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  1. The provider cost of treating tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umar, Nisser; Fordham, Richard; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Bachmnn, Max

    2011-09-05

    The study was aimed at assessing the economic cost shouldered by government, as providers, in the provision of free Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment services in Bauchi State, northern Nigeria. A cost analysis study was designed and questionnaires administered by the principal investigators to officers in charge of 27 randomly sampled government TB services providers across the State of Bauchi. Seventeen of these centers were primary care centers, 9 secondary care providers and one was a tertiary care provider. Data was also collected from personnel and projects records in the State Ministry of Health, of Works as well as the Ministry of Budget and Planning. The cost of buildings, staff and equipment replacement, laboratory, radiology and drugs in facilities were assessed and costs attributable tuberculosis inpatient, outpatient and directly observed therapy (DOT) services were estimated from the total cost based on the proportion of TB cases in the total patient pool accessing those services. The average proportion of TB patients in facilities was 3.4% in overall, 3.3% among inpatients and 3.1% in the outpatient population. The average cost spent to treat a patient with TB was estimated at US $227.14. The cost of inpatient care averaged $16.95/patient; DOT and outpatient services was $133.34/patient, while the overhead cost per patient was $30.89. The overall cost and all computed cost elements, except for DOT services, were highest in the tertiary center and least expensive in the infectious diseases hospital partly due to the higher administrative and other overhead recurrent spending in the tertiary health facility while the lower overhead cost observed in the infectious diseases hospital could be due to the economy of scale as a result of the relative higher number of TB cases seen in the facility operating with relatively same level of resources as other facilities in the state.

  2. The provider cost of treating tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Nisser; Fordham, Richard; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Bachmnn, Max

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the economic cost shouldered by government, as providers, in the provision of free Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment services in Bauchi State, northern Nigeria. A cost analysis study was designed and questionnaires administered by the principal investigators to officers in charge of 27 randomly sampled government TB services providers across the State of Bauchi. Seventeen of these centers were primary care centers, 9 secondary care providers and one was a tertiary care provider. Data was also collected from personnel and projects records in the State Ministry of Health, of Works as well as the Ministry of Budget and Planning. The cost of buildings, staff and equipment replacement, laboratory, radiology and drugs in facilities were assessed and costs attributable tuberculosis inpatient, outpatient and directly observed therapy (DOT) services were estimated from the total cost based on the proportion of TB cases in the total patient pool accessing those services. The average proportion of TB patients in facilities was 3.4% in overall, 3.3% among inpatients and 3.1% in the outpatient population. The average cost spent to treat a patient with TB was estimated at US $227.14. The cost of inpatient care averaged $16.95/patient; DOT and outpatient services was $133.34/patient, while the overhead cost per patient was $30.89. The overall cost and all computed cost elements, except for DOT services, were highest in the tertiary center and least expensive in the infectious diseases hospital partly due to the higher administrative and other overhead recurrent spending in the tertiary health facility while the lower overhead cost observed in the infectious diseases hospital could be due to the economy of scale as a result of the relative higher number of TB cases seen in the facility operating with relatively same level of resources as other facilities in the state. PMID:28299060

  3. Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, S. G.; Atsanda, N. N.; Tijjani, A. O.; Usur, A. M.; Sule, A. G; Gulani, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the seroepidemiological patterns of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from the anterior jugular vein of 336 slaughtered cattle, between September 2013 and March 2014 in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The sera obtained were screened for brucellosis using rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) in parallel. The data generated was subjected to Chi-square and Fishers exact test analysis to establish whether there is a relationship between the breeds, sex, and location of the animals sampled. Results: Of the 336 cattle screened, 18 (5.4%) and 13 (3.9%) were positive by RBPT and SAT, respectively. There was no statistically significant association (p>0.05) between the sex, age, and location of cattle with seropositivity of brucellosis in the state. It was concluded that brucellosis is prevalent in Bauchi State. Further study is recommended in other abattoirs and herds of cattle in Bauchi State for confirmation of the status of the disease among cattle slaughtered in the state. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the cattle in Bauchi state indicates that the disease is endemic and cattle are one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease. PMID:27051184

  4. Availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care services in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Dele; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Sambisa, William; Akomolafe, Toyin; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Sadauki, Habib

    2015-03-01

    To report the availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Between June and July 2012, a cross-sectional survey of health facilities was conducted. Data on the performance of EmOC services between June 2011 and May 2012 were obtained from records of 20 general hospitals and 39 primary healthcare centers providing delivery services. Additionally, structured interviews with facility managers were conducted. Only 6 (10.2%) of the 59 facilities met the UN requirements for EmOC centers. None of the three senatorial zones in Bauchi State had the minimum acceptable number of five EmOC facilities per 500 000 population. Overall, 10 517 (4.4%) of the estimated 239 930 annual births took place in EmOC facilities. Cesarean delivery accounted for 3.6% (n=380) of the 10 517 births occurring in EmOC facilities and 0.2% of the 239 930 expected live births. Only 1416 (3.9%) of the expected 35 990 obstetric complications were managed in EmOC facilities. Overall, 45 (3.2%) of 1416 women with major direct obstetric complications treated at EmOC facilities died. Among 379 maternal deaths, 317 (83.6%) were attributable to major direct obstetric complications. Availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC services in Bauchi State, Nigeria, are suboptimal. The health system's capacity to manage emergency obstetric complications needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  5. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  6. The status of human filariasis in north-western zone of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, J C

    1994-06-01

    In a nine-months epidemiological study to assess the status of human filariasis in north-western zone of Bauchi State, Nigeria, 3.5% prevalence was recorded in 8 communities. Of the 1536 persons examined, 54 were microfilaremic for three blood-dwelling filarial parasites. 22 (1.4%) were positive for Mansonella perstans, 10 (0.7%) and 22 (1.4%) had Loa loa and Wuchereria bancrofti respectively. W. bancrofti showed low microfilaremia in females of reproductive age with high degree of heterogeneity among communities. Most infected persons (81.5%) had counts less than 11 mf/20 mm3 of peripheral blood. Pruritus appeared much earlier in life while hydrocoele, limb and scrotal elephantiasis occurred much later in the population (> or = 40 years). Except in L. loa infections, mf-rate and mean mf-density increased with advancing host age (r = 0.713, P < 0.01). Fishermen, nomads and farmers had significantly higher infection rates (P < 0.05) than other occupational categories. Suggestions on the disease intervention involving treatment, prevention and vector control are highlighted.

  7. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  8. Monitoring maternal and newborn health outcomes in Bauchi State, Nigeria: an evaluation of a standards-based quality improvement intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Design Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Setting Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Participants Health care workers and maternity unit patients. Main outcome measures We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. Results At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Conclusion Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. PMID:27512125

  9. Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. II. The prevalence of human filariasis in Darazo Local Government area.

    PubMed

    Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O

    1994-11-01

    In an eleven months study of eleven communities of Darazo Local Government Area of Bauchi state, northern Nigeria, 293 (21.7) of 1,349 persons examined harboured various filarial parasites. Of the sampled population, 18%, 1.9%, 1.6%, 0.5% and 0.2% had microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca and Loa loa respectively. Of the 637 females examined, 90 (14.1%) were infected, while 203 (23.5%) of 712 males sampled had filarial infections. The high rate in males was significant (P < 0.001). O. volvulus mf-rate increased gradually from the first decade to the seventh decade of life but declined thereafter. Prevalence of bancroftian filariasis was consistently lower in females of reproductive age, while the distribution of various filarial parasites varied significantly among age groups and communities (P < 0.05). Fishermen (42.9%), farmers (42.4%) and cattle rearers (40.9%) were the most affected occupational categories. Control strategies are highlighted.

  10. Monitoring maternal and newborn health outcomes in Bauchi State, Nigeria: an evaluation of a standards-based quality improvement intervention.

    PubMed

    Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Health care workers and maternity unit patients. We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  11. Effectiveness of Animated Instructional Resource for Learning Facilitation among Secondary School Student in Bauchi Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, Isaac Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study seek to reveal the importance of instructional visual in educational systems in Bauchi Nigeria. Instructional visual play very significant roles as medium of communication for learning. The research for this article was motivated by this understanding of the need. The study carried out in Nigeria in one of the most challenging state,…

  12. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Gamawa, A. A.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.; Ibrahim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ2 = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ2 = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  13. Childhood Malnutrition is Associated with Maternal Care During Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bauchi and Cross River States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Candyce; Enne, Joseph; Omer, Khalid; Ayara, Ndem; Yarima, Yahaya; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality; the levels of childhood malnutrition in Nigeria are among the highest in the world. The literature supports many direct and indirect causes of malnutrition, but few studies have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study examines this potential link in Bauchi and Cross River states in Nigeria. Design and methods In 2011, a household survey collected information about children under four years old and their mothers’ last pregnancy. Trained fieldworkers measured mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children aged 6-47 months. We examined associations with childhood malnutrition in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Some 4.4% of 3643 children in Cross River, and 14.7% of 2706 in Bauchi were malnourished (MUAC z-score). In both states, a child whose mother had fewer than four government antenatal care visits was more likely to be malnourished (Cross River: OR 1.85, 95%CIca 1.33-2.55; Bauchi: OR 1.29, 95%CIca 1.02-1.63). In Bauchi, a child whose mother who rarely or never discussed pregnancy and childbirth with her husband (OR 1.34, 95%CIca 1.07-1.68), and who did not have her last delivery attended by a skilled health worker was more likely to be malnourished (OR 1.50, 95%CIca 1.09-2.07). Conclusions These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that poor care of women in pregnancy and childbirth could pose a longer term risk to the health of the child, as well as increasing immediate risks for both mother and child. Significance for public health Childhood malnutrition is a public health priority, accounting for almost 1/5 of global disease burden among children under five years old. Many studies have examined risk factors for childhood malnutrition, but few have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study, albeit a cross

  14. Socio-economic determinants of ownership and use of treated bed nets in Nigeria: results from a cross-sectional study in Cross River and Bauchi States in 2011.

    PubMed

    Eteng, Morwell; Mitchell, Steven; Garba, Lawal; Ana, Onebieni; Liman, Mohammed; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2014-08-13

    Poor people bear a disproportionate burden of malaria and prevention measures may not reach them well. A study carried out to examine the socio-economic factors associated with ownership and use of treated bed nets in Cross River and Bauchi States of Nigeria took place soon after campaigns to distribute treated bed nets. A cross-sectional household survey about childhood illnesses among mothers of children less than four years of age and focus group discussions in 90 communities in each of the two states asked about household ownership of treated bed nets and their use for children under four years old. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined associations between socio-economic and other variables and these outcomes in each state. Some 72% of 7,685 households in Cross River and 87% of 5,535 households in Bauchi State had at least one treated bed net. In Cross River, urban households were more likely to possess bed nets, as were less-poor households (enough food in the last week), those with a male head, and those from communities with a formal health facility. In Bauchi, less-poor households and those with a more educated head were more likely to possess nets. In households with nets, only about half of children under four years old always slept under a net: 54% of 11,267 in Cross River and 57% of 11,277 in Bauchi. Factors associated with use of nets for young children in Cross River were less-poor households, fewer young children in the household, more education of the father, antenatal care of the mother, and younger age of the child, while in Bauchi the factors were a mother with more education and antenatal care, and younger age of the child. Some focus groups complained of distribution difficulties, and many described misconceptions about adverse effects of nets as an important reason for not using them. Despite a recent campaign to distribute treated bed nets, disadvantaged households were less likely to possess them and to use them for young children

  15. The Impact of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Diseases Interventions to Prevent Malaria Fever in Children Less than Five Years Old in Bauchi State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Bassi, Amos; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Bamidele, Moyosola; Abdulkrim, Masduq; Nwizugbe, Ezenwa

    2016-01-01

    Malaria accounts for about 300,000 childhood deaths and 30% of under-five year old mortality in Nigeria annually. We assessed the impact of intervention strategies that integrated Patent Medicines Vendors into community case management of childhood-diseases, improved access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and distributed bed nets to households. We explored the influence of household socioeconomic characteristics on the impact of the interventions on fever in the under-five year olds in Bauchi State Nigeria. A cross-sectional case-controlled, interventional study, which sampled 3077 and 2737 under-5 year olds from 1,588 and 1601 households in pre- and post-intervention periods respectively, was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Difference-in-differences and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact attributable to the interventions: integrated community case management of childhood illness which introduced trained public and private sector health providers and the possession of nets on the prevalence of fever. Two-week prevalence of fever among under-fives declined from 56.6% at pre-intervention to 42.5% at post-intervention. Fever-prevention fraction attributable to nets was statistically significant (OR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.08-0.33). Children in the intervention group had significantly fewer incidence of fever than children in the control group had (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87). Although being in the intervention group significantly provided 23.5% protection against fever (95% CI: 0.13-0.33), the post-intervention likelihood of fever was also significantly less than at pre-intervention (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50-0.65). The intervention protection fraction against fever was statistically significant at 43.4% (OR = 0.434, 95% CI: 0.36-0.50). Logistic regression showed that the odds of fever were lower in households with nets (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88), among children whose mothers had higher education, in the post-intervention period

  16. The Impact of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Diseases Interventions to Prevent Malaria Fever in Children Less than Five Years Old in Bauchi State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria accounts for about 300,000 childhood deaths and 30% of under-five year old mortality in Nigeria annually. We assessed the impact of intervention strategies that integrated Patent Medicines Vendors into community case management of childhood-diseases, improved access to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and distributed bed nets to households. We explored the influence of household socioeconomic characteristics on the impact of the interventions on fever in the under-five year olds in Bauchi State Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional case-controlled, interventional study, which sampled 3077 and 2737 under-5 year olds from 1,588 and 1601 households in pre- and post-intervention periods respectively, was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Difference-in-differences and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact attributable to the interventions: integrated community case management of childhood illness which introduced trained public and private sector health providers and the possession of nets on the prevalence of fever. Results Two-week prevalence of fever among under-fives declined from 56.6% at pre-intervention to 42.5% at post-intervention. Fever-prevention fraction attributable to nets was statistically significant (OR = 0.217, 95% CI: 0.08–0.33). Children in the intervention group had significantly fewer incidence of fever than children in the control group had (OR = 0.765, 95% CI: 0.67–0.87). Although being in the intervention group significantly provided 23.5% protection against fever (95% CI: 0.13–0.33), the post-intervention likelihood of fever was also significantly less than at pre-intervention (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50–0.65). The intervention protection fraction against fever was statistically significant at 43.4% (OR = 0.434, 95% CI: 0.36–0.50). Logistic regression showed that the odds of fever were lower in households with nets (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.88), among children whose mothers had higher

  17. A Survey of Vocational Training Needs of 15-25 Years Old Out-of-School Youths in Bauchi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, M. I.; Danjuma, I. M.; Adamu, A. Y.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore and describe the vocational training needs of 15-25 years old out-of-school youths in Bauchi Metropolis of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Specifically, the researchers sought to; describe their demographic characteristics, examine their vocational training needs, the influence of gender on the vocational needs,…

  18. Reduction of client waiting time using task shifting in an anti-retroviral clinic at Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Nisser Ali; Hajara, Moses John; Khalifa, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Aiming to assess the impact of the intervention in reducing the patients' waiting time in the clinic, two surveys were conducted before and after task shifting intervention in an anti-retroviral (ARV) clinic at the Specialist Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria in November 2008 and April 2009, respectively. Before the task shifting, six nurses from the clinic were trained on integrated management of adolescent and adult illness, as well as on the principle and guidelines for the anti-retroviral therapy, after which their schedule in the clinic was broadened to include seeing HIV patients presenting for routine refill and follow-up visits. In this study, fifty-six and sixty patients, respectively out of 186 and 202 who attended the clinic on the days of the pre- and post-intervention surveys, were randomly sampled. Data on patients' sex, age and marital status, whether patient a first timer or follow up visitor and the time spent in the clinic on that day as well as the number and composition of staff and equipment in the clinic was collected. The difference in waiting time spent between the first group before task shifting and second group after task shifting was statistically analyzed and significance tested using unpaired t-test. There was a reduction in the average waiting time for patients attending the clinic from 6.48 h before task shifting to 4.35 h after task shifting. The difference of mean was -2.13 h, with 95% CI: -2.44:-1.82 hours and the test of significance by unpaired t-test P<0.0001. PMID:28299042

  19. Reduction of client waiting time using task shifting in an anti-retroviral clinic at Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Nisser Ali; Hajara, Moses John; Khalifa, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to assess the impact of the intervention in reducing the patients' waiting time in the clinic, two surveys were conducted before and after task shifting intervention in an anti-retroviral (ARV) clinic at the Specialist Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria in November 2008 and April 2009, respectively. Before the task shifting, six nurses from the clinic were trained on integrated management of adolescent and adult illness, as well as on the principle and guidelines for the anti-retroviral therapy, after which their schedule in the clinic was broadened to include seeing HIV patients presenting for routine refill and follow-up visits. In this study, fifty-six and sixty patients, respectively out of 186 and 202 who attended the clinic on the days of the pre- and post-intervention surveys, were randomly sampled. Data on patients' sex, age and marital status, whether patient a first timer or follow up visitor and the time spent in the clinic on that day as well as the number and composition of staff and equipment in the clinic was collected. The difference in waiting time spent between the first group before task shifting and second group after task shifting was statistically analyzed and significance tested using unpaired t-test. There was a reduction in the average waiting time for patients attending the clinic from 6.48 h before task shifting to 4.35 h after task shifting. The difference of mean was −2.13 h, with 95% CI: −2.44:−1.82 hours and the test of significance by unpaired t-test P<0.0001. PMID:28299044

  20. Seeking evidence to support efforts to increase use of antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two states of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omer, Khalid; Afi, Nshadi John; Baba, Moh'd Chadi; Adamu, Maijiddah; Malami, Sani Abubakar; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2014-11-20

    Antenatal care (ANC) attendance is a strong predictor of maternal outcomes. In Nigeria, government health planners at state level and below have limited access to population-based estimates of ANC coverage and factors associated with its use. A mixed methods study examined factors associated with the use of government ANC services in two states of Nigeria, and shared the findings with stakeholders. A quantitative household survey in Bauchi and Cross River states of Nigeria collected data from women aged 15-49 years on ANC use during their last completed pregnancy and potentially associated factors including socio-economic conditions, exposure to domestic violence and local availability of services. Bivariate and multivariate analysis examined associations with having at least four government ANC visits. We collected qualitative data from 180 focus groups of women who discussed the survey findings and recommended solutions. We shared the findings with state, Local Government Authority, and community stakeholders to support evidence-based planning. 40% of 7870 women in Bauchi and 46% of 7759 in Cross River had at least four government ANC visits. Women's education, urban residence, information from heath workers, help from family members, and household owning motorized transport were associated with ANC use in both states. Additional factors for women in Cross River included age above 18 years, being married or cohabiting, being less poor (having enough food during the last week), not experiencing intimate partner violence during the last year, and education of the household head. Factors for women in Bauchi were presence of government ANC services within their community and more than two previous pregnancies. Focus groups cited costly, poor quality, and inaccessible government services, and uncooperative partners as reasons for not attending ANC. Government and other stakeholders planned evidence-based interventions to increase ANC uptake. Use of ANC services

  1. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    This document presents information on Nigeria for use in the elementary classroom. A basic theme of the text is change. Nigeria is currently in a state of change, as are most developing countries. North American children often have an idea of African people as poor and backward. In this text, Nigerian people are presented as a people with a rich…

  2. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-01-17

    Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment.

  3. Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-12

    serious social and economic challenges. Although Nigeria’s oil and natural gas revenues are estimated at over $50 billion per year, its human ...government’s human rights record is poor. Ethnic and religious strife have been common in Nigeria, and perceived differences have been politicized...State Department, maintain that the country is still in political transition,4 and Human Rights Watch contends that “Nigeria has not held a free and

  4. Failed State 2030: Nigeria - A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    the following countries may no longer be producing oil in large quantities by the year 2030: Russia, United States, China, Mexico, Algeria , Brazil...solar- photovoltaic - generated electricity (grid tied) grows 50–60 percent each year.90 Ray Kurzweil, a renowned futurist, notes that solar power alone...include Algeria and Nigeria un- der the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Initiative (TSCTI). The TSCTI effort is programmed to receive $100 million each

  5. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  6. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  7. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and

  8. Nigeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Smoke over Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea     ... document extensive smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color ... the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. ...

  9. Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deji, O. F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…

  10. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

  11. Stakeholder Perceptions of Secondary Education Quality in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Yaro; Arshad, Rozita; Salleh, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to obtain stakeholder perceptions of secondary education quality in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research approach was used by conducting interviews. Data were purposively collected from a sample of 15 education stakeholders in Sokoto State, and analyzed to extract major themes using…

  12. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

  13. Refugee Education: The State of Nigeria's Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A.; Oni, Gbolabo J.

    2017-01-01

    The spate of insurgences and conflicts in the country and around the sub-region has led to the increased presence of refugees and Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Nigeria. This has resultant challenges on the basic needs of refugees and IDPs at different levels. One of the highest priorities of refugees and IDPs communities is education.…

  14. Male responsibility and maternal morbidity: a cross-sectional study in two Nigerian states.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Omer, Khalid; Caldwell, Dawn; Dambam, Mohammed Musa; Maikudi, Ahmed Yahya; Effiong, Bassey; Ikpi, Edet; Udofia, Etuk; Khan, Amir; Ansari, Umaira; Ansari, Noor; Hamel, Candyce

    2011-12-21

    Nigeria continues to have high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. This is partly associated with lack of adequate obstetric care, partly with high risks in pregnancy, including heavy work. We examined actionable risk factors and underlying determinants at community level in Bauchi and Cross River States of Nigeria, including several related to male responsibility in pregnancy. In 2009, field teams visited a stratified (urban/rural) last stage random sample of 180 enumeration areas drawn from the most recent censuses in each of Bauchi and Cross River states. A structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with women aged 15-49 years documented education, income, recent birth history, knowledge and attitudes related to safe birth, and deliveries in the last three years. Closed questions covered female genital mutilation, intimate partner violence (IPV) in the last year, IPV during the last pregnancy, work during the last pregnancy, and support during pregnancy. The outcome was complications in pregnancy and delivery (eclampsia, sepsis, bleeding) among survivors of childbirth in the last three years. We adjusted bivariate and multivariate analysis for clustering. The most consistent and prominent of 28 candidate risk factors and underlying determinants for non-fatal maternal morbidity was intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy (ORa 2.15, 95%CIca 1.43-3.24 in Bauchi and ORa 1.5, 95%CI 1.20-2.03 in Cross River). Other spouse-related factors in the multivariate model included not discussing pregnancy with the spouse and, independently, IPV in the last year. Shortage of food in the last week was a factor in both Bauchi (ORa 1.66, 95%CIca 1.22-2.26) and Cross River (ORa 1.32, 95%CIca 1.15-1.53). Female genital mutilation was a factor among less well to do Bauchi women (ORa 2.1, 95%CIca 1.39-3.17) and all Cross River women (ORa 1.23, 95%CIca 1.1-1.5). Enhancing clinical protocols and skills can only benefit women in Nigeria and elsewhere

  15. Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

    2010-01-01

    The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…

  16. Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

    2010-01-01

    The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…

  17. Insights Into Intimate Partner Violence in Pregnancy: Findings From a Cross-Sectional Study in Two States in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Umaira; Cobham, Bassy; Etim, Egbai Moses; Ahamad, Hauwa Mohammad; Owan, Nchajeno Otabai; Tijani, Yaya; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2016-04-27

    A household survey and focus group discussions examined the frequency and risk factors for physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy in two Nigerian states. Some 22% of women in Cross River and 9% in Bauchi reported IPV in their last pregnancy. The risk was higher in communities where more women reported IPV in the past year and lower among less poor women with more educated partners. Women were more likely to experience IPV in pregnancy if they had an income and decided how to spend it. Efforts to reduce IPV in pregnancy should involve communities as well as individuals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Lassa fever in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria in 1974.

    PubMed

    Bowen, G S; Tomori, O; Wulff, H; Casals, J; Noonan, A; Downs, W G

    1975-01-01

    Three cases of Lassa fever occurred in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria, in January and February 1974. The first case was a 19-year-old Nigerian; the other 2 cases were German missionary physicians at St Charles Borromeo Hospital, Onitsha, one of whom cared for the patient who was the first case. Thus, 2 of the 3 cases were hospital acquired. Investigations failed to discover a village outbreak or the source of virus for the first case. A serosurvey of 258 hospital staff members and contacts of the 3 cases showed no other persons with antibody to Lassa virus. The absence of Lassa virus antibody in a high-risk group indicates a low or nonexistent level of past Lassa virus activity in southeastern Nigeria.

  19. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  20. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  1. Technical Training Skills Needs of Youth for Sustainable Job Security in Rice Production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edu, Chukwuma Nwofe; Ogba, Ernest Ituma

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies technical training skills needs of youth for sustainable job security in rice production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study was carried out in secondary schools in three educational zones in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Ebonyi state is one of the states in the southeast geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was…

  2. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  3. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  4. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E

    2012-01-01

    Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state's common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.

  5. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state’s common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources. PMID:23271926

  6. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  7. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  8. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ado, J Mohammed; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Johnson, Ticha; Dieng, Boubacar; Corkum, Melissa; Enemaku, Ogu; Mataruse, Noah; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Baig, Shahzad; Galway, Michael; Seaman, Vincent; Wiesen, Eric; Vertefeuille, John; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Armstrong, Gregory; Mahoney, Frank J

    2014-11-01

    Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. Since 2003, infections with WPV of Nigerian origin have been detected in 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government created an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized (1) improving the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), (2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, (3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, (4) improving outbreak response, (5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and (6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes implementation of these activities during a period of unprecedented insecurity and violence, including the killing of health workers and the onset of a state of emergency in the northeast zone. This report reviews management strategies, innovations, trends in case counts, vaccination and social mobilization activities, and surveillance and monitoring data to assess progress in polio eradication in Nigeria. Nigeria has made significant improvements in the management of polio eradication initiative (pei) activities with marked improvement in the quality of SIAs, as measured by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). Comparing results from February 2012 with results from December 2013, the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) conducting LQAS in the 11 high-risk states at the ≥90% pass/fail threshold increased from 7% to 42%, and the proportion at the 80%-89% threshold increased from 9% to 30%. During January-December 2013, 53 polio cases were reported from 26 LGAs in 9 states in Nigeria, compared with 122 cases reported from 13 states in 2012. No cases of WPV type 3 infection have been reported since November 2012. In 2013, no polio cases due to any poliovirus type were detected in the northwest sanctuaries of Nigeria. In

  9. Opioid prescribing habits of physicians in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Zakari A; Wahab, Kolawole W; Kolawole, Israel K

    2016-06-01

    Although opioid analgesics are effective in the treatment of moderate to severe acute, cancer and chronic non-malignant pains, they are under-prescribed in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to assess the prescription pattern of opioids among physicians in a north central State, Nigeria.. This was a descriptive cross sectional study. The study was conducted at the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP)-sponsored workshops on pain and palliative care at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. These were physicians at the monthly workshops organized by the Pain and Palliative Care Unit of the hospital between August 2011 and July, 2012. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain responses to questions on pain management including opioids utilization in the various hospitals of the 114 participants. The main outcome measure was opioid prescription by the participants. Out of the 114 questionnaires distributed, 113 were returned with complete information giving a response rate of 99.1%. The mean age of the respondents was 42.0±10.8 years. Although 97.3% of the respondents reported that pain was a frequent complaint in their practice, 69.5% of those who reported seeing patients with moderate to severe pain on a daily basis rarely or never prescribed opioid analgesics. The reasons given for poor opioid prescription were fear of respiratory depression (86.8%), fear of addiction (85.1%) and non-availability (28.9%). Opioid prescription rate for patients with moderate-severe pain is low possibly due to myths and misconceptions about their adverse effects. International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Initiative for Improving Pain Education Grant awarded to Dr. K.W. Wahab in 2011.

  10. An Investigation into the State of Status Planning of Tiv Language of Central Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkimbi, Atonde

    2016-01-01

    The Tiv language is one of the major languages spoken in central Nigeria. The language is of the Benue-Congo subclass of the Bantu parent family. It has over four million speakers spoken in five states of Nigeria. The language like many other Nigerian languages is in dire need of language planning efforts and strategies. Some previous efforts were…

  11. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodi, Ben E.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

  12. Approaches for Effective Vocationalisation of Secondary School Agriculture in Nigeria: The Views of Agricultural Science Teachers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeoji, Canice N.; Agwubike, Christian C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a random sample of serving agricultural science teachers in Delta State, Nigeria, as a background to understanding their views on four selected approaches for effective vocationalisation of secondary school agriculture. These approaches were used to develop a 23-item questionnaire based on current literature. A five-point…

  13. The television viewing behaviour of families in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Talabi, J K

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the television viewing patterns in Nigerian families, 600 household heads from all 12 local government areas of Kwara state were interviewed. 439 (70%) of the respondents were fathers. 396 (66%) of the household heads in the survey were civil servants and the remainder were involved in private enterprises such as trading, farming, and crafts. 343 household (57%) had at least 1 television set, most often a color television. Respondents without television gave lack of money as the main reason; however, there was no correlation between ownership of television sets and the occupation of the household head. All Nigerian stations are owned and controlled by the federal government through the Nigeria Television Authority. The program viewed most frequently by the most respondents (92%) was the nightly network news. The most popular programming (identified by 86% of respondents) was a Saturday drama series designed to provide amusement and moral lessons. Most of those questioned strongly agreed that television is an educational resource within the family. On the other hand, 59% of the male household heads and 72% of the female heads added that television also has negative effects on moral behavior and children's attention to school work. National planners are urged to find ways to channel widespread television ownership and viewing in Nigeria toward social development through innovative programming.

  14. Verification of Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nass, Shafique Sani; Danawi, Hadi; Cain, Loretta; Sharma, Monoj

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. The goal of the study was to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study is a retrospective record review using extracted data from NNT records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The prevalence of NNT and mortality rate were 336 cases and 3.4 deaths per 100 000 population, respectively, whereas the prevalence of NNT and mortality rate reported through the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system were 111 cases and 1.0 death per 100 000 population, respectively. The study shows underreporting of NNT in the existing IDSR system. Active surveillance is a good strategy for verifying underreporting of NNT in the surveillance system. The IDSR system should be strengthened with the capacity to detect events associated with a disease toward global elimination.

  15. Seroepidemiology of human retroviruses in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, O; Lawoko, A; Blomberg, J

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed sera collected during 1987 and 1988 from 385 healthy business employees of both sexes, of Ogun state in Nigeria, for antibodies to the 3 human retroviruses HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-I. No serum was HIV-1 positive, 1 was HIV-2 positive and 2 were HTLV-I positive. A few sera were false-positive in the antibody screening tests which preceded the confirmatory antibody tests. In the confirmatory tests, we found that in the HIV-1 Western blot test 1 serum reacted only with the HIV-1 gag protein p17, and 2 sera reacted only with the HIV-1 pol proteins p64, p53 and p31. None of these reactivities fulfill internationally accepted criteria for HIV-1 seropositivity. We conclude that HIV-1 was rare in the study population and that HIV-2 and HTLV-I are present at a low frequency. The false positive serological reactions observed are similar to those described previously from Africa and elsewhere. The findings emphasize the importance of routinely testing blood donations for antibodies to these retroviruses in Nigeria.

  16. Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi

    2017-09-25

    Adequate management of healthcare waste (HCW) is a prerequisite for efficient delivery of healthcare services. In Nigeria, there are several constraints militating against proper management of HCW. This is raising some environmental concerns among stakeholders in the health sector. In this study, we analyzed the practices of HCW management and determinants of risky/safe indices of HCW disposal. The study used the 2013/2014 Service Delivery Indicator (SDI) data that were collected from 2480 healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 52.20% and 38.21% of the sampled healthcare facilities from Cross River and Bauchi states possessed guidelines for HCW management, respectively. Trainings on management of HCW were attended by 67.18% and 53.19% of the healthcare facilities from Cross River and Imo states, respectively. Also, 32.32% and 29.50% of healthcare facilities from rural and urban areas previously sent some of their staff members for trainings on HCW management, respectively. Sharp and non-sharp HCW were burnt in protected pits in 45.40% and 45.36% of all the sampled healthcare facilities, respectively. Incinerators were reported to be functional in only 2.06% of the total healthcare facilities. In Bauchi and Kebbi states, 23.58% and 21.05% of the healthcare facilities respectively burnt sharp HCW without any protection. Using PCA, computed risky indices for disposal of sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.3070) and Kebbi state (0.2172), while indices of risky disposal of non-sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.2868) and Osun state (0.2652). The OLS results showed that at 5% level of significance, possession of medical waste disposal guidelines, staff trainings on HCW management, traveling hours from the facilities to local headquarters and being located in rural areas significantly influenced indices of

  17. Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed. PMID:16909472

  18. Pharmacovigilance amongst patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in Ekiti state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeniran, Adeyinka; Awodele, Deborah F

    2012-01-01

    With the current population of Nigeria and the limited number of trained health care providers, PMVs are inevitable and highly needed especially in the rural areas for the supply of drugs in treating minor illnesses. Thus, pharmacovigilance (PVG) activity in Nigeria cannot exclude the roles of PMVs; therefore, this study was aimed to determine the knowledge of PMVs on PVG and adverse drug reaction reporting system. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of the knowledge of Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting system of 96 PMVs in Ekiti state, Nigeria before the National Pharmacovigilance training in February, 2011 and after the training. The data obtained before the training showed that more than 87% of the respondents had at least secondary level of education. About half of the respondents (58.5%) knew the correct meaning of PVG and 56.6% knew how to report ADRs. But only about one third of them (35.8%) knew where to obtain ADR forms. Very few respondents 3 (5.7%) had received report/complaints of ADR from patients in the last 1 month while just 2 (3.8%) of them reported. The most commonly mentioned factors/reasons for poor reporting of ADRs/compliance with PVG guideline by the respondents were fears of indictment (61.3%), poor public knowledge (88.7%), and poor training on PMVs (92.5%). However, the results after the training showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.005) improvement in the proportion of respondents who were aware of PVG (from 55.8% to 89.1%), those who knew the meaning of PVG (from 49.0% to 61.7%), where to obtain ADR form (28.3% to 92.1%) and those who knew how to report ADRs (44.2% to 88.0%). PMVs are ready to practice PVG if they are properly trained. Training has been revealed to play a significant role in the knowledge of the concept of PVG amongst PMVs. It is therefore recommended that National Pharmacovigilance Centre should continue to organize periodic trainings for PMVs especially those with poor

  19. Cataract Blindness in Osun State, Nigeria: Results of a Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Olubayo U.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Adeoti, Caroline O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the burden of blindness and visual impairment due to cataract in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Twenty clusters of 60 individuals who were 50 years or older were selected by systematic random sampling from the entire community. A total of 1,183 persons were examined. Results: The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract-related blindness (visual acuity (VA) < 3/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–2.4%). The Cataract Surgical Coverage (CSC) (persons) was 12.1% and Couching Coverage (persons) was 11.8%. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral operable cataract (VA < 6/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3–3.1%). In this last group, the cataract intervention (surgery + couching) coverage was 22.2%. The proportion of patients who could not attain 6/60 vision after surgery were 12.5, 87.5, and 92.9%, respectively, for patients who underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, cataract surgery without IOL implantation and those who underwent couching. “Lack of awareness” (30.4%), “no need for surgery” (17.6%), cost (14.6%), fear (10.2%), “waiting for cataract to mature” (8.8%), AND “surgical services not available” (5.8%) were reasons why individuals with operable cataract did not undergo cataract surgery. Conclusions: Over 600 operable cataracts exist in this region of Nigeria. There is an urgent need for an effective, affordable, and accessible cataract outreach program. Sustained efforts have to be made to increase the number of IOL surgeries, by making IOL surgery available locally at an affordable cost, if not completely free. PMID:23248537

  20. Impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hilhorst, T; van Liere, M J; Ode, A V; de Koning, K

    2006-05-01

    This study addresses the socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria, where HIV prevalence is 9.3% but the number of AIDS cases is still relatively low. About 6% of the study households had experienced illness and death classified as AIDS, and reported high costs in terms of expenditures and time spent on care, funerals and mourning. These demands on time affected income and productivity, while the diversion of resources had implications for investments and savings. Coping strategies varied between households, mainly as a reflection of asset levels, which were often related to the gender of the household head. Reported coping strategies also differed between ethnic groups. First-line relatives were the most important source of support for households under pressure. Erosive coping strategies that undermined the sustainability of livelihoods were used by more vulnerable households following multiple cases of illness and death. Mourning practices, rules of inheritance and stigma tended to increase a household's vulnerability. Currently, Benue State is facing growing adult morbidity and mortality because of HIV infections. A context-specific study of its possible impact in a setting with a still relatively low number of AIDS cases is therefore important for informing local policy development and for building advocacy.

  1. Task Shifting Provision of Contraceptive Implants to Community Health Extension Workers: Results of Operations Research in Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Charyeva, Zulfiya; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Orobaton, Nosa; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Inuwa, Fatima; Alalade, Olubisi; Abegunde, Dele; Danladi, Saba'atu

    2015-09-01

    Contraceptive use remains low in Nigeria, with only 11% of women reporting use of any modern method. Access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is constrained by a severe shortage of human resources. To assess feasibility of task shifting provision of implants, we trained community health extension workers (CHEWs) to insert and remove contraceptive implants in rural communities of Bauchi and Sokoto states in northern Nigeria. We conducted 2- to 3-week training sessions for 166 selected CHEWs from 82 facilities in Sokoto state (September 2013) and 84 health facilities in Bauchi state (December 2013). To assess feasibility of the task shifting approach, we conducted operations research using a pretest-posttest design using multiple sources of information, including surveys with 151 trained CHEWs (9% were lost to follow-up) and with 150 family planning clients; facility observations using supply checklists (N = 149); direct observation of counseling provided by CHEWs (N = 144) and of their clinical (N = 113) skills; as well as a review of service statistics (N = 151 health facilities). The endline assessment was conducted 6 months after the training in each state. CHEWs inserted a total of 3,588 implants in 151 health facilities over a period of 6 months, generating 10,088 couple-years of protection (CYP). After practicing on anatomic arm models, most CHEWs achieved competency in implant insertions after insertions with 4-5 actual clients. Clinical observations revealed that CHEWs performed implant insertion tasks correctly 90% of the time or more for nearly all checklist items. The amount of information that CHEWs provided clients increased between baseline and endline, and over 95% of surveyed clients reported being satisfied with CHEWs' services in both surveys. The study found that supervisors not only observed and corrected insertion skills, as needed, during supervisory visits but also encouraged CHEWs to conduct more community

  2. Task Shifting Provision of Contraceptive Implants to Community Health Extension Workers: Results of Operations Research in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Orobaton, Nosa; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Inuwa, Fatima; Alalade, Olubisi; Abegunde, Dele; Danladi, Saba’atu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive use remains low in Nigeria, with only 11% of women reporting use of any modern method. Access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is constrained by a severe shortage of human resources. To assess feasibility of task shifting provision of implants, we trained community health extension workers (CHEWs) to insert and remove contraceptive implants in rural communities of Bauchi and Sokoto states in northern Nigeria. Methods: We conducted 2- to 3-week training sessions for 166 selected CHEWs from 82 facilities in Sokoto state (September 2013) and 84 health facilities in Bauchi state (December 2013). To assess feasibility of the task shifting approach, we conducted operations research using a pretest–posttest design using multiple sources of information, including surveys with 151 trained CHEWs (9% were lost to follow-up) and with 150 family planning clients; facility observations using supply checklists (N = 149); direct observation of counseling provided by CHEWs (N = 144) and of their clinical (N = 113) skills; as well as a review of service statistics (N = 151 health facilities). The endline assessment was conducted 6 months after the training in each state. Results: CHEWs inserted a total of 3,588 implants in 151 health facilities over a period of 6 months, generating 10,088 couple-years of protection (CYP). After practicing on anatomic arm models, most CHEWs achieved competency in implant insertions after insertions with 4–5 actual clients. Clinical observations revealed that CHEWs performed implant insertion tasks correctly 90% of the time or more for nearly all checklist items. The amount of information that CHEWs provided clients increased between baseline and endline, and over 95% of surveyed clients reported being satisfied with CHEWs’ services in both surveys. The study found that supervisors not only observed and corrected insertion skills, as needed, during supervisory visits but also encouraged

  3. Geophysical investigations of the central part of Niger State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniyi, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    The structural and tectonic nature of the Nupe basin and the adjacent basement complex was studied. Gravity and magnetic surveys were made in the central part of Niger State, Nigeria. The interpretation given here is of a rift origin for the Nupe basin. The initiation of rifting started in the adjacent Benue trough in the early Cretaceous, this gave rise to other rifted troughs in the Cretaceous period. The gravity measurements suggest the existence of up warping of the Moho in the Nupe basin. A mantle rise of the order of 5 km was calculated. Models were fit to the residual Bouguer anomalies. The greatest sandstone thickness obtained from the models is about 3.5 km. The modeled lower crust rises to the surface between Minna and Paiko, and also near Kataeregi. The structural trend of this rise coincides with the trend of the quartz mica schist belt in the northeastern section of the surveyed area. Magnetic models lead to an estimated thickness of overburden in the basement complex area of about 10.4 km. An aeromagnetic map of a portion of the region indicates that magnetic minerals of economic importance are unlikely to be present in this area.

  4. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, M.'n.

    1994-11-01

    Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

  5. Staff Utilization and Commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fika, Ibrahim Baba; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Abdulrahman, Aishatu

    2016-01-01

    The study determines the relationship between staff utilization and staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine: the level of staff utilization in Borno State Colleges of Education, the level of staff commitment in Borno State Colleges of Education and the relationship between staff…

  6. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-12-15

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  7. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oke, I A

    2008-12-01

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  8. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  9. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  10. The Effective Management of Primary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria: An Analytical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the…

  11. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  12. Factors Responsible for Career Choice among Sampled Nigerian Teenagers in Bendel State of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    Male and female students in four urban locations of Bendel State of Nigeria were administered a questionnaire on choice of careers. The sample consisted of 640 students, 160 in each location ranging in age from 14 to 17. It was hypothesized that factors influencing career choice were money-yielding prospects, desire to work in state of origin,…

  13. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  14. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  15. State variations in women's socioeconomic status and use of modern contraceptives in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lamidi, Esther O

    2015-01-01

    According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. I examined the variations in women's socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women's socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women's participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria.

  16. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  17. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  18. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  19. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  20. In-School Adolescents and Career Choice: The Case of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakinle, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines in-school adolescents and career choices in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample consists of two hundred randomly selected parents and in-school adolescents from four local government areas in Ekiti State. Two hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistical analysis. The results showed…

  1. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.

  2. Economic burden of glaucoma in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce

  3. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  4. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

  5. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  6. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

  7. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  8. A Study of Power Relations in Doctor-Patient Interactions in Selected Hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores power relations in clinical interactions in Nigeria. It seeks to investigate the use of power between doctors and patients during consultations on patient-centred approach to medicine in selected public and private hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective is to establish how doctors' projection of power, using the…

  9. Nigeria and the United States: An Analysis of National Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-28

    George W. Bush made assessment that clear in a joint speech with President Yar’Adua in December 2007.79 More succinctly, Donald L. Heflin , U.S. DOS...powerpoint/Febpoll/NOI_GovtPriorities_ Feb08.pdf; Internet; accessed 16 March 2008. 58 Donald Heflin , “Political Dynamics Affecting the business...Internet; accessed 11 February 2008. 59 Usman, 3. 32 60 Heflin . 61 Usman S. Goni, “Towards the Development of Infrastructure for Nigeria,” linked

  10. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwankiti, O. O.; Ikeh, E. I.; Arowolo, O. A.; Nwankiti, A. J.; Odugbo, M. O.; Seuberlich, T.

    2013-01-01

    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrPSc, using Bio-Rad's TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown. PMID:26464913

  11. Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

  12. Principals' Administrative Styles and Students' Academic Performance in Taraba State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…

  13. Primary School Curriculum Reform in the Western State of Nigeria. IIEP Occasional Papers No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Michael Ade

    The need for change in the primary school curriculum in the Western State of Nigeria has been felt for some time, and efforts at curriculum reform have already been made. This paper examines some of these efforts with a view to identifying their merits and defects, especially in the absence of a permanent structure for curriculum development…

  14. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  15. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  16. Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

  17. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  18. Conditions Restraining the Teaching of Major Nigerian Languages in Secondary School in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…

  19. Information Methods of Human and Veterinary Medical Scientists (HVMS) in Borno State, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nweke, Ken M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of human and veterinary medical scientists in Borno State (Nigeria) that was conducted to determine their information-seeking behavior and to examine sources of information used. Problems in information gathering are discussed, including lack of relevant sources, and suggestions for improvements in information…

  20. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  1. Entrepreneurial Training Needs of Illiterate Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwu, Emmanuel U.; Okey, Stella-Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve on the curriculum and participation rate of adult learners in the current Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in Nigeria, this explorative study investigated the entrepreneurial (or vocational) training needs of illiterate women in Cross River State (CRS). Three research questions were posed to elicit from the participants…

  2. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  3. Laboratory Teaching: Implication on Students' Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigation of the roles of the laboratory in students' academic achievement in chemistry in secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A sample of 240 students selected through simple random sampling technique from ten secondary schools in the 3 Education Zones…

  4. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  5. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  6. Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Nwachukwu, Kelechukwu I.; Ali, Domiya Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The study determined Relationship between Students' Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Four hypotheses which determined the relationships between the components of expectancy beliefs: ability, tasks difficulty, and past…

  7. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  8. Business Studies Academic Performance Differences of Secondary School Juniors in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.

    2012-01-01

    The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…

  9. Analysis of Classroom Management Problems in Primary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oghuvbu, Enamiroro Patrick; Atakpo, Theresa Edirin

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies classroom management problems, their causes, and possible ways to reduce these problems in primary schools located in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 600 teachers selected from twelve local government areas participated in this study. Data were collected in a checklist containing 27 items and a two section questionnaire…

  10. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

  11. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  12. Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

  13. An Investigation on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Science in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakariyau, A. O.; Taiwo, Michael O.; Ajagbe, Olalere W.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the attitudes of secondary school students towards science in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred senior secondary school students consisting of 84 males and 116 females were selected from five secondary schools using stratified random sampling techniques. A 20-item Attitude to Science…

  14. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  15. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  16. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajoju, Samuel A.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement in children's education and the academic achievement of primary six pupils in Edo State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 1,895 primary six pupils (1,024 males and 863 females drawn from 37,908 primary six pupils in…

  17. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajoju, Samuel A.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement in children's education and the academic achievement of primary six pupils in Edo State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 1,895 primary six pupils (1,024 males and 863 females drawn from 37,908 primary six pupils in…

  18. Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emielu, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

  19. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  20. Assessing Principals' Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…

  1. Teachers' Perception on the Dimensions of Moral Decadence among Secondary School Students in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoku, Nkechi C.

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with teachers' perceptions on the dimension of moral decadence among secondary school students in Ebony state of Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey designed which aimed at finding teachers' perception on moral decadence among secondary school students. Ebonyi is the area of the study. Population of the study comprised…

  2. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

  3. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  4. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  5. Correlates of Examination Malpractice among Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animasahun, R. A.; Ogunniran, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlates of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The instrument used for the study was tagged Predisposing Factors towards Examination Malpractice Questionnaire (PFTEMQ). The instrument was administered to 300 students randomly selected from 20 multi staged…

  6. Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense

    1983-01-01

    Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

  7. Risk Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths among Indigenous Donkeys (Equus asinus) in Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Jajere, Saleh; Rabana Lawal, Jallailudeen; Mohammed Bello, Amina; Wakil, Yakaka; Aliyu Turaki, Usman; Waziri, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This survey study was conducted from April 2014 through March 2015 in Bauchi, Yobe, and Gombe states, northeastern Nigeria, to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminthosis among indigenous donkeys (Equus asinus). Materials and Methods. A total of six hundred fresh faecal samples were randomly collected from indigenous donkeys of varying age, sex, and settlements. Simple flotation and sedimentation techniques were used for the detection of helminths eggs. Results. Three gastrointestinal nematode parasites were encountered including Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. An overall prevalence of 98.3% was obtained, of which 78.3%, 40.3%, and 17.5% were, respectively, from Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. Age, sex, and season were not statistically associated with the risk of helminth infection as were the different study areas (p > 0.05). However, body condition score, settlement, anthelminthic medication history, and management practices were significantly associated with the risk of gastrointestinal helminthosis. Statistically high prevalence of helminthic infections was observed in donkeys, with poor (thin) body condition, from rural settlements, that were not dewormed and raised under poor management systems (p < 0.001). Conclusion. It is concluded from the study that gastrointestinal helminths particularly Strongyle were endemic among the indigenous donkeys in northeastern Nigeria. Further control and preventive measures were discussed. PMID:27366344

  8. The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O

    2014-09-01

    This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting the implementation of childhood vaccination communication strategies in Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Eteng, Glory; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2017-02-15

    The role of health communication in vaccination programmes cannot be overemphasized: it has contributed significantly to creating and sustaining demand for vaccination services and improving vaccination coverage. In Nigeria, numerous communication approaches have been deployed but these interventions are not without challenges. We therefore aimed to explore factors affecting the delivery of vaccination communication in Nigeria. We used a qualitative approach and conducted the study in two states: Bauchi and Cross River States in northern and southern Nigeria respectively. We identified factors affecting the implementation of communication interventions through interviews with relevant stakeholders involved in vaccination communication in the health services. We also reviewed relevant documents. Data generated were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. We used the SURE framework to organise the identified factors (barriers and facilitators) affecting vaccination communication delivery. We then grouped these into health systems and community level factors. Some of the commonly reported health system barriers amongst stakeholders interviewed included: funding constraints, human resource factors (health worker shortages, training deficiencies, poor attitude of health workers and vaccination teams), inadequate infrastructure and equipment and weak political will. Community level factors included the attitudes of community stakeholders and of parents and caregivers. We also identified factors that appeared to facilitate communication activities. These included political support, engagement of traditional and religious institutions and the use of organised communication committees. Communication activities are a crucial element of immunization programmes. It is therefore important for policy makers and programme managers to understand the barriers and facilitators affecting the delivery of vaccination communication so as to be able to implement

  10. Identification and prevalence of tetracycline resistance in enterococci isolated from poultry in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayeni, Funmilola A.; Odumosu, Bamidele Tolulope; Oluseyi, Adekola E.; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in Nigeria both for human and animal infections because of its cheapness and ready availability. The use of tetracycline in animal husbandry could lead to horizontal transfer of tet genes from poultry to human through the gut microbiota, especially enterococci. Therefore, this study is designed to identify different enterococcal species from poultry feces in selected farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria, determine the prevalence of tetracycline resistance/genes and presence of IS256 in enterococcal strains. Materials and Methods: Enterococci strains were isolated from 100 fresh chicken fecal samples collected from seven local poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria. The strains were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, amoxycillin/claulanate, and of loxacin were performed by disc diffusion method. Detection of tet, erm, and van genes and IS256 insertion element were done by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results: Sixty enterococci spp. were identified comprising of Enterococcus faecalis 33 (55%), Enterococcus casseliflavus 21 (35%), and Enterococcus gallinarium 6 (10%). All the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (100%), followed by tetracycline (81.67%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (73.33%), ofloxacin (68.33%), vancomycin (65%), and gentamicin (20%). None of the enterococcal spp. harbored the van and erm genes while tet(M) was detected among 23% isolates and is distributed mostly among E. casseliflavus. IS256 elements were detected only in 33% of E. casseliflavus that were also positive for tet(M) gene. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that tetracycline resistance gene is present in the studied poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria and underscores the need for strict regulation on tetracycline usage in poultry farming in the studied location and

  11. State Variations in Women’s Socioeconomic Status and Use of Modern Contraceptives in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamidi, Esther O.

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. Objective I examined the variations in women’s socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Methods Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. Results The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women’s socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women’s participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Conclusion Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria. PMID:26258578

  12. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy was awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.

  13. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu district.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1991-01-01

    A total of 2552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum-Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this State. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed. The study will fill the gap in our knowledge of filariasis in this part of Nigeria.

  14. Child sexual abuse in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: a sociological analysis.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the reported cases of child rape in Benin City, the capital of Edo State in Nigeria. The conditions that make children, particularly females, more vulnerable to sexual abuse are explored. The organization of family life places children in a dependency cycle that makes rape both inevitable and invisible. Change that is responsive to family needs is more likely to have a positive effect in preventing child rape.

  15. Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

    2010-09-01

    The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption.

  16. Communication strategies to promote the uptake of childhood vaccination in Nigeria: a systematic map

    PubMed Central

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the ‘Communicate to vaccinate’ (COMMVAC) project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study aims to: 1) identify the communication strategies used in two states in Nigeria; 2) map these strategies against the existing COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions; 3) create a specific Nigerian country map of interventions organised by purpose and target; and 4) analyse gaps between the COMMVAC taxonomy and the Nigerian map. Design We conducted the study in two Nigerian states: Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria and Cross River State in Southern Nigeria. We identified vaccination communication interventions through interviews carried out among purposively selected stakeholders in the health services and relevant agencies involved in vaccination information delivery; through observations and through relevant documents. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy to organise the interventions we identified based on the intended purpose of the communication and the group to which the intervention was targeted. Results The Nigerian map revealed that most of the communication strategies identified aimed to inform and educate and remind or recall. Few aimed to teach skills, enhance community ownership, and enable communication. We did not identify any intervention that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. Many interventions had more than one purpose. The main targets for most interventions were caregivers and community members, with few interventions directed at

  17. Communication strategies to promote the uptake of childhood vaccination in Nigeria: a systematic map.

    PubMed

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study aims to: 1) identify the communication strategies used in two states in Nigeria; 2) map these strategies against the existing COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions; 3) create a specific Nigerian country map of interventions organised by purpose and target; and 4) analyse gaps between the COMMVAC taxonomy and the Nigerian map. Design We conducted the study in two Nigerian states: Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria and Cross River State in Southern Nigeria. We identified vaccination communication interventions through interviews carried out among purposively selected stakeholders in the health services and relevant agencies involved in vaccination information delivery; through observations and through relevant documents. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy to organise the interventions we identified based on the intended purpose of the communication and the group to which the intervention was targeted. Results The Nigerian map revealed that most of the communication strategies identified aimed to inform and educate and remind or recall. Few aimed to teach skills, enhance community ownership, and enable communication. We did not identify any intervention that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. Many interventions had more than one purpose. The main targets for most interventions were caregivers and community members, with few interventions directed at health

  18. Communication strategies to promote the uptake of childhood vaccination in Nigeria: a systematic map.

    PubMed

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to: 1) identify the communication strategies used in two states in Nigeria; 2) map these strategies against the existing COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions; 3) create a specific Nigerian country map of interventions organised by purpose and target; and 4) analyse gaps between the COMMVAC taxonomy and the Nigerian map. We conducted the study in two Nigerian states: Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria and Cross River State in Southern Nigeria. We identified vaccination communication interventions through interviews carried out among purposively selected stakeholders in the health services and relevant agencies involved in vaccination information delivery; through observations and through relevant documents. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy to organise the interventions we identified based on the intended purpose of the communication and the group to which the intervention was targeted. The Nigerian map revealed that most of the communication strategies identified aimed to inform and educate and remind or recall. Few aimed to teach skills, enhance community ownership, and enable communication. We did not identify any intervention that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. Many interventions had more than one purpose. The main targets for most interventions were caregivers and community members, with few interventions directed at health workers. Most interventions

  19. Endemicity and striking manifestations of onchocerciasis in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edungbola, L D; Watts, S J; Kayode, O O

    1987-09-01

    A house-to-house screening exercise was carried out in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria, to determine the status of onchocerciasis in the town. The results of skin snips taken from 2018 subjects revealed that, with an overall infection rate of 54.6%, the community is mesoendemic for river blindness. The prevalence and intensity of the infection were significantly higher for adults than for children, for males than for females and for farmers than for other occupational groups (P less than 0.01). The severity and frequency of occurrence of striking manifestations of onchocerciasis, including blindness, hernias, hanging groins, 'leopard skin' and scrotal elephantiasis, strongly suggest that the community had a history of long-standing onchocerciasis. The desirability for the implementation of a nation-wide control programme in Nigeria to complement the ongoing control efforts in the Volta River Basin Areas, is highlighted.

  20. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  1. Oil, the state, and power politics: the political economy of Nigeria's foreign policy, 1960-80

    SciTech Connect

    Abubakar, D.

    1986-01-01

    This study deals with the misconception of policy makers about the place of a commodity in the international market, and the potential confusion of economic gains as a political leverage in the realm of foreign policy. Substantively, the study focuses on the orientation of Nigeria's foreign policy over a period of two decades (1960-80) and emphasizes the impact of oil wealth, along with the perception of such sudden wealth by relevant Nigerian decision makers, on the pattern of the country's behavior in the international system. By drawing pertinent insight from interdependence paradigm and decision-making theories, the thesis tests a central hypothesis that differences in the attributes of nation state actors will be related to variations in the foreign policy behavior patterns that the state will exhibit in the international arena. Oil, the thesis argues, has been an important determinant of Nigeria's diplomatic posture in the African sub-system. However, the sharp decline in oil prices affected Nigeria adversely. In terms of her foreign policy, the hitherto activist orientation of the 1970s gradually gave way to a rather low profile posture in the early 1980s.

  2. Rapid increases in obesity in Jamaica, compared to Nigeria and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Luke, Amy; Cooper, Richard S; Cao, Guichan; Dugas, Lara; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Boyne, Michael; Forrester, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Background Weight gain in adulthood is now common in many populations, ranging from modest gains in developing countries to a substantial percentage of body weight in some Western societies. To examine the rate of change across the spectrum of low to high-income countries we compared rates of weight change in samples drawn from three countries, Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States. Methods Population samples from Nigeria (n = 1,242), Jamaica (n = 1,409), and the US (n = 809) were selected during the period 1995–1999 in adults over the age of 19; participation rates in the original survey were 96%, 60%, and 60%, respectively. Weight in (kg) was measured on 3 different occasions, ending in 2005. Multi-level regression models were used to estimate weight change over time and pattern-mixture models were applied to assess the potential effect of missing data on estimates of the model parameters. Results The unadjusted weight gain rate (standard error) was 0.34(0.06), 1.26(0.12), 0.34(0.19) kg/year among men and 0.43(0.06), 1.28(0.10), 0.40(0.15) kg/year among women in Nigeria, Jamaica, US, respectively. Regression-adjusted weight change rates were significantly different across country, sex, and baseline BMI. Adjusted weight gain in Nigeria, Jamaica and US was 0.31(0.05), 1.37(.04), and 0.52(0.05) kg/year respectively. Women in Nigeria and the US had higher weight gains than men, with the converse observed among Jamaicans. The obese experienced weight loss across all three samples, whereas the normal weight (BMI < 25) had significant weight gains. Missing data patterns had an effect on the rates of weight change. Conclusion Weight change in sample cohorts from a middle-income country was greater than in cohorts from either of the low- or high-income countries. The steep trajectory of weight gain in Jamaica, relative to Nigeria and the US, is most likely attributable to the accelerating effects of the cultural and behavioral shifts which have come to bear on

  3. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    DAWAKI, Salwa; AL-MEKHLAFI, Hesham Mahyoub; ITHOI, Init; IBRAHIM, Jamaiah; ABDULSALAM, Awatif Mohammed; AHMED, Abdulhamid; SADY, Hany; ATROOSH, Wahib Mohammed; AL-AREEQI, Mona Abdullah; ELYANA, Fatin Nur; NASR, Nabil Ahmed; SURIN, Johari

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  4. Unique Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor with Haitian Type ctxB Allele Implicated in the Recent Cholera Epidemics from Nigeria, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Abiodun, Iwalokun Bamidele; Afolabi, Oluwadun; Kolawole, Olukoya Daniel; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Ramamurthy, Thanadarayan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for several cholera epidemics in Nigeria, are not reported in detail since 2007. In this study, we screened V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype isolates from cholera cases and water samples from different states to investigate their phenotypic and genetic attributes with special reference to their clonality. Results All the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolates isolated during 2007–2013 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, the drugs currently used in the treatment of cholera cases in Nigeria. Emergence of CT genotype 7 (Haitian type of ctxB allele) was predominantly seen among Ogawa serotype and the CT genotype 1 (classical ctxB allele) was mostly found in Inaba serotype. Overall, V. cholerae O1 from clinical and water samples were found to be closely related as determined by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. V. cholerae isolates from Abia, Kano and Bauchi were found to be genetically distinct from the other states of Nigeria. Conclusion Fecal contamination of the water sources may be the possible source of the cholera infection. Combined prevalence of Haitian and classical ctxB alleles were detected in Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively. This study further demonstrated that V. cholerae O1 with the ctxB has been emerged similar to the isolates reported in Haiti. Our findings suggest that the use of fluoroquinolones or tetracycline/doxycycline may help in the effective management of acute cholera in the affected Nigerian states. In addition, strengthening the existing surveillance in the hospitals of all the states and supply of clean drinking water may control cholera outbreaks in the future. PMID:27479360

  5. Unique Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor with Haitian Type ctxB Allele Implicated in the Recent Cholera Epidemics from Nigeria, Africa.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Akinsinde Kehinde; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Abiodun, Iwalokun Bamidele; Afolabi, Oluwadun; Kolawole, Olukoya Daniel; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Ramamurthy, Thanadarayan

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for several cholera epidemics in Nigeria, are not reported in detail since 2007. In this study, we screened V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype isolates from cholera cases and water samples from different states to investigate their phenotypic and genetic attributes with special reference to their clonality. All the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolates isolated during 2007-2013 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, the drugs currently used in the treatment of cholera cases in Nigeria. Emergence of CT genotype 7 (Haitian type of ctxB allele) was predominantly seen among Ogawa serotype and the CT genotype 1 (classical ctxB allele) was mostly found in Inaba serotype. Overall, V. cholerae O1 from clinical and water samples were found to be closely related as determined by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. V. cholerae isolates from Abia, Kano and Bauchi were found to be genetically distinct from the other states of Nigeria. Fecal contamination of the water sources may be the possible source of the cholera infection. Combined prevalence of Haitian and classical ctxB alleles were detected in Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively. This study further demonstrated that V. cholerae O1 with the ctxB has been emerged similar to the isolates reported in Haiti. Our findings suggest that the use of fluoroquinolones or tetracycline/doxycycline may help in the effective management of acute cholera in the affected Nigerian states. In addition, strengthening the existing surveillance in the hospitals of all the states and supply of clean drinking water may control cholera outbreaks in the future.

  6. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005-2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011 in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9-59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality.

  8. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbodi, T A; Atawodi, S E

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  9. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  10. Aquifer transmissivity and basement structure determination using resistivity sounding at Jos Plateau State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akaolisa, Casmir

    2006-03-01

    A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is undulating lying at depths between 30 m to 6.5 m. There is evidence of faulting and fracturing within the area. Computation of aquifer transmissivity values based on the results obtained made it possible to demarcate regions with good ground water potential in the area.

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in children in Oyo State, Nigeria: implications for infection sources.

    PubMed

    Ayinmode, Adekunle Bamidele; Fagbemi, Benjamin Olakunle; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in 43 children from Oyo State, Nigeria. Using nested polymerase chain reaction, 11.6% of the children were identified as positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing of the PCR products showed the presence of three subtype families of Cryptosporidium hominis (two isolates of Ia and one isolate of Ib) and Cryptosporidium parvum (two isolates of IIc), all anthroponotic in nature. This study identified a high diversity of Cryptosporidium subtypes and clearly suggested that anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission played a more important role in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in the studied area.

  12. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  13. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  14. Parental Involvement, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and…

  15. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  16. Assesment of Perceived Academic and Incentive Needs of Senior Secondary School Biology Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mulkah Adebisi; Moradeyo, Ismail; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Assessment of perceived academic and incentive needs of senior secondary school biology teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) biology teachers from the three senatorial district of Kwara State. A questionnaire was prepared, validated and used…

  17. Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

  18. Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

  19. Climate change in Lagos state, Nigeria: what really changed?

    PubMed

    Sojobi, Adebayo Olatunbosun; Balogun, Isaac Idowu; Salami, Adebayo Wahab

    2015-10-01

    Our study revealed periodicities of 2.3 and 2.25 years in wet and dry seasons and periodicities of 2 to 5 years on seasonal and annual timescales. Minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax) and evaporation recorded increases of 2.47, 1.37 and 28.37 %, respectively, but a reduction of 19.58 % in rainfall on decadal timescale. Periodicity of 8 to 12 years was also observed in annual Tmax. Cramer's test indicated a warming trend with significant Tmax increase in February, April, July, August, October and November during 2000-2009 on decadal monthly timescale, a significant decline in Summer rainfall but significant Tmax increase in Spring, Autumn and Winter on decadal seasonal timescale. The low correlation of rainfall with temperature parameters and evaporation indicates that advection of moisture into Lagos State seems to be the dominant mechanism controlling rainfall within the State alongside other tropical and extra-tropical factors. In addition, our study revealed that the persistent state of minimum temperature often precedes the arrival and reversal of the phase of maximum temperature. Furthermore, our study also revealed that extreme and high variable rainfalls, which are associated with the increased warming trend, had periodicities of 1 to 3 years with a probability of 86.45 % of occurring every 3 years between April and September. It is recommended that government and private sector should give financial and technical supports to climate researches in order to appropriately inform policy making to improve the adaptive capacity and resilience of Lagos State against climate change impacts and guard against maladaptation.

  20. TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL IN SECURITY CHALLENGED STATES OF NORTH-EAST NIGERIA. ARE THERE SIGNIFICANT IMPACT?.

    PubMed

    Gidado, M; Obasanya, J O; Onazi, J; Eneogu, R; Chukwueme, N; Joseph, K; Useni, S; Adejumo, A O

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria in the past few years is faced with various security challenges in different parts of the country. The most severe in the last three years has been the crisis in northern Nigeria and specifically the north-eastern States, where three of the States have been under emergency rule for a year. Health care delivery system is usually one of the major casualties in a security challenged environment leading to unavailability or low utilization of services.The aim of this paper is to share the experience of TB services in states under emergency rule. A retrospective review of program data (reportable indicators for TB case finding,TB/HIV and treatment outcome for periods of eight years (2006-2013) comparing national data with north-east and the three states most affected by security challenges (Borno, Adamawa & Yobe). A national positive trend on case notification for all forms of TB and smear positive, with a declined in 2011 but generally the case notification has remain low (59/100,000 in 2013 compared to estimated prevalence of 338/100,000). North east data is a negative trend for case notification and this is worse for 2 states (Borno and Yobe) while Adamawa shows and increase CNR from 2012 because of TB Reach active case, finding. Treatment success rate has a positive trend both national, north east states and in the 3 challenged states (TSR above 84%). TB/HIV indicators for north east are 81%, 75%, and 58% for HCT CPT and ART respectively, these figures has serious fluctuations within and among the three security challenged states with Borno most affected. Insecurity can pose a challenge for TB control activities especially case finding, therefore the need for innovative approaches for case finding in areas of insecurity. Chronic infectious diseases like TB and HIV should be incorporated into emergency responses offered by organisations and agencies for internally displaced persons.

  1. Socio Cultural and Geographical Determinants of Child Immunisation in Borno State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Immunisation has been an important strategy for disease prevention globally. Despite proven successes in other settings, child immunisation has continued to be problematic in developing countries including Nigeria. In addressing the problems, policy in Nigeria is largely directed at overcoming socio cultural issues surrounding parents’ rejection of vaccines. However, determinants of immunisation have geographical implications as well. A cross sectional survey was used to select 484 mothers/caregivers through a multi stage cluster sampling technique from the three senatorial districts of Borno State, Nigeria. Mothers or caregivers of children 12–23 months were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008). Socio cultural factors measured include mother’s education, religion, husband’s permission and sex of child while spatial variables include location i.e. whether rural or urban, and distance measured in terms of physical distance, cost and perception of physical distance. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the results. Data indicate that only 10.5% of children were fully immunised. Though immunisation uptake differed between the senatorial districts, this was not significant (P=0.1). In the bivariate analysis, mothers living in urban areas, <1 km to immunisation centre, their perception of travel distance and travel cost were the spatial predictors of immunisation while literacy and husband’s permission were the socio-cultural factors of significance. However, in the multivariate regression only two geographical factors i.e. living in an urban area [odds ratio (OR) 3.42, confidence interval (CI) 1.40–8.33] and mothers’ perception of distance (OR 4.52, CI 2.14–9.55) were protective against under immunisation while mother’s education was the only socio cultural variable of significance (OR 0.10, CI 0.03–0.41). It was concluded

  2. The EPI in Borno State, Nigeria: impact on routine disease notifications and hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Bondi, F S; Alhaji, M A

    1992-12-01

    An earlier report on the Nigerian expanded programme on immunization (EPI), covering 1974-1988, failed to demonstrate a clear-cut impact of the programme. This report attempts to determine the effectiveness of EPI in Borno State, Nigeria. We analysed trends in routine notifications for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, tuberculosis, measles, and pneumonia, from 1985 to 1991; data on poliomyelitis were excluded because of poor documentation, while we included data on pneumonia for comparison. We also performed a before (1983-1987) after (1988-1991) comparison in terms of the intensifications of EPI by age-specific strata amongst paediatric hospitalization for all EPI diseases at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, the sole referral hospital for childhood infectious diseases. Our results show an apparent reduction in morbidity from diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, measles and pneumonia, and this was particularly prominent following intense vaccinations between 1988 and 1991. The reduction in these EPI diseases and pneumonia occurred despite the prevailing adverse socioeconomic conditions, and the absence of a specific control strategy for pneumonia in Nigeria. On the other hand, in spite of national BCG coverage of about 90% there has been a recent (1989-1991) increase in the registered cases of tuberculosis in infants and older children in Borno State. There is a need to intensify other intervention measures alongside EPI activities.

  3. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Haruna M.; Kwanashie, Clara N.; Mshelia, Wayuta P.; Edeh, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes. PMID:27340592

  4. Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision. PMID:24711884

  5. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

  6. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  7. Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K.P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  8. Managing glaucoma in Lagos State, Nigeria - availability of Human resources and equipment.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, B J; Shah, S P; Adepoju, F G

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of data onthe human resourcesand ophthalmic equipmentavailable for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma in Nigeria. This study is aimed at describing the ophthalmic human resources, as well as available and functioning equipment used in diagnosing and managing glaucoma in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a prospective multicentre cross sectional study.Data on human resources and equipmentavailable were collected from all government tertiaryand secondary health institutions in the state. One large-practice private eye hospital in the state was included for comparative purposes. The average number of ophthalmologists per hospital was 1.3 and 4.5 in the secondary and tertiary centres respectively, with overall ophthalmologists to population ratio of 1:400,000, and ophthalmic nurses to population ratio of 1:150,000. There were only 2 full time low vision therapists and 3 equipment technicians. Only the private hospital had a dedicated patient counsellor and an eye unit manager. 64% of ophthalmic equipment in the government sector were functioning compared with 100% in the private centre. Overall, equipment to population ratios were; slit lamp=1:517,000, 78/90D lens=1:1,487,000, tonometer=1:660,000, visual field analyser=1:2,380,000, and pachymeter=1:5,950,000. Current population ratios for ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses in the state meets vision 2020 recommendations, but there are shortages of other key human resources such as equipment technicians, low vision therapists and patient counsellors. In addition, equipment required for the management of glaucoma wereinadequate, not available or not functioning. Findings from this study suggest that there is an urgent need for increased government funding to glaucoma services in Lagos State.

  9. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  10. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  11. Usability Assessment of Educational Software by Students: Case of "?Pón-Ìm?`" in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijani, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated usability of educational software: case of "?pón-Ìm?`" in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated influences of gender and school locations on students' assessment of "?pón-Ìm?`" Technology Enhanced Learning System (OTELS) based on selected usability parameters. 701 students were…

  12. A Perception of Examination Malpractice and Pupil's Academic Performance in Primary Science in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius-Ukpepi, Bernedette Umali; Enukoha, Obinna I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine perception of examination malpractice and academic performance in Primary Science among sixth grade in Cross River State, Nigeria. In order to achieve the set objectives of this study, three hypotheses were formulated and tested. Two instruments were used for data collection. They were perception of…

  13. Effectiveness of Blended Learning and Elearning Modes of Instruction on the Performance of Undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Ogunlade, O. Olufunmilola; Osunlade, Olourotimi Rufus

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of blended learning and E-learning modes of instruction on the performance of undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria. It also determined if the student performance would vary with gender. Quasi experimental that employs pretest, posttest, control group design was adopted for this study. This involves three…

  14. Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udim, Davies Kelvin; Etim, Eyo Akon

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of multimedia in teaching and learning of political science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A survey research was adopted and the tool employed for this research study was a questionnaire titled "Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo" (UMTLPSUU).…

  15. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  16. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  17. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  18. The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borode, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state…

  19. Western and Traditional Educational Background of Midwives and Delivery Pain Control among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Emon, Umoe Duke; Essien, N. C.; Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate western and traditional educational background of midwives with regard to their effectiveness in delivery pain control in Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. The study adopted the survey design. The sample consisted of 360 post-natal…

  20. Influence of Students' Understanding and Goal Commitment on Academic Achievement in Introductory Technology in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Godwin A.; Mbaba, Uduak G.; Udofia, Aniefiok E.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of students' understanding and goal commitment on their academic achievement in Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. An ex-post facto survey design was used and a random sample of 2,500 junior secondary three (13-14 years old) students from a population of 48,302 JSS three…

  1. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  2. Bio-Social Variables as Predictors of Teacher Union Leaders' Adherence to Democratic Principles in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejoh, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of bio-social variables - educational status, age and family socio-economic background on teacher union leaders' adherence to democratic principles in Ogun State of Nigeria. The study employed the ex-post-facto research design. Five hypotheses were generated and tested using an instrument titled "union…

  3. Nursery School Headteacher Leadership Behaviour Correlates of Nursery School Teachers Job Satisfaction in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clara, Okoroafor Nnenna

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on nursery school head teacher leadership behaviour as it correlates to nursery school teacher's job satisfaction. Data were collected through a scale and returned by sample of two hundred and fifty nursery school teacher's in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria.Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation…

  4. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  5. Entrepreneurship Education and Career Intentions of Tertiary Education Students in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Edet, Aniefiok Oswald

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on career intentions among 500 students drawn from two universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire titled…

  6. Violation of Students' Legal Rights as Correlate of Organization Climate in Imo State Secondary Schools, in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuna, M. C.; Mbonu, F. O.; Amanchukwu, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether violation of students' legal rights has relationship with organizational climate in secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and null hypothesis were put forward and tested in order to make one's decisions on the issues investigated. Relevant literature to the study was…

  7. Students' Perception of Factors Influencing Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Senior Secondary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauda, Bala; Jambo, Hyelni Emmanuel; Umar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined students' perception of factors influencing teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis of Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which students perceived: qualification, method of teaching, instructional materials and attitude of both…

  8. A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

    2012-01-01

    Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

  9. Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

  10. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  11. Students' Perception of Causes and Effect of Teachers' Psychological Abuse in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pur, Hamsatu Joseph; Liman, Mukhtar Alhaji; Ali, Domiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on the students' perception of the causes and effect of teachers' psychological abuse in senior secondary schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Different forms of psychological abuse, perceptions, causes and effect of psychological abuse were discussed. The main objective of the study is to determine the perception of…

  12. Impact of Cloud Services on Students' Attitude towards Mathematics Education in Public Universities in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of cloud services on students' attitude towards mathematics education in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study is the researcher-developed Cloud Service Impact Questionnaire--CSIQ (Cronbach Alpha Coefficient = 0.92). The…

  13. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  14. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  15. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  16. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Aging among the Aged in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojukwu, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) old people were selected through random sampling for the study.…

  17. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Students' Academic Performance in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Rivers State-Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagbor, Levi Doe

    2016-01-01

    The study examined factors that positively influence students' academic performance in public and private secondary schools in Rivers State-Nigeria. One research question addressed the objectives and problem of the study. The instrument used for the collection of data was the "Students' Academic Performance Questionnaire" (SAPQ),…

  18. Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

  19. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  20. Availability of Instructional Materials at the Basic Education Level in Enugu Educational Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukwu, Leo C.; Eze, Thecla A. Y.; Agada, Fidelia Chinyelugo

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the availability of instructional materials at the basic education level in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The research question was answered using mean and grand mean ratings, while the hypothesis was tested using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of…

  1. Molecular characterization of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans VNII isolates in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, N E; Enweani, I B; Cogliati, M; Ayanbimpe, G M; Okolo, M O; Kim, E; Sabitu, M Z; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are encapsulated yeasts able to cause fatal neurological infections in both human and other mammals. Cryptococcosis is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system and has a huge burden in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia. Bird excreta are considered an environmental reservoir for C. neoformans in urban areas, therefore a study aimed at isolating and characterizing this yeast is important in disease management. In this study, one hundred samples of pigeon droppings were collected in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. C. neoformans was isolated from three samples and initially identified using standard phenotypic and biochemical tests. Molecular analysis revealed that all three isolates belonged to C. neoformans genotype VNII, mating type α and were assigned to the sequence type ST43 by multilocus sequence typing analysis. This study reports, for the first time, the molecular characterization of C. neoformans in Nigeria, where little is still known about the environmental distribution of the genotypes, serotypes and mating types of this important human pathogen.

  2. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  3. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  4. Serological evidence of brucellosis in goats in kaduna north senatorial district of kaduna state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Sackey, A K B; Kazeem, H M

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria.

  5. Perceived causes and management of diarrhoea in young children by market women in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, H N; Iroegbu, C U; Uwaegbute, A C

    2000-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of mothers regarding the causes and management of diarrhoea of their children aged 0-24 months. In Enugu State, Nigeria, 80 market women whose children had diarrhoea during last 6 months were interviewed fortnightly. When possible, the children were observed to determine the types of diarrhoea and treatments given. Fifty-three of the women brought their children to market, and 27 left their children at home. Seventy-one percent of the mothers perceived that diarrhoea was caused by teething. The most common types of diarrhoea occurring in these children were watery diarrhoea (59%) and the so-called teething diarrhoea (29%). Dysentery (6%) and jedi jedi or frothy and mucoid stools (4%) occurred less frequently. In 68% of the cases, drugs were used alone or in conjunction with salt-sugar solution (SSS) or other forms of treatment. These drugs were prescribed by medical personnel (40%), patent medicine dealers (23%), or mothers themselves (30%). About 26% and 39% of the mothers treated, respectively, watery and teething diarrhoeas with drugs only, while 23% used SSS alone. The drugs used were mainly antimicrobials (34%) and a combination of antimicrobial, antimalarial, antacid, analgesic, and some local herbal preparations (21%). The results of the study showed the evidence of unnecessary use of drugs and ignorance about their potential adverse effects. These underscore the need for appropriate primary care education among the market women in Nigeria.

  6. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (p<0.05). There is dissimilarity in factors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  7. Response of patent medicine vendors in rural areas of Lagos state Nigeria to antimalarial policy change.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Abisoye; Ogunnowo, Babatunde; Odukoya, Oluwakemi

    2015-06-01

    Patent medicine vendors (PMVs) play an important role in the treatment of malaria, especially in the rural areas. Nigeria recently changed her antimalarial treatment policy from chloroquine to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). To determine the response of PMVs to the new policy. A baseline study was conducted in two local government areas (LGAs) of Lagos state Nigeria as the first phase in an intervention study aimed at improving the malarial treatment practices of PMVs in rural Lagos. A mixed method design involving a questionnaire survey of 180 PMVs and four key informant interviews were used. An antimalarial drug (AMD) audit was also performed. More than 80% of respondents were aware of the policy change in malaria treatment, but only 23.9% sold an ACT for the last case of malaria treated in an under five child. The main determining factor of the particular AMD sold was PMV's personal choice (70.6%). About half (58.9%) of the shops stocked ACTs, the newly recommended antimalarials. The high awareness of the policy change did not translate to a commensurate increase in the sale of the new drugs. Factors beyond the PMVs need to be addressed for a successful adoption of the new policy.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  9. Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. PMID:23762594

  10. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu District.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1992-08-01

    A total of 2,552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this state. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed.

  11. Bovine tuberculosis: a retrospective study at Jos abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Muhammad, Maryam; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Nguku, Patrick; Wasswa, Peter; Dairo, David; Cadmus, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria has the thirteenth highest burden of human tuberculosis. The current increasing incidence of tuberculosis in humans, particularly in immune-compromised persons, has given interest in the zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries like Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis as a background information for effective control measures in Plateau State in cattle population. Methods We reviewed surveillance records on cattle slaughtered and suggestive tuberculosis lesions from cattle slaughtered annually from 2007-2012 in Jos abattoir, Plateau State. Bovine tuberculosis cases at post mortem were based on examination of characteristics TB lesion on organs by Veterinary officers. We performed descriptive analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results A total of 52, 262 cattle were slaughtered from 2007-2012, out of which 4, 658 (11.2%) had evidence of tuberculosis lesion at post mortem. The average yearly prevalence was 9.1% but varied from a high of 16.3% in 2007 to a low of 3.1% in 2012. Trend analysis showed that bovine tuberculosis had a seasonal variation and peaked mostly in July and August. The number of suggestive Tb lesion cases was highest in the month of August and lowest in the month of January, 2007-2012. Conclusion This study shows that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Plateau State. Trend analysis showed that bovine tuberculosis is seasonal and peaked mostly in July and August. Continuous surveillance through meat inspection is required to prevent zoonotic transmission of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:28292159

  12. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Abubakar Sadiq; Bawa, Samuel Bitrus

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson’s Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Results: Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR) = 2.40; CI 1.24 – 4.67), belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 – 75.74) and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 – 10.52) are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG) 1 - eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 - universal basic education; MDG 3 - gender equality; and MDG 4 - maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach. PMID:27622001

  13. Nutritional status of urban and rural primary school pupils in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekekezie, O O; Odeyemi, K A; Ibeabuchi, N M

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in Lagos State in Ikorodu LGA (rural), a largely agrarian area producing raw materials for agro-allied industries and Ikeja LGA (urban), a highly-developed metropolis and commercial centre. Hitherto, studies showed that undernutrition had been the main form of malnutrition among Nigerian children. However with influences from urbanization, westernization and globalization in cosmopolitan Lagos, it is imperative to find out if the global epidemic of overweight and obesity has caught on. To compare the nutritional status of primary school pupils in urban and rural LGAs in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a cross , sectional comparative study. A multistage sampling method was adopted. Data were collected from 529 pupils with an interviewer administered questionnaire. Their weight and height were recorded in pre-designed proforma and converted to nutritional indices. The prevalence rates of underweight, stunting and wasting in the rural area were 49.6%, 50.8% and 24.2% respectively; while it was 15.1%, 16.6% and 13.6% in the urban area respectively. There was overnutrition in the urban area: 15.1% were overweight and 13.2% were obese. The mean nutritional indices were significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (p<0.001) in each case. Undernutrition is still a major health problem among school children in Lagos State, Nigeria, more so in the rural area. There is an emergence of overweight and obesity in the urban area. A comprehensive programme to improve nutritional status is recommended as part of a well funded school health programme.

  14. Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action

    PubMed Central

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Udenenwu, Henry Chukwuebuka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rubella cases are often under-reported, especially in many developing countries, owing to inadequate attention and weak funding of elimination strategies, despite being an epidemic-prone disease. Based on available data, this paper, therefore, seeks to bring the attention of public health practitioners, researchers and policy makers to threats of rubella in our environment, and also recommend measures to mitigate the threats. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which the laboratory results of febrile-rash-illness cases in Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were analysed, using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. We obtained the data set through the routine Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Response being conducted in Nigeria. Results A total of 413 febrile-rash-illness cases were reported and investigated in Kebbi State from 2014 to 2015, 5 (3.5%) tested positive for rubella IgM in 2014 while 7(2.6%) tested positive in 2015. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella between 2014 and 2015 (p> 0.05). Rubella infection was mainly found in children less than 5 years of age with peak incidence period during the hot season (between February and April). There was no significant sex bias in this study. However, our practice experiences in this environment suggest a systematic under-reporting and under-diagnosis of febrile- rash-illnesses. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella in children in our setting for the 2-years studied. However, there is a potential for increase in the transmission of the disease due to non-availability of routine childhood vaccination against rubella and the systematic under-reporting of suspected cases and weak laboratory support. In order to better appreciate the burden of rubella infection, there may be a need to undertake a prevalence survey, and

  15. Incidence of rubella in a state in North-western Nigeria: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Udenenwu, Henry Chukwuebuka

    2016-01-01

    Rubella cases are often under-reported, especially in many developing countries, owing to inadequate attention and weak funding of elimination strategies, despite being an epidemic-prone disease. Based on available data, this paper, therefore, seeks to bring the attention of public health practitioners, researchers and policy makers to threats of rubella in our environment, and also recommend measures to mitigate the threats. The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which the laboratory results of febrile-rash-illness cases in Kebbi State, Northwest Nigeria, from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were analysed, using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. We obtained the data set through the routine Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Response being conducted in Nigeria. A total of 413 febrile-rash-illness cases were reported and investigated in Kebbi State from 2014 to 2015, 5 (3.5%) tested positive for rubella IgM in 2014 while 7(2.6%) tested positive in 2015. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella between 2014 and 2015 (p> 0.05). Rubella infection was mainly found in children less than 5 years of age with peak incidence period during the hot season (between February and April). There was no significant sex bias in this study. However, our practice experiences in this environment suggest a systematic under-reporting and under-diagnosis of febrile- rash-illnesses. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of rubella in children in our setting for the 2-years studied. However, there is a potential for increase in the transmission of the disease due to non-availability of routine childhood vaccination against rubella and the systematic under-reporting of suspected cases and weak laboratory support. In order to better appreciate the burden of rubella infection, there may be a need to undertake a prevalence survey, and simultaneously, strengthening case

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ekiti State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 μg), oxacillin (1 μg), and cefoxitin (30 μg) was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30

  17. Treatment outcome and impact of leprosy elimination campaign in Sokoto and Zamfara states, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, B E; Tureta, S M; Udo, S O

    2001-06-01

    A Leprosy Elimination Campaign (LEC) was implemented in 37 districts of Sokoto and Zamfara states, Nigeria from 13 August to 30 November 1998. The campaign utilized intensive community mobilization and training of local health personnel to detect hidden leprosy cases. During 8 weeks of case finding, 160,127 persons were screened; 353 new cases of leprosy were detected and placed on MDT; 236 (67%) of new cases detected were classified as MB, 64 cases (18%) suffered visible deformities and 24 patients (6.8%) were children. Follow-up in December 1999 of patients placed on MDT revealed 97% PB and 96% MB cure rates, respectively. Detection of cases in communities led some community leaders to ask for repeat surveys in their communities. Repeat surveys continue to yield new cases. The authors recommend that LECs be maintained for 3 years to accelerate leprosy elimination in the region. The cost effectiveness and impact of LEC in Sokoto-Zamfara are discussed.

  18. Use of modern birth control methods among rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Ike; Obasi, O O

    2008-04-01

    This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of the respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. The most popular modern method was the condom (24.2%). This was followed by the IUD, used by only 2.5% of the respondents. Some of the identified factors that hindered the use of MBCM included perceived negative health reaction, fear of the unknown effects, cost, spouse's disapproval, religious belief and inadequate information. For a better understanding and utilization of MBCM, it is recommended that adequate educational campaign should be mounted in the rural areas on the advantages of MBCM. This campaign should target the men the more because they make the major decisions on MBCM use.

  19. Qualitative and Mineralogical Characterization of Lead Deposit in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyedika, G. O.; Onwukamike, K.; Onyenehide, C.; Ogwuegbu, M. O. C.

    A detailed mineralogical and elemental characterization of a lead (Pb) ore deposit from Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria was carried out with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES based mappingtechniques. The results show that the most dominant and valuable metal is lead (Pb = 95.02%, mass fraction). The main mineral is galena. Ilmenite and sphalerite occur as minors, which account for 2.71% and 0.80% respectively. Elements like Al, Ca, Mg, Ti, Na, Mn, Si and Sn occurred in trace amounts and are disseminated in the entire ore body. The surface and interrelations of the crystals were examined with x-ray mapping and the result shows the pattern of dissemination of the minerals within the ore body. (Keywords: Galena, Mineral, Lead, Characterization)

  20. Determinants and perception of cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school teachers in Oyo state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Familoni, I F; Familoni, O B

    2011-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are common. They constitute an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the risk factors may lead to attitudinal change with consequent reduction in prevalence. Secondary school teachers constitute a large literate workforce that has direct influence on students and indirectly on their parents and guardians. The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria and also the determinants of such knowledge. Three hundred and fifty eight secondary school teachers from the Akinyele local government of Oyo State Nigeria completed a questionnaire seeking such information as which diseases constitute CVD and also identify risk factors for CVD. The determinants of such knowledge were investigated by the log likehood ratio using logistic regression. Two hundred and fifteen civil servants matched for age, sex and qualifications were enrolled as controls. Of the 358 teachers, 12.3% were current smokers, 32.1% drank alcohol. More of the civil servant controls patronized fast food joints. Over 80% of the teachers performed exercise regularly, majority being 'walking' (66.2%). Hypertension (84.5%) and heart attack (87.6%) were the most correctly identified CVD. The least correctly identified was peripheral vascular disease (18.6%). The longer the years of teaching, specialization in pure science and being male the more likely the knowledge of sedentary living as a risk factor. Other variables that reached statistical significance include knowledge of stress, smoking and advanced age. Generally the knowledge of the teachers is inadequate about CVD and the risk factors. Qualification in pure science and years of teaching did not radically affect this knowledge. The knowledge base of the teachers needs to be improved.

  1. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. Methods A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Health facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. Conclusion The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State. PMID:27642401

  2. A public-private partnership to reduce tuberculosis burden in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asuquo, Anne E; Pokam, Benjamin D Thumamo; Ibeneme, Emmanuel; Ekpereonne, Esu; Obot, Valerie; Asuquo, P N

    2015-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection and spread are preventable, and TB disease is curable depending on individual and community knowledge of causes of the disease, mode of prevention and cure. An earlier educational intervention carried out in Akwa Ibom State (AKS) of Nigeria in 2006 created awareness of the disease and improved utilization of orthodox medical facilities of residents in 34 communities who had symptoms of TB. The overall aim of this program is to reduce the burden of TB disease in 18 communities of AKS through educational intervention, TB case detection and integration into the State National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme (NTBLCP), as well as build laboratory capacity to improve TB case detection and control. Prior to the educational intervention in each community, standard pretested questionnaires were administered to residents to test their knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning TB. Information about causes, symptoms and prevention of TB was disseminated in community town halls, churches, markets and schools. Individuals who were coughing for three weeks or more were investigated for TB following clinical examination by a physician. Three sputum samples (spot-morning-spot) were obtained from each individual and examined microscopically for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using the Ziehl-Neelson staining technique. Those with positive AFB results were integrated into the existing NTBLCP treatment facilities for immediate commencement of Directly-Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS). Treatment outcome was monitored by retesting patients' sputum after two, five and seven months. Two new laboratories were facilitated while existing laboratory capacity was built by providing higher resolution microscopes, power generating plants, refrigerators, locally-fabricated incinerators and furnishing of staff offices. The program was facilitated by a public-private partnership. Effective Health Care Alliance Research Programme (EHCARP-Nigeria

  3. Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high

  4. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2010-06-13

    Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0

  5. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  6. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2016-06-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  7. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2017-09-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  8. Dermatophytes from skin lesions of domestic animals in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Kennedy F; Majiagbe, Kehinde A; Kazeem, Haruna M; Ezeanyika, Ogechukwu; Agbo, Ifeoma C

    2012-12-01

    Dermatophytes are well-recognized cutaneous fungi with public health implications. In Nigeria, several studies have been carried out on dermatophytosis in humans; however, data on dermatophytes in animals are lacking. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and species of dermatophytes in skin lesions in domestic animals in Nsukka Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. Forty-six domestic animals (dogs, goats, sheep and pigs) presented for sale in the local markets in the study area and with suspected lesions of dermatophytosis were used for the study. Plucked hairs and epidermal scales from the skin lesions of affected animals were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar slants containing 0.05 mg/mL of chloramphenicol and 0.5 mg/mL of cycloheximide. Inoculated slants were incubated at room temperature (27°C) for up to 4 weeks and examined at 2-3 day intervals for fungal growth. Laboratory identification of the fungal isolates was based on their colonial, microscopic and biochemical characteristics. Of the 46 animals with suspected lesions of dermatophytosis, six (13.0%) were positive for a dermatophyte, and the following dermatophytes were identified: Microsporum gypseum, two of 12 sheep; Microsporum audouinii, one of 16 dogs; Trichophyton mentagrophytes, one of 16 dogs and one of 12 sheep; and Trichophyton schoenleinii, one of 13 goats. Anthropophilic dermatophytes are among the fungal agents associated with dermatophytosis in animals in Nsukka Agricultural Zone. These dermatophytes could constitute health risks to humans in contact with the animals. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Determinants of health care seeking behaviour during pregnancy in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akeju, David O; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Vidler, Marianne; Akinmade, Adepoju A; Sawchuck, Diane; Qureshi, Rahat; Solarin, Muftaut; Adetoro, Olalekan O; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2016-06-08

    In Nigeria, women too often suffer the consequences of serious obstetric complications that may lead to death. Delay in seeking care (phase I delay) is a recognized contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to describe the health care seeking practices in pregnancy, as well as the socio-cultural factors that influence these actions. The study was conducted in Ogun State, in south-western Nigeria. Data were collected through focus group discussions with pregnant women, recently pregnant mothers, male decision-makers, opinion leaders, traditional birth attendants, health workers, and health administrators. A thematic analysis approach was used with QSR NVivo version 10. Findings show that women utilized multiple care givers during pregnancy, with a preference for traditional providers. There was a strong sense of trust in traditional medicine, particularly that provided by traditional birth attendants who are long-term residents in the community. The patriarchal c influenced health-seeking behaviour in pregnancy. Economic factors contributed to the delay in access to appropriate services. There was a consistent concern regarding the cost barrier in accessing health services. The challenges of accessing services were well recognised and these were greater when referral was to a higher level of care which in most cases attracted unaffordable costs. While the high cost of care is a deterrent to health seeking behaviour, the cost of death of a woman or a child to the family and community is immeasurable. The use of innovative mechanisms for health care financing may be beneficial for women in these communities to reduce the barrier of high cost services. To reduce maternal deaths all stakeholders must be engaged in the process including policy makers, opinion leaders, health care consumers and providers. Underlying socio-cultural factors, such as structure of patriarchy, must also be addressed to sustainably improve maternal health. NCT

  10. Autonomy and Reproductive Rights of Married Ikwerre Women in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-02-28

    A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and reproductive rights amongst the Ikwerre women in Nigeria. While some educated women were aware of their reproductive rights, cultural practices were reported to limit the exercise of these rights. Participants reported that Ikwerre culture is a patriarchal one where married women are expected to submit and obey their husbands in all matters; and a good married woman according to Ikwerre standard is one who complies with this culture. Women's refusal of sexual advances from their husbands is described as not being acceptable in this culture; and hence rape in marriage is not recognized in Ikwerre culture. Education and awareness creation on the importance of women's reproductive autonomy could improve their reproductive rights and autonomy in marital settings. Overcoming the patriarchal aspects of Ikwerre culture-for example, the greater value placed on male children than female children and treating women as incompetent individuals-is necessary to promote gender equality as well as help improve women's reproductive autonomy.

  11. Epidemic yellow fever in Borno State of Nigeria: characterisation of hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Ekenna, O; Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Durojaiye, S O

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, an outbreak of a febrile illness with high mortality was reported in border villages, later spreading to other areas of Borno State of Nigeria. To present a report of the investigation of that outbreak, with emphasis on the characterisation of hospitalised patients. Selected centres reporting cases of acute febrile illness during the months of August to December, 1990 were visited, to establish surveillance. Case investigation forms were used to obtain clinical and demographic data; and blood samples were obtained from patients for analyses. Only hospitalised patients with adequate clinical information from three centres were included in the analysis. The outbreak, which involved five of the six health zones in the state, and spread into adjoining Gongola state and the Cameroun Republic, was caused by the yellow fever virus. Fever, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, jaundice and haemorrhage were the most common clinical manifestations of 102 hospitalised patients. Eighty -three (81%) of hospitalised patients died and most within two days of admission. CNS manifestations were more common in dying patients than in survivors. The reasons for this rare outbreak of yellow fever in the dry Savannah belt of Borno State remain unclear. Improved surveillance and more effective prevention strategies are needed to avert the recurrence of such outbreaks.

  12. Enhancing transit polio vaccination in collaboration with targeted stakeholders in Kaduna State, Nigeria: Lessons learnt: 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Musa, Audu; Abba, Bashir; Ningi, Adamu M I; Gali, Emanuel; Bawa, Samuel; Manneh, Fadninding; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Yehuluashet, Yared G; Tegegne, Sisay G; Umeh, Gregory; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Mohammed, Ado; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-10-10

    In Kaduna State of Nigeria, the high influx of people from neighboring states with eligible children for polio vaccination represents a significant proportion of the target population. Many of these children are often missed by the vaccination team. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of targeted stakeholders in transit polio vaccination. We used the trends of vaccinated children at transit points, motor parks and markets, well as total children vaccinated by transit teams in Chikun, Igabi and Sabon Gari Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kaduna State, Nigeria, four rounds before and after the introduction of transit polio vaccination with targeted stakeholders in Kaduna State. A total of 87,502 under-5 children were vaccinated by the various transit teams in the three LGAs, which accounted for 3.2% of the total 2,781,162 children vaccinated by the three LGAs. For transit point vaccination, the number of vaccinated children increased from 1026 to 19,289 (302%), while motor park vaccination increased from 1289 to 4106 (318%) and market vaccination increased from 10,488 to 14,511 (138%), four rounds after the introduction of transit polio vaccination with targeted stakeholders. Engagement of targeted stakeholders significantly enhanced transit polio vaccination in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of rare earth elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Arowolo, T A; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A

    2016-06-11

    Rare earth elements in our environment are becoming important because of their utilization in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, superconductors, rechargeable batteries, catalyst, ceramics and other applications. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of rare earth elements (REE) and the variability of their anomalous behavior in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. REE concentrations were determined in 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Lagos State groundwater is enriched with REE [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [0.365-488 (69.5 ± 117)] µg L(-1) than Ogun State groundwater [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [1.14-232 (22.6 ± 41.1)] µg L(-1). Boreholes are more enriched with REEs than wells. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (R = Pearson) was recorded in Lagos State groundwater between sum REEs and Fe (R = 0.55). However, there were no significant correlations between sum REEs, pH (R = 0.073) and HCO3(2-) (R = 0.157) in Ogun State groundwater. Chondrite-normalized plot shows that Lagos groundwater exhibits positive Ce anomaly, while Ogun State groundwater does not. The source of REE in Lagos State may be from the ocean and leaching from wastes dumpsites, while the source in Ogun State groundwater may be from the rocks.

  14. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2016-07-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  15. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  16. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2017-08-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  17. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  18. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state.

  19. Perceived causes of eclampsia in four ethnic groups in Borno State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    el-Nafaty, A U; Omotara, B A

    1998-04-01

    This study was conducted among the four major ethnic groups(Kanuri, Babur, Shuwa and Marghi) of Borno State, North-east Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify the perceived causes of eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal death in the State. The data were obtained through focus group discussions (FGDs), questionnaires and in-depth interviews. A total of 16 FGDs and 1,167 questionnaire interviews were conducted among the rural populace. In-depth interviews were conducted on relatives of thirty eclamptic patients admitted to the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The findings revealed that evil spirits/witches and wizards, poor nutrition, heredity early marriage, destiny from God and machinations of co-wives are the perceived causes of eclampsia in the area. These perceptions result in the use of the following as means of treatment: drinks of various concoctions, inhalation of smoked herbs in rooms, potash drinks, and the wearing of talisman around the neck. These perceptions and traditional medications have implications for design of educational and informational messages aimed at reducing maternal mortality from eclampsia in Borno State.

  20. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    ARDO, Mohammed B.; ABUBAKAR, Dauda M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  1. Potential health risks due to telecommunications radiofrequency radiation exposures in Lagos State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aweda, M A; Ajekigbe, A T; Ibitoye, A Z; Evwhierhurhoma, B O; Eletu, O B

    2009-01-01

    The global system mobile telecommunications system (GSM) which was recently introduced in Nigeria is now being used by over 40 million people in Nigeria. The use of GSM is accompanied with exposure of the users to radiofrequency radiation (RFR), which if significant, may produce health hazards. This is the reason why many relevant national and international organizations recommended exposure limits to RFR and why it is made compulsory for GSM handsets to indicate the maximum power output as a guide to potential consumers. This study was conducted to measure the RFR output power densities (S) from the most commonly used GSM handsets used in Lagos State and compare with the limit recommended for safety assessment. Over 1100 most commonly used handsets of different makes and models as well as wireless phones were sampled and studied in all over the local government areas of the State. An RFR meter, Electrosmog from LESSEMF USA was used for the measurements. The handsets were assessed for health risks using the reference value of 9 Wm(-2) as recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The range of the S-values obtained varied from a minimum of 1.294 0.101 Wm(-2) with Siemens model R228 to a maximum of 16.813 +/- 0.094 Wm(-2) with Samsung model C140*. The results from wireless telephones showed very low S-values ranging from a minimum of 0.024 +/- 0.001 Wm(-2) with HUAWEI and ST CDMA 1 to a maximum of 0.093 +/- 0.002 Wm(-2) with HISENSE. The results showed that the population in Lagos State may be at risk due to significant RFR exposures resulting principally from the use of GSM. Quite a number of handsets emit power above the ICNIRP recommended value. Measured RFR power close to Radio and Television masts and transmitters are within tolerable limits in most cases, only that the public should not reside or work close to RFR installations. Phone calls with GSM should be restricted to essential ones while youths and children

  2. An assessment of essential maternal health services in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saidu, Rakiya; August, Euna M; Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; Saka, Mohammed J; Jimoh, Abdulgafar A G

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the levels of emergency obstetrics care (EOC) signal functions in health facilities in a developing setting with high maternal morbidity and mortality indices and to determine if there are differences between public and private health facilities in terms of availability of these signal functions. A survey of health facilities was carried out in six of the 16 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kwara State Nigeria. All health facilities in these LGAs including public and private health facilities offering some services to pregnant women were surveyed using an interviewer- administered, facility-assessment questionnaire adapted from the WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF international guidelines for monitoring the availability and use of obstetric services. Frequency tables, percentages and charts were used for presenting the data. Comparing public and private facilities was done using chi-square tests. A total of 258 health facilities that provide maternal health services were surveyed in this study, out of which 76 (29.5%) were private facilities and 182 (70.5%) were public sector facilities. Most of the UN indicators were not met by the health facilities in Kwara state. The availability of EOC facilities was more among the private sector and this was statistically significant. This study shows that all stakeholders involved in reducing maternal mortality have a big challenge in the areas of availability, inequity in geographical distribution of EOC facilities and poor utilisation of these EOC services by women.

  3. Lymphatic filariasis among the Ezza people of Ebonyi State, eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E; Ajayi, Ezekiel G; Onwuliri, Celestine O; Okoro, Onuabuchi U; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Amajuoyi, Oliver U; Ikpeama, Chidinma A; Ogbusu, Fidelia I; Meribe, Chidozie O

    2005-01-01

    A total of 1,243 Ezza people living in 10 communities of Ebonyi State, eastern Nigeria were examined between July 2002-January 2003 for lymphatic filariasis. This is the first time a filariasis survey due to Wuchereria bancrofti has been carried out in this state. Of the 1,243 persons examined, 210 (16.9 %) had W. bancrofti microfilariae. Infection varied significantly among communities and ages (p < 0.05) but not sex-related (p > 0.05). The Ezza people are predominantly farmers and professional hired labourers. There was a close association between microfilaria rate and microfilaria -density in various age groups (r = 0.812; p < 0.01). Microfilaria density is an important measure in the epidemiology, treatment and control of human filarisis in this endemic foci. Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease include elephantiasis, hydrocoele, dermatitis and periodic fever. Clinical symptoms without microfilaraemia and microfilaraemia without clinical symptoms were also observed. Of 1,603 mosquitoes dissected, Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus showed infectivity rates of 6.3 %, 5.1 % and 6.0 % respectively. The affected persons and other key informants are unaware of the cause of the disease and attributed it to witchcraft, violation of taboo, bad water and food. Intervention strategies to be integrated into the on-going Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) project are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Ameh, Celestine A; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 - 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 - 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 - 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 - 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 1.0 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: (3)2) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 0.6 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: (3)2) in 2012. Case definitions are simple and understood by

  5. Community perceptions of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Akeju, David O; Vidler, Marianne; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Sawchuck, Diane; Qureshi, Rahat; von Dadelszen, Peter; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Dada, Olukayode A

    2016-06-08

    Pre-eclampsia is a complication of pregnancy responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. When undetected or poorly managed, it may progress to eclampsia which further worsens the prognosis. While most studies examining pre-eclampsia have used a bio-medical model, this study recognizes the role of the socio-cultural environment, in order to understand perceptions of pre-eclampsia within the community. The study was conducted in Ogun State, Nigeria in 2011-2012. Data were obtained through twenty-eight focus group discussions; seven with pregnant women (N = 80), eight with new mothers (N = 95), three with male decision-makers (N = 35), six with community leaders (N = 68), and three with traditional birth attendants (N = 36). Interviews were also conducted with the heads of the local traditional birth attendants (N = 4) and with community leaders (N = 5). Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed in NVivo 10 software. There was no terminology reportedly used for pre-eclampsia in the native language - Yoruba; however, hypertension has several terms independent of pregnancy status. Generally, 'gìrì âlábôyún' describes seizures specific to pregnancy. The cause of hypertension in pregnancy was thought to be due to depressive thoughts as a result of marital conflict and financial worries, while seizures in pregnancy were perceived to result from prolonged exposure to cold. There seemed to be no traditional treatment for hypertension. However for seizures the use of herbs, concoctions, incisions, and topical application of black soap were widespread. This study illustrates that knowledge of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are limited amongst communities of Ogun State, Nigeria. Findings reveal that pre-eclampsia was perceived as a stress-induced condition, while eclampsia was perceived as a product of prolonged exposure to cold. Thus, heat-related local medicines and herbal concoctions were the

  6. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B.; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Olayinka, Adebola T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. Introduction In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. Methods We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 – 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. Results According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 – 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 – 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 – 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 32), 1.0 (target: 32) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: 32) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 32), 0.6 (target: 32) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: 32) in 2012. Case

  7. Emergency Contraception: Awareness, Perception and Practice among Female Undergraduates in Imo State University, Southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojiyi, Ec; Anolue, Fc; Ejekunle, Sd; Nzewuihe, Ac; Okeudo, C; Dike, Ei; Ejikem, Ce

    2014-11-01

    Limited knowledge and practice of contraception is a global public health problem. Unintended pregnancies are the primary cause of induced abortion. When safe abortions are not available, as in Nigeria with restricted abortion laws, abortion can contribute significantly to maternal mortality and morbidity. Adequate information on the awareness and the use of emergency contraception is necessary for planning interventions in groups vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy. The aim of the following study is to access the awareness, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in Imo State University, South Eastern Nigeria. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey using female undergraduates selected randomly from Imo State University, Owerri. A total of 700 students participated in the study. Awareness of emergency contraception was very high (85.1%) (596/700). The awareness was significantly higher amongst students in health related faculties than in the non-health related faculties (P = 0.01). The main sources of information were through friends (43.1%) (317/700) and lectures (22.1%) (192/700). High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was the most commonly known type of emergency contraception (70.8%) (422/596). Only 58.1% (346/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception approved of their use. The major reasons given by the 41.9% (250/596) who disapproved of their use were religious reasons (50.4%) (126/250) and that they were harmful to health (49.2%) (123/250). Two-third (67%) (46 9/700) of the students were sexually active and only 39.9% (187/469) of them used emergency contraception. High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was again the most commonly used method (70.8%) (422/596). The most common situation in which emergency contraception was used was following unprotected sexual intercourse (45.5%) (85/144). Only 34.6% (206/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception identified correctly the appropriate time interval

  8. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in goats in selected states in Nigeria and the public health implications

    PubMed Central

    Ogugua, A.J.; Akinseye, V.O.; Ayoola, M.C.; Oyesola, O.O.; Shima, F.K.; Tijjani, A.O.; Musa, Aderemi N. A.; Adesokan, H.K.; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy A.; Moriyon, I; Cadmus, S.I.B.

    2015-01-01

    Available reports on brucellosis in Nigeria are largely confined to cattle while it is believed that other ruminants like sheep and goats are equally exposed to the disease. To have an insight into the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria, we conducted a cross-sectional study between June 2011 and May 2013 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats in some selected states in Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from goats at different locations and tested for antibodies to Brucella spp using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), samples positive by RBT were further subjected to Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Data collected to determine risk factors were also analysed using chi-square and logistics regression statistics. Out of a total of 2827 samples tested from the different states (Benue = 331; Borno =195; Oyo = 2155; Sokoto = 146), we recorded an overall seroprevalence of 2.83% (Benue = 17.30%; Borno = 2.05%; Oyo = 0.60% and Sokoto = 0.00%) by RBT. The cELISA further supported 9.45% (7/74) of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that the location (p = 0.004) and source (p < 0.0001); are probable risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of brucellosis with sex (p = 0.179); age (p = 0.791) and breed (p = 0.369) not playing any major role. Our findings reveal a relatively low seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats screened except for Benue State. Since most of the goats sampled in the present study were from the abattoirs, further farm level investigations are required to determine the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria since they share common environment with sheep and cattle that are natural hosts of Brucella species which are of major public health threat. PMID:26689681

  10. OS033. Correlates of maternal health outcomes associated with a low-costintervention in secondary facilities across Kano state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Ahonsi, B; Salisu, I; Oginni, A B; Okereke, E

    2012-07-01

    Nigeria has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. Eclampsia is a major contributor to the deaths especially in Northern Nigeria where the culture of teenage marriage is common. Kano is the state with the highest population in Nigeria. Despite its effectiveness, magnesium sulphate was been used to treat eclampsia and severe preclampsia in only one of 35 general hospitals inthe state as at 2007. In 2008, magnesium sulphate was introduced in 10 General Hospitals in Kano state of Northern Nigeria in a Population Council project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The aim of the study was to determine if the maternal outcomes improved. Doctors and midwives from the 10 hospitals were trained on the use of magnesium sulphate. The trained health workers later conducted step down trainings at their health facilities. Magnesium sulphate, treatment protocol, patella hammer and calcium gluconate were then supplied to the hospitals. Data was collected through structured data forms. The data was analysed using SPSS. Within a year of the project, 1045 patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia were treated. The case fatality rate for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia fell from 20.9% (95% CI 18.7-23.2) recorded before the project to 2.3% (95%CI 1.5-3.5) after the project. The perinatal mortality rate in those that received magnesium sulphate was 12.3% (CI 10.4-14.5) while the 5min APGAR score for 72.9% of the babies was 7 or more. Training of health workers on updated evidence based interventions and providing an enabling environment for their practice are key components to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in goats in selected states in Nigeria and the public health implications.

    PubMed

    Ogugua, A J; Akinseye, V O; Ayoola, M C; Oyesola, O O; Shima, F K; Tijjani, A O; Musa, Aderemi N A; Adesokan, H K; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy A; Moriyon, I; Cadmus, S I B

    2014-09-01

    Available reports on brucellosis in Nigeria are largely confined to cattle while it is believed that other ruminants like sheep and goats are equally exposed to the disease. To have an insight into the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria, we conducted a cross-sectional study between June 2011 and May 2013 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats in some selected states in Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from goats at different locations and tested for antibodies to Brucella spp using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), samples positive by RBT were further subjected to Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Data collected to determine risk factors were also analysed using chi-square and logistics regression statistics. Out of a total of 2827 samples tested from the different states (Benue = 331; Borno =195; Oyo = 2155; Sokoto = 146), we recorded an overall seroprevalence of 2.83% (Benue = 17.30%; Borno = 2.05%; Oyo = 0.60% and Sokoto = 0.00%) by RBT. The cELISA further supported 9.45% (7/74) of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that the location (p = 0.004) and source (p < 0.0001); are probable risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of brucellosis with sex (p = 0.179); age (p = 0.791) and breed (p = 0.369) not playing any major role. Our findings reveal a relatively low seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats screened except for Benue State. Since most of the goats sampled in the present study were from the abattoirs, further farm level investigations are required to determine the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria since they share common environment with sheep and cattle that are natural hosts of Brucella species which are of major public health threat.

  12. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-04-01

    The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.

  13. Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

    2009-12-01

    Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria.

  14. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of peste des petits ruminants viruses from North central States of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants is an endemic disease of sheep and goats in Nigeria and vaccination has been the method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported. This study was carried out to characterize PPR viruses from outbreaks in 2007 and 2009 from Kaduna and Plateau States. Results Of the 33 clinical samples analysed, 51.52% (n = 17) were positive for F protein gene primers (F1/F2). All the samples had a sequence similarity of 98-100% among them and 92-97% with the reference vaccine (Nig 75/1) strain. The deduced amino acid homology ranges between 96.3-99.7%. Phylogenetically all the Nigerian sequences cluster with Nig 75/1 and Nig 76/1 in lineage 1. Conclusions PPR is still a problem in Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. The strains involved were genetically closely related to the vaccine strain (Nig 75/1) used in the country. Based on this study, the continued outbreaks in the Country is not due to the efficacy of the vaccine. Therefore, to achieve effective control and possibly eradication of PPR in Nigeria, the current control strategies should be revisited. PMID:21726444

  15. Ambulance services of lagos state, Nigeria: a six-year (2001-2006) audit.

    PubMed

    Adewole, O A; Fadeyibi, I O; Kayode, M O; Giwa, S O; Shoga, M O; Adejumo, A O; Ademiluyi, S A

    2012-01-01

    Emergency medical care is designed to overcome the factors most commonly implicated in preventable mortality, such as delays in seeking care, access to health facility, and the provision of adequate care at the facility. The developed world has recognized the importance of organized emergency medical services and has well established systems. The Lagos State Government established the first emergency medical system in Nigeria in 2001. This was to review the activities of the Lagos State Emergency Ambulance Services (LASAMBUS) within the stated period with the hope that our findings can be used to audit the system and make recommendations for further improvement. We reviewed the records of the State Ministry of Health for the data on the activities of LASAMBUS from 2001-2006. The number and types of emergencies that were seen and managed with the associated morbidity and mortality were reviewed. The constraints that were encountered by the LASAMBUS staff were also studied. The data that was obtained was entered into a proforma designed for the study. Analysis of the data was done using the Microsoft Excel software. A total of 32,774 cases comprising 21,977(67.1%) males,10,797(32.9%) females and a male to female (M:F) ratio of 2.04:1, were seen during the study period. Trauma was responsible for 29,500 (90%) of the cases. No mortality was recorded during the transfer of the cases. The records of mortality for the LASAMBUS-transferred cases were not available. Trauma cases formed the majority of the cases that were seen with road traffic accident constituting a large proportion of these. Health education focusing on improving driving etiquette of Drivers and injury prevention should intensified. More equipped emergency centres should be established to reduce victims transit and injuryintervention time. Record keeping and documentations should be improved for better assessment of the activities.

  16. PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG FIREFIGHTERS IN RIVERS STATE, SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kingsley Enyinnah; Oraekesi, Chidi Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and firemen (firefighters) may be especially predisposed to it or even exacerbate pre-existing hypertension as a result of the nature of their job. This study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension among firemen in Rivers state, South-South Nigeria. Following ethical clearance, 125 consenting firemen of the Rivers State Fire Service were recruited in this descriptive cross sectional study. They responded to a pre-tested, structured, closed-ended self-administered questionnaire which probed their socio-demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice towards hypertension. Also, their blood pressures heights and weights were measured from where Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. A WalkThrough Survey for immediate work place situation and safety was carried out. Data collected were later analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tools. There was a 9.6% prevalence of hypertension among this group of workers in Rivers State. The workforce was essentially young with a modal age group of between 31-36 years. The attendant associated risk factors included altered sleep patterns, over weight and smoking which were all statistically significant P < 0.05. Whilst knowledge of hypertension was high (96%), the behaviour of respondents towards prevention and control of hypertension was poor. There is hypertension among firemen of the Rivers State Fire Service occasioned by modifiable risk factors despite adequate knowledge. It is recommended that intensive health education, early detection and treatment be instituted among this group of workers.

  17. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    PubMed Central

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and

  18. Adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamiselu, Oluyomi F; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Dairo, David; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Oladimeji, Abisola; Steven, Yoon

    2016-08-19

    Malaria case management remains a vital component of malaria control strategies. Despite the introduction of national malaria treatment guidelines and scale-up of malaria control interventions in Nigeria, anecdotal evidence shows some deviations from the guidelines in malaria case management. This study assessed factors influencing adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in public and private sectors in Ogun State, Nigeria. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 432 (216 public and 216 private) healthcare workers selected from nine Local Government Areas using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on availability and use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), for management of uncomplicated malaria. Adherence was defined as when choice of antimalarials for parasitological confirmed malaria cases was restricted to recommended antimalarial medicines. Association between adherence and independent variables were tested using Chi-square at 5 % level of significance. Malaria RDT was available in 81.9 % of the public health facilities and 19.4 % of the private health facilities (p = 0.001). Its use was higher among public healthcare workers (85.2 %) compared to 32.9 % in private facilities (p = 0.000). Presumptive diagnosis of malaria was higher among private healthcare workers (94.9 %) compared to 22.7 % public facilities (p = <0.0001). The main reason for non-usage of mRDT among private healthcare workers was its perceived unreliability of mRDT (40.9 %). Monotherapy including artesunate (58.3 % vs 12.5 %), amodiaquine (38.9 % vs 8.3 %) and chloroquine (26.4 % vs 4.2 %) were significantly more available in private than public health facilities, respectively. Adherence to guidelines was significantly higher among public healthcare workers (60.6 %) compared to those

  19. Nutritional status and intelligence quotient of primary schoolchildren in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O S; Ijadunola, K T

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 402 children (10-15 years) randomly selected from twelve public and private primary schools in Akure community of Ondo State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on children's demographic features and parent's socio-economic characteristics. The subject's weight, height, height-for-age and weight-for-height z-score were measured and determined respectively. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices consisted of 60 questions was administered in a quiet classroom within 60 minutes to assess intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children. The means of measured parameters were: age, 11.5 +/- 0.08 years; weight, 33.3 +/- 0.35 kg; height, 1.4 +/- 0.0 m; height-for-age z-score, -0.003 +/- 0.04; weight-for-height z-score -7.2E-7 +/- 0.1 and IQ, 20.9 +/- 0.56 (34.8%). The occupations of the children's parents were civil service (43.3%), petty business (21.9%), farming (15.8%), vocational jobs (16.0%) and none (3.2%). The majority of the parents (31.8%) had secondary school education. Parents with no formal education, primary education, tertiary education and higher degrees accounted for 7.2%, 30.6%, 22.9% and 7.4%, respectively. Monthly incomes ranged between $38.5 and 230.8. Weight-for-height z-score of the children showed that 49.8% were normal, 40% mildly wasted, 9.7% moderately wasted and 0.5% severely wasted. Height-for-age z-score was 50% normal, 35.1% mildly stunted, 13.4% moderately stunted and 1.5% severely stunted. IQ scores were 5% superior 11.2% above average, 11.4% average, 8.2% below average and 64.2% intellectual deficit. The interrelationship between height-for-age, IQ and socio-demographic characteristics showed that there were insignificant differences between the age groups, gender and socio-economic status of the pupils. Conclusively, this study showed that the proportion of malnourished and intellectual deficit among the studied population were high. However, it is not clear whether

  20. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  1. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  2. Lymphatic filariasis baseline survey in two sentinel sites of Ogun state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia Nkem; Davies, Emmanuel; Ogunmola, Olushola Omoniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Braide, Ekanem Ikpi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for Mass Drug Administration by National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme, a baseline epidemiological investigation on lymphatic filariasis (LF) was conducted in two sentinel sites of Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South Local Government Areas (LGAs) to determine LF prevalence, microfilarial density and the abundance of Wucheraria bancrofti in the mosquito vectors. Methods Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 299 and 288 participants from Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection and questionnaire administration were also conducted. Indoor resting mosquitoes were collected using the pyrethrum spray technique and CDC light traps and mosquitoes were dissected for filarial larvae. Results Microfilaria prevalences were 4.0% and 2.4% in Ado-odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs. The microflarial density (mfd) was 30.6mf/ml and 23.9 mf/ml in the same areas. No clinical manifestations of the infection were found at both sites. Knowledge of LF by inhabitants was very low in the two areas. Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex species mosquitoes were collected but none was found positive for stage L3 infective larvae. Conclusion Mass awareness campaigns on the goal of mass drug administration, cause of LF, mode of transmission, the relationship between infection and clinical signs/symptoms is advocated so as to increase acceptance and support of the control programme by the community. PMID:26185587

  3. A survey of anthropometry of rural agricultural workers in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India.

  4. Risk factors for optic nerve disease in communities mesoendemic for savannah onchocerciasis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cousens, S N; Yahaya, H; Murdoch, I; Samaila, E; Evans, J; Babalola, O E; Zakari, M; Abiose, A; Jones, B R

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmic examinations on 6831 individuals aged 5 years or more, living in 34 guinea savannah communities mesoendemic for onchocerciasis, in Kaduna State, Nigeria, revealed a relatively high prevalence (9%) of optic nerve disease (OND). Further investigations were performed to determine what proportion of this burden of OND might be due to onchocercal infection. Information on history of cerebro-spinal meningitis (CSM), past use of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and chloroquine, consumption of cassava and locally produced alcohol was collected for all individuals by questioning. In addition, a nested case-control study of 81 cases of OND and 136 age and sex-matched controls was performed to investigate whether syphilis or a variety of other neurological disorders were responsible for a substantial proportion of cases of OND. Our data suggest that in this population, onchocercal infection is the single most important cause of OND and may account for 50% of all cases. Some 13% of cases were associated with signs suggestive of glaucoma. DEC use might be responsible for up to 30% of all OND. We found no evidence to suggest that any of the following are important causes of OND in the communities studied: CSM, syphilis, neurological syndromes such as polyneuropathy or other generalized neurological disease, consumption of raw cassava, consumption of locally prepared alcohol.

  5. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: utilization of physiotherapy services in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2013-02-01

    Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed.

  6. Zika virus infections in Nigeria: virological and seroepidemiological investigations in Oyo State.

    PubMed Central

    Fagbami, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of Zika virus infections was carried out in four communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Virus isolation studies between 1971 and 1975 yielded two virus isolations from human cases of mild febrile illness. Haemagglutination-inhibition tests revealed a high prevalence of antibodies to Zika and three other flaviviruses used. The percentages of positive sera were as follows: Zika (31%), Yellow fever (50%), West Nile (46%), and Wesselsbron (59%). Neutralization tests showed that 40% of Nigerians had Zika virus neutralizing antibody. Fifty per cent of zika virus immune persons had neutralizing antibody to Zika alone or to Zika and one other flavivirus. A total of 121 sera had antibody to Zika virus; of these 48 (40%) also showed antibody to two other flaviviruses, and 12 (10%) had antibodies to three or more other viruses. The percentage of neutralizing antibodies to other flaviviruses in Zika virus immune sera was 81% to Dengue type 1, 58% to Yellow fever, 7% to Wesselsbron, 6% to West Nile and 3% to Uganda S. PMID:489960

  7. Perceived Effects of Occupational Hazards on Farmers' Productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akangbe, Jones Adebola; Komolafe, Sola Emmanuel; Oduwaiye, Muyiwa Olarinde

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the perceived effects of occupational hazards on farmers' productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis for empirical analysis were used. The results show common agricultural production to include maize, yam and cassava. The results also revealed prevalent occupational hazards that include cut/injury from farm tools, malaria due to mosquito bite, and general body pain. The findings further revealed that injury from farm tools and general body pain had high effects on agricultural productivity. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis showed no significant relationship (P≤0.05) between selected socio-economic characteristics with the perceived effects of occupational hazards on productivity. Based on the findings, the study concludes that occupational (farming) hazards, most especially general body pain, had negative effects on agricultural productivity. The study recommends that government and relevant agencies should encourage farmers by providing for them protective equipment at subsidized cost through extension agents who will train farmers on their use. Also, public health agents should educate farmers on personal health care practices in order to ensure good health status of farmers.

  8. Observations on the epidemiology of ruminant trypanosomosis in Kano State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kalu, A U; Lawani, F A

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of ruminant trypanosomosis was investigated during a two-year period in Kano State, Nigeria. Prevalence was 5.3 +/- 1.3% (mean +/- confidence interval), 1.2 +/- 1.6% and 0.7 +/- 1.3% in cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was higher during the second year (6.1%) than in the first (4.8%). Infections doubled during the rains (7.6%) in comparison with an average of 3.8% during the dry season. The northern guinea vegetational zone recorded a high infection rate (Tudun-Wada local government area (LGA), 16.7%). It was the only area in which tsetse flies (Glossina tachinoides) were encountered. Nevertheless, haematophagous flies were common in the sudan savanna; tabanids were ubiquitous. Trypanosoma vivax infected 3.0% of bovine herds and was responsible for 57.6% of all diagnosable cases. It is suggested that vector control in Tudun-Wada LGA and chemoprophylaxis may break the transmission cycle of ruminant trypanosomosis in the area.

  9. Cardiac risk indices of staff of Federal University Of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emerole, C O; Aguwa, E N; Onwasigwe, C N; Nwakoby, B A N

    2007-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases are the major health burden in the industrialized countries and are increasing rapidly in the developing countries owing to demographic transitions and changing lifestyles among the people. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasingly becoming a great cause of morbidity and mortality. A total of 100 senior and 141 junior staff in Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Imo State, Nigeria was randomly selected for a study on cardiac risk factors. A questionnaire was used to record cardiac risk indices like age, heredity, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, exercise, serum cholesterol estimation, systolic blood pressure and sex. There was no significant difference between the senior and junior staff in sex distribution (P = 0.71), family history of CVD (P = 0.34), smoking habit (P = 0.85) and serum cholesterol (P = 0.89). Senior staff had significantly higher values in age distribution (P < 0.001), presence of systolic hypertension (P<0.001) and overweight (P < 0.001). Senior staff workers, were however, significantly less involved in moderate exercise than junior staff (P < 0.001). The senior staff had a significantly higher total score in CVD risk scoring than junior staff (chi2 = 7.25; P = 0.01). In conclusion, the risk of CVD among staff of FUTO is high especially among the senior staff. Health education campaign targeted at improving life style is strongly recommended.

  10. Assessing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction and Utilization in Kano State, Nigeria, April-November 2015.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, Lynda U; MacNeil, Adam; Elmousaad, Hashim; Davis, Lora; Idris, Jibrin M; Haladu, Suleiman A; Adeoye, Olorunsogo B; Nguku, Patrick; Aliu-Mamudu, Uneratu; Hassan, Elizabeth; Vertefeuille, John; Bloland, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS). We determined factors impacting IPV introduction and the value of the RI module on monitoring new vaccine introduction. Two assessment approaches were used: (1) analysis of IPV vaccinations reported in NHMIS, and (2) survey of 20 local government areas (LGAs) and 60 associated health facilities (HF). By April 2015, 66% of LGAs had at least 20% of HFs administering IPV, by June all LGAs had HFs administering IPV and by July, 91% of the HFs in Kano reported administering IPV. Among surveyed staff, most rated training and implementation as successful. Among HFs, 97% had updated RI reporting tools, although only 50% had updated microplans. Challenges among HFs included: IPV shortages (20%), hesitancy to administer 2 injectable vaccines (28%), lack of knowledge on multi-dose vial policy (30%) and age of IPV administration (8%). The introduction of IPV was largely successful in Kano and the RI module was effective in monitoring progress, although certain gaps were noted, which should be used to inform plans for future vaccine introductions.

  11. Assessing the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Imogie, A O; Agwubike, E O; Aluko, K

    2002-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in modern health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 391 respondents comprising 48 TBAs, 309 childbearing mothers and 34 medical and para-medical professionals constituted the study sample. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions as well as validated questionnaires were the tools used for data collection. The results reveal that respondents believe that TBAs can play meaningful roles in family planning, screening of high-risk pregnant mothers, fertility/infertility treatment and maternal and child care services. Rural dwellers prefer to use the services of TBAs, as compared to their urban counterparts. Reasons for the preference included TBAs, availability, accessibility, cheap services and rural dwellers' faith in the efficacy of their services. There is, therefore, the need to restructure the training of TBAs as well as to fully integrate their services into the Nigerian orthodox healthcare delivery system especially as they affect rural settings.

  12. The bacteriological quality of traditional water sources in north-eastern Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, D.; Huttly, S. R.; Okoro, J. I.; Akujobi, C.; Kirkwood, B. R.; Feachem, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    Monthly bacteriological water testing of traditional water sources (ponds, rivers, unprotected springs and traditional wells) used by five villages in northeastern Imo State, Nigeria, was conducted during the period January 1983 to August 1985. The membrane-filtration technique was used to detect faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). Evidence of faecal pollution was seen throughout the year for all water sources. During the study period, the monthly geometric mean counts per 100 ml of water (all sources combined) ranged from 760 to 17877 for FC and from 678 to 17394 for FS. The peak period of faecal pollution occurred during the transition between the dry and wet seasons and in the early wet season. During this peak pollution season (February-May), the geometric mean counts were 2.5-7.2 times higher than in the remaining part of the year for all source types except rivers, with ponds being the most heavily polluted. Preliminary findings on the sensitivity and specificity, in this tropical environment, of the standard membrane-filtration technique for enumerating FC are presented. The implications of the findings of this study for the environmental control of waterborne and hygiene-related diseases are discussed. PMID:3678403

  13. Estimating the sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojimelukwe, Agatha E; Prakarnkamanant, Apisit; Rushton, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    This study identified characteristics of poultry farming with a focus on practices that affect the detection of HPAI; and estimated the system sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in commercial and backyard chicken farms in Bayelsa-State, Nigeria. Field studies were carried out in Yenegoa and Ogbia local government areas in Bayelsa state. Willingness to report HPAI was highest in commercial poultry farms (13/13) than in Backyard farms (8/13). Poor means of dead bird disposal was common to both commercial and backyard farms. Administering some form of treatment to sick birds without prior consultation with a professional was higher in backyard farms (8/13) than in commercial farms (4/13). Consumption of sick birds was reported in 4/13 backyard farms and sale of dead birds was recorded in one commercial farm. The sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI was assessed using scenario tree modelling. A scenario tree model was developed and applied to estimate the sensitivity, i.e. the probability of detecting one or more infected chicken farms in Bayelsa state at different levels of disease prevalence. The model showed a median sensitivity of 100%, 67% and 23% for detecting HPAI by passive surveillance at a disease prevalence of 0.1%, a minimum of 10 and 3 infected poultry farms respectively. Passive surveillance system sensitivity at a design prevalence of 10 infected farms is increasable up to 86% when the disease detection in backyard chicken farms is enhanced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. Results The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67 ± 3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24 ± 3.24, 10.76 ± 3.50 and 9.01 ± 3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p = 0.000), domain 3 (p = 0.029), domain 4 (p = 0.000) and total score (p = 0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r = 0.319, p = 0.000) and the number of weeks

  15. Insecticide - treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a state-wide net distribution campaign.

    PubMed

    Tobin-West, C I; Alex-Hart, B A

    2011-09-01

    Malaria presents a huge health and economic burden to families living in malaria endemic areas. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is one of the global strategies in decreasing the malaria burden on vulnerable populations. The use of ITNs reduces clinical malaria by over 50% and all cause mortality in children by 15-30% when the overall population coverage is >70%. This study was aimed at establishing the level of household insecticide -treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a statewide scale -up distribution campaign. A descriptive, cross - sectional study was carried out in the Rivers State in November 2008 among household heads or their proxies to serve as a pre -intervention baseline for the scale -up distribution of insecticide treated bednets in the state. The households were selected by a multi -staged sampling technique: first stage being the selection of Local Government Areas (LGAs) from Senatorial districts, second stage the selection of communities from LGAs and final stage the selection of households. Data were collected using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO/FMoH and analyzed using the Epi -Info version 6.04d statistical software package. Hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. A total of 811 household heads or their proxies were interviewed. Their age ranged between 20 and 70 yr, with a mean of 47.96 ± 4.39 yr. The study showed that although 552 (68.1%) of the households owned bednets, only 245 (30.2%, 95% CI=27.1-33.5) of them owned long -lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Similarly, only 37.2% of those who owned ITNs slept under them the night preceding the survey. Household ITN ownership and utilization were low in the state. Incorporating behavour change communication package as part of the ITN distribution intervention is advocated to increase ITNs utilization in the state.

  16. Anaemia is typical of pregnancies: capturing community perception and management of anaemia in pregnancy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Igweonu, Obianuju U

    2016-08-31

    Anaemia during pregnancy continues to constitute significant challenge to maternal health in Nigeria and contributes substantially to the worsening maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Nigeria despite a global reduction in MMR in response to effort to improve safe motherhood. The incidence of anaemia during pregnancy is still high (>40 %) in Nigeria, and attitudes and management practices are yet unclear as the peoples' understanding of the phenomenon remains unclear. This study explored the perceptions/attitudes on anaemia during pregnancy and practices to prevent and/or manage it in Anambra State. In-depth interview and focus group discussion data were collected from health workers and mothers who delivered within 6 months preceding the study and from mothers and husbands of women who delivered within 6 months preceding the study, respectively. The people expressed some knowledge of anaemia, being common in pregnancies. However, some expressed the view that anaemia being a typical sign of pregnancy cannot be prevented. Some mothers expressed desire for focused antenatal care services to control anaemia but lamented the attitude of the health workers, who make access to these interventions difficult. Control of anaemia in pregnancy should start with providing health education to pregnant women and their partners, who reinforce what the women are told during antenatal care, and with training health workers for friendlier attitudes to clients.

  17. A case study of community-based distribution and use of Misoprostol and Chlorhexidine in Sokoto State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Molly; Charyeva, Zulfiya; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Sambisa, William; Shoretire, Kamil; Orobaton, Nosa

    2016-04-21

    The United States Agency for International Development/Targeted States High Impact Project supported Sokoto State, Nigeria government in the development of a community-based intervention aimed at preventing post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) and cord infection among women and children, respectively. This paper describes the innovative intervention within the Nigeria health delivery system. It then explains the case study approach to assessing this intervention and summarises findings. Ultimately, the intervention was received well in communities and both drugs were added to the procurement list of all health facilities providing maternity services in the State. Key factors leading to such success include early advocacy efforts at the state-level, broad stakeholder engagement in designing the distribution system, early community engagement about the value of the drugs and concerted efforts to monitor and ensure availability of the drugs. Implementation challenges occurred in some areas, including shortage of community-based health volunteers (CBHVs) and drug keepers, and socio-cultural barriers. To maximise and sustain the effectiveness of such interventions, state government needs to ensure constant drug supply and adequate human resources at the community level, enhance counselling and mobilisation efforts, establish effective quality improvement strategies and implement a strong M&E system.

  18. Pregnancy detecting plants used in Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, Adediwura; Taiwo, Jolaade

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Background: Plants and plants extracts are employed in cultures for religious purposes, as beauty therapies, in the detection and management/treatment of diseases. Materials and Methodology: In this study, an ethnobotanical studies of plants used in detecting pregnancy in Ijebu and Remo areas of Ogun State were carried out using semi-structured to obtain demographic data, local names of plants, the morphological parts used. Furthermore, a phytochemical analysis of two of the identified plants was performed. Topical and urine tests of plants in detecting pregnancy were designed to mimic procedures used in traditional medicine for detecting pregnancy. Results: Five plant species were identified belonging to the families Araceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Rubiaceae in the survey. The identified plants had the use value (UV) of 0.25 (Culcasia scandens), 0.17 (Ipomoea mauritiana), Boerhavia diffusa while Launea taraxacifolia and Chassalia kolly had the UV of 0.08, respectively. B. diffusa L, C. kolly (Schumach) Hepper tested positive for the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. The onset and duration of symptoms of both B. diffusa and C. kolly leaves at 2000 and 1000 mg were dose-dependent. The hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of B. diffusa and C. kolly exhibited pruritus and restlessness in the in vivo model while the urine of pregnant women caused black spots on the leaves of L. taraxacifolia (Willd) Amin Ex. C. Jeffrey. Conclusion: This study reports a rare knowledge of using plants in detecting pregnancy in the Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. PMID:28163967

  19. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai; Hamisu, Tasiu Mallam; Ayo, Ajurojo Oluwaseun

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14), sex (males - 19 and females - 181), and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120) were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and microtiter agglutination test (MAT). Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%), 10 (5.0%) and 18 (9.0%) were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05). Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds. PMID:27847417

  20. Monitoring of mass distribution interventions for trachoma in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; King, Jonathan D; McPherson, Scott; Jip, Falam N; Patterson, Amy E; Mosher, Aryc W; Evans, Darin S; Emerson, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH). In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD) was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS) of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9-73.8%) by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96%) of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3%) of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA.

  1. Observations of barbers' activities in Oyo State Nigeria: implications for HIV/AIDS transmission.

    PubMed

    Salami, Kabiru K; Titiloye, Musibau A; Brieger, William R; Otusanya, Sakiru A

    In Nigeria, most studies concerning HIV/AIDS transmission have looked at the sexual route from both epidemiological and behavioral perspectives. A few have examined the role of blood transfusion and the potential for indigenous surgical practices. None have specifically looked at the transmission of potential barbers. This study distinguished between indigenous barbers who function as surgeons and "modern" barbers who cut hair, and focused on the latter through observations of barbering practices in 77 shops in Igbo-Ora and Apete communities in Oyo State. Igbo-Ora is headquarters of a rural local government, while Apete is a peri-urban community near Ibadan, the state capital. Five barbering sessions were observed in each shop using a checklist during evening hours when shops are busiest. All barbers used clippers to cut hair, either electric or manual. On average, barbers sterilized the clippers in a commercial disinfectant, Jik, or with methylated spirits prior to 4.2 barberings. Sex and age of customer were not associated with wether the clippers were sterilized. Three shop characteristics appeared to influence sterilization behavior. Clippers were more likely to be sterilized if the shop was in Apete, if the shop owner was male, and if the shop had two or more of the following electrical appliances: fan, TV, or radio/cassette layer. There were only two observed cases of the barbers causing a cut, and in both cases the clippers had been sterilized. Overall, 63 (16.3%) of the 385 customers were barbed with non-sterilized clippers. The relatively short time gap between customers implies that the potential for disease transmission exists, though it was not within the scope of this study to study disease transmission itself. In-service training that involves the barbers themselves and addresses both gender and town differences is recommended.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep and goats in Borno state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Mani, Aliyu U; Egwu, Godwin O

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 372 sheep and same number of goats from the three geopolitical zones of Borno state, Nigeria. The samples were tested for the presences of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of these, 6.7% (25/372) and 4.6% (17/372) of sheep and goats, respectively, were found to be seropositive to T. gondii antibodies, both far less than the estimated global average of 31%. Results were statistically analyzed by chi-square (chi(2)) test. The results showed that age, environmental conditions, and farm location are the main determinants of prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in the study area. Older animals (>3 years) are significantly more infected than younger animals (between 6 months and 1 year).The prevalence of anti T. gondii antibodies is significantly higher (P < 0.05) in both sheep and goats sampled from the southern zone than the northern zone. Animals from the southern zones are about four times more likely to be exposed to T. gondii infection than those in the northern zone, (sheep; odds ratio (OR) = 4.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.177-15.36, P = 0.018), (goats; OR = 4.38, 95% CI = 0.925-20.73, P = 0.04). Farm location in urban area was identified as a risk factor for sheep (OR = 6.06, 95% CI = 2.53-14.54, P = 0.000), and goats (OR = 4.99, 95% CI = 1.59-15.62, P = 0.004). Current data on prevalence of ovine and caprine T. gondii in Borno state are provided by the study as well as identifying the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in the area.

  3. Community participation in malaria control in olorunda local government area, osun state, southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, J O; Ntaji, M I; Oladele, E A; Bamimore, O K

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major health burden in developing countries and needs multiple strategies for its control. Community participation as one of the strategies for malaria control promotes self-awareness and confidence, causes the people to examine the problems and to think positively about the solutions. The study was aimed at assessing the level of community participation in malaria control in Olorunda local government area of Osogbo, Osun state, Nigeria. The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive design. Multi-staged sampling technique was used to choose 550 respondents. An interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Most of the respondents (65.0%) fell between the age ranges 20-39 years, with a mean age of 32.85 ± 12 years. Almost all (98.4%) respondents had knowledge of malaria with most of them (88.0%) correctly aware that mosquito bite could lead to malaria fever. Respondents stated that stagnant pool (92.6%) and refuse dump (89.0%) could predispose to malaria. About two-thirds (60.6%) of the respondents participated in the control of the breeding sites of mosquitoes on specific days for environmental sanitation. The association between community participation in health talk and community participation in malaria control was statistically significant (p<0.000). Although only 23.0% use ITN to protect themselves from mosquito bites, there was statistical significant association between awareness of respondents about ITN and its usage (p=0.003). Knowledge of respondents about malaria was high with majority participating in malaria control measures. However, the use of insecticide treated nets (ITN) was low. Therefore, it is recommended that continuous awareness creation on the use of ITN, and continued efforts aimed at elimination of breeding sites of mosquitoes should be adopted to achieve long term control of malaria.

  4. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ 2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  5. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  6. Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill.

  7. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  8. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

  9. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  10. Prevalence of malocclusion and occlusal traits among adolescents and young adults in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aikins, E A; Onyeaso, C O

    2014-03-01

    A systematic and well-organized dental care program for any target population in a community requires some basic information, such as the prevalence of the condition to be assessed. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among predominantly Rivers State adolescents and to compare the results with other authors. The sample which was randomly selected from seven secondary schools comprised 620 schoolchildren, 297 (48%) males and 323 (52%) females aged 13-20 years old with a mean age of 16.74 +/- 2.0 (SD) years. The children were examined for occlusal traits which included the occlusal antero-posterior relationship (Angles classification), overjet, overbite, openbite, crossbite, spacing and crowding. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) protocol was employed in their classrooms using wooden spatulae and orthodontic millimeter rulers under natural illumination. None of the subjects had undergone any form of orthodontic treatment. Results showed that about 11.8% had normal occlusions, 80.3% had Class I malocclusions, 6.3% had Class II malocclusions (Div 1, 3.9%; Div 11, 2.4%) and 1.6% had Class III malocclusions. About 70% had normal overjets, normal overbite was seen in about 56%, whilst in the maxillary arch 14.4% had crowding and 60% spacing. Open bite was present in 7.1% while crossbite was found in 17.1%. Significant gender differences were found for overbite, overjet and Angles classification (P < 0.05). Angles Class I malocclusion is the predominant occlusal pattern among these students. This finding compares favorably with other studies done in other parts of Nigeria.

  11. Pulmonary problems among quarry workers of stone crushing industrial site at Umuoghara, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwibo, A N; Ugwuja, E I; Nwambeke, N O; Emelumadu, O F; Ogbonnaya, L U

    2012-10-01

    Respiratory problem is one of the major health hazards in dust-exposed workers; it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. To determine the prevalence of respiratory problems and lung function impairment among quarry workers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Respiratory problems and lung function were studied in 403 quarry workers aged 10-60 years. Respiratory problems were investigated with a questionnaire based on international models adapted for the study population. Lung function was assessed by spirometry and chest roentgenography. The respiratory problems found were chest pain (47.6%), occasional cough (40.7%), occasional shortness of breath (6.5%) and wheezing (5.2%). The mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values were significantly decreased with length of exposure-respectively, 3.52±0.77 and 3.91±0.72 L for <5 years; 2.79±0.68 and 3.09±0.87 L for 5-10 years; and 2.03±0.92 and 2.86±0.83 L for >10 years of exposure. Moreover, the mean±SD FEV1 and FVC values of smoker (3.37±0.81 and 3.56±1.02 L, respectively) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of non-smokers (3.68±1.02 and 3.89±0.99 L, respectively) working in the quarry site. Chronic exposure to dust due to stone quarrying may increase the risk of respiratory problems and impaired lung function-cigarette smokers are at higher risk.

  12. Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

    2013-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ≥ 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level.

  13. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010.

    PubMed

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community.

  14. Sexual behaviour and inheritance rights among HIV-positive women in Abia State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enwereji, E E

    2008-04-01

    In developing countries, culture favours males for economic ventures more than females. There is evidence that allowing HIV positive women inheritance rights will mitigate negative economic consequences of HIV/AIDS and other related risks. This study aimed to examine the extent to which HIV positive women have access to family resources in Abia State, Nigeria. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview guides using 98 HIV positive women in network of people living with HIV/AIDS. Five key informants were also interviewed to authenticate women's responses. Results showed that 85 (86.7%) of the women were denied rights to family resources. Thirty-eight (64.4%) of them had negative relationship with their family members for demanding their husbands' property. Because of limited financial assistance, the women took two types of risks in order to survive in the communities. Twenty-five women (25.5%) earned their livelihood by acting as hired labourers to others in the farm. More that half (55.1%) of the HIV positive women were practicing unprotected sex. Although as high as 79.6% of women were aware of risks of unprotected sex, 54 (55%) of them practised it. The commonest reason for taking the risk was sex partners' dislike for condom use. The high proportion of HIV positive women who were denied access to family resources, could suggest lack of care and support. If this denial continues, Government's efforts to reduce HIV prevalence would yield no significant result. There is therefore need for organized community education programme that emphasizes the benefits of empowering women living positively with HIV/AIDS economically.

  15. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  16. Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Asaolu, Samuel O; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Badejoko, Bolaji O; Gyang, Vincent P; Nwafor, Timothy; Henry, Emmanuel; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-09-01

    Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 - 35kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR)=6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-29.90, p=0.02), contact with dogs (OR=3.17, 95% CI=1.40-7.20, p=0.01) and parent's religion (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.32-0.91, p=0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p=0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission

  17. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  18. Effect of Group Counselling on Attitude of Senior Secondary School Students' towards Schooling in Federal Government College Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audu, Amos; Ali, Domiya G.; Pur, Hamsatu J.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of group counselling on attitude of senior secondary school students' towards schooling in Federal Government College, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Two objectives were stated and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Experimental design was used for the study. The target…

  19. An Exploration of the Wider Costs of the Decision by the Rivers State Government in Nigeria to Revoke International Students' Scholarships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Queen Chioma

    2016-01-01

    In a move intended to cut costs to the state, the government of Rivers State has announced that it is revoking international scholarships for its young people studying overseas (except for final year students). Whether or not there are corresponding courses available for them back in Nigeria, some 600 students are effectively being recalled and…

  20. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  1. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  2. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  3. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  4. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  5. A critical needs assessment for collaborative ecotourism development linked to protected areas in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; John Neary; Blessing E. Asuquo

    2007-01-01

    Nigeria has abundant natural resources, and the nation, working with its partners over the years, has made large strides toward conservation of this natural wealth, but the future of Nigeria's natural resources remains uncertain.

  6. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated

  7. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2012-10-22

    Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents' attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward

  8. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    1998-04-20

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  9. Neurodevelopmental delay among children under the age of three years at immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria - Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Muideen O; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A; Munir, Kerim M; Ogun, Oluwayemi C; Eaton, Julian

    2016-04-29

    Late diagnosis and interventions characterize childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa. This has negatively impacted on the prognosis of the children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental delays among children under the age of 3 years attending immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria and also affords opportunity of early follow-up and interventions, which had been documented to improve prognosis. The study involved two stage assessments; which consisted of first phase screening of the children for neurodevelopmental delays in immunization clinics at primary healthcare centers Lagos State, Nigeria and second phase which consists of definitive clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions for children screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays. Twenty seven (0.9%) of a total of 3,011 children under the age of 3 years were screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays and subsequently undergoing clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions. Preliminary working diagnoses among these children include cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder trait, nutritional deficiency, Down syndrome and Non-specific neurodevelopmental delay with co-morbid seizure disorder accounting for 33.3%, 14.8%, 18.5%, 7.4% and 25.9% respectively. This is a preliminary report that would be followed up with information on medium and long term intervention phase.

  10. Careseeking for childhood diarrhoea at the primary level of care in communities in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, Oluranti

    2016-12-01

    Risk factors for care-seeking choices for childhood diarrhea in Nigeria are poorly understood. They are essential to the control of childhood illnesses because diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality. This study explored the contributors to care-seeking choices in Cross River State, Nigeria. Caregivers of children aged 0-59months in 1240 randomly selected households in Cross River State were involved in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on demographics, knowledge of illness, and care-seeking patterns, and observed associations were explored using logistic regression. Care was given at home (50.4%, n=142; as recommended), at the health center (27%, n=76), and at the local drug store (19.1%, n=54). Main reasons for care sought were health education (31.9%, n=94), treatment cost (18%, n=53), and experiences (16.6%, n=49). Caregivers living in the mainly urban area of Calabar Municipality [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.81 (1.26-6.26)] and the mainly rural area of Obanliku [AOR=3.59 (1.94-6.64)], were more likely to give home treatment. Choice of treatment was only associated with area of residence. Influencers of care-seeking behavior, especially for childhood diarrhea, are complex and need to be better understood to encourage enhanced care for young children with diarrhea.

  11. Child Survival Strategies: Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Rural Women of Reproductive Age in Cross River State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ofonime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Nigeria is one of the five countries that account for about 50% of under-five mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of child survival strategies among rural community caregivers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to obtain information from 150 women of reproductive age. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results. The child survival strategy known to most of the respondents was oral rehydration therapy as indicated by 98% followed by female education by 73.3% and immunization by 67.3%. Only 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of frequency of weighing a child while only 32.7% knew that breastfeeding should be continued even if the child had diarrhea. More respondents with nonformal education (83.3%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding of their last children compared to respondents with primary education (77.3%), secondary education (74.2%), and tertiary education (72.2%). Conclusion. Although respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge and practice of most of the strategies, there was evidence of gaps, including myths and misconceptions that could mar efforts towards reducing child morbidity and mortality in the state. PMID:27807452

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of HIV/AIDS among traditional birth attendants and herbal practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omowunmi, Ahmed; Nkiru, Odunukwe; Yekeen, Raheem; Chinyere, Efienemokwu; Muinat, Junaid; Segun, Adesesan; Olasubomi, Ogedengbe; Tekena, Harry; Lateef, Salako

    2004-11-01

    Recognising the widespread role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and herbal practitioners (HPs) in health care at community level in Nigeria, we set out to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to HIV infection and prevention. Questionnaires were administered to a convenience sample of 189 participants in 20 local government areas of Lagos State. We found that knowledge of modes of transmission of HIV was less than adequate and included lack of knowledge of the existence of HIV/AIDS amongst some practitioners, claims for the ability to treat HIV/AIDS, failure to name major avenues of transmission and confusion of HIV/AIDS with other conditions. The use of measures to prevent infection of clients and themselves showed that normal standards of infection control are not adhered to. Considering that as many as 60% of children born in Nigeria are delivered by traditional birth attendants and that use of the services of herbal practitioners extends across the entire society in both rural and urban settings, this is seen as reason for concern. It is suggested that better incorporation of TBAs/HPs into the well-developed primary health care system offers not only a way of overcoming the risks of infection posed by traditional health practices but also offers an opportunity to extend the reach of voluntary counselling and testing and prevention of mother-to-child infection programmes. The research has shown the need for appropriate training of TBAs, to enable them to recognise the risk of HIV infection in their own practices and to encourage them to adopt universal precautions against spreading infection. We also recommend that they be more extensively integrated as primary health care workers in VCT and PMTCT programmes in Nigeria. We further suggest that referrals made between the traditional practitioners and professional health care providers can be an effective and successful element of HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes.

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease in Nigeria: An Evaluation of the Spatial Accessibility to Healthcare for Diagnosed Cases in Edo State

    PubMed Central

    Oviasu, Osaretin; Rigby, Janette E.; Ballas, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing problem in Nigeria, presenting challenges to the nation’s health and economy. This study evaluates the accessibility to healthcare in Edo State of CKD patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2009. Using cost analysis techniques within a geographical information system, an estimated travel time to the hospital was used to examine the spatial accessibility of diagnosed patients to available CKD healthcare in the state. The results from the study indicated that although there was an annual rise in the number of diagnosed cases, there were no significant changes in the proportion of patients that were diagnosed at the last stage of CKD. However, there were indications that the travel time to the hospital for CKD treatment might be a contributing factor to the number of diagnosed CKD cases. This implies that the current structure for CKD management within the state might not be adequate. PMID:28299133

  14. Medical Rehabilitation of Leprosy Patients Discharged Home in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enwereji, Ezinne Ezinna; Ahuizi, Eke Reginald; Iheanocho, Okereke Chukwunenye; Enwereji, Kelechi Okechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the extent to which medical coverage is available to discharged leprosy patients in communities. Evidence has shown that after care services, follow-up visits and national disease prevention programs are important components of medical rehabilitation to leprosy patients discharged home after treatment. Denying them accessibility to these services could expose them to multiple disabilities as well as several disease conditions including HIV/AIDS. These adverse health conditions could be averted if health workers extend healthcare services to discharged leprosy patients. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which discharged leprosy patients have access to healthcare services in the communities. Methods All 33 leprosy patients who were fully treated with multi-drug therapy (MDT) and discharged home in the two leprosy settlements in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria were included in this study. The list of discharged leprosy patients studied and their addresses were provided by the leprosy settlements where they were treated. Also, snowball-sampling method was used to identify some of the leprosy patients whose addresses were difficult to locate in the communities. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire, interview guide and checklist. These were administered because respondents were essentially those with no formal education. Analysis of data was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Findings showed that 20 (60.6%) of discharged patients did not receive health programs like HIV/AIDS prevention or family planning. Also, follow-up visits and after-care services were poor. About 14 (42.4%) of the patients live in dirty and overcrowded houses. On the whole, discharged patients were poorly medically rehabilitated (mean score: 4.7±1.1 out of total score of 7). Conclusion Denying discharged leprosy patients opportunity of accessing health care services could increase prevalence of infectious diseases including HIV

  15. Helminthiasis and Hygiene Conditions of Schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekpo, Uwem Friday; Odoemene, Simon Nnayere; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi

    2008-01-01

    Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (χ2 = 18.85, df = 2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was

  16. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  17. Community based diabetes risk assessment in Ogun state, Nigeria (World Diabetes Foundation project 08-321)

    PubMed Central

    Alebiosu, Olutayo C.; Familoni, Oluranti B.; Ogunsemi, Olawale O.; Raimi, T. H.; Balogun, Williams O.; Odusan, O.; Oguntona, Segun A.; Olunuga, Taiwo; Kolawole, Babatope A.; Ikem, Rosemary T.; Adeleye, Jokotade O.; Adesina, Olubiyi F.; Adewuyi, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study assessed the risk of developing type 2 diabetes Mellitus in Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Finnish Medical Association diabetes risk score was administered across 25 communities facilitated by non-communicable disease clinics established under a World Diabetes Foundation project. Subjects in the high risk group had blood glucose estimated. Results: 58,567 respondents included 34,990 (59.6%) females and 23,667 (40.3%) males. Majority (61.2%) were between 25 years and 54 years. Considering waist circumference, 34,990 (38.1%) females and 23,667 (5.3%) males had values above 88 cm and 102 cm respectively. Overall, 11,266 (19.2%) were obese and 28.9% overweight using body mass index (BMI). More females had elevated BMI than males. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of all subjects were 129.54 mm Hg ± 23.5 mm Hg and 76.21 mm Hg ± 15.5 mm Hg respectively. Prevalence of hypertension (Joint National Committee VII classification) was 27.7%. More subjects had normal DBP than SBP (68.2% vs. 42.5% P < 0.05). Mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) of all subjects was 5.5 mmol/L ± 0.67 mmol/L. Using a casual blood glucose >11.1 mmol/L and/or FBG >7 mmol/L, the total yield of subjects adjudged as having diabetes was 2,956 (5.05%). Mean total risk score was 5.60 ± 3.90; this was significantly higher in females (6.34 ± 4.16 vs. 4.24 ± 3.71, P < 0.05). A total of 2,956 (5.05%) had high risk of developing DM within 10 years. Conclusion: The risk of developing DM is high in the community studied with females having a higher risk score. There is urgent need to implement diabetes prevention strategies. PMID:23961481

  18. Awareness of and Attitude towards glaucoma among an adult rural population of Osun State, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isawumi, Michaeline A; Hassan, Mustapha B; Akinwusi, Patience O; Adebimpe, Olalekan W; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Christopher, Alebiosu C; Adewole, Taiwo A

    2014-01-01

    To obtain baseline data and assess the level of awareness and attitudes towards glaucoma among rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. This was a community-based study that involved interviews and descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Serial-recruitment was performed of consenting participants who presented at a community-based screening service in March 2011. Socio-demographic data and information about glaucoma were obtained through face-to-face semi-structured questionnaires. The study population comprised 259 respondents (mean age 49.73 ± 16.6 years; range 18 to 90 years). There were 159 females (61.4%). Skilled workers were the most common 130/259 (50.3%) participants. Only 41 (15.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-20.2) participants had ever heard of glaucoma. Sources of information were from visits to an eye clinic for 21/41 (51.2%; 95% CI: 35.9-66.5) participants and 15/41 (36.6%) participants who know someone with glaucoma. Reponses to the causes of glaucoma included 20/41 (48.8%; 33.5-64.1) participant who said 'I don't know' and 24.4% of participants who responded 'curse-from-God'. Responses to questions on treatment included 20/41 (48.8%) participants who responded 'I don't know how it can be treated' and 10/41 (36.6%) said 'medically'. Thirty 30/41 (73.2%) participants would refuse surgery, half of them because 'it cannot cure or reverse the disease' while (26.7%) would refuse out of 'fear'. Only 8/41 (19.5%; 95% CI: 7.4-31.6) would accept surgery for maintenance. Statistically significant predictors of glaucoma awareness were older participants, males and skilled workers (teachers) (P = 0.028, P = 0.018, P = 0.0001, respectively). The outcomes of study indicate a low level of awareness of glaucoma. Health education at all levels of health and eye care services is required to prevent ocular morbidity and irreversible blindness from glaucoma.

  19. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (μg/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (μg/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd > As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health.

  20. Taboos of childbearing and child-rearing in Bendel state of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iweze, F A

    1983-01-01

    Certain marriage, childbearing, and child rearing practices within the Bendel State of Nigeria are outlined. In the rural communities early marriage is encouraged in order to ensure partners for eligible bachelors and "maidens of good repute." Childbearing and child rearing is incorporated within the framework of the extended family system, including monogamous and polygamous forms of marriages. Most marriages take place for the major purpose of childbearing. In Bendel State 2 types of birth attendants are prevalent. The traditional birth attendant (TBA) who does not have formal schooling and who acquires her skill and knowledge from either a relation or friend by means of an informal apprenticeship. In contrast the midwife has a formal--basic and professional--education and can only practice independently after passing the prescribed national examination and being registerd by the Nigerian Nursing and Midwifery Council. The midwife is responsible for the care of the woman during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum period. She is also responsible for the care of the baby during the same period and up to the age of 28 days. From the 3rd month of pregnancy onward, the midwife will carry out regular abdominal massage and palpation. This technique is used to loosen the nerves and relax the muscles, facilitating an easy pregnancy and delivery as well as correcting malpresentations. The mother to be will also make a paste with kola nuts and rub the paste on her abdomen every day to prevent thrush and other skin infections in the newborn baby. In the northern parts of the state, the young primigravida is sent to her parents for circumcision. This practice is dying out as the young mothers to be become more knowledgeable about the risk of infection and other problems. During pregnancy the husband tries to support all his wife's needs. The mother to be is encouraged to avoid places where people fight and quarrel so that the baby is peace loving when born. After

  1. Effects of Insecurity on Community Development Projects in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni and Ahoada East Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekola, G.; Enyiche, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the effects of insecurity on community development projects in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni and Ahoada East Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions and one null hypothesis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a population of 3,211 members of various Community Based…

  2. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Effective Leadership in Schools for Children with Blindness or Low Vision in the United States and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Paul M.; Oyinlade, A. Olu

    2016-01-01

    In this project, the authors used the Essential Behavioral Leadership Qualities (EBLQ) method of measuring leadership effectiveness to assess and compare the effectiveness of principals (leaders) of residential schools for children with blindness or low vision in the United States (U.S.) and Nigeria. A total of 248 teachers (subordinates) in 25…

  3. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  4. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  5. Impact of In-Service Training and Staff Development on Workers' Job Performance and Optimal Productivity in Public Secondary Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejoh, Johnson; Faniran, Victoria Loveth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of in-service training and staff development on workers' job performance and optimal productivity in public secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post-facto research design. Three research questions and three hypotheses were generated and tested using questionnaire items adapted from…

  6. Teacher Self-Efficacy Enhancement and School Location: Implication for Students' Achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durowoju, Esther O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the effect of teacher self-efficacy enhancement and school location on students' achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the study. Four Local Government Areas (two…

  7. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  8. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  9. Assessment of the Availability, Utilization and Management of ICT Facilities in Teaching English Language in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Hanna Onyi; Maina, Bashir; Dare, Michael Omotayo

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the availability, utilization and management of ICT facilities in teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A questionnaire titled "Availability, Utilization and Management of Information and Communication Technology in teaching…

  10. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  11. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  12. Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

  13. Bridging Policy Implementation Gaps in Nigerian Education System: A Case Study of Universal Basic Education Programme in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbiji, Joseph Etiongbie; Ogbiji, Sylvanus Achua

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on identifying policy gaps in the implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Nigeria, with Cross River State being the study area. The three research questions used for the research center on the extent of the freeness of the UBE, the extent to which the programme has stimulated educational consciousness…

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical cancer among women in an urban community of Kwara State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Durowade, K A; Osagbemi, G K; Salaudeen, A G; Musa, O I; Akande, T M; Babatunde, O A; Raji, H O; Okesina, B S; Fowowe, A A; Ibrahim, O O K; Kolawole, O M

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide with a high incidence in under-developed countries and Nigeria is one of these countries. This study aimed at screening for cervical cancer using Papanicolaou smear and to identify risk factors for cervical cancer among women in Olufadi community, Kwara State, North-central Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women aged 25-64 years for cervical cancer using Papanicolaou smear. Respondents were selected through systematic random sampling of households. Interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data. In addition, Pap smear samples were taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Only 10 (5.0%) respondents had positive cytology result, while the rest were normal. Of the 10 positive cytology results, 1 (10.0%) was high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) while the remaining 9 (90.0%) were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) which corresponds to 0.5% and 4.5% of the total respondents respectively. Risk factors for cervical cancer identified included coitarche, tobacco smoking, number of sexual partners and family history of cervical cancer. The findings from this study attest to the increasing burden of cervical cancer. The high number of positive results obtained from the study coupled with the presence of risk factors was an indication of how useful regular screening will be in the early detection of cervical cancer.

  15. Socio-environmental factors and ascariasis infection among school-aged children in Ilobu, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Ofoezie, I E; Obiezue, R N N

    2009-03-01

    The risk factors predisposing children to ascariasis transmission in a rural community of Osun State, Nigeria were investigated from November 2005 to April 2006. Children below 16 years of age were examined at the household level after information on biodata, access to water supply and sanitation, socio-economic status of their parents and degree of cohabitation with their parents was collected using a questionnaire. Of 440 children examined, overall prevalence was 60% and median intensity was 1548 eggs per gram (epg) (min. 48 epg; max. 55464 epg). Infection patterns were gender comparable and age dependent, with peak prevalence (67.8%) occurring in children aged 5-9 years and peak median intensity (4368 epg) in children aged >or=15 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was influenced by patterns of water supply and sanitation, parents' educational background, number of biological parents living with a child and number of playmates a child has. These findings suggest that socio-environmental risk factors which play a role in disease transmission need to be taken into account when formulating sustainable control strategies for ascariasis and other intestinal parasites in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  16. Parents' perceptions of timing of initiation of sexuality discussion with adolescents in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emelumadu, O F; Ezeama, N N; Ifeadike, C O; Ubajaka, C F; Adogu, P O U; Umeh, U; Nwamoh, U N; Ukegbu, A U; Onyeonoro, U U

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the perception of the timing and practice of sexuality discussion among parents in South Eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional, descriptive, community-based study. The study was carried out in 3 randomly selected Local Government Areas in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria. The study participants were parents with adolescent children resident in the study areas for at least 2 years. Most parents opined that sexuality discussion should be initiated after puberty. Only 20% of them discussed reproductive health issues often with their adolescents, while another 20% never discussed such issues with their adolescent children. Topics most commonly discussed bordered on the adverse consequences of sex rather than measures for preventing them. About half of parents were willing to discuss contraception with their adolescent child. Predictors of parent-child communication were age, gender, and educational status. Common reasons for low parental involvement in sexuality discussions were due to their lack of capacity and the perception that discussing such issues before puberty is ill timed. Therefore, measures should be taken to improve the capacity of parents to engage in such conversations to provide sexuality information to their teens. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  18. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a

  19. Causes, Effects and Strategies for Eradicating Cultism among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria--A Case Study of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udoh Victoria; Mag, Ikezu Uju Joy

    2015-01-01

    The issue of cultism has in spite of many efforts at reducing it, soared up in the Nigeria's tertiary institutions. Cultism has cast gloom over the educational sector. It is repeatedly said that the youths are the future leaders but it is a little wonder what the future holds for the youth of this country which has a good proportion of her youth…

  20. Nigeria: A Study of the Educational System of Nigeria and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alan M.

    Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of Nigerian students in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the education system of Nigeria. Following an historical summary of the Nigerian's education system, information is provided on Nigerian primary education, secondary education, external examinations,…

  1. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  2. The Economic Burden of Malaria on Households and the Health System in Enugu State Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uguru, Nkoli; Etiaba, Enyi; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Adjagba, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD) and outpatient department visits (OPD) were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. Results From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6%) had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS). Conclusion Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system. PMID:24223796

  3. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  4. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Benue State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Musa, Danladi I; Toriola, Abel L; Monyeki, Makama A; Lawal, Badamasi

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate demographic variation in the prevalence of overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) among 3240 children and adolescents (girls: n = 1714; boys: n = 1526) aged 9-16 years attending primary and secondary schools in Benue State of Nigeria. Participants' anthropometric characteristics (body weight, stature, body mass index: BMI and lean body mass: LBM) were determined using standard protocols. OW and OB were estimated using International Obesity task Force diagnostic criteria. Data were analysed with one-way anova and binary logistic regression method. Overall, 88.5%, 9.7% and 1.8% of the adolescents had normal BMI and were OW and obese, respectively. Prevalence of OW was higher among girls (20.3%) than boys (16.2%), whereas a relatively higher incidence of OB was noted among the boys (3.5%). Girls in urban areas had a significantly higher BMI (t524 = 3.61, P = 0.002) than their rural peers, but the rural girls were more significantly OW than their urban counterparts (BMI: t1186 = 2.506). Logistic regression models assessing the influence of age, gender and location on OW/OB in children (α(2) (3, N = 1014) = 6.185, P = 0.103) and adolescents (α(2) (3, N = 2226) = 1.435, P = 0.697) did not turn up significant results. In the gender-specific analysis, the younger boys' model was also not significant (α(2) (2, N = 488) = 1.295, P = 0.523) in contrast to the girls' (α(2) (2, N = 526) = 15.637, P = 0.0005), thus discriminating between OW and healthy weight among the children. Overall, the model explained 2.9-4.4% of the variance in weight status and correctly classified 76.8% of the cases. Age wise, the model yielded a significant odds ratio of 1.49, suggesting that the likelihood of being OW increases by a factor of 1.5 with a unit increase in age. Also, the likelihood of an urban girl becoming OW or obese was 0.57 times that of a rural girl. In general, girls in urban areas had higher prevalence of OW and OB than girls in

  5. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of hypertensive patients in Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O S; Keshinro, O O

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% females), was purposely selected from the study centres. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic parameters, nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of the subjects. The quantities of subjects' dietary intakes were measured using household measurements. Weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured using electronic bathroom scale, standiometer and sphygmomanometer, respectively. The subject's urine was collected; and vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the following means: age 52.4 +/- 2.38 years, weight 66.4 +/- 1.63kg, height 1.64 +/- 0.01m, body mass index (BMI) 24.13 +/- 0.69kg/m2, SBP 124.86 +/- 2.3mmHg and DBP 76.22 +/- 1.86 mmHg. Blood pressure (BP) of the subjects showed that 46.9% had optimal BP, 14.2% normal BP, 11.5% high normal BP, 12.8% mild hypertension, 9.7% moderate hypertension and 4.9% severe hypertension. For BMI, 8.8% were underweight, 47.1% normal, 30.3% overweight, 6.0% obesity class I, 6.0% obesity class II and 1.8% obesity class III. The proportion of hypertensive subjects that were obese was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than control subjects. Three-fifth of the control subjects had good nutrition knowledge compared to one-fifth of hypertensive subjects. The estimated mean energy intake was 8.46 MJ, protein 93.1g, carbohydrate 314.5g, fat 42.9g, fibres 5.6g and appreciable amount of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The subjects' urinary vitamin C concentration was 32.49 +/- 2.53mg

  6. Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State.

    PubMed

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Atroosh, Wahib M; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Sady, Hany; Elyana, Fatin Nur; Adamu, Ado U; Yelwa, Saadatu I; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Subramaniam, Lahvanya R; Nasr, Nabil A; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2016-07-08

    Malaria is one of the most severe global public health problems worldwide, particularly in Africa, where Nigeria has the greatest number of malaria cases. This community-based study was designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of malaria and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding malaria among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted on 551 participants from five local government areas in Kano State. Blood samples were collected and examined for the presence of Plasmodium species by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films, and PCR. Moreover, demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. A total of 334 (60.6 %) participants were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. The prevalence differed significantly by age group (p < 0.01), but not by gender or location. A multivariate analysis showed that malaria was associated significantly with being aged 12 years or older, having a low household family income, not using insecticide treated nets (ITNs), and having no toilets in the house. Overall, 95.6 % of the respondents had prior knowledge about malaria, and 79.7, 87.6 and 95.7 % of them knew about the transmission, symptoms, and prevention of malaria, respectively. The majority (93.4 %) of the respondents considered malaria a serious disease. Although 79.5 % of the respondents had at least one ITN in their household, utilization rate of ITNs was 49.5 %. Significant associations between the respondents' knowledge concerning malaria and their age, gender, education, and household monthly income were reported. Malaria is still highly prevalent among rural Hausa communities in Nigeria. Despite high levels of knowledge and attitudes in the study area, significant gaps persist in appropriate preventive practices, particularly the use of ITNs

  7. The effectiveness of combined control measures on the prevalence of guinea worm disease in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwaorgu, O C

    1991-09-01

    The prevalence of guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis was determined in communities in Anambra State, Eastern Nigeria during the 1984-1985 guinea worm season. Thereafter combined intervention measures which included health education and community participation in pond treatment were introduced in one of the two communities. There was a decrease in disease prevalence from 88.7% to 33% in Group A (372 households) and from 88% to 53% in Group B (368 households), two years after control measures were introduced in Igbeagu community. However, in 345 households in Mpu community without control measures, any decrease was not significant (from 88.7% to 86.5%). Health Education combined with pond disinfection proved to be a much better intervention measure, contributing to the change in attitude and therefore decrease in disease prevalence, than pond disinfection alone.

  8. Empowering teachers to change youth practices: evaluating teacher delivery and responses to the FLHE programme in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Nombuso; Okoro, Felicia; Ekhosuehi, Uyi Oni; Esiet, Adenike; Lowik, A J; Metcalfe, Karen

    2012-06-01

    School-based programming is one of the most common approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention among youth. This paper presents the history and development of the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme in Edo State, Nigeria and results of evaluation of teacher actions and responses to training in its delivery. Results indicate that teachers benefited from the training, were aware of new and/or existing teaching resources and began to teach about HIV/AIDS. Teachers expressed that the programme facilitated open dialogue about HIV/AIDS. However, given limited human resources, FLHE was viewed as additional work to already overloaded teaching schedules. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education channel resources to enhance teachers' efforts towards combating HIV/AIDS. To facilitate learning about sexual health and family life, it is recommended that FLHE-based training be viewed as the first rather than the only step towards teacher professional development in this area.

  9. Knowledge of nutritional and health needs of children among rural residents of Enugu north senatorial zone in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Ngwu, Christopher N; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2015-01-01

    The article assessed knowledge of the nutritional and health needs of children among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were conducted with all male and female groups in four purposively chosen rural communities in Nsukka Senatorial zone of Enugu State. These generated data on participants' knowledge on the nutritional and health needs of the children as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. All the participants were married with mean age of 41 and 36 years for males and females, respectively. The participants had six and four children on the average for male and female participants, respectively. Findings show that participants demonstrate knowledge of basic dietary needs of children; however, actual practice is lacking. Men believe women have the sole responsibility for children's nutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding is not adhered to by participants. Some reservation still exists about immunization. Sustained health education on exclusive breastfeeding and child immunization targeting both sexes is still needed.

  10. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from

  11. Benchmarking health system performance across states in Nigeria: a systematic analysis of levels and trends in key maternal and child health interventions and outcomes, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Wollum, Alexandra; Burstein, Roy; Fullman, Nancy; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2015-09-02

    Nigeria has made notable gains in improving childhood survival but the country still accounts for a large portion of the world's overall disease burden, particularly among women and children. To date, no systematic analyses have comprehensively assessed trends for health outcomes and interventions across states in Nigeria. We extracted data from 19 surveys to generate estimates for 20 key maternal and child health (MCH) interventions and outcomes for 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory from 2000 to 2013. Source-specific estimates were generated for each indicator, after which a two-step statistical model was applied using a mixed-effects model followed by Gaussian process regression to produce state-level trends. National estimates were calculated by population-weighting state values. Under-5 mortality decreased in all states from 2000 to 2013, but a large gap remained across them. Malaria intervention coverage stayed low despite increases between 2009 and 2013, largely driven by rising rates of insecticide-treated net ownership. Overall, vaccination coverage improved, with notable increases in the coverage of three-dose oral polio vaccine. Nevertheless, immunization coverage remained low for most vaccines, including measles. Coverage of other MCH interventions, such as antenatal care and skilled birth attendance, generally stagnated and even declined in many states, and the range between the lowest- and highest-performing states remained wide in 2013. Countrywide, a measure of overall intervention coverage increased from 33% in 2000 to 47% in 2013 with considerable variation across states, ranging from 21% in Sokoto to 66% in Ekiti. We found that Nigeria made notable gains for a subset of MCH indicators between 2000 and 2013, but also experienced stalled progress and even declines for others. Despite progress for a subset of indicators, Nigeria's absolute levels of intervention coverage remained quite low. As Nigeria rolls out its National Health Bill and

  12. Assessment of Mobile Health Nursing Intervention Knowledge among Community Health Nurses in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Titilayo, Odetola D; Okanlawon, F A

    2014-09-01

    Maternal mortality is high in Nigeria especially in rural areas due to knowledge deficit about expected care and labour process, socio-cultural belief, health care workers' attitude, physical and financial barriers to quality health care access. Mobile health (m-health) technology which is the use of mobile telecommunication devices in health care delivery reduces costs, improves care access, removes time and distance barriers and facilitates patient-provider communications needed to make appropriate health decisions. Previous studies empowering nurses with m-health knowledge resulted in improved uptake of health care services. There exists a literature dearth about knowledge and perception of nurses in Nigeria. This study became expedient to empower nurses working at the grassroots with the knowledge of m-health and assess the impact of educational training on their perception of its effectiveness. This quasi-experimental study carried out in four randomly selected LGAs across Oyo South Senatorial district involved participants at experimental (20 nurses) and control levels (27 nurses). A validated 25-item questionnaire explored nurses' perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness of m-health in improving uptake of maternal health services in Nigeria among both groups before intervention. Intervention group nurses had a training equipping them with knowledge of m-health nursing intervention (MNHI) for a period of one week. Their perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness were re-assessed at three-months and six-months after MHNI. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and repeated measures ANOVA at 5% significance level. In the EG, knowledge score significantly increased from 21.9±4.5 at baseline to 23.6±4.6 and 23.2±5.6 at three-month and six-month respectively while there was no significant difference in knowledge score among CG over the study period. A very significant difference was shown in the knowledge and perception of mobile health and its

  13. Serological and Virological Evidence of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus Circulation in the Human Population of Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bukbuk, David N.; Dowall, Stuart D.; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Bosworth, Andrew; Baba, Saka S.; Varghese, Anitha; Watson, Robert J.; Bell, Andrew; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite several studies on the seroprevalence of antibodies against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) from humans and cattle in Nigeria, detailed investigation looking at IgG and IgM have not been reported. Additionally, there have been no confirmed cases of human CCHFV infection reported from Nigeria. Principal Findings Samples from sera (n = 1189) collected from four Local Government Areas in Borno State (Askira/Uba, Damboa, Jere and Maiduguri) were assessed for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies. The positivity rates for IgG and IgM were 10.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Additionally, sera from undiagnosed febrile patients (n = 380) were assessed by RT-PCR assay for the presence of CCHFV RNA. One positive sample was characterised by further by next generation sequencing (NGS) resulting in complete S, M and L segment sequences. Conclusions This article provides evidence for the continued exposure of the human population of Nigeria to CCHFV. The genomic analysis provides the first published evidence of a human case of CCHFV in Nigeria and its phylogenetic context. PMID:27926935

  14. Pattern of skin diseases at university of Benin teaching hospital, Benin city, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: a 12 month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ukonu, Agwu Bob; Eze, E U

    2012-04-28

    This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/ Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi's sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. The current pattern of skin diseases in Benin City, South-South Nigeria seems to

  15. Lecturers' Awareness and Utilization of Instructional Media in the State-Owned Colleges of Education, South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakomogbon, Micheal Ayodele; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke Kofo

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the awareness and utilization of instructional media (IM) based on gender of the lecturers of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was a descriptive type of survey research. All lecturers of Colleges of Education in Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria formed the population. Some 621 lecturers were randomly selected.…

  16. Managing the Recurrent Cost of University Education in Nigeria: A Case of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Abimbola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    The education sector especially higher education in Nigeria faces financial challenges. The recurrent cost of university education constitutes about 95% of the total cost incurred by the government in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government is unable to meet the UNESCO recommendation that 26% of national budgets should be allocated to education.…

  17. Willingness to seek HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, A K; Brieger, W R; Mafe, M A; Adeneye, A A; Salami, K K; Titiloye, M A; Adewole, T A; Agomo, P U

    HIV counseling and testing (CT) is slowly being introduced as one of several key components of the comprehensive package of HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Nigeria, particularly in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A cross-sectional survey of 804 women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in Ogun State, Nigeria was done using questionnaires to assess their willingness to seek and undergo CT and know the determinants. Focus group discussions were also held in the general community: 84.3% of respondents believed in AIDS reality, while 24.3% thought they were at risk of HIV infection. Only 27% knew about MTCT, while 69.7% of 723 who had heard of HIV/AIDS did not know about CT. Only 71 (8.8%) had thought about CT and 33 (4.5%) mentioned HIV testing as one of antenatal tests. After health education on CT, 89% of the women expressed willingness to be tested. Their willingness for CT was positively associated with education (p < 0.05), ranging from 77% (no education) to 93% (post-secondary). More of those with self-perceived risk expressed willingness to test for HIV (p < 0.05). Those willing to be tested had a higher knowledge score on how HIV spreads than those not willing. Multiple regressions identified four key factors that were associated with willingness for CT: increasing educational level; not fearing a blood test; perception that the clinic offered privacy; and perceptions of higher levels of social support from relatives and peers. Those unwilling or undecided about CT expressed strong fear of social stigma/rejection if tested positive. The results provided insights for planning promotional programs and showed that not only are IEC efforts needed to boost knowledge about HIV/AIDS, but that change in clinic setting and community are imperative in creating supportive environment to encourage uptake of CT services.

  18. Preventive and social cost implications of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on selected organizations in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Oshinowo, Oluwafunmilola Yemisi; Odigie, Eugene Amienwanlen

    2015-01-01

    As Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to pose public health challenge in West Africa, with attending fears and socio-economic implications in the current epidemic challenges. It is compelling to estimate the social and preventive costs of EVD containment in a Nigerian city. Hence, this study was to determine the social and preventive cost implications of EVD among selected public institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, from July to December, 2014. Questionnaires and key-informants interview were administered to respondents and administrators of selected hospitals, hotels and schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. Knowledge of disease transmission, mortality and protocols for prevention, including cost of specific preventive measures adopted against EVD were elicited from respondents. Descriptive statistics and categorical analysis were used to summarize and estimate social and preventive costs incurred by respective institutions. An estimated five million, nineteen thousand, three hundred and seventy-nine Naira and eighty kobo (N5,019,379.80) only was observed as direct and social cost implication of EVD prevention. This amount translated into a conservative estimate of one billion, twenty-seven million, ninety-four thousand, seven hundred and fifty-six Naira (N1,027,094,756.10) for a total of four thousand schools, two hundred and fifty-three hospitals and one thousand, four hundred and fifty one hotels in Lagos during the period (July 20-November 20, 2014). The high cost of prevention of EVD within the short time-frame indicated high importance attached to a preventive policy against highly pathogenic zoonotic disease in Nigeria.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

  20. Preventive and social cost implications of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on selected organizations in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Oshinowo, Oluwafunmilola Yemisi; Odigie, Eugene Amienwanlen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to pose public health challenge in West Africa, with attending fears and socio-economic implications in the current epidemic challenges. It is compelling to estimate the social and preventive costs of EVD containment in a Nigerian city. Hence, this study was to determine the social and preventive cost implications of EVD among selected public institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, from July to December, 2014. Methods Questionnaires and key-informants interview were administered to respondents and administrators of selected hospitals, hotels and schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. Knowledge of disease transmission, mortality and protocols for prevention, including cost of specific preventive measures adopted against EVD were elicited from respondents. Descriptive statistics and categorical analysis were used to summarize and estimate social and preventive costs incurred by respective institutions. Results An estimated five million, nineteen thousand, three hundred and seventy-nine Naira and eighty kobo (N5,019,379.80) only was observed as direct and social cost implication of EVD prevention. This amount translated into a conservative estimate of one billion, twenty-seven million, ninety-four thousand, seven hundred and fifty-six Naira (N1,027,094,756.10) for a total of four thousand schools, two hundred and fifty-three hospitals and one thousand, four hundred and fifty one hotels in Lagos during the period (July 20-November 20, 2014). Conclusion The high cost of prevention of EVD within the short time-frame indicated high importance attached to a preventive policy against highly pathogenic zoonotic disease in Nigeria. PMID:26740848

  1. Malarial Infection among Antenatal and Maternity Clinics Attendees at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amuta, Elizabeth; Houmsou, Robert; Wama, Emmanuel; Ameh, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the level of malarial infection in relation to some epidemiological factors, gravidity and pregnancy period of antenatal clinic attendees of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. We also assessed malarial infection in placental blood in relation to gravidity of pregnant women at delivery in the maternity clinic of the same hospital. Thin and thick blood films were prepared for microscopic examination. A questionnaire was administered to each pregnant woman at the antenatal clinic to collect data on educational level, occupation, gravidity, pregnancy period, malaria preventive measures and malaria symptoms. Of the 163 pregnant women examined at the antenatal clinic, 68.3% (111/163) were infected with malaria. Pregnant women that are illiterates (χ2=15.44, P=0.100) and those that are farmers (χ2=9.20, P=0.270) had the highest infection rate with no significant difference respectively. Malarial infection was significantly higher in the multigravidae, 57.6% (34/59) (χ2=5.16, P=0.007) and non-significant in the pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy, 60.9% (53/89) (χ2=4.45, P=0.108). Placental malaria was significantly higher in the primigravidae among pregnant women at delivery (χ2=9.33, P=0.000). A significant difference (χ2=33.52, P=0.000) was observed between pregnant women that did not use any malaria preventive methods, 91.2% (31/34) and those that used single, 64.3% (65/101) and combined, 46.4% (13/28) methods of prevention. Malaria remains highly prevalent among antenatal clinics attendees in Makurdi, Nigeria. Combined method of prevention (insecticides treated nets and insecticide spray) yielded good results and its use is advocated in preventing malaria among the pregnant women. PMID:24757507

  2. Factors influencing choice of hospitals: a case study of the northern part of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egunjobi, L

    1983-01-01

    A total number of 859 patients were interviewed in the four hospitals that served Oyo Health Zone, Nigeria in 1979 on why they chose particular hospitals for treatment. The following factors in descending order of magnitude were identified as influencing their choice: nearness, quality of service, relative living in hospital town, finance, ease of transport, religion and connections with hospital staff. Although nearness was the leading factor, it accounted for only 31.8% of the total responses. In effect, about 70% of patients' behaviour are explained by other factors. This study points to the inappropriateness of the emphasis usually placed on linear distance as determining attractiveness of health service supply centres. In reality, a maze of interactions among spatial and non-spatial variables is at work in the choice of hospitals. Policy decisions should take cognizance of this if satisfactory health service to a majority of patients is to be achieved.

  3. The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1993-10-01

    This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy.

  4. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low.

  5. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.

  6. Microbiological assessment of well waters in Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna, State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aboh, Emmanuel A; Giwa, Fatima J; Giwa, A

    2015-01-01

    Majority of the human population in semi-urban and urban areas in Nigeria are heavily reliant on well water as the main source of water supply for drinking and domestic use due to inadequate provision of potable pipe borne water. These groundwater sources can easily be fecally contaminated and thus, increase the incidence and outbreaks of preventable waterborne diseases. This study was carried out to determine the bacteriological quality of some well waters in Samaru, Z. Samaru, Zaria located in Northern Nigeria, is a semi-urban university satellite town blessed with abundant ground and surface water. Five sampling sites were randomly selected for this study. A total of 10 samples: Two from each of the sites were collected fortnightly for 1 month (May-June, 2013). Samples were analyzed using presumptive multiple tube fermentation and confirmatory tests for total and fecal coliforms. The well water samples were also cultured for Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio chole. The total coliform count for all the samples analyzed was >180+/100 ml. All the well water samples from the study locations were contaminated with one or more bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli 20%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 100% and Proteus mirabilis 40%. Salmonella, Shigella, or V. cholerae were not isolated from any of the well water samples. The results from this study showed contamination of all the wells studied with fecal coliforms thus, indicating the possible presence of other enteric pathogens and a potential source for waterborne disease outbreaks. Well water in Samaru is not safe for drinking without additional treatment like disinfection or boiling. Periodic testing and constant monitoring of well waters should also be done to meet up with the World Health Organization Standards in the provision of safe, clean drinking water .

  7. Making a difference with Vision 2020: The Right to Sight? Lessons from two states of North Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N; Adamu, M D

    2014-01-01

    Settings and Aim: The World Health Organization launched in 1999 an initiative to eliminate the global avoidable blindness and prevent the projected doubling of avoidable visual impairment between 1990 and 2020 (Vision 2020: The Right to Sight). The World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted resolutions WHA 59.25, WHA 56.26 urging member states to adopt the Vision 2020 principles. More than 90 nongovernmental development organizations, agencies, and institutions, together with a number of major corporations, are now working together in this global partnership. Two neighboring states in North Western Nigeria provide eye care services using different approaches; one state uses the principles of Vision 2020, the other uses a different strategy. The aim of the study was to assess awareness and utilization of eye care services in two Nigerian states. A population-based cross-sectional interview of households was conducted in two neighboring states using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 and a P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Participation rate was 97% in the two states. The population in the Vision 2020-compliant state were significantly more aware about general eye care services (80% vs. 44%, P < 0.0005); had less proportion of households unaware of any eye care service (55% vs. 69%, P < 0.0005); and have a significantly higher felt the need to utilize eye care services (47% vs. 5.9%, P < 0.0005). The service utilization rate was however low in the two states. The principles of Vision 2020: The Right to Sight is adaptable to different cultures/societies and has demonstrated a potential to increase awareness and a felt need for eye care in poor resource settings.

  8. An evaluation of community perspectives and contributing factors to missed children during an oral polio vaccination campaign--Katsina State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Michael, Charles A; Ashenafi, Samra; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sule, Adamu; Corkum, Melissa; Mackay, Susan; Storms, Aaron D; Achari, Panchanan; Biya, Oladayo; Nguku, Patrick; Newberry, David; Bwaka, Ado; Mahoney, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Unvaccinated children contribute to accumulation of susceptible persons and the continued transmission of wild poliovirus in Nigeria. In September 2012, the Expert Review Committee (ERC) on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization in Nigeria recommended that social research be conducted to better understand why children are missed during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), also known as "immunization plus days (IPDs)" in Nigeria. Immediately following the SIA in October 2012, polio eradication partners and the government of Nigeria conducted a study to assess why children are missed. We used semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions in 1 rural and 1 urban local government area (LGA) of Katsina State. Participants reported that 61% of the children were not vaccinated because of poor vaccination team performance: either the teams did not visit the homes (25%) or the children were reported absent and not revisited (36%). This lack of access to vaccine was more frequently reported by respondents from scattered/nomadic communities (85%). In 1 out of 4 respondents (25%), refusal was the main reason their child was not vaccinated. The majority of respondents reported they would have consented to their children being vaccinated if the vaccine had been offered. Poor vaccination team performance is a major contributor to missed children during IPD campaigns. Addressing such operational deficiencies will help close the polio immunity gap and eradicate polio from Nigeria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.

    PubMed

    Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of LANDSAT-8 Data for Lithological Mapping of Basement Rocks of Plateau State North Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusuk, D. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Musa, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper utilized the Landsat-8 image data to map the lithology's of Plateau state north central Nigeria. This is includes the rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification. We are living in geologic times and sciences that provide adequate knowledge of the natures of what we live on so as to preserve and have means of sustaining human life. Plateau State is covered by four scenes of Landsat Data, and to describe the lithology's, each scene was processed to produce images. Two different false colour composite images of Landsat-8 (FCC 7, 5 and 3 and BR composites) in RGB were generated and used for the production of 1:100,000 geological map of the study area. The identification of predominant biotitic granitic rocks was revealed and that are distributed along the Jos-Bukuru complex and underlying almost half of the entire state. Moreover, the other rock complexes such as basalts and rhyolites volcanic rocks were also discriminated. This study indicates that Landsat-8 image data has great capability to discriminate lithological units and the production of up-to-date geological maps at regional scale and could be applicable in other regions of the African continent.

  11. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009–2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January–October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. PMID:27042376

  12. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013.

    PubMed

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009-2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January-October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users.

  13. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions

  14. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Soewu, Durojaye A; Ayodele, Ibukun A

    2009-12-04

    Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility

  15. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Graves, Patricia M; Sallau, Adamu; Eigege, Abel; Emukah, Emmanuel; Patterson, Amy E; Ajiji, Joseph; Okorofor, Iheanyichi; Oji, Oji Uka; Umar, Mary; Alphonsus, Kal; Damen, James; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ozaki, Masayo; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Obiezu, Josephine; Eneiramo, Solomon; Okoro, Chinyere; McClintic-Doyle, Renn; Oresanya, Olusola; Miri, Emmanuel; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O

    2014-03-26

    Nigeria suffers the world's largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country's aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%-40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%-42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%-81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%-63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%-13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%-3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%-20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and

  16. Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals in Farm Produce and Livestock around Lead-Contaminated Goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, O E; Oladipo, O O; Ajaezi, G C; Udowelle, N A

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hitherto studies in response to the June 2010 lead poisoning, Zamfara State, Nigeria, have focused on clinical interventions without information on livestock and other metals. Objective. This study has investigated the distribution of heavy metals in farm produce and livestock around lead-contaminated goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Methods. Vegetables, soil, water, blood, and different meat samples were harvested from goat, sheep, cattle, and chicken from Dareta, Abare, and Gusau communities. The samples were digested with 10 mL of a mix of nitric and perchloric acids; the mixture was then heated to dryness. Lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium, copper, magnesium, and nickel were analysed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The daily intake, bioaccumulation factor, and target hazard quotient (THQ) were calculated. Results. Chicken bone-muscles from Dareta had the highest concentrations of lead, zinc, and nickel (28.2750, 16.1650, and 4.2700 mg/kg, resp.), while chicken brain had the highest levels of cadmium, magnesium (0.3800 and 67.5400 mg/kg), and chromium (6.1650 mg/kg, kidney tissue inclusive). Conclusion. In addition to lead, cadmium may also be of concern in the contaminated mining communities of Zamfara State, Nigeria, given the high levels of cadmium in meat and vegetables samples from these areas.

  17. Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Heavy Metals in Farm Produce and Livestock around Lead-Contaminated Goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladipo, O. O.; Ajaezi, G. C.; Udowelle, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hitherto studies in response to the June 2010 lead poisoning, Zamfara State, Nigeria, have focused on clinical interventions without information on livestock and other metals. Objective. This study has investigated the distribution of heavy metals in farm produce and livestock around lead-contaminated goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Methods. Vegetables, soil, water, blood, and different meat samples were harvested from goat, sheep, cattle, and chicken from Dareta, Abare, and Gusau communities. The samples were digested with 10 mL of a mix of nitric and perchloric acids; the mixture was then heated to dryness. Lead, cadmium, zinc, chromium, copper, magnesium, and nickel were analysed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The daily intake, bioaccumulation factor, and target hazard quotient (THQ) were calculated. Results. Chicken bone-muscles from Dareta had the highest concentrations of lead, zinc, and nickel (28.2750, 16.1650, and 4.2700 mg/kg, resp.), while chicken brain had the highest levels of cadmium, magnesium (0.3800 and 67.5400 mg/kg), and chromium (6.1650 mg/kg, kidney tissue inclusive). Conclusion. In addition to lead, cadmium may also be of concern in the contaminated mining communities of Zamfara State, Nigeria, given the high levels of cadmium in meat and vegetables samples from these areas. PMID:28539940

  18. The bioload and aflatoxin content of market garri from some selected states in southern Nigeria: public health significance.

    PubMed

    Ogiehor, I S; Ikenebomeh, M J; Ekundayo, A O

    2007-12-01

    Garri is consumed by several millions of people in the West African sub-region and in Nigeria in particular, regardless of ethnicity and socio-economic class. However, production and handling methods have not been standardized, resulting in a product with varying quality and safety indices hence varying public health concern. To investigate the microbial contamination level, presence, prevalence and distribution of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in market garri with the aim of developing useful indices for safe handling and acceptable public health standards. A total of 300 samples comprising of 30 samples each from various market in both urban and rural settings were randomly collected using sterile polyethylene bags. These were analysed for microbiological quality and aflatoxins content using standard procedures. Eight bacteria genera (Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Salmonella Klebsiella and Coliforms groups) genera and six fungi genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Botrytls, Fusarium and Cladosporium) were detected and isolated. Aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ were detected in varying concentrations amongst the samples analysed within and amongst the states investigated with an average occurrence rate of 17.5% Market garri was found to contain high bioload with vast array of micro-organisms and aflatoxins in all the states investigated. Results are useful in developing and establishing public health standards for the production and safe handling of garri.

  19. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, Grace O; Gilbert, Hannah N; Dadem, Nancin Y; Genberg, Becky L; Agaba, Patricia A; Okonkwo, Prosper; Agbaji, Oche O; Ware, Norma C

    2017-01-01

    Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of "trade-offs." Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the "family-like atmosphere" found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received.

  20. Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-05-01

    Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  1. Clients’ Willingness to Pay for Immunization Services in the Urban and Rural Primary Health Centers of Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ossai, Edmund Ndudi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2015-01-01

    Our study aims at determining the pattern of willingness of clients to pay for childhood immunization services in urban and rural primary health centers of Enugu state, Nigeria. Using a cross-sectional design, 800 clients who presented with their children/wards to receive childhood immunization services were selected at the primary health center in rural and urban local government areas of the state. The mean age was 28.9±4.5 and 26.7±5.1 years in the urban and rural areas respectively. About 54.5% of clients in the urban and 55.3% in the rural area were willing to pay for immunization services. The clients willingness to pay was influenced by: non satisfaction with immunization services, (OR=0.3, 95%CI: 0.2-0.5), younger age, (OR=1.4, 95%CI: 1.0-2.0) marital status (OR=2.8, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), proximity to health centers (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8), and delivering in a private health facility (OR=0.4, 95%CI: 0.1-0.9). The study suggests that the economic value that clients give to immunization services was similar in the rural and urban areas, and this could be increased by improving the level of clients’ satisfaction for the services among others. PMID:28299135

  2. Assessment of blood lead levels among children aged ≤ 5 years--Zamfara State, Nigeria, June-July 2012.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Muhammed; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Getso, Kabiru; Kaita, Ibrahim M; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Brown, Mary Jean

    2014-04-18

    Since 2010, Nigerian state and federal governments and the international community have been responding to an outbreak of lead poisoning caused by the processing of lead-containing gold ore in Zamfara State, Nigeria, that resulted in the deaths of approximately 400 children aged ≤ 5 years. Widespread education, surveys of high-risk villages, testing of blood lead levels (BLLs), medical treatment, and environmental cleanup all have been implemented. To evaluate the success of these remediation efforts in reducing the prevalence of lead poisoning and dangerous work practices, a population-based assessment of children's BLLs and ore processing techniques was conducted during June-July 2012. The assessment found few children in need of medical treatment, significantly lower BLLs, and substantially less exposure of children to dangerous work practices. Public health strategies designed to identify and treat children with lead poisoning, clean up existing environmental hazards, and prevent children from being exposed to dangerous ore processing techniques can produce a sustained reduction in BLLs.

  3. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Grace O.; Gilbert, Hannah N.; Dadem, Nancin Y.; Genberg, Becky L.; Agbaji, Oche O.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of “trade-offs.” Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the “family-like atmosphere” found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received. PMID:28331636

  4. Mass immunization with inactivated polio vaccine in conflict zones--Experience from Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shuaibu, Faisal M; Birukila, Gerida; Usman, Samuel; Mohammed, Ado; Galway, Michael; Corkum, Melissa; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Mahoney, Frank; Wa Nganda, Gatei; Vertefeuille, John; Chavez, Anna; Meleh, Sule; Banda, Richard; Some, Almai; Mshelia, Hyelni; Umar, Al-Umra; Enemaku, Ogu; Etsano, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The use of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization to replace Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is crucial in eradicating polio. In June 2014, Nigeria launched an IPV campaign in the conflict-affected states of Borno and Yobe, the largest ever implemented in Africa. We present the initiatives and lessons learned. The 8-day event involved two parallel campaigns. OPV target age was 0-59 months, while IPV targeted all children aged 14 weeks to 59 months. The Borno state primary health care agency set up temporary health camps for the exercise and treated minor ailments for all. The target population for the OPV campaign was 685,674 children in Borno and 113,774 in Yobe. The IPV target population for Borno was 608,964 and for Yobe 111,570. OPV coverage was 105.1 per cent for Borno and 103.3 per cent for Yobe. IPV coverage was 102.9 per cent for Borno and 99.1 per cent for Yobe. (Where we describe coverage as greater than 100 per cent, this reflects original underestimates of the target populations.) A successful campaign and IPV immunization is viable in conflict areas.

  5. Analysis of the Linkages between Evaporation and Precipitation in Imo State of Southeastern Nigeria using Statistical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okorie, Fidelis; Chibo, Nnamdi

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric processes are dynamic with associated feedback mechanism. In other words, weather and climate processes are cyclical in nature. Both evaporation and precipitation are two weather processes which also form parts of basic components of hydrological cycle. Water is received in many parts of the world as precipitation. In many parts of the tropics for instance, the most important source of water is precipitation. Evaporation on the other hands is the reverse of precipitation in a hydrological cycle. It is also a reverse of the incoming radiation from the sun and atmosphere, and consequently an important component not only of water balance but also the energy balance. This study examined the nature of relationship existing between evaporation and precipitation in Imo State, Nigeria employing statistical method. Apparently, its curiosity is on to what extent does evaporation contribute to precipitation in the hydrological cycle? In the research, 20 years (1989-2009) evaporation data and precipitation data for Imo State was obtained and computed using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. The results showed a weak relationship between the two climate processes, which indicates an insignificant correlation. Thus, only about 1.83% of precipitation is influenced by evaporation in the study area. However, both components of the water cycle can influence each other irrespective of the level of their influences and they are important atmospheric processes essential for water balance of the earth.

  6. Sexual networking of market women in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1993-01-01

    The manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) all over the world has increased the need for information on the nature and pattern of sexual networking in Africa, where there is a dearth of such information. In the present study, information on the sexual networking of market women in Benin City, Nigeria, was obtained using a questionnaire instrument. The questionnaire covered the sexual, reproductive, and health behaviors of these women. The data revealed that the levels of both premarital and extramarital sexual networking are high. Such a high degree of sexual networking has exposed a number of these women to sexually transmitted diseases. The manifestation of AIDS in this society will be widespread and devastating to the people and the society because these women are in a polygamous relationship in a society that frowns on the use of contraceptives by couples. In addition, controversies surround the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and AIDS, geographical areas of prevalence, and the role of prostitutes in the spread of the disease. For example, studies in Africa show that whereas there is no correlation between SES and AIDS in Kinshasa, the attack rate was higher in educated people in Rwanda and Zambia. Moreover, there are predominantly urban outbreaks in other countries, such as Uganda (Piot & Carael, 1988).

  7. An assessment of food safety needs of restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N; Hedberg, Craig W

    2013-08-02

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  8. Adult lymphomas in Edo state, Niger Delta region of Nigeria--clinicopathological profile of 205 cases.

    PubMed

    Omoti, C E; Halim, N K D

    2005-10-01

    The clinicopathologic features of malignant lymphomas had not been documented in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, which is known for its petrochemical industries and gas flare sites. Cases of lymphomas that presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), a major referral centre in the region, from January 1990 to December 2003 were reviewed. Demographic and clinical information were obtained from the case files. Diagnosis was established based on the histological examination of an accessible biopsy lymph node and classified according to the Working Formulation (WF). Haematological parameters were done using an automated Coulter counter. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) occurred predominantly in young adults (20-39 years). A majority of the patients presented in the advanced stage of the disease (Stages III-IV) according to the Ann Arbor system and a performance status (PS) scale of 2-4. The intermediate grade NHL (41.2%) formed the largest group of which diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) was the most commonly observed histopathologic type followed by the large cell immunoblastic type.

  9. Knowledge of Childhood Autism and Challenges of Management among Medical Doctors in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eseigbe, E E; Nuhu, F T; Sheikh, T L; Eseigbe, P; Sanni, K A; Olisah, V O

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with serious implications in childhood. There is a significant gap in the identification and provision of health and social services for autism in Africa. The knowledge of autism among health care providers and identifying challenges associated with its management could facilitate bridging the gap and ensuring better outcomes. A self-administered tool, the Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) questionnaire, was used in assessing knowledge of autism among 175 medical doctors (participants) attending an annual scientific meeting in northwest Nigeria. Other parameters assessed were sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the participants and challenges encountered in the management of autism. Out of 175 questionnaires distributed, 167 (95.4%) were returned. Good knowledge (KCAHW score ≥15) was significantly associated with being a paediatrician or psychiatrist and practicing in a tertiary health facility (P < 0.05), while poor knowledge (KCAHW score <15) was significant among general practitioners (P < 0.05). The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of autism and its comorbidities (KCAHW Domain 4) while the least was concerning communication impairments (KCAHW Domain 2). Major challenges encountered in autism management were dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of autism.

  10. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

    To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media.

  11. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

  12. Iron Status of Pregnant Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, I M; Okpokam, D C; Antai, A B; Usanga, E A

    2017-03-06

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy.  Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital   extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of   anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that  the prevalence of  anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia   were significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women from Akpabuyo   38(76.00%),   20(40.00%),   23(46.0%)   ,   16(32.00%)   respectively followed   by  Okoyong 24(48.0%),  20(40.0%),  16(32.0%),  6(12.0)     and  then  those  from     Calabar  14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%).  The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among

  13. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Bayelsa state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Ismail A.; Momo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: A high level of adherence is required to achieve the desired outcomes of antiretroviral therapy. There is paucity of information about adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy in Bayelsa State of southern Nigeria. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the level of adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy among the patients, evaluate the improvement in their immune status and identify reasons for sub-optimal adherence to therapy. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved administration of an adapted and pretested questionnaire to 601 consented patients attending the two tertiary health institutions in Bayesla State, Nigeria: The Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa and the Niger-Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri. The tool was divided into various sections such as socio-demographic data, HIV knowledge and adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy. Information on the patient’s CD4+ T cells count was retrieved from their medical records. Adherence was assessed by asking patients to recall their intake of prescribed doses in the last fourteen days and subjects who had 95-100% of the prescribed antiretroviral drugs were considered adherent. Results: Three hundred and forty eight (57.9%) of the subjects were females and 253 (42.1%) were males. The majority of them, 557 (92.7%) have good knowledge of HIV and combined anti-retroviral therapy with a score of 70.0% and above. A larger proportion of the respondents, 441 (73.4%), had ≥95% adherence. Some of the most important reasons giving for missing doses include, “simply forgot” 147 (24.5%), and “wanted to avoid the side-effects of drugs” 33(5.5%). There were remarkable improvements in the immune status of the subjects with an increment in the proportion of the subjects with CD4+ T cells count of greater than 350 cells/mm3 from 33 (5.5%) at therapy initiation to 338 (56.3%) at study period (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The adherence level of 73.4% was low which calls

  14. The association between female genital cutting and correlates of sexual and gynaecological morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonofu, F E; Larsen, U; Oronsaye, F; Snow, R C; Slanger, T E

    2002-10-01

    To examine the association between female genital cutting and frequency of sexual and gynaecological symptoms among a cohort of cut versus uncut women in Edo State of Nigeria. Cross sectional study. Women attending family planning and antenatal clinics at three hospitals in Edo State, South-south Nigeria. 1836 healthy premenopausal women. The sample included 1836 women. Information about type of female genital cutting was based on medical exams while a structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on the women's sociodemographic characteristics, their ages of first menstruation (menarche), first intercourse, marriage and pregnancy, sexual history and experiences of symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Associations between female genital cutting and these correlates of sexual and gynaecologic morbidity were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Cox models. Frequency of self-reported orgasm achieved during sexual intercourse and symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Forty-five percent were circumcised and 71% had type 1, while 24% had type 2 female genital cutting. No significant differences between cut and uncut women were observed in the frequency of reports of sexual intercourse in the preceding week or month, the frequency of reports of early arousal during intercourse and the proportions reporting experience of orgasm during intercourse. There was also no difference between cut and uncut women in their reported ages of menarche, first intercourse or first marriage in the multivariate models controlling for the effects of socio-economic factors. In contrast, cut women were 1.25 times more likely to get pregnant at a given age than uncut women. Uncut women were significantly more likely to report that the clitoris is the most sexually sensitive part of their body (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.26-0.47), while cut women were more likely to report that their breasts are their most sexually sensitive body parts (OR = 1.91; 95

  15. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every

  16. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Poluyi, Edward O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2015-01-01

    There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily

  17. Evaluation of quality of TB control services by private health care providers in Plateau state, Nigeria; 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Oleribe, Obinna O; Nguku, Patrick; Tongwong, Gabriel Chukwak; Mato, Lakda Gonen; Longkyer, Musa Istifanus; Ogiri, Samuel; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is public health concern in Nigeria. The country uses the Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) strategy for its control. Plateau state started using the DOTS strategy in 2001 and had the Private health facilities (PHF) as an important stakeholder. We evaluated their contributions to case finding and quality of the services to identify gaps in monitoring and evaluation in the TB control services within the PHF to plan for intervention so as to meet the set target for TB control in the state. Methods We used the logical framework approach to identify and analyze the problem. We drew up an objective tree and from the objective tree developed a logical framework matrix including evaluation plan. We also conducted desk review to extract data on case findings, case management and outcomes of the treatment. We interviewed TB focal persons and laboratory personnel using structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using excel spread sheet. Results Of the 127 health facilities with TB patients on treatment 27 (21.3%) were PHF. The PHF reported 54.6% (1494) of TB cases in 2011. The sputum conversion rates, cured rate, treatment success rate, and default rates were 85%, 73%, 81.4% and 6.6% respectively. The discordant rates were 3.1% and 1.2% for the state and private health facilities respectively. Conclusion Log frame approach is a useful tool for evaluation of TB control services and helps provide evidence for decision making to improve quality of the TB services in the public and private health facilities in the state. PMID:24711883

  18. Adverse drug reactions amongst adult patients admitted in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aderemi-Williams, R I; Awodele, O; Boyle, C A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a global drug therapy problem. It has been rated as one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In Nigeria, not much is known about ADRs especially with the existing weak post marketing surveillance for monitoring drug use, and its effect on the population. The study is aimed at determining the incidence of ADRs, presentations of ADRs, classes of drugs that frequently cause ADRs and predictors of ADRs in adult medical in-patients in LASUTH. A retrospective study of six hundred and twenty four (624) case notes of all patients admitted to the medical wards in LASUTH between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 was carried out. Information obtained included age, gender, and adverse drug reaction and drug details. The results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. A total of 624 case notes consisting of 358 males and 266 females were assessed. The number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions was 67 (n = 624, 10.7%). The incidence rate of ADRs in LASUTH from the study was 10.7 per 100 patients' population. Most of the ADRs observed were type A reactions (97.8%). Mostly implicated classes of drugs were antidiabetics (26.7%) and NSAIDs (29.3%). The incidence rate of ADRs was 10.7%. ADRs which are predictable and preventable occur in hospitalized patients, such may be prevented or minimized by implementing measures to target specific drugs that are commonly suspected.

  19. Self-referral patterns among federal civil servants in oyo state, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Henry; Obembe, Taiwo; Osungbade, Kayode; Adeniji, Folashayo; Adewole, David

    2017-01-01

    Primary health care is widely accepted as the first point of care; yet, individuals requiring healthcare engage in self-referrals to higher levels of care thereby by-passing primary care. Little is known of the extent to which self-referrals are carried out when care is needed. This study thus sought to determine the prevalence of self-referral, its patterns and factors influencing self-referrals amongst federal civil servants in Southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 federal civil servants who were interviewed using validated and pre-tested interviewer-administered semi structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using univariate and Chi-square test at level of significance set at P <0.05. Mean age of the respondents was 39.96 ± 9.1 years with majority being married (80.7%); 90.7% completed tertiary education (and 76.7 % were middle grade (7-12) level officers. Most (60.0%) of the respondents had ever engaged in self-referral. Malaria was the commonest health problem (39.7%) for self-referral to secondary or tertiary facilities. Desire for quality service (35.7%) and competent staff (35.2%) were the commonest reasons for self-referral to a higher level of health care. More female respondents (76.0%) compared to male respondents (64.0%) significantly engaged in self-referral (p = 0.02, X2 = 5.14). Respondents having good knowledge of referral practices engaged less in self-referral compared to those with poor knowledge. (p = 0.02, X2 = 5.43). Having good knowledge of referral practices and being male are positively associated with referral practices. Creating awareness and improving knowledge on referral practices with special emphasis on women population are desirable strategies for encouraging the use of primary health care as first of point of contact with health systems.

  20. Anti-HCV antibody among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ogbodo Ekene; Oghene, Otue Akpevwe; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common routes of infection and as such, co-infection is expected. Co-infection of the two viruses is of great medical importance as it determines the effect of drugs used for treatment at various stages. This interplay between HIV and HCV sets the tone for the objective of this study which is to ascertain the seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 200 newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients were recruited for this study. Each of the sera was tested for anti-HCV antibody using SWE-life HCV ultra rapid test strip. Appropriate questionnaires were used to ascertain other important information which include social behaviour such as whether the patients were MSM (males), IDU, tattoo and/or have received blood transfusion in the past. The prevalence of HCV among the study population was determined to be 15.0%. A higher seroprevalence was observed among females (16.5%) than in males (13.0%). A higher seroprevalence was also observed among age groups >26 years (16.0%) than in age-groups 14-25 years (13.0%) and 2-13 years (0.0%). Of the 7 patients with tattoos, 1(14.3%) tested positive for HCV compared to 29(15.0%) with no tattoos. We found no significant correlation with transfusion, intravenous drug use (IDU), men that have sex with men (MSM), tattooing and the seroprevalence of HCV. However, significant correlation existed with age, sex and HCV prevalence. This study reports a 15.0% seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients and that is alarmingly well above several other studies done in the past in Nigeria and other countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Planned preven tion, screening, and treatment are needed to reduce further transmission and morbidity. Future studies involving HCV-RNA assays are needed.

  1. The effect of Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on hand washing among secondary school students in Ondo State Nigeria, October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2015-01-01

    Hand washing with soap and water is one of the cheapest, most effective ways of limiting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Despite its importance the prevalence of hand washing was low before the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with improved hand washing practices following the EVD outbreak. A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free. Systematic random sampling was used. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed with epi info version 7, descriptive statistics were done, Chi square test was used for the assessment of significant associations between proportions. Determinants of good hand washing practices was identified using logistics regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Of 440 respondents, mean age was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Only 4.6% have never heard of Ebola Virus Disease.Level of hand washing with soap and water improved by62.6%. Significant improvement in hand washing was in 75.8% of those who heard through social media (p < 0.001), 70.5% of Newspaper readers(p < 0.001), 65.6% of radio listeners (p = 0.001), 75.4% of family members p < 0.001, 76.3% talk in church p < 0.001, 77.6% peers p = 0.02, 72.4% TV p < 0.001. Change in hand washing practices was associated with watching television (AOR: 2.2; CI 95%: 1.1-4.3) and listening to health education in church (AOR: 2.4; CI 95%: 1.2-4.7).Major reason for change in hand washing practices was because of EVD deadly nature, 170(40.5%). Watching health education messages on television and listening to it in church are the determinants of change in hand washing practices. Promotion of hand washing with soap and water needs to be sustained to prevent other diseases. Training of students on prevention of EVD was conducted in selected schools.

  2. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  3. Unintended pregnancy and termination of studies among students in Anambra state, Nigeria: are secondary schools playing their part?

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated efforts of secondary schools to prevent unintended pregnancy among students and their reactions to pregnant students before and after delivery. A cross-sectional survey of 46 teachers in three public and two private schools in Anambra state, Nigeria was carried out. Information was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Of all the teachers in the study, 87% reported unintended pregnancies among students in the previous 3 years. Expulsion (43%) and suspension (28%) were the most common reactions. Private schools were more likely to expel pregnant students than public schools. Following the delivery of their babies, 43% discontinued their education in the same school, whereas 37% continued their education in a different school. Counselling was given before suspension or expulsion in 4% of public schools and 15% of private schools. Majority of the schools (61%) did not have sex education as part of their schools' curriculum. Students should be re-admitted in order to ensure continuity of their academic development, prevent unemployment and mitigate poverty-induced repeat pregnancy.

  4. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Aderonke A; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t (630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t (630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t (580) = -641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free.

  5. Prevalence and pattern of rape among girls and women attending Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ohayi, Robsam S; Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Chigbu, Chibuike O; Arinze-Onyia, Susan U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and pattern of rape in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study was conducted among female survivors of rape who presented at the emergency gynecologic and/or forensic unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital between February 2012 and July 2013. Data were collected via a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among 1374 gynecologic emergencies, there were 121 (8.8%) rape cases. The mean age of the rape survivors was 13.1±8.1 years. Ninety (74.4%) survivors were younger than 18 years. At least 72 hours had passed since the rape for 74 (61.2%) cases. The perpetrator was known to 74 (82.2%) patients younger than 18 years and 18 (58.1%) aged at least 18 years (P=0.013). The location of the rape was the bush or an uncompleted building for 36 (29.8%) and the perpetrator's residence for another 36 (29.8%). Four (3.3%) individuals became pregnant after the rape. A considerable proportion of patients with gynecologic emergencies had been raped. Individuals should be encouraged to report to the hospital quickly to prevent unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. PMID:25763397

  7. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  8. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Healthcare waste management status in Lagos State, Nigeria: a case study from selected healthcare facilities in Ikorodu and Lagos metropolis.

    PubMed

    Longe, Ezechiel O

    2012-06-01

    A survey of healthcare waste management practices and their implications for health and the environment was carried out. The study assessed waste management practices in 20 healthcare facilities ranging in capacity from 40 to 600 beds in Ikorodu and metropolitan Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. The prevailing healthcare waste management status was analysed. Management issues on quantities and proportion of different constituents of waste, segregation, collection, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal methods were assessed. The waste generation averaged 0.631 kg bed(-1) day(-1) over the survey area. The waste stream from the healthcare facilities consisted of general waste (59.0%), infectious waste (29.7%), sharps and pathological (8.9%), chemical (1.45%) and others (0.95%). Sharps/pathological waste includes disposable syringes. In general, the waste materials were collected in a mixed form, transported and disposed of along with municipal solid waste with attendant risks to health and safety. Most facilities lacked appropriate treatment systems for a variety of reasons that included inadequate funding and little or no priority for healthcare waste management as well as a lack of professionally competent waste managers among healthcare providers. Hazards associated with healthcare waste management and shortcomings in the existing system were identified.

  10. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  11. Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

    2014-08-01

    The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control.

  12. Changes in contraceptive use following integration of family planning into ART Services in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    McCarraher, Donna R; Vance, Gwyneth; Gwarzo, Usman; Taylor, Douglas; Chabikuli, Otto Nzapfurundi

    2011-12-01

    One strategy for meeting the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women is to integrate family planning into HIV services. In 2008 in Cross River State, Nigeria,family planning was integrated into antiretroviral (ART) services in five local government areas. A basic family planning/HIV integration model was implemented in three of these areas, and an enhanced model in the other two. We conducted baseline interviews in 2008 and follow-up interviews 12-14 months later with 274 female ART clients aged 18-45 in 2009 across the five areas. Unmet need for contraception was high at baseline (28-35 percent). We found that modern contraceptive use rose in the enhanced and basic groups; most of the increase was in consistent condom use. Despite an increase in family planning counseling by ART providers, referrals to family planning services for noncondom methods were low. We conclude by presenting alternative strategies for family planning/HIV integration in settings where large families and low contraceptive use are normative.

  13. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled.

  14. The Imo State (Nigeria) Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project, 2. Impact on dracunculiasis, diarrhoea and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Huttly, S R; Blum, D; Kirkwood, B R; Emeh, R N; Okeke, N; Ajala, M; Smith, G S; Carson, D C; Dosunmu-Ogunbi, O; Feachem, R G

    1990-01-01

    Morbidity due to dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) and diarrhoea in persons of all ages, and nutritional status of young children, were used as health impact indicators in the evaluation of the Imo State Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project in south-eastern Nigeria. Data were collected using repeated cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal follow-up. The study area was found to have a low level of endemicity of dracunculiasis. While no impact could be demonstrated on overall period or point prevalence rates in the cross-sectional surveys, a prospective longitudinal survey showed a significant reduction in the percentage of person-fortnights positive for dracunculiasis in areas served by the project, while the control areas showed no such change. In the cross-sectional surveys it was found that, in the project villages, those persons drinking only borehole water had significantly lower period prevalence rates one year later than others. Moreover, those living further from the nearest borehole had higher rates of dracunculiasis. An impact of the project on diarrhoea morbidity was found only in limited sub-groups of the population. A greater association with water availability rather than quality was suggested for rates in young children. The prevalence of wasting (less than 80% weight-for-height) among children aged less than 3 years decreased significantly over time in all 3 intervention villages; there was no such decline in the control villages.

  15. Food contamination in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for food hygiene and safety.

    PubMed

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C; Lofor, P V O; Ojide, C K

    2010-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of food contamination in the fast food restaurants operating in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty food handlers were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. One hundred and sixty-eight samples of ready-to-eat food and 45 stool samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for the presence of bacteria (excluding anaerobic bacteria). More than half of the respondents (n=184, 52.6%) had no training in food hygiene and safety. Only 149 (42.6%) respondents knew that micro-organisms can contaminate food. The prevalence of food contamination in the fast food restaurants was found to be 37.5%. Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated bacteria, while salad, meat pie and fried rice were the most commonly contaminated foods. There is need for the relevant local authorities to ensure that the food sold to consumers in fast food restaurants is safe, wholesome and fit for human consumption in order to prevent outbreaks of food-borne illnesses. Also, there should be regular training/retraining and health education of these food handlers in all aspects of food hygiene and safety. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS, NEOSPOROSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS AMONG CATTLE HERDS IN OYO STATE, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Ayinmode, Adekunle; Akinseye, Victor; Schares, Gereon; Cadmus, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several zoonotic diseases are known to constitute great impediment to livestock management and production worldwide, especially in developing countries where control measures are largely non-existent. This study sets out to investigate the occurrence of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among cattle herds in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey to screen for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus was conducted among 174 cattle in 17 herds. Sera obtained from the cattle were screened for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal test and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Results: Overall, herd level prevalence of 52.9%, 23.5% and 23.5% as well as individual prevalence of 7.5%, 3.4% and 3.4% was obtained for toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis, respectively. Antibodies to T. gondii, N. caninum and B. abortus were detected in 2 of the 17 herds, T. gondii and N. caninum in 4 herds, and T. gondii and B. abortus in 4 herds. Statistically significant association was only found between seropositivity to T. gondii antibodies and sex (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis are prevalent among cattle herds screened in the study area. Considering the potential impact of these diseases on livestock management and production, extensive surveillance is necessary for development and implementation of effective control and prevention strategies. PMID:28670646

  17. Female genital mutilation as sexual disability: perceptions of women and their spouses in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owojuyigbe, Michael; Bolorunduro, Miracle-Eunice; Busari, Dauda

    2017-05-01

    Disability encompasses the limitations on an individual's basic physical activities, and the consequent social oppressions such individual faces in society. In this regard, the limitation on the use of some parts of the genitals in a patriarchal system is considered a form of disability. This paper describes the perceptions of and the coping mechanisms employed by affected couples dealing with the consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM) as a form of sexual disability. Cultural Libertarianism was employed as a theoretical framework. The paper presents the results of a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, with 10 male and 12 female respondents purposively selected through a snowball sampling for in-depth interviews. The findings present the justifications provided for the practice of FGM, and victims' perceptions of how it affects their sexual relations. Furthermore, it highlights coping strategies employed by affected women and their spouses. The study shows that the disabling consequence of FGM is largely sexual in nature, leading to traumatic experiences and negative beliefs about sex, and requiring a myriad of coping strategies employed by the disabled women, and their spouses, which may have its own implications for marital and sexual bliss.

  18. Strategy for Cost Recovery in the Rural Water Sector: A Case Study of Nsukka District, Anambra State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Okorafor, Apia; Okore, Augustine; McPhail, Alexander

    1990-09-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 395 households in three rural communities in the Nsukka district of Anambra State, Nigeria, concerning their household water use practices, water expenditures to vendors, willingness to pay for improved water supplies, and household socioeconomic characteristics. Households in Nsukka district do not want to pay for water in advance or commit themselves to a fixed monthly payment for water. They want the freedom to buy water only when they use it, partly due to the seasonal nature of water use and partly because they want control over their cash flow in order to meet other more immediately pressing needs. Equally important, they do not trust government to provide a reliable public water supply. They do not want to pay in advance for a service they are not sure they will ever get. If they are required to pay a fixed fee every month, households are willing to pay only relatively small amounts for improved services, even less than they are currently paying water vendors. Current arrangements for cost recovery, fixed monthly fees for both public taps and unmetered private connections, are inappropriate. Kiosk systems, or kiosk systems with metered private connections for some households, are the most promising way to improve cost recovery and meet consumers' cash flow needs.

  19. Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arimi, Kayode S

    2014-05-01

    Undesirable impacts of climate change have been a common occurrence that has made fish farmers in developing countries adopt some climate-change adaptation strategies. However, little is known about determinants of climate-change adaptation strategies used by these fish farmers. This study, therefore, articulates novelties on adaptation to climate change, as well ascertains determinants of adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria. Climate change adaptation strategies mostly used by fish farmers include frequent seeking for early warning information about climate change (76.7%) and avoidance of areas susceptible to flooding (60.0%). Climate-change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were significantly influenced by access to early warning information (β = 7.21), knowledge of farmers about climate change adaptation strategies (β = 8.86), access to capital (β = 28.25), and participation in workshop and conferences (β = 37.19) but were reduced by number of fish stocking (β = -2.06). The adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were autonomous and mostly determined by the access to credit facilities and information. Development policy should focus on carbon capture and storage technology in order to reduce adverse impacts of climate change, as well as making early warning information on climate change available to fish farmers. These will enhance adaptation to climate change. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control.

  1. Epidemiology and associated risk factors of hepatitis e virus infection in plateau state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6-35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9-26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3-54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research.

  2. Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6–35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9–26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3–54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

  3. Factors influencing the use of magnesium sulphate in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia management in health facilities in Northern Nigeria: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Charyeva, Zulfiya; Cannon, Molly; Sambisa, William; Orobaton, Nosakhare; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Shoretire, Kamil; Danladi, Saba'atu E; Lawal, Nurudeen; Sadauki, Habib

    2015-06-03

    Eclampsia remains a major cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We examined facilitators and barriers to the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the management of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E) in health facilities in Bauchi and Sokoto States in Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 health facilities using a cross-sectional, mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) design. We assessed health facility readiness to manage PE/E and use MgSO4 as the drug of choice, through provider interviews, in-depth interviews with facility managers and an inventory of equipment and supply in facilities. Bivariate and qualitative data analyses were performed to isolate the principal enabling factors and barriers to the management of PE/E and use of MgSO4. The majority of health facility providers correctly mentioned MgSO4 as the drug of choice for the prevention and termination of convulsions in severe PE/E (65 %). Sixty-four percent of the health facilities had service registers available. About 45 % of providers had been trained on the use of MgSO4 for the management of PE/E. Regarding providers' practices, 45 % of respondents indicated that MgSO4 was used to prevent and treat convulsions in severe PE/E in their facilities. Barriers to management of PE/E included inadequate numbers of skilled providers, frequent shortages of MgSO4, lack of essential equipment and supplies, irregular supply of electricity and water, and non-availability of guidelines and clinical protocols at the health facilities. Technical support to providers was inadequate. The study revealed that a constellation of factors adversely affect the management of PE/E and especially the use of MgSO4 by service providers. Efforts to improve the management of PE/E in facilities should include integrated programs that substantially improve provider and facility readiness to manage PE/E for better maternal and newborn health outcomes in Northern Nigeria.

  4. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.

  5. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  6. Prevalence of depression among adults in Oyo State, Nigeria: a comparative study of rural and urban communities.

    PubMed

    Amoran, Olorunfemi; Lawoyin, Taiwo; Lasebikan, Victor

    2007-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the current prevalence of depression in Oyo State, Nigeria and the rural-urban variation in prevalence. This is a two-phase community-based cross-sectional study. The urban areas selected for the study are the Ibadan North-West and Egbeda local government areas. The rural area selected was the Saki-East local government area. A total of 1105 participants were recruited into the study. Multistage sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the participants from the communities in Oyo State. The study was conducted using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, and the general health questionnaire (GHQ 12) as a screening tool. The second phase of the interview was conducted only for those participants with a score of more than 3 using the GHQ 12. These participants were then clinically examined using the Structured Clinical Interview DSM IV for assessment of clinical depression. Prevalence of depression. A total of 721 (65.2%) were from urban communities, while 384 (34.8%) were from the rural community. The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 5.2%. Depression was more prevalent among women than men (5.7% vs 4.8%, chi(2) = 0.36 P = 0.55), and among adolescents (9.6%, P = 0.04). Furthermore, depression was more common in the rural areas than in the urban areas (7.3% vs 4.2%, chi(2) = 4.94 P = 0.02). Depression is more common in rural than urban areas in the Nigerian population. Mental health education for adolescents and secondary school students should be encouraged in rural communities.

  7. Pattern of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Imaledo, John Abdulrahman; Peter-Kio, Opirite Boma; Asuquo, Eme Olukemi

    2012-01-01

    Age at sexual debut had decreased in the developing countries recently. Few documented studies have looked into the pattern of risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among undergraduate students in Rivers state of recent. This study examined the pattern of sexual risky behaviour of undergraduate in University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional survey was adopted and three hundred students were purposively recruited. Data were collected by a self -administered semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics at 0.05 significant level. The mean age of respondents was 21.3 ± 2.8 years; more than half (57.4%) were females. Almost a quarter (24.5%) was each in 200 and 300 level of study respectively and more than a quarter (26.7%) lives alone. Sixty-one percent of the respondents had ever taken alcohol beverage with 36.1% of them were current users. More than half (52.0%) the respondents had either boy/girlfriend and a total of 144 (52.0%) had ever had sexual intercourse; of these 13% reportedly had only one sexual partner in their lifetime; girl/boy friend topped the list of their sexual partner; 48.6% respondents were currently sexually active and 32% used a form of protection during their last sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 17.0 ± 4.5 years. Few (13.4%) have had sex in exchange for gifts and 5.1% of these was with a friend. Higher proportions of respondents who reported lifetime use of alcohol were sexually active (p<0.005). Respondents exhibits risky sexual behavior as more had sex without any form of protection. Public enlightenment programmes and targeted behavioral change interventions are therefore recommended.

  8. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of

  9. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood

  10. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  11. School Dropout Pattern among Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, O. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…

  12. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  13. Dietary practices and nutritional status of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O.; Afolabi, Wasiu A. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother–child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001 and 43.3% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Other risk factors besides inappropriate feeding practices need to be considered for higher prevalence of undernutrition among children in rural communities. PMID:27942096

  14. Gender differences among oral health care workers in caring for HIV/AIDS patients in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedigba, M A; Ogunbodede, E O; Fajewonyomi, B A; Ojo, O O; Naidoo, S

    2005-09-01

    The study investigated the relationship between gender and knowledge, attitude and practice of infection control among oral health care workers in the management of patients with HIV/AIDS in Osun State of Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey using 85 oral Health care workers (OHCWs) enlisted in the public dental health clinics. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and used for data collection. A total of 85 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 93%; 42 (53%) were males and 37 (47%) females. The majority of the respondents were in the 25-40 year old age group and the mean age was 37.3 years. This study found significant differences in gender and ability to identify HIV/AIDS oral manifestations (p<0.001) and recognition of HIV/AIDS risk factors (p<0.001). There was statistically significant gender difference and infection control practices (p=0.02) among the OHCWs. Males were more compliant to the universal cross-infection control principle than the female respondents. A significant association (p< 0.001) was found between OHCW gender and their attitude to the management of HIV/AIDS patients with males showing a better attitude towards the care of HIV/AIDS patients. This study shows that there are significant gender difference in attitudes, behaviour and practices of OHCW with males faring better than the females. National AIDS Control Programme, Health Control bodies, Health educators and other organizations should make efforts to improve the attitude and practice of oral health care workers regarding the management of patients with HIV/AIDS.

  15. Intersection between alcohol abuse and intimate partner's violence in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O

    2012-02-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities; using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected from married or cohabitating adults aged between 16 and 65 years, with a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 346 subjects, comprising 187 males, and 159 females were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly Christians (91.9%), farmers/fisher folk (52.3%), and had at most primary school education (64.2%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, while 36% can be classified as alcohol abusers according to their AUDIT score. More than half (55.8%) were perpetrators of intimate partner violence during the preceding 12 months, with a male-to-female prevalence of 83.4%, and female-to-male prevalence of 23.3%. Out of these, 77.2% were under the influence of alcohol during the act. The violence was more likely to be perpetrated by male alcohol abusers (p-value < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the educational levels and religion of the perpetrators (p-value > 0.05). The study therefore concludes that there is a link between intimate partner abuse and alcohol abuse in the study community.

  16. Radioactivity in drilled and dug well drinking water of Ogun state Southwestern Nigeria and consequent dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, O S; Achuka, J

    2009-07-01

    Activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U were measured in 11 dug and 9 drilled well water samples from 3 large cities in Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria, consumed by the population living in the cities. The measurement was done using co-axial type high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector (Canberra Industries Inc.). The measured activity concentrations in the water samples ranged from 1.74 +/- 1.83 to 4.69 +/- 0.17 Bq l(-1); 2.89 +/- 0.62 to 7.79 +/- 7.22 Bq l(-1); 0.35 +/- 0.07 to 1.17 +/- 0.40 Bq l(-1) and 0.18 +/- 0.05 to 4.77 +/- 0.34 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U, respectively. Total annual effective dose rates from the ingestion of these radionuclides in the untreated wells were estimated using measured activity concentrations in the radionuclides and their ingested dose conversion factors. Estimated annual effective dose rates ranged from 0.04 to 6.82; 0.01 to 1.36 and 0.01 to 1.49 mSv y(-1) for age groups <1, 2-7 and > or =17 y, respectively. Committed dose for age group > or =17 y ranged from 8.8 x 10(-4) to 8.9 x 10(-2) Sv. The calculated annual effective dose values due to the ingestion of (226)Ra in the Awujale, Ake, Saboab, Alagbon, Alapora and Totoro samples exceeded International Commission on Radiological Protection limit of 1.0 mSv y(-1) for individual public exposure. These wells are recommended for treatment that would remove radium from their waters.

  17. Effect of irrigation on soil health: a case study of the Ikere irrigation project in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumobi, M A; Awe, G O; Abegunrin, T P; Oyetunji, O M; Kareem, T S

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the significant contributors to the food security of the millennium development goals (MDGs); however, the modification of soil matrix by irrigation could alter the overall soil health due to changes in soil properties and processes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on soil quality status of the Ikere center pivot irrigation project site in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90-cm layers from four different sites in three replicates, within the project location for the determination of soil bio-chemical properties. The average values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) < 13, electrical conductivity (EC) <4 μS/cm, and pH < 8.5 showed that the soil condition is normal in relation to salinity and sodicity hazards. The effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations were low while the available phosphorus (P) was moderate. The principal component analysis showed EC, ECEC, SAR, SOM, and TN as the minimum data set (MDS) for monitoring and assessing the soil quality status of this irrigation field. In terms of bio-chemical properties, the soil quality index (SQI) of the field was average (about 0.543) while the sampling locations were ranked as site 2 > site 4 > site 3 > site 1 in terms of SQI. The results of this study are designated as baseline for future evaluation of soil quality status of this irrigation field and further studies should incorporate soil physical and more biological properties when considering overall soil quality status.

  18. Quality assessment and public health status of harvested rainwater in a peri-urban community in Edo State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Aighewi, Isoken T

    2017-08-01

    The harvested rainwater is an alternative water source in communities where there is limited or scarcity of water distribution system. However, contamination of roof-harvested rainwater is of immense concern to the general public health. Therefore, this study was initiated to assess the levels of physicochemical quality and heavy metal concentrations in the harvested rainwater from Oluku communities in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The roof-harvested rainwater samples were collected from 20 independent different residential households in Oluku communities, between April 2015 and September 2015. Physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard analytical methods, and heavy metal concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The evaluation of the rainwater harvesting shows that 60% (12/20) of the roofs were made of corrugated iron sheets; aluminum sheets, 20% (4/20); asbestos, 10% (2/20); and open space was 10% (2/20). Also, the storage systems used for the storage of harvested rainwater were as follows: PVC tanks, 20% (4/20); drums, 30% (6/20); buckets, 25% (5/20); and wells, 25% (5/20). The physicochemical indicators investigated (temperature, nitrate, chlorine content, electrical conductivity, phosphate, total dissolved solids, and sulfate) were within World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. However, some pH levels of the roof-harvested rainwater were acidic and below the WHO standard. Furthermore, a high value of turbidity was observed in some locations and exceeded the WHO guidelines. Though some heavy metal indicators (Zn, Na, K, and Ca) in this study were within the WHO guidelines, some locations revealed heavy metal (Cu, Fe, and Cd) concentrations slightly above the WHO guidelines. There is need for proper rainwater harvesting system and continuous monitoring of harvested rainwater for potable uses.

  19. Onchocerciasis in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria: clinical and psychological aspects and sustainability of community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI).

    PubMed

    Mbanefo, Evaristus C; Eneanya, Christine I; Nwaorgu, Obioma C; Oguoma, Victor M; Otiji, Moses O; Ogolo, Bernice A

    2010-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the psychological impact of onchocerciasis, and assess sustainability of the decade-old community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in Ayamelum Local Council, Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria. Skin manifestations assessed using the rapid assessment method (RAM) in 894 subjects from 13 communities selected by multi-stage sampling were classified based on the anatomical sites affected. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used to obtain information on the psychological impacts and sustainability of the CDTI programme. Qualitative data were summarised while quantitative data generated were analysed using charts and tables. Anatomical distribution showed a preponderance of onchodermatitis on the limbs (the most exposed parts of the body) and buttocks (an area considered 'private'), thus revealing some reasons for the psychological impacts of the skin disease and the psychosocial inclination of the victims. Itching (40%) and onchocercal skin manifestations (OSDs) (34.3%) were identified as the most troublesome signs and symptoms, while the most worrisome consequence of onchocerciasis was social seclusion (or stigmatisation) (34.3%). Focus group responses revealed the persistence of psychological impacts on the victims, affecting almost all facets of their lives. The CDTI programme has performed creditably well when assessed using the sustainability indicators, yet there are still challenges in the areas of coverage, monitoring, resources, and participation. A 'quick-win' was identified whereby the CDTI chain could be utilised to deliver other health interventions. It is recommended that onchocerciasis control programmes should include aspects that would address its psychosocial impacts and threats to the sustainability of the CDTI programme.

  20. Health care workers' knowledge and attitude towards TB patients under Direct Observation of Treatment in Plateau state Nigeria, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadjia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Patrobas, Phillip; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in Nigeria. Adherence to the total duration of treatment is critical to cure the patients. We explored the knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients including their perceived reasons for patient non adherence to treatment to develop strategies to improve the quality of the TB control service in the state. We conducted a cross sectional study. We used self administered questionnaire to extract information from the health workers on their trainings for TB control, knowledge of the control services, patients' education including prevention of defaulting from treatment. We conducted focus group discussion with the health care workers. We performed descriptive analysis using epiInfo software. Of the 76 respondents 41 (53.9%) were female, 39.9% were community health extension workers, 26.3% were nurses/midwifes 30.3% lacked training on management of TB patient. Only 43.4% knew when to take action on patients who miss their drugs in the intensive phase, 30.3% and 35.5% knew defaults among category 1 and category 2 in the continuation phases of treatment respectively. They identified side effects of drugs (80%), daily clinic attendance (76.3%), health workers attitude (73.4%) and lack of knowledge on duration of treatment (71.1%) including their unfriendly attitudes towards the patients as the major barriers to patients' adherence to treatment. Lack of knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients and poor interpersonal relation and communication with patients have negative effect on patients' adherence to the long duration of TB treatment.

  1. Hepatobiliary Ultrasonographic Abnormalities in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Steady State in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoye, Oluwatosin O.; Ndububa, Dennis A.; Yusuf, Musah; Bolarinwa, Rahman A.; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga O.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with structural manifestations in the hepatobiliary axis. This study aimed to investigate the hepatobiliary ultrasonographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle cell anaemia in steady state attending the Haematology clinic of a federal tertiary health institution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material/Methods Basic demographic data as well as right upper abdominal quadrant ultrasonography of 50 consecutive sickle cell anaemia patients were compared with those of 50 age- and sex-matched subjects with HbAA as controls. Results Each of the study groups (patients and controls) comprised of 21 (42%) males and 29 (58%) females. The age range of the patients was 18–45 years with a mean (±SD) of 27.6±7.607 years, while that of the controls was 21–43 years with a mean (±SD) of 28.0±5.079 years (p=0.746). Amongst the patients, 32 (64%) had hepatomegaly, 15 (30%) cholelithiasis and 3 (6%) biliary sludge. Fourteen (28%) of the patients had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. In the control group, one (2%) person had cholelithiasis, one (2%) biliary sludge, one (2%) fatty liver and none hepatomegaly. Forty-seven (94%) of the controls had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of hepatomegaly and cholelithiasis between the patients and controls (p value <0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusions In this study, hepatomegaly, cholelithiasis and biliary sludge were the most common hepatobiliary ultrasound findings in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Ultrasonography is a useful tool for assessing hepatobiliary abnormalities in patients with sickle cell anaemia. PMID:28105246

  2. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agere, H.; Wama, B. E.; Bingbeng, J. B.; Amuta, E. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ2 = 365.8, p = 0.000). Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p = 0.000), rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p = 0.000), and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p = 0.000) were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID:28096819

  3. Prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyberbullying among in-school adolescents in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2016-05-01

    Cyberharassment/cyberbullying is a global problem that has been inadequately investigated in developing countries. In this paper, we present findings on the prevalence and predictors of perpetration of cyberbullying among in-school adolescents in Oyo state, Nigeria. A total of 653 students were selected via multi-stage sampling. Information on history of perpetrating harassment via an electronic medium in the 3-month period preceding the survey was obtained. Respondents' mean age was 14.2±2.2 years and 51.3% were females. All respondents had personal mobile phones and about half had Internet access. About 40% accessed the Internet every day while about 48% accessed it at least once to several times a week and <5% accessed it about once every 2 weeks. One hundred and fifty-six (23.9%) had harassed someone electronically, 260 (39.8%) had been victimized, and 137 (21.0%) were both victims and perpetrators. Common modes of harassment were via phone calls 99 (63.5%), chat rooms 70 (44.9%), and text messages 60 (38.5%). Students who had been victims of cyberbullying (OR=21.76, 95% CI=12.64-37.47) and those with daily Internet access (OR=2.32, 95% CI=1.28-4.19) had significantly higher Oods of being perpetrators. About a quarter of students were perpetrators of cyberbullying, and the correlates of perpetration were history of cyber victimization and daily Internet access. Intervention programs must be instituted for victims as well as frequent users of the Internet to curb the problem in the study area.

  4. Pattern of Skin Diseases at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: A 12 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukonu, B. A.; Eze, E. U

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. Results: A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi’s sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. Conclusion: The current pattern of

  5. Attraction and retention of qualified health workers to rural areas in Nigeria: a case study of four LGAs in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Campbell, Princess C

    2011-01-01

    INTRTODUCTION: A shortage of health workers is a major problem for Nigeria, especially in rural areas where more than 70% of the population live. At the primary care level, trained community health officers provide services normally reserved for doctors or medical specialists. The community health officers must therefore be supported and motivated to provide effective quality healthcare services. This study aimed to determine factors that will attract and retain rural and urban health workers to rural Nigerian communities, and to examine differences between the two groups. A cross-sectional survey measured health workers' work experience, satisfaction with, and reasons for undertaking their current work; as well as reasons for leaving a work location. Data were also gathered on factors that attract health workers to rural settings and also retain them. RESULTS; Rural health workers were generally more likely to work in rural settings (62.5%) than their urban counterparts (16.5%). Major rural motivators for both groups included: assurances of better working conditions; effective and efficient support systems; opportunities for career development; financial incentives; better living conditions and family support systems. The main de-motivator was poor job satisfaction resulting from inadequate infrastructure. Rural health workers were particularly dissatisfied with career advancement opportunities. More urban than rural health workers expressed a wish to leave their current job due to poor job satisfaction resulting from poor working and living conditions and the lack of career advancement opportunities. Motivational factors for attraction to and retention in rural employment were similar for both groups although there were subtle differences. Addressing rural health manpower shortages will require the development of a comprehensive, evidence-based rural health manpower improvement strategy that incorporates a coordinated intersectoral approach, involving partnership

  6. Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable

  7. Iodine status and the effect of soil erosion on trace elements in Nanka and Oba towns of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olife, Ifeyinwa C; Okaka, Antoinette N; Dioka, Chudi E; Meludu, Samuel C; Orisakwe, Orish E

    2007-09-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is common in all populations. Iodine and other trace elements naturally occur in the soil but erosion leaches off these elements from the soil. This results in a continued loss of trace elements from the soil. In the present study, the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and lead in the environment (measured in soil, bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina), cassava roots (mannihot utilissima, staple food in Nigeria), and drinking water) and urinary iodine from school children (n=200), pregnant women (n=60) and women of child bearing age (n=60) were determined for Nanka prone to soil erosion and Oba all in Anambra State, Nigeria (used as control) to assess their risk to IDD. The levels of selenium, zinc and lead were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry while the levels of iodine in the environment and urinary iodine were estimated using the method of Dunn et al.,(1993). In this study there was a positive correlation between iodine and the metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of total soil zinc (0.69 +/- 0.16 ppm); lead (0.40 +/- 0.12 ppm) values in Oba were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than values from Nanka (Zn = 0.33 +/- 0.10 ppm; Pb = 0.21 +/- 0.09 ppm). However, total soil values for selenium and iodine in soil were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total vegetable zinc (0.63 +/- 0.14 ppm) value in Oba is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (Zn = 0.31 +/- 0.07 ppm). However, total vegetable values for I, Se and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. Also, mean concentration of total cassava zinc (0.65 = 0.15 ppm) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Zn (0.44 +/- 0.1l ppm) from Nanka. However, values for Se, Pb, and I were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total water iodine (105.25 +/- 10.44 microg/L) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka

  8. An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while…

  9. Relationship between the Curriculum and Attributes of Nigerian Faculty of Education Graduates towards Teaching in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayode, David Jimoh; Yusoff, Nurahimah BtMohd; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    University education in Nigeria has been recognized for its role in pertinent workforce training for the benefit of learners and the community. However, the role of university education in stimulating national economic growth and transformation exacerbates the need to ensure quality within the universities system. The quality and focus of the…

  10. Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

  11. Relationship between the Curriculum and Attributes of Nigerian Faculty of Education Graduates towards Teaching in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayode, David Jimoh; Yusoff, Nurahimah BtMohd; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    University education in Nigeria has been recognized for its role in pertinent workforce training for the benefit of learners and the community. However, the role of university education in stimulating national economic growth and transformation exacerbates the need to ensure quality within the universities system. The quality and focus of the…

  12. Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

  13. Marketing Strategies and Students' Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, Chika C.; Nwafor, Innocent A.; Nwaneri, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marketing strategies and students' enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population…

  14. Resource Availability and Distribution in Public and Private Special Education Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntukidem, Peter James; Ntukidem, Eno Peter; Eyo, Eno Etudor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the availability and distribution of staff and facilities/equipment in private and public special needs schools in Cross River State. Sixty-nine (69) teachers and three (3) principals of these schools constituted the sample size of the study. One hypothesis and one research question were postulated to guide the study. The…

  15. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

  16. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

  17. Stress among Secondary School Teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Suggested Interventions in the Worksite Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of stress experienced by secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State. The dimensions of stress studied included physical stress, mental stress, emotional stress and social stress. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey design using a sample of 660 (male 259, female 401) teachers randomly drawn…

  18. A preliminary spatial analysis of diagnosed stroke disease in Osun state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adzandeh, Ayila Emmanuel; Awope, John; Oviasu, Osaretin Isoken

    2016-01-01

    There have been a number of clinical studies on diagnosed Stroke disease. However, there have been few studies on the geographical disparities for stroke. This study investigates the spatial pattern of stroke disease reflecting socio-demographic characteristics in the State. Stroke patients' admissions for 22 years (from 1990 to 2012) were examined. Their socio-demographic characteristics were extracted from their health records and analyzed. The location of the stroke patients were categorized by Local Governments Areas (LGAs). Spatial maps were generated and produced in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. It involves the analysis of the distribution of stroke cases in relation to their underlying population to determine the areas of high and low density of diagnosed cases across the state. The result highlighted the spatial distribution of diagnosed stroke cases and also highlighted the areas of concern regarding their spatial distribution within the state. Social inequalities in stroke were persistent as incidence rates in urban areas (North) were around 3 times higher than in the rural areas (South). However, this could be due to better healthcare access in the urban areas than in the rural areas as there were disparities in the distribution of healthcare facilities involved in administering care to stroke patients in Osun State. The outcome of this study appears to indicate that spatial inequalities in the access to Stroke healthcare is a concern that needs to be addressed in order to manage the disease adequately.

  19. The Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Yunusa Dangara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the Impact of Instructional Supervision on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nasarawa State with reference to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE). Five research questions were used to guide the study to a rational conclusion. Descriptive Survey method was adopted in which Instructional Supervision…

  20. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local…

  1. School Types, Facilities and Academic Performance of Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Olatunji Sabitu; Ehinola, Gabriel Babatunde; Alabi, Festus Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of school types and facilities on students' academic performance in Ondo State. It was designed to find out whether facilities and students' academic performance are related in private and public secondary schools respectively. Descriptive survey design was used. Proportionate random sampling technique was used…

  2. A preliminary spatial analysis of diagnosed stroke disease in Osun state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adzandeh, Ayila Emmanuel; Awope, John; Oviasu, Osaretin Isoken

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There have been a number of clinical studies on diagnosed Stroke disease. However, there have been few studies on the geographical disparities for stroke. This study investigates the spatial pattern of stroke disease reflecting socio-demographic characteristics in the State. Methods Stroke patients' admissions for 22 years (from 1990 to 2012) were examined. Their socio-demographic characteristics were extracted from their health records and analyzed. The location of the stroke patients were categorized by Local Governments Areas (LGAs). Spatial maps were generated and produced in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. It involves the analysis of the distribution of stroke cases in relation to their underlying population to determine the areas of high and low density of diagnosed cases across the state. Results The result highlighted the spatial distribution of diagnosed stroke cases and also highlighted the areas of concern regarding their spatial distribution within the state. Social inequalities in stroke were persistent as incidence rates in urban areas (North) were around 3 times higher than in the rural areas (South). However, this could be due to better healthcare access in the urban areas than in the rural areas as there were disparities in the distribution of healthcare facilities involved in administering care to stroke patients in Osun State. Conclusion The outcome of this study appears to indicate that spatial inequalities in the access to Stroke healthcare is a concern that needs to be addressed in order to manage the disease adequately. PMID:28250887

  3. Attitude towards Pre-Marital Genetic Screening among Students of Osun State Polytechnics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odelola, J. O.; Adisa, O.; Akintaro, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards pre-marital genetic screening among students of Osun State Polytechnics. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was self developed and structured questionnaire in four-point likert scale format. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentages were…

  4. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local…

  5. Teaching, Academic Achievement, and Attitudes toward Mathematics in the United States and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, S. Marshall; Catapano, Michael; Ramon, Olosunde Gbolagade

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among attitudes toward mathematics, teaching, and academic achievement in mathematics. Based on the contextual and social nature of academic self-concept, two complementary studies are discussed. The first study from the northeastern United States examined the relationships among these variables in 84 high…

  6. Human immunonodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus: sero-prevalence, co-infection and risk factors among prison inmates in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adoga, Moses P; Banwat, Edmund B; Forbi, Joseph C; Nimzing, Lohya; Pam, Christopher R; Gyar, Silas D; Agabi, Yusuf A; Agwale, Simon M

    2009-08-30

    Published data on HIV, HBV, and HCV in correctional facilities in Nigeria is scarce. We set out to establish the seroprevalence, co-infection, and risk factors for these infections for the first time among prison inmates in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. In a cross-sectional study conducted between April and May, 2007, blood samples were collected from 300 male prisoners of a mean age of 29.2 years, in the state's four medium-security prisons (overall population: 587). Prior to the study, ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained and structured questionnaires were administered. Samples were analyzed for HIV, HBsAg, and HCV using anti-HIV 1+2-EIA-avicenna, Shantest-HBsAg ELISA, and anti-HCV-EIA-avicenna, respectively. Specimens initially reactive for HIV were retested with vironostika microelisa. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. P values < or = 0.05 were considered significant. Of the 300 subjects, 54 (18.0 %), 69 (23.0 %), and 37 (12.3 %) tested positive for HIV, HBV, and HCV, respectively. Co-infections were eight (2.7 %) for HIV/HBV and two (0.7 %) for HBV/HCV. Those aged 21-26 years were more likely to be infected with HIV and HBV, while those aged 33-38 years had the highest HCV infection. Associated risk factors included duration in prison, previous incarceration (for HIV, HBV and HCV), intra-prison anal sex, multiple sex partners (for HIV and HBV), ignorance of transmission modes, blood transfusion, and alcohol consumption (for HBV and HCV). No inmate injected drugs. The overall outcome represents the need for prison-focused intervention initiatives in Nigeria. Injected drug use is an unlikely major transmission mode among Nigerian inmates.

  7. Mental health care policy environment in Rivers State: experiences of mental health nurses providing mental health care services in neuro-psychiatric hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health services for Rivers State and surrounding States in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria are provided only at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital in Port Harcourt City, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study explored mental health nurses’ experiences of providing mental health services at the hospital in an attempt to understand policy implications, identify difficulties and challenges of delivering mental health care services. Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interview was conducted among 20 mental health nurses working at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital. This was reviewed within the Townsend mental health policy template of context and resources domains. Results A lack of political support and senior position in the Ministry of Health hinders service delivery, the prevalence of institutionalized stigma, a lack of training, and system failure to provide services at all levels of care is hampering service delivery. The inadequate allocation of resources for hospital renovations and equipment is preventing appropriate client care, as does the lack of funding for drugs, the cost of which makes them unaffordable, affecting clients staying on treatment. Conclusion Education and training of mental health care professionals should be given priority to remedy human resource shortage, provide incentives to motivate health professionals for psychiatric practice, and move toward decentralization of care into general health care services. Information should be provided at all levels to overcome the myths surrounding the causes of mental illnesses, to reduce stigma and discrimination of the affected and their families. PMID:23414640

  8. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ismail A; Momo, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A high level of adherence is required to achieve the desired outcomes of antiretroviral therapy. There is paucity of information about adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy in Bayelsa State of southern Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the level of adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy among the patients, evaluate the improvement in their immune status and identify reasons for sub-optimal adherence to therapy. The cross-sectional study involved administration of an adapted and pretested questionnaire to 601 consented patients attending the two tertiary health institutions in Bayesla State. The Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa and the Niger-Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri. The tool was divided into various sections such as socio-demographic data, HIV knowledge and adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy. Information on the patient's CD4+ T cells count was retrieved from their medical records. Adherence was assessed by asking patients to recall their intake of prescribed doses in the last fourteen days and subjects who had 95-100% of the prescribed antiretroviral drugs were considered adherent. Three hundred and forty eight (57.9%) of the subjects were females and 253 (42.1%) were males. The majority of them, 557 (92.7%) have good knowledge of HIV and combined anti-retroviral therapy with a score of 70.0% and above. A larger proportion of the respondents, 441 (73.4%), had ≥95% adherence. Some of the most important reasons giving for missing doses include, "simply forgot" 147 (24.5%), and "wanted to avoid the side-effects of drugs" 33(5.5%). There were remarkable improvements in the immune status of the subjects with an increment in the proportion of the subjects with CD4+ T cells count of greater than 350 cells/mm3 from 33 (5.5%) at therapy initiation to 338 (56.3%) at study period (p<0.0001). The adherence level of 73.4% was low which calls for intervention and improvement. The combined antiretroviral therapy has

  9. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olatoye, Isaac Olufemi; Daniel, Oluwayemisi Folashade; Ishola, Sunday Ayobami

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara), and 90 fermented milk (nono) from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers’ extension education

  10. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatoye, Isaac Olufemi; Daniel, Oluwayemisi Folashade; Ishola, Sunday Ayobami

    2016-09-01

    There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara), and 90 fermented milk (nono) from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi(®) test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers' extension education on alternatives to antibiotic prophylaxis, veterinary

  11. Biomedical loopholes, distrusted state, and the politics of HIV/AIDS "cure" in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obadare, Ebenezer; Okeke, Iruka N

    2011-01-01

    As socio-medical phenomena, epidemics are revealing of the cultures in which they are experienced. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa exposes antecedent tensions between state and society, and, on a broader canvas, between the global north and south. As a contribution to the emerging literature on the social ramifications of HIV/AIDS, this article examines the saga of the Nigerian physician and immunologist, Dr Jeremiah Abalaka, who like other innovators in sub-Saharan Africa claims to have developed a curative HIV vaccine. Whilst articulating the social conditions that enabled Abalaka to thrive, the article explores the marked differences in the reaction to his "discovery" among state representatives, the scientific establishment, the general public, people living with HIV, and the media. Finally, the article valorizes the emergence of new actors in the African health sector, and the diversity of strategies used by ordinary people to achieve and maintain wellness.

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of a cholera outbreak in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria, 2014.

    PubMed

    Sule, Ibrahim Baffa; Yahaya, Mohammed; Aisha, Abubakar Ahmed; Zainab, Ahmed Datti; Ummulkhulthum, Bajoga; Nguku, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. This analysis is aimed at highlighting the magnitude, pattern and trend of cholera outbreak that occurred in Kaduna State in 2014. We obtained the 2014 cholera line-list from the Kaduna State Disease Surveillance and Notification officer (DSNO). We described the outbreaks in time, place and person using Epi-info 7 and Health Mapper. A total of 1468 case-patients and 54 deaths were recorded, giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 3.68%. Female case-patients were 809(55.08%). The median age for case-patients was 15 years, with an age range of 0.04-90 years. Age specific case fatality rate (ASCFR) is highest among the > 60 years. Seven (30%) out of the 23 local government areas (LGAs) in Kaduna State were affected by the cholera outbreak in 2014. Igabi LGA has the highest attack rate (150.46 per 100,000 population) while Chikun LGA has the lowest attack rate (12.22 per 100,000 population). Chikun LGA records the highest CFR (17.54%). Cholera infection spread across LGAs sharing the same borders. The outbreak started from the first epidemic week of 2014 and lasted over 33 weeks. Our analysis revealed a protracted cholera outbreak that gradually increases in magnitude throughout the first half of 2014 and spread within contiguous LGAs. We recommended the strengthening of the state's diseases surveillance system towards timely detection and early response to disease outbreaks in the future.

  13. Awareness and attitude to the law banning smoking in public places in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Adepoju, Ebenezer Gbenga; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola

    2014-03-27

    This study determined the awareness and attitude towards the Osun state prohibition of smoking in public places law. Descriptive cross-sectional study design. 520 consenting respondents recruited using a convenience sampling method were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire covering their smoking pattern, awareness and attitude towards the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. Data analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Only 38% were aware of the law while none had seen the document. Fifty six percent felt cigarette smoking is a problem that required the law to be implemented, while only 20% agreed that the law will stop tobacco use. The radio (58%), bill boards (45%) and newspapers (44%) were the major sources of awareness of the law. The perception of risk posed to the public and family health by cigarette smoking was poor among the participants. There is poor awareness and attitude to the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. It is necessary to increase sensitization of the general public and enforcement of the law.

  14. Onchocerciasis in Plateau State; Nigeria: ecological background, local disease perception & treatment; and vector/parasite dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, B E; Onwuliri, C O; Ufomadu, G O

    1992-01-01

    The physico-biological ecological complex in Plateau State has by definition increased the potential of most rivers to support the breeding and dispersal of vector species as well as human acquisition and dissemination of the disease for several months in a year. Though villagers in endemic areas are of the know of the nuisance of blackfly bites, but the majority of them lacked the aetiological knowledge of onchocercal lesion. Hence disease management is misdirected towards consulting the oracle and appeasing the gods. The vectors of onchocerciasis in Plateau State, S. damnosum, and S. sirbanum are wet season breeders with their peak biting density occurring at the height of rainy season. However, biting flies carry more infective parasites at the beginning and end of rain. These vectors exhibit bimodal biting activity: a small one in the morning hours and a pronounced evening peak. Biting activity is at least influenced by two major climatic factors; illumination and temperature. However, the fastest changing climatic factor relative to an increase in the biting activity of flies was illumination. Microfilarial load in the skin of patients does not significantly change throughout the year or when biopsies are taken under shade throughout the day. Extreme temperatures, however, have significant reducing effect on the skin microfilarial. The epidemiological relevance of these in the ongoing MECTIZAN delivery in the State are discussed.

  15. Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

    2010-01-01

    This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

  16. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons. PMID:25763387

  17. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Peer Education in Improving HIV Knowledge, Attitude, and Sexual Behaviours among In-School Adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics. PMID:25478212

  18. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey Enya; Gasasira, Alex; Mitula, Pamela; Frankson, Umoh Utobong; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2011-01-01

    The last case of wild polio virus transmission occurred in Akwa Ibom state in October 2001; however, combination high routine immunization coverage with OPV, high quality AFP surveillance, mass immunization campaign in which two doses of potent oral polio vaccine is administered to eligible children and mop-up campaigns in areas with identified immunization or surveillance gaps has help the state in maintaining a free polio status for over ten years. This study was carried out to describe the characteristics of reported acute flaccid paralysis cases between 2004 and 2009, and to evaluate the performance of the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization. A retrospective study was conducted among children, 0-15 years, by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Epidemiology unit of State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Uyo. The demographic characteristics and the results of isolation and identification of polio and other enteroviruses in stool samples sent to the WHO Polio Laboratory Ibadan for cases was analyzed. A total of 521 cases of AFP (270 males and 251 females) aged 0 month to=15 years were reported by the surveillance system between 2004 and 2009. Those below 5 years of age accounted for 82.5% of cases reported and investigated. Of the 521 cases investigated 512 (98.3%) received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine, while 9(1.7) never received any oral polio vaccine (zero-dose). In all 5.1% of the isolates were Sabin, 7.9% non polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 2.3% were classified by national expert committee as compatible with poliomyelitis. There was consistent and steady increase in three critical indicators; Non polio AFP rate in children <15 years from 4.5 to 6.4 per 100,000 population, proportion of AFP cases with 2 stool specimens collected within 14 days of onset of paralysis from 57% in 2005 to 91% in 2009 and proportion of Local Government Areas (Districts) meeting both core indicators from

  19. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Bassey, Bassey Enya; Gasasira, Alex; Mitula, Pamela; Frankson, Umoh Utobong; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The last case of wild polio virus transmission occurred in Akwa Ibom state in October 2001; however, combination high routine immunization coverage with OPV, high quality AFP surveillance, mass immunization campaign in which two doses of potent oral polio vaccine is administered to eligible children and mop-up campaigns in areas with identified immunization or surveillance gaps has help the state in maintaining a free polio status for over ten years. This study was carried out to describe the characteristics of reported acute flaccid paralysis cases between 2004 and 2009, and to evaluate the performance of the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization. Methods A retrospective study was conducted among children, 0-15 years, by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Epidemiology unit of State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Uyo. The demographic characteristics and the results of isolation and identification of polio and other enteroviruses in stool samples sent to the WHO Polio Laboratory Ibadan for cases was analyzed. Results A total of 521 cases of AFP (270 males and 251 females) aged 0 month to=15 years were reported by the surveillance system between 2004 and 2009. Those below 5 years of age accounted for 82.5% of cases reported and investigated. Of the 521 cases investigated 512 (98.3%) received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine, while 9(1.7) never received any oral polio vaccine (zero-dose). In all 5.1% of the isolates were Sabin, 7.9% non polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 2.3% were classified by national expert committee as compatible with poliomyelitis. There was consistent and steady increase in three critical indicators; Non polio AFP rate in children <15 years from 4.5 to 6.4 per 100 000 population, proportion of AFP cases with 2 stool specimens collected within 14 days of onset of paralysis from 57% in 2005 to 91% in 2009 and proportion of Local Government Areas (Districts

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  1. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  2. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

  3. Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012.

    PubMed

    Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

    2014-01-01

    According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged 5-15 years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ≥ 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications.

  4. Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ≥ 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Results Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. Conclusion We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications. PMID:25328634

  5. Impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of primary-school children in Osun state, south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oninla, S O; Onayade, A A; Owa, J A

    2010-10-01

    In January-March 2000, the impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of 749 pupils (353 boys and 396 girls) attending public primary schools in the Ife Central local government area of Osun state, in south-western Nigeria, was investigated. Demographic, socio-economic and other relevant information was collected on the pupils, on the same day that a single stool sample was collected from each subject and examined, using Stoll's dilution egg-count technique. The weights, heights and ages of the subjects were recorded and converted to percentages of the reference medians for weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. The overall prevalences of helminth infection detected among the 465 malnourished pupils (i.e. those with any form of under-nutrition) and the 284 well-nourished pupils were 32.9% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.029). The nutritional indices of the pupils who were found helminth-infected were generally lower than those of the pupils who appeared free of intestinal helminths. The mean values for weight-for-height, for example, were higher in the apparently uninfected pupils than in those found infected with any intestinal helminth (P=0.02) or only with Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.05). Similarly, the mean height-for-age of the pupils who were apparently uninfected was higher than the corresponding value for the pupils found hookworm-positive (P=0.003). The pupils who were each found infected with two or more species of intestinal infection had significantly lower weights-for-heights, weights-for-ages and heights-for-ages than the pupils who appeared to be helminth-free. The results of a multivariate logistic-regression analysis indicated that hookworm infection was a significant risk factor for underweight (P=0.015), wasting (P=0.033) and stunting (P=0.015) whereas Trichuris was only a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0.025). It appears that intestinal helminthiasis may play a causal or contributory role in the occurrence of

  6. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in Wukari metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

    2014-06-12

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti

  7. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Veronica O.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Umoh, Jarlath U.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using χ2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti

  8. Service readiness, health facility management practices, and delivery care utilization in five states of Nigeria: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J; Ilombu, Onyebuchi; Akinyemi, Akanni Ibukun

    2016-10-06

    Existing studies of delivery care in Nigeria have identified socioeconomic and cultural factors as the primary determinants of health facility delivery. However, no study has investigated the association between supply-side factors and health facility delivery. Our study analyzed the role of supply-side factors, particularly health facility readiness and management practices for provision of quality maternal health services. Using linked data from the 2005 and 2009 health facility and household surveys in the five states in which the Community Participation for Action in the Social Sector (COMPASS) project was implemented, indices of health service readiness and management were developed based on World Health Organization guidelines. Multilevel logistic regression models were run to determine the association between these indices and health facility delivery among 2710 women aged 15-49 years whose last child was born within the five years preceding the surveys and who lived in 51 COMPASS LGAs. The health facility delivery rate increased from 25.4 % in 2005 to 44.1 % in 2009. Basic amenities for antenatal care provision, readiness to deliver basic emergency obstetric and newborn care, and management practices supportive of quality maternal health services were suboptimal in health facilities surveyed and did not change significantly between 2005 and 2009. The LGA mean index of basic amenities for antenatal care provision was more positively associated with the odds of health facility delivery in 2009 than in 2005, and in rural than in urban areas. The LGA mean index of management practices was associated with significantly lower odds of health facility delivery in rural than in urban areas. The LGA mean index of facility readiness to deliver basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care declined slightly from 5.16 in 2005 to 3.98 in 2009 and was unrelated to the odds of health facility delivery. Supply-side factors appeared to play a role in health facility delivery

  9. Pattern of paediatric corneal laceration injuries in the University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omobolanle, Adio Adedayo; Henrietta, Nwachukwu

    2012-12-13

    Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered. Records of all children between the ages of 1-18 yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient's Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA), source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician. Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes) between the ages of 0-18 years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8 years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7 years (SD ± 3.67). Only one presented within 24 hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n = 8, 22.2%). Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n = 4, 11%) to no light perception (NLP) (n = 5, 13.9%). Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3%) carried out within 7 days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3 months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%), 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%). Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5 days and who did not have any intraocular infection at the time of presentation. The importance of health education, adult supervision of play

  10. Pattern of paediatric corneal laceration injuries in the University of port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered. Methods Records of all children between the ages of 1-18 yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient’s Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA), source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician. Results Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes) between the ages of 0–18 years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8 years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7 years (SD ± 3.67). Only one presented within 24 hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n = 8, 22.2%). Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n = 4, 11%) to no light perception (NLP) (n = 5, 13.9%). Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3%) carried out within 7 days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3 months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%), 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%). Conclusion Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5 days and who did not have any intraocular infection at the time of

  11. Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001) and (43.3% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001) respectively. In rural communities, the risk of stunted mothers having children with stunting was about 7 times higher than those who were not (OR 6.7, 95% CI = 1.4-32.0, p = 0.007). In urban communities, undernourished mothers have about 11 and 12 times risk of having children with underweight and wasting respectively (OR 11.2, 95% CI = 1.4-86.5, p = 0.005) and (OR 12.3, 95% CI = 1.6-95.7, p = 0.003) respectively. The identified risk factors for maternal and child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community. PMID:23880121

  12. Radionulide analyses of ingested water from some estuaries within the coastal area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enyinna, P I; Uboh, U G

    2017-03-20

    Radionuclide analyses of ingested water from three selected estuaries within the coastal areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria have been carried out. Fifteen water samples collected at strategic points from the estuaries were pre-treated and each placed on the sodium iodide NaI (Tl) -model 802 detector for 3600 s to obtain the gamma radiation count rate. The activity concentrations and other radiological risk parameters were computed. The effective dose rate of radiation due to ingested water (E.D.I.W.) ranged between 0.25 and 1.86 mSv yr(-1), the effective equivalent dose rate due to absorbed radiation in air (Deq) ranged between 0.0065 and 0.0369 mSv yr(-1) and the total equivalent dose rate of radiation ranged between 0.257 and 1.87 mSv yr(-1). The E.D.I.W exceeded the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv yr(-1) set for ingested radionuclides from food. Most surveyed points had their total equivalent dose rate of radiation greater than the ICRP permissible dose limit of 1 mSv yr(-1) for radiation exposure from all internal and external sources. The annual gonadal dose equivalent ranged between 0.008 and 0.041 mSv yr(-1) and are below the world average value of 0.3 mSv yr(-1). The excess lifetime cancer risk ranged between 0.7 × 10(-3) and 5.07 × 10(-3) and are above the world average value of 0.29 × 10(-3). The elevation of most of the radiation risk parameters over the standard limits shows that oil production activities may have raised the background radiation levels of the area. This research also revealed that computing only the Deq and neglecting the E.D.I.W would mean under estimating the radiation doses received by an impacted person by 97.4%-98.3%. Water consumed from these sources could enhance the radionuclide content and the percentage probabilities of developing cancer by impacted persons.

  13. Prevalence and transmission dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural community of southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivoke, N; Ivoke, O N; Nwani, C D; Ekeh, F N; Asogwa, C N; Atama, C I; Eyo, J E

    2014-03-01

    A twelve-month epidemio-ecological study on the prevalence, infection intensity, water contact and vector aspects of urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in a rural community of south-west Ebonyi State, Nigeria, using standard procedures, and involving 894 individuals (527, 58.9% males; and 367, 41.1% females). An overall community prevalence (15.3%) was established with more males (20.7%) than females (7.6%) being significantly positive for both micro-and macro-haematuria (χ² = 0.806; df = 1, p < 0.05). Intensity of infection was generally of the light category (< 100 eggs/10 ml urine) with more infected males (n = 95, 87.2%) than infected females (n = 15, 53.6%). Correlation analysis showed no linear relationship between prevalence and intensity of infection. Individuals aged 16-20 years dominated interschool/intervillage infection profile (range 13.2-50%) while participants in 6-10 years age bracket recorded the lowest infection rates (range 2.8-5.0%). Age-related difference in prevalence was not significant (χ² = 1.80; df = 2, p > 0.05). A total of 2877 ova of Schistosoma haematobium were recovered providing an overall mean egg burden of 21 ± 7 eggs/10 ml urine per infected person. Age-related infection intensity was similarly of the light category involving 80.3% of infected persons. Bulinus globosus (n = 308) was identified as the vector of the parasite with 20.1% snails found to be shedding cercariae. Monthly and seasonal infection rates in snails were season-dependent and peaking in May (35.5%). Participants aged 13-15 years accounted for 25.1% of total water contacts (n = 9938) whereas individuals aged 6-9 years accounted for only 9.6% contacts. The most performed water contact activity was bathing (33.3%), followed by washing of clothes (25.7%). Correlation analysis indicated that village of residence, age and cumulative water contacts were significant correlates of possible S. haematobium infection.

  14. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-12-20

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 ± 6.81 years and 26.89 ± 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ≥8.9g/dL and ≥26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /μL per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices

  15. An innovation for improving maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria: a qualitative study of stakeholders' perceptions about clinical mentoring.

    PubMed

    Okereke, Ekechi; Tukur, Jamilu; Aminu, Amina; Butera, Jean; Mohammed, Bello; Tanko, Mustapha; Yisa, Ibrahim; Obonyo, Benson; Egboh, Mike

    2015-02-15

    An effective capacity building process for healthcare workers is required for the delivery of quality health care services. Work-based training can be applied for the capacity building of health care workers while causing minimum disruption to service delivery within health facilities. In 2012, clinical mentoring was introduced into the Jigawa State Health System through collaboration between the Jigawa State Ministry of Health and the Partnership for Transforming Health Systems Phase 2 (PATHS2). This study evaluates the perceptions of different stakeholders about clinical mentoring as a strategy for improving maternal, newborn and child health service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria. Interviews were conducted in February 2013 with different stakeholders within Jigawa State in Northern Nigeria. There were semi-structured interviews with 33 mentored health care workers as well as the health facility departmental heads for Obstetrics and Pediatrics in the selected clinical mentoring health facilities. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the clinical mentors and two senior government health officials working within the Jigawa State Ministry of Health. The qualitative data were audio-recorded; transcribed and thematically analysed. The study findings suggest that clinical mentoring improved service delivery within the clinical mentoring health facilities. Significant improvements in the professional capacity of mentored health workers were observed by clinical mentors, heads of departments and the mentored health workers. Best practices were introduced with the support of the clinical mentors such as appropriate baseline investigations for pediatric patients, the use of magnesium sulphate and misoprostol for the management of eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage respectively. Government health officials indicate that clinical mentoring has led to more emphasis on the need for the provision of better quality health services. Stakeholders report that

  16. Health professionals’ knowledge about relative prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Delta State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oli, Angus Nnamdi; Okoli, Kelechi Christian; Ujam, Nonye Treasure; Adje, Dave Ufuoma; Ezeobi, Ifeanyi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) constitute a serious global public health challenge, causing great suffering to many people across the globe at any given time. This study ascertains the knowledge of health professionals on the challenge and their compliance with infection control measures. Methods Validated questionnaires were administered to 660 health professionals and supported with face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, USA). Chi-square was used to test association between the independent and the outcome variables. Cut-off point for statistical significance was 5% (p value<0.05). Results UTIs (61.4%) followed by Hospital-acquired Pneumonia (55.6%) were known to be the most prevalent HAIs in government hospitals while Staphylococcus aureus (54.4%) was reported the most microbial agent. In private health facilities, Hospital-acquired Pneumonia was known to be the most common (66.1%) while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most reported culprit. HAIs were reported to have occurred more in government hospitals and catheterization was the commonest modes of transmission in both health facilities. Conclusion The prevalence of HAIs in this state was reported to be high. Although health-care professionals have good knowledge of HAIs, active effort is not always made to identify and resolve them. Standardized surveillance of HAIs is urgently needed. PMID:27642486

  17. Prevalence and associated factors for suicidal ideation in the Lagos State Mental Health Survey, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ola, Bolanle A.; Coker, Olurotimi A.; Atilola, Olayinka; Zachariah, Mathew P.; Olugbile, Olufemi; Fasawe, Adedolapo; Idris, Olajide

    2016-01-01

    Background To combat the increasing rate of suicide, basic data on suicidal behaviours reflecting the uniqueness of the locality are needed in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims To assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors. Method Adults (n=11 246) from the five administrative divisions of Lagos State completed questionnaires detailing suicidal ideation, socio-demographic details, common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms), alcohol and psychoactive substance use disorders and disability. Results The weighted prevalence of current suicidal ideation was 7.28% (s.e. 0.27). Independently associated factors were older age, being female, not married, low occupational group, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms and disability. Conclusions Despite the validity of cross-national surveys, there is need for individual countries to generate complementary local data to explain variability in rates and risk factors in order to plan for suicide prevention or develop timely and effective response. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27990294

  18. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges and lessons learnt from Osun state, southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adepoju, Ebenezer Gbenga; Ilori, Temitope; Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Idowu, Ajibola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods Awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme. Consenting women had their socio-demographic characteristics, awareness and uptake of HPV vaccine documented and papanicolaou smear procedure done with adequate referral for treatment given where necessary. Results A total of 287 women had cervical cancer screening. Mean (SD) age was 51.6 (14.3) years. Most participants were urban based (87.1%), married (63.1%), had secondary education (39%) and were traders (79.1%). None of the women were aware of the preventive HPV vaccine or had been vaccinated against HPV. About 6% were pre-invasive while 0.7% had invasive cervical cancer. The highest proportions of respondents affected were young, married and had lower education. Challenges identified included poor attendance, low risk perception and logistic issues. Conclusion Most participants were urban based. There is need to decentralize cancer of cervix screening through mobile clinics and establishment of screening centres in the rural areas. Neighbour to neighbour sensitization is essential. Also, HPV vaccine should be available and affordable to all girls before sexual maturity. PMID:28154674

  19. Maternal attitudes and values to youth sexuality-related activities in Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, I P; Ilika, A I

    2003-09-01

    This descriptive study assessed maternal attitudes to youth-related activities in Delta State. Using an adapted questionnaire, 300 women with adolescent children were chosen through a multistage sampling technique and relevant data obtained regarding their socio-economic status, perceptions and values as well as their knowledge of basic reproductive health concerns. Most of the women interviewed (95%), believed it was very important that young people completed secondary education and another 72% said they would normally set rules in their homes regarding what young people should read or watch. Sixty-seven percent of those studied, discussed sexuality issues regularly with their adolescent children, though only 46.4% of them were comfortable discussing these issue and about 50% admitted having enough information in such discussions. Another 76% of the women would approve of their children receiving reproductive health information and service including contraceptive condoms. The mothers studied believed that guided reproductive health information and services should be routinely provided for young people. The findings strongly suggest that the mothers who are important stakeholders in Adolescent Health would most likely be supportive of youth programmes. Most of the findings differ from those of other studies, and a qualitative study would be carried out to identify the reasons for these interesting findings.

  20. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of domestic violence in selected Igbo communities of Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okemgbo, Christian Ndugasa; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kebinde; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

    2002-08-01

    Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever been battered by their male counterparts, out of which 58.9% reported battery during pregnancy, while 21.3% reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. The study further revealed that the practice of female circumcision is still common among this Igbo population, and 52.6% were of the view that it should be continued. Multivariate logistic regression identified the correlates of these forms of violence such as age, place of residence, age at first marriage, type of marital union, level of income of women, and level of education of husband against women in Imo State. While wife battery is more pronounced in the urban area, forced sexual relationship and female genital mutilation are more pronounced in the rural areas. We recommend education of women and integration of services in reproductive health care service delivery as appropriate measures to eradicate these practice.