clausen, M; Schindler, F; Stedtler, U; Zilker, T; Felgenhauer, N

    2006-03-23

    Confirmed cases of poisoning resulting from the ingestion of Colchicum autumnale in mistake for Allium ursinum were analysed retrospectively. The study included 32 patients between 27 and 90 years. The severity of the intoxication was graded on the basis of the poisoning severity score (PSS). All the patients developed diarrhea and/or vomiting after a latency period of between 2 and 24 h. All those patients with a latency of > 9 h suffered only mild poisoning. If the leaves were boiled before being eaten, 64% of the patients suffered moderate, severe or fatal poisoning; when the leaves were eaten raw, only 33%. It is presumed that heating may promote the liberation of colchicines from the plant. Eight of the nine patients with severe or fatal poisoning were older than 65 years. A possible cause of the more serious course in the elderly may be a decrease in renal clearance. In addition, a diminished sense of smell may allow the absence of the typical garlic smell and taste of Allium ursinum to go unrecognised.

  19. The clinical experience of acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Yen, D; Tsai, J; Wang, L M; Kao, W F; Hu, S C; Lee, C H; Deng, J F

    1995-09-01

    The authors reviewed the clinical manifestations, complications, and the prognosis affected by Lilly Cyanide Antidote in 21 victims of acute cyanide poisoning over a 10-year period. The clinical signs and symptoms in cyanide poisoning are variable. Among 21 cases, loss of consciousness (15), metabolic acidosis (14), and cardiopulmonary failure (9) were the three leading manifestations of cyanide intoxication. Anoxic encephalopathy (6) was not uncommon in the severely intoxicated victims. Diabetes insipidus (1) or clinical signs and symptoms mimicking diabetes insipidus (3) may be an ominous sign to encephalopathy victims. The major cause of fatal cyanide poisoning is the intentional ingestion of cyanide compounds as part of a suicide attempt. Decrease of arteriovenous difference of O2 partial pressure may be a clue for the suspicion of cyanide intoxication. Although the authors cannot show a statistically significant difference (P = .47) for the Lilly cyanide antidote kit in terms of improving the survival rate for victims of cyanide poisoning, the antidote kit was always mandatory in our study in the cases of severely intoxicated victims who survived. Early diagnosis, prompt, intensive therapy with antidote, and supportive care are still the golden rules for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning, whether in the ED or on the scene.

  20. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  1. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes.

  2. Does organophosphate poisoning cause cardiac injury?

    PubMed

    Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Mostafazadeh, Babak; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Morteza, Afsaneh

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphates are insecticides which are widely used as a suicidal agent in Iran. They are associated with different types of cardiac complications including cardiac arrest and arrhythmia, however their role in cardiac injury is not known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of myocardial damage in patients with cholinesterase poisoning.It was a prospective study conducted from January 2008 to March 2010. Cohorts of patients with cholinesterase poisoning due to suicidal attempt who have been referred to Loghman hospital were selected. Patients who have taken more than one poison or were used concomitant drugs were excluded. Physical examination was performed on admission to discover warning sign. Peripheral arterial blood gases, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, troponin-T measurements were performed in all cases. There were 24 patients, 7 of them women, with the mean age of 41.2±15.05 who were included in this study. Non-survivors had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate Glasgow Coma Scale scoring and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Our findings showed that cardiac injury is an important cause of death in organophosphate poisoning. It could be hypothesized that cardiac injury is a strong predictor of death in patients with organophosphate poisoning.

  3. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    PubMed

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin.

  4. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... scientific knowledge and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead...

  5. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. . Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. . Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  6. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its

  7. Real World Issues in Developing a Malaysian Forest Battlefield Environment for Small Unit Tactics Using 3D Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsagoff, Syed Nasir

    In the military, training is essential as preparation for war. Small unit training involves training for platoon and section sized unit. The soldiers must train to maneuver, shoot and communicate. In order for the training to be successful, it must be as realistic as possible. Realistic training allows for the soldiers to be mentally and physically prepared for the battlefield. Unfortunately, there is a wide gap between training and the resources required to properly conduct the training [5]. Resources consist of suitable training location and material support such as ammunition, ration and fuel. Limitation on the resources means that training cannot be as realistic as possible. To ensure effective use of the limited training resources, training should be conducted in a simulated environment before migrating to a live environment. This paper will attempt to discuss the real world issues in developing a Malaysian Forest Battlefield Environment 3D Simulation for Small Unit Tactic using 3D Graphics.

  8. A Groud and Aerial BattleField Spatio-Temporal Data Unified OrganizeModel and Aplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, LI; Qin, Li; Gang, WAN; Xuefeng, CAO

    2016-11-01

    Aiming at the requirement of battlefield environment data model in joint operations, this paper proposed a groud and aerial battlefield spatio-temporal data unified organize model based on grid division. The thought of shere grid division is adopt to divide the space, and extend to the time dimension. Also, the spatio-temporal grid coding is designed. The field and object are combined to build the BSTD organization model, where the panet layer unit and panet volume unit are considered as the reference space separately to quantitatively describe the field, and the spatio-temporal grid coding is adopt to describe the space and time attributes of the objects. The relevant experiment is designed in paratroop tactics wargame simulation, and the results verify the feasibility of the model.

  9. Ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic surveys at the Monroe Crossroads battlefield site, Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Richard; Strain, R.E.; Marlowe, J. I.; Currin, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar survey was conducted at the Monroe Crossroads Battlefield site at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to determine possible locations of subsurface archaeological features. An electromagnetic survey also was conducted at the site to verify and augment the ground-penetrating radar data. The surveys were conducted over a 67,200-square-foot grid with a grid point spacing of 20 feet. During the ground-penetrating radar survey, 87 subsurface anomalies were detected based on visual inspection of the field records. These anomalies were flagged in the field as they appeared on the ground-penetrating radar records and were located by a land survey. The electromagnetic survey produced two significant readings at ground-penetrating radar anomaly locations. The National Park Service excavated 44 of the 87 anomaly locations at the Civil War battlefield site. Four of these excavations produced significant archaeological features, including one at an abandoned well.

  10. Teenagers with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Spina, Sean P; Taddei, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    We report 2 cases of teenagers who were poisoned with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) and presented to the emergency department with a severe acute anticholinergic toxidrome after ingestion of several hundred seeds. The patients presented with visual hallucinations, disorientation, incomprehensible and nonsensical speech, and dilated sluggish pupils. Both patients required restraints for combativeness until adequate sedation with lorazepam and haloperidol was achieved. Jimson weed is found in southern Canada and the United States and can cause acute anticholinergic poisoning and death in humans and animals. The treatment of choice for anticholinergic poisoning is mainly supportive care and gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. Jimson weed intoxication should be considered in cases of patients presenting with unexplained peripheral and central anticholinergic symptoms including delirium, agitation and seizures, especially among younger patients and partygoers. It is important that health care professionals recognize that Jimson weed is a toxic, indigenous, "wild" growing plant, subject to misuse and potentially serious intoxication requiring hospitalization.

  11. Poisoned after Dinner: Dolma with Datura Stramonium.

    PubMed

    Disel, Nezihat Rana; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kekec, Zeynep; Karanlik, Meryem

    2015-03-01

    Datura stramonium, which is also known as Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed, is an alkaloid containing plant that is entirely toxic. The active toxic constituents of the plant are atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. It has been abused worldwide for hundreds of years because of its hallucinogenic properties. Previous reports have shown that herbal medication overdose and accidental food contamination are ways it can cause poisoning. Herein we present a family that had three of its members poisoned after eating a traditional meal "dolma" made of datura flowers. None had fatal complications and all were discharged healthy. Datura stromonium may be used accidentally as a food ingredient. Since its poisonous effects are not known, people should be informed and warned about the effects of this plant.

  12. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  13. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  14. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J.; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick II, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B. Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  15. Toxicological criterion of the heroin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Shigeev, S

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents toxicological characteristics of 198 cases of acute parenteral heroin intoxication, analyzes the clinically encountered range of blood and urinary concentrations of its metabolites. The principal causes of death are elucidated in victims of heroin poisoning at the hospital stage. Where there is a relationship of death probability to the detection of morphine in the victims' biological fluids is considered; its blood and urinary concentrations are determined, which undoubtedly suggests the occurrence of poisoning-related death. It has been established that death from poisoning by heroin may occur in the whole range of its detectable concentrations. There is no doubt that the blood morphine concentrations of at least 2.0 microg/ml should be considered to be fatal.

  16. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site.

  17. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality.

  18. The poisonous rocks of Kärkevagge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmody, R. G.; Allen, C. E.; Thorn, C. E.; Dixon, J. C.

    2001-11-01

    The black schist in Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland has been reported to weather easily and produce a poisonous effect on vegetation. This research was an investigation of that phenomenon as part of a larger study of weathering in Kärkevagge. In July 1999, soil and plant samples were collected downslope of a "poisonous" boulder. Samples from the adjacent unaffected slope served as references. Biomass, plant elemental composition, and soil fertility were determined. Most plants within 1.4 m downslope of the poison boulder were dead, and effects on plant growth could be seen to about 6 m. Plants near the boulder had elevated levels of K, B, Al, Cd, Se, and Fe, and lower levels of Ca, Mn, and Ba compared to reference plants. In the soil near the poison boulder, extractable S, Cd, and Fe and salt contents were greater, while pH and extractable Cl, P, Ca, Mg, K, Ba, Ni, and Cr were lower than in the reference soil. At 10 m downslope of the boulder, soil and plant chemistry was more similar to the reference materials, but some effects were still noted. Elemental analyses of the poison boulder and soil revealed no particular plant toxins, although contents of Fe and S were higher and Ca lower than in reference materials. We believe the poison is sulfuric acid, which forms as a consequence of pyrite oxidation. The dark color of the boulder is consistent with a pyrite-bearing lithology and other field observations and laboratory analyses support the hypothesis. Coatings on local rocks include jarosite, gypsum, and copiapite, secondary minerals associated with pyrite oxidation and weathering accelerated by sulfuric acid. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the rock fell off the cliff some time before 245 14C years BP.

  19. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A; Dalhoff, Kim; Wikkelsoe, Mette; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-10-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms were contacted. A total of 181 patients were registered (112 children). Ingested LT dose ranged from 10 to 9000 mcg (median 275 mcg). A total of 29 of 181 (16%) patients were symptomatic at the time of enquiry, and there was no difference in ingested LT dose between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p < 0.68 and p < 0.47, respectively). In total, 153 of 181 (85%) patients did not have symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases, hospital contact was needed and there were no reports of long-term sequelae. Acute LT poisoning often follows a benign course. The occurrence of symptoms appears not to be dose dependent. Late-onset symptoms seem to be common. However, all symptoms resolved spontaneously without need of medical care.

  20. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  1. Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.

  2. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... March 21, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012... Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... thousands of lives every year. On the 50th anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  3. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  4. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  5. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  6. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  7. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  8. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  9. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  10. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  11. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  12. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  13. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  14. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  15. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  16. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  17. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  18. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  19. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  20. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  1. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  2. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  3. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  4. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  5. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  6. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  7. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  8. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  9. Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Disease for the History Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Herbert L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the mounting evidence for the neurological damage of childhood lead poisoning. Argues that ignoring lead poisoning is more expensive than preventing it. Reviews a recent plan to eradicate lead poisoning and the sociological factors that may impede its implementation. (CJS)

  10. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook describes in detail the program requirements for effective childhood lead poisoning prevention programs at the local level based on the…

  11. Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

  12. Statistics and Epidemiology of Lead Poisoning (FY 72-L1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, John H., Jr.; And Others

    This report is the first in a quarterly series which will contain statistics and epidemiologic notes on lead poisoning at both the national and local levels. This report contains (a) statistics on childhood lead poisoning; (b) a status report on the Community Lead Poisoning Data System, which was designed to assist local lead control programs and…

  13. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  14. Army Communicator. Volume 33, Number 3, Summer 2008. WIN-T: Increasing the Power of Battlefield Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    in- formed. In this era of persistent conflict, commanders demand the rapid transfer of voice, data, and video information. Because our Army is not...Increment 1 provides the new modular force with en- hanced video , voice, and data capabilities never before seen on the modern battlefield. However, this...provided battalion- level and above warfighters with the ability to connect to the Army’s digitized systems, voice, data, and video via satellite internet

  15. Poisoning due to common household products.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Leung, K P; Critchley, J A

    1995-06-01

    From 1988 to 1992, 187 patients were admitted in four general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong with poisoning due to common household products. The main agents involved included "Dettol" liquid (46%), cleaning products (19%), pesticides (14%), and shampoos (10%). The majority of patients had only relatively mild symptoms. Ingestion of Dettol liquid and strong corrosives tended to be associated with serious complications and deaths. Two patients died after aspiration of Dettol liquid and detergent before and/or during gastric lavage. One other patient died after swallowing sulphuric acid. As with all poisoning, it is very important that the airway is adequately protected before gastric lavage is performed.

  16. [Carbon monoxide poisoning in children: never trivialize].

    PubMed

    Scalfaro, P; Haenggi, M H; Roulet, E; Gehri, M; Stucki, P; Schaller, M D; Cotting, J

    2000-03-01

    The risks linked to tissular hypoxemia after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are well known. Unawareness of CO exposure and of its complex pathophysiology may delay appropriate treatment and lead to long term neuropsychological sequelae. We report two cases of children treated in our institution and review the main issues regarding the optimal management. A high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide poisoning when dealing with an unclear neurological clinical presentation is mandatory. Classical therapy with normobaric 100% oxygen has to be instaured immediately. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy must be considered when anamnestic symptoms or clinical signs suggest neurological involvement even when carboxyhemoglobin values are low or already normalized.

  17. Occupational triphenyltin acetate poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Colosio, C; Tomasini, M; Cairoli, S; Foà, V; Minoia, C; Marinovich, M; Galli, C L

    1991-01-01

    A case of triphenyltin acetate (TPTA) poisoning is described. The patient, who had been exposed mainly to cutaneous absorption, showed acute stages of an urticarial eruption, signs of hepatic injury, slight glucose intolerance, and electroencephalographic abnormalities. Concomitant with the highest concentrations of tin in plasma and the peak of tin excretion in urine, neutrophils did not show the normal increase in actin polymerisation after stimulation with a chemotactic peptide (100 nM fMLP). The peak of urinary excretion of tin occurred between the fifth and the sixth day after poisoning; subsequently, the rate of excretion became slow, suggesting biphasic kinetics with the possibility of a cumulative trend. Images PMID:1825604

  18. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    PubMed

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases.

  19. Cowfish (Umisuzume, Lactoria diaphana) poisoning with rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Takeaki; Furusu, Akira; Nishino, Tomoya; Abe, Katsushige; Kanda, Tetsuro; Maeda, Takahiro; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    A 40-year-old man developed weakness and myalgia of the shoulders and brachia nine hours after eating a cowfish (Umisuzume, Lactoria diaphana). A clinical symptom showed rhabdomyolysis and serum creatine phosphokinase was elevated to 180,000 IU/L on day 3. Cardiopulmonary arrest and acute renal failure developed after 59 hours and hemodiafiltration was performed. Cerebral death was diagnosed on day 9 and the patient died on day 16. The case has the characteristic clinical course of palytoxin poisoning, which has also been reported as blue humphead parrotfish poisoning from other kinds of fish.

  20. [Poisoning by ingestion of ditakh (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Adam, F; Adam, J C; Hasselot, N

    1991-01-01

    In regard to food poisoning as a result of the eating of non edible fruit, we have noticed the particular case of a well-known fruit in Senegal: the DITAKH (woloff local name). It would appear that some trees produce poisonous fruit and others perfectly safe edible fruit. Following a description of the habitat and morphological and physical characteristics, the authors wonder whether or not they should consider, because of the edible/non edible characteristics of Detarium, the existence of two different species or two different varieties.

  1. Ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning mimicking burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heir, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a condition in which the patient perceives a sensation of intraoral burning, typically of the anterior tongue. This article presents a case report of a patient presenting for orofacial pain evaluation in whom ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning is diagnosed. The clinician should be aware of neurotoxin poisoning as a possible cause of symptoms of burning mouth, especially among patients who have recently traveled to a tropical area. Recognition of this condition in this case highlights the need for a detailed and accurate patient history.

  2. ["Junk-food"-intervention in poisoning delusion].

    PubMed

    Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Bäuml, Josef

    2007-11-01

    Case report about a 29-year old US-American patient who suddenly flew to Germany due to a schizoaffektive disorder. During a stay in our psychiatric hospital she refused food, liquid and medication because of fear of being poisoned. After four days her general condition had worsened rapidly so that parenteral nutrition was discussed. Surprisingly her poisoning delusion could be overcome by offering American "Junk-Food". From this moment on compliance in taking of medication improved too, so that renormalisation of her condition was achieved.

  3. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Gupta, Rahul; Paul, Barinder S; Puri, Sandeep; Garg, Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  4. The many faces of methylmercury poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassani, S.B.

    1982-10-01

    Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

  5. Species susceptibility to locoweed poisoning and evaluation of chicks as a small animal model of poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweed poisoning has largely been attributed to the effects of mannosidase inhibiting swainsonine. However, there are many plants that contain mixtures of swainsonine and other glycosidase inhibiting alkaloids such as calystegines, castanospermine, and other minor alkaloids or metabolites like le...

  6. Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell

    PubMed Central

    Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

    2005-01-01

    The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

  7. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  8. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  9. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  10. Mercury poisoning: an unusual cause of polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Karataş, G K; Tosun, A K; Karacehennem, E; Sepici, V

    2002-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is widely used in everyday life. It has organic and inorganic forms that are both toxic. As acute mercury poisoning is uncommon, diagnosis is difficult if the exposure is not manifest. It has usually a slow onset and non-specific symptoms. In this paper we report a patient who developed polyarthritis after mercury exposure.

  11. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: aetiological agent of food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cabassi, E; Mori, L

    1976-01-01

    After mentioning the principal morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical, enzyme and serological characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (a facultative halophilic bacterium and the aetiological agent of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish products) a description is given of its ecological aspects, geographical distribution, and potential enteropathogenicity for man, with general information on its isolation and identification.

  12. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  13. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  14. Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

    This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

  15. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  16. Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of “ALL-OUT” a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

  17. Poisonous Plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  18. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  19. A poison center's emergency response plan.

    PubMed

    Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1988-04-01

    Over 30 major chemical accidents have occurred in the tri-state area during the last decade. A recent incident involved a train which was carrying at least 5 toxic chemicals and was derailed in a heavily populated area causing 20,000 residents to be evacuated from their homes twice in 24 hr. In a 30-hr period over 900 calls were received at the poison center and approximately 80 people were examined at local health care facilities and treated for symptoms of toxic fume inhalation. This incident prompted the poison center to evaluate our emergency response capabilities. A strategy was developed to enable the poison center to deal with an increased call volume rapidly and effectively. Our Emergency Response Plan includes a chain of command for notification in the event of an anticipated increase in call volume; delineated responsibilities for medical, administrative, and professional staff members; designation of phone lines for incoming and outgoing calls; and a means of documenting both poison exposures and inquiries regarding the chemicals. So that staff members may report to the center without delay, child care provisions are also included. The development of the Emergency Response Plan, potential applications, and a synopsis of the aforementioned chemical spill will be discussed in detail.

  20. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994