Zanata, Régia Luzia; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Navarro, Patrícia Silva Lopes
The purpose of this study was to assess the current knowledge and recommendations of obstetricians and dentists as to the dental care to pregnant patients in the cities of Londrina/PR and Bauru/SP, Brazil. Questionnaires were distributed to professionals of both cities, arguing on the following issues: oral health during pregnancy; contact between prenatal care and dental care providers; prenatal fluoride supplementation; selection of therapeutic agents for local anesthesia, pain control and treatment of infection; and dental procedures that can be performed during each trimester. Data were analyzed by frequency of responses and statistical analyses were carried out using X2 (type of workplace/service) and t test (time since graduation), significant if p<0.05. Seventy-nine obstetricians and 37 dentists responded the questionnaires. Most physicians referred the patient to dental care only when a source of dental problem was mentioned, limiting the adoption of a preventive approach. Forty-three percent of dentists and 34% of obstetricians did not know the potential contribution of periodontal infection as a risk factor for preterm low birth-weight babies. There was divergence from scientific literature as to the recommendation of local anesthetics (dentists and obstetricians), prenatal fluoride supplementation (obstetricians) and dental radiographs (dentists). The findings of this survey with dentists and obstetricians showed that dental management during pregnancy still presents some deviations from scientific literature recommendations, indicating the need to update these health care professionals in order to establish guidelines for prenatal dental care. PMID:19089217
Ramires, Irene; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Maria, Andrea Gutierrez; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Cardoso, Vanessa Eid Silva; Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the fluoride concentration in the public water supply and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren between 7 and 15 years old, living in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru. Material and Methods: For this, fifty two water samples were collected on three different days of one week. These samples were analyzed for fluoride by means of the ion-sensitive electrode method (Orion 9609) coupled to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720). In this method, 1.0 mL of TISABII (Orion) was added to 1.0 mL of the sample. For the epidemiological survey of fluorosis, 52 schoolchildren of both genders, aged between 7 and 15 were assessed, with prior authorization from their caretakers. Only one person examined the children, after supervised toothbrushing and drying with cotton wool rolls. The TF index was used. Results: The fluoride concentrations in the water samples ranged from 0.62 to 1.20 mg/L, with a mean of 0.9 mg/L. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33%, with severity ranging from TF1 to TF4 (Kappa of 0.73 and concordance of 83.33%). Conclusions: The results from the analysis of water samples indicated a fluoride concentration greater than recommended for Bauru. The fluorosis levels found were higher than expected for a peripheral district, in which water is one of the few sources of fluoride. PMID:19089045
GALAGAN, DONALD J.
THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…
Bavitz, J. Bruce
The results of a survey of 44 dental schools corroborate the belief that dental implantology is gaining widespread acceptance in U.S. dental schools. Currently, predoctoral students have limited clinical participation. Most programs have taken the position that clinical techniques are best taught within the existing specialties at a graduate…
A guide for students who are seeking admission to dental school is presented. The comprehensive coverage includes basic facts about dentistry as well as specific requirements about the following areas: facts about health care providers, treating patients in dentistry, and nonpatient-oriented dentistry; historical landmarks in dentistry; the…
Journal of Dental Education, 2000
Five articles on management practices in dental schools include: "Overview" (Robert W. Comer et al.); "Patient Support Services" (Betsy A. Hagan et al.); "Health and Financial Records" (Robert W. Comer et al.); "Support Services and Staff Responsibilities" (Wayne William Herman et al.) and "Implications and Future Challenges" (Robert W. Comer et…
Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio
There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299
Rodis, Omar M M; Matsumura, Seishi; Kariya, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Michiko; Yoshida, Toshiko
Dental schools in Japan are among many worldwide whose medium of instruction is not in English. With advances in science, technology, and communication, the demand for the globalization of professions increases. At present, dental schools in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe have started revising their dental curricula to either include English courses for dentistry or offer a full English dental curriculum. In Japan, dental English courses started to be introduced into curricula in the early 1990s. However, a survey conducted in 1999 found that English courses were not offered in Japan's twenty-nine dental schools and there was no consensus as to what such courses should include or when and how they should be taught. Ten years after that survey, the survey results reported in this article found that the problems reported in the 1999 survey still exist. Additionally, there are still differences among schools offering English courses in terms of the timing and contents of the courses. Since teachers and school officials will have an important role in curriculum development, this article recommends that a fact-finding meeting with educators, school, and education officials be initiated to discuss, develop, and implement a core curriculum for these dental English courses.
Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng
This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.
Cunningham, Marsha A.; And Others
A survey of U.S. dental schools (N=52) evaluated the current status of marketing topics within the predoctoral dental curriculum. Findings indicate that marketing has been incorporated into most dental schools' curricula, and most schools follow guidelines of the American Association of dental schools regarding content. (MLW)
Moreland, Ernest F.; Linthicum, Dorothy S.
The Baltimore College of Dental Surgery (University of Maryland) measured direct and indirect costs of the school's 1981 accreditation visit. The four objectives of the cost study were these: (1) to determine the direct (wages and operating expenditures) and indirect (effect on school goals and morale) cost of accreditation to the Dental School;…
Jackson, David M.; Jahnke, Lauren R.; Kerber, Lisa; Nyer, Genie; Siemens, Kammi; Clark, Carol
Background: Dental disease is one of the leading causes of school absenteeism for children. This article describes the creation and evolution of the St. David's Dental Program, a mobile school-based dental program for children. Methods: The dental program is a collaboration of community partners in Central Texas that provides free dental care to…
Doherty, Neville; Cordes, David
The treatment of the dental teaching clinic as an economic entity within the dental school with identifiable specific resources, costs, and revenues is explained. The approach is proposed as a first step in increasing net patient revenues to alleviate economic pressure. The University of Connecticut's program is used as illustration. (MSE)
Sampson, Elise; Dhuru, Virendra B.
Results from 1982 and 1987 surveys of dental schools concerning infection control issues found greater recent emphasis on instrument sterilization and barrier use, but some inconsistency and confusion concerning hepatitis B and HIV virus carrier patients and personnel. The information was used to develop guidelines for school policy formation.…
Smith, Lowell W.
The purpose of this study, which was carried out during the 1972-73 school year at three parochial schools in the Houston area, was to determine the effectiveness of the Toothkeeper Program, a multimedia program of oral hygiene training carefully developed and packaged to establish effective long-term dental hygiene practice. The study population…
Riordan, P J; Widström, E
Approximately a decade after the first plans for the teaching of community dentistry were made in the Nordic countries, a questionnaire survey of Nordic dental schools was conducted to find out to what extent community dentistry subjects had been introduced in undergraduate curricula. Replies were received from the 12 dental schools in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These schools admitted 915 students in 1982-83. Seven had a department of community dentistry, and at least two others had plans to start one. About 100 h of teaching were given on community dentistry subjects during the 5-yr course of study, mostly on the traditional subjects of epidemiology, statistics, law and ethics. In some schools health education and other behavioral sciences subjects received a large amount of curriculum time. Decisionmaking theory and political science were not reported taught at any school. Three departments had attached clinics, with widely differing functions. The Nordic textbook in community dentistry was widely used, and separate examinations were held in community dentistry at most schools. Full-time postgraduate courses were offered at three schools. Although schools in all four countries expected the number of dental students to decrease in coming years, several schools expected community dentistry to expand with regard to curriculum time and staff, in keeping with trends in other countries.
Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima
Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.
Henry, Clay A.; And Others
Results of a national dental school survey on microbiology instruction are presented, including data on the integration of microbiology with other courses, placement in the curriculum, class attendance policies, availability of advanced courses, and National Board reviews. Trends are discussed. (MSE)
Valachovic, Richard W.; Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Robertson, Paul B.
A survey of 53 deans of U.S. dental schools examined: gender and ethnicity; degrees and certificates; primary discipline; age; length of time as dean; academic rank and tenure; time distribution; other responsibilities; lines of authority; job satisfaction; career paths prior to becoming dean; knowledge, skills, and experience considered essential…
Littleton, Preston A., Jr.
National developments and ways national dental manpower analyzes and forecasts may affect a dental school's determination of its entering class size are discussed. Health manpower development, dentistry changes, projections of supply and demand, forecasting, weaknesses in forecasts and predictions, and dental school use of national analyses are…
Hayward, Kneka, Ed.
This manual is designed for use by school personnel and dental personnel to aid in the development and maintenance of school-based or school-linked dental sealant programs. The sections include (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Guidelines" (school selection, school contacts, dental providers, target grades, and tooth selection…
DeCastro, Jeanette E.
Accurate prediction of which candidates show the most promise of success in dental school is imperative for the candidates, the profession, and the public. Several studies suggested that predental GPAs and the Dental Admissions Test (DAT) produce a range of correlations with dental school performance measures. While there have been similarities,…
Ranney, R R
Priorities for success for a dental school of the future are considered. University relations, demographic changes, digital information technology and functional genetic technology are emphasised as important environmental pressures that will influence the priorities. The goal advocated for university relations is creating a culture in which the dental school is viewed as integral and necessary to the University's mission. Financial stability, quality research and scholarship and provision of health care for employees may be important ingredients. Keeping an eye on demographic changes and taking the school's business where the customers are is another key to success in the future. Ethnic diversity, changing approaches with changing disease patterns, flexibility in schedule and collaborations in areas of need are strategies to be considered. The emerging field of functional genetics typifies a new biology with which currency will be needed in a health-sciences field. Necessity for faculty development, adoption of molecular diagnostic technologies, emphasis on risk assessment and preventive counselling, and a shift to a wellness model are likely consequences. Digital information technology will result in increased distance-learning opportunity. Dental schools will also need to make accommodating changes in curriculum structure available. Conversion to electronic imaging and totally electronic patient records are likely to become standard.
1 A NAVAL POSTGRADUATE DENTAL SCHOOL ANALYSIS OF INITIAL ENDODONTIC TREATMENT by Rodney V. Scott LCDR, DC, USN...A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Endodontics Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services...Clinical Research A Naval Postgraduate Dental School Analysis of Initial Endodontic Treatment Rodney V. Scott, DDS
Sanders, Anne E.; Lushington, Kurt
Examined the relationship between perceived stress and academic performance in 202 dental students at an Australian dental school. Found little support for an association between increased factor stress scores on the Dental Environmental Stress (DES) questionnaire and reduced academic performance. (EV)
Ripa, Louis W.; Johnson, Robin M.
A survey of 113 graduates of the State University of New York at Stony Brook dental school now in general practice found a high rate of self-reported use of preventive practices (oral hygiene instruction, pit-and-fissure sealants, fluorides, and diet analysis) included in the dental school's curriculum. (MSE)
Lipton, J A; Kinane, D F
This study compared total NIH research funding across US dental institutions from 2005 to 2009. Utilizing the online NIH RePORT, we obtained comprehensive award data for US dental schools by funding NIH Institutes/Centers (ICs). Fifty dental schools were awarded a total of $974.393 million, 69.3% from NIDCR and 30.7% from 21 other ICs. These provided the majority of support to 12 schools. Greater than 50% of non-NIDCR support came from 4 ICs. The median dental school NIH portfolio was $14.572 million, with a minimum of $0.241 million and a maximum of $88.609 million. Forty-six schools received $544.899 million for R01 awards. Thirty-five schools were awarded $100 million in research training and career development grants. Several dramatic differences are found for dental schools' rankings based on total NIH dollars compared with NIDCR-only support. Dollars from ICs other than NIDCR increased 34.6% between 2005 and 2009. Grants to US dental institutions comprised 50% or less of total NIDCR awards globally from 2005 through 2009. Funds received from all NIH ICs are an objective metric for evaluation of the research performance of dental schools. NIDCR has played a diminishing role in funding research at US dental schools between 2005 and 2009.
Formicola, Allan J
The Dental Pipeline Program grew out of work at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine in the 1990s designed to address access to oral healthcare needs in New York City. Since then the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, and The California Endowment have combined to fund the largest dental education program in history. The Dental Pipeline Program has involved 23 dental schools in two phases. The goal of the program is to address issues of access (a) by providing dental care with volunteers in communities in need, (b) by seeking either full- or part-time positions in community health facilities, and (c) by preparing dentists to be advocates for the needs of the underserved. This is a preliminary report of the types of curricular changes that have been introduced and some promising results in terms of oral health care provided, minority enrollments in dental schools, and expressed intentions to practice in underserved areas.
Haden, N Karl; Ditmyer, Marcia M; Rodriguez, Tobias; Mobley, Connie; Beck, Lynn; Valachovic, Richard W
To develop a profile of current U.S. dental school deans and report their perceptions, challenges, and opportunities that should be addressed in the leadership development programs of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA), data were gathered using a web-based survey organized into seven content areas. In 2014, the deans of all accredited dental schools in the U.S. including Puerto Rico were invited to participate in the survey. The response rate was 86% (56/65). A majority of the deans were male (N=44; 79%) and white/non-Hispanic (N=49; 88%); all reporting degrees held a DDS/DMD (N=54; 100%). Just over half were between the ages of 46 and 55 (N=31; 55%) when they first became a dean. The mean age of these deans was 61.4 years, with a range of 48-72. The respondents reported that school administration/management, fundraising, students, the academic environment, leadership development, and faculty had a high level of influence on their job satisfaction. Communication, conflict resolution, and finance were reported as the most important knowledge areas. A majority reported being better prepared for clinical education and student relations than fundraising and research when they took their positions. They responded that finances and faculty recruitment and retention were their greatest challenges as a dean. Among these respondents, 98% (N=55) reported being satisfied to very satisfied with their job overall. The survey results will inform ADEA’s leadership development programs for the next five to seven years.
Bader, James D.; And Others
Comparison and analysis of the restorative treatment recommendations made by dentists and dental school students for 63 patients found about 85% agreement on treatment plans. It is observed that the results provide some basis on which to assess how well dental school treatments reflect mainstream practice. (MSE)
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
Dental school enrollments and the supply and demand of dentists in the United States and the south are examined. The growth in the supply of dentists in the South is related to an improved economy in this region and a rapid population increase. In addition to producing a large number of dental school graduates, the South is attracting graduates of…
Berthold, Peter; Lopez, Naty
This article describes the University of Pennsylvania's School of Dental Medicine's Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) which provides graduates of foreign dental schools with an intensive summer program to prepare them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. A survey of 72 PASS…
Araújo, Paula Caetano; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Arcieri, Renato Moreira
Drug therapy in dentistry is essential for patients' treatment and requires special care by dentists, so it must be part of a well-grounded education for predoctoral dental students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of undergraduate students at dental schools in Brazil about the use of drugs in dental practice. The sample universe was comprised of all undergraduates enrolled in the last year of the dentistry course in three universities in 2010 (n=253). Inclusion criteria were students in their last year of enrollment and who agreed to participate in the research. The results were analyzed on Epi Info 3.5.1 software. Analyses were conducted with chi-square, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests. Slightly more than half of the participants (51.9 percent) reported the ideal dose of anesthetic for a normal patient. However, their difficulties increased when asked about the relationship between the anesthetic and patients with systemic disease or those needing special care. Regarding drugs that usually cause allergic attack, only 29.2 percent and 36.6 percent, respectively, cited methyl methacrylate and latex. This study found that the knowledge of these undergraduates about the questions was deficient, so dental education should include more theoretical and clinical practice in recognizing the patient's medical needs.
More, Frederick G; Phelan, Joan; Boylan, Robert; Glotzer, David; Psoter, Walter; Robbins, Miriam; Rekow, E Dianne; Alfano, Michael C
Preparing for catastrophic events, both human-made and natural, is in the national interest and has become a priority since catastrophic events in Oklahoma City, Washington, DC, and New York City. Dentists are a large source of non-physician health manpower that could contribute to the public welfare during catastrophic events that require additional public health human resources. Dentists, by virtue of their education, understand biomedical concepts and have patient care skills that can be directly applied during a catastrophic event. Dentists also can provide training for other types of health care workers and can supervise these individuals. In this article, we propose that dentistry can make a significant contribution as part of a national response before, during, and after a catastrophic event or at the time of a public health emergency. We describe the potential collaboration among a dental school, city and state health departments, law enforcement, the military, and others to develop a curriculum in catastrophe preparedness. Then we describe one dental school's effort to build a catastrophe preparedness curriculum for our students. The competencies, goals and objectives, and sources of content for this catastrophe preparedness curriculum are described as well as suggestions for sequencing instruction.
Rad, Maryam; Haghani, Jahangir; Shahravan, Arash; Khosravifar, Ali
Increasing the quality of the services provided in a Dental School can raise the satisfaction level of patients and consequently increase the level of their oral health. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dental care and services provided to patients referred to a Dental School in Kerman, Iran. In this qualitative study, face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 41 participants [25 patients (P), 5 nurses (N), 6 dental academic staff (AS), and 5 dental students (S)]. Then, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed, using content analysis of data. Data analysis in qualitative research involves breaking down the data and searching for codes and categories that are then reassembled to form themes. Both positive and negative themes emerged. Positive themes included: good infection control, service accessibility, patient appointments and visits were not assigned on merit, precise examinations, and comprehensive treatment plans. Negative themes included: long wait time, lack of options to pass waiting time, such as newspapers and television, an insufficient number of nurses, and not enough professors for supervision. In addition, the results of this study show that the patients and dental staff have high expectations in relation to dental services, and that implementation of these expectations would increase the overall satisfaction with and the quality of the level of services. Finally, some recommendations for improving services in the Kerman Dental School were given to the managing team of the Dental School.
Rowland, Michael L; Bean, Canise Y; Casamassimo, Paul S
During the last decade, cultural competency has received a great deal of attention in health care and the literature of many fields, including education, social services, law, and health care. The dental education literature provides little information regarding status, strategies, or guiding principles of cultural competency education in U.S. dental schools. This study was an attempt to describe the status of cultural competency education in U.S. dental schools. A web-based thirty-question survey regarding cultural competency education coursework, teaching, course materials, and content was sent in 2005 to the assistant/associate deans for academic affairs at fifty-six U.S. dental schools, followed up by subsequent email messages. Thirty-four (61 percent) dental school officials responded to the survey. The majority of respondents (twenty-eight; 82 percent) did not have a specific stand-alone cultural competency course, but indicated it was integrated into the curriculum. Recognition of local and national community diversity needs prompted course creation in most schools. Respondents at almost two-thirds of schools indicated that their impression of students' acceptance was positive. Teachers of cultural competency were primarily white female dentists. Few schools required faculty to have similar cultural competency or diversity training. Thirty-three of the thirty-four U.S. dental schools responding to this survey offer some form of coursework in cultural competency with little standardization and a variety of methods and strategies to teach dental students.
Holmes, David C; Doering, John V; Spector, Michael
The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among several dental school admission criteria and several measures of dental school achievement. Data were collected for 2000-07 University of Iowa dentistry graduates, including five specific preadmission credentials and five specific measures of dental school achievement for each student. Pearson product moment correlations or Mann-Whitney U statistics were computed for the association of each of the ten variables with the nine others. The strongest correlation observed was between predental science grade point average (GPA) and overall predental GPA. Dental Admission Test (DAT) Academic Average was very strongly correlated with DAT Total Science, and both of these were each moderately correlated with DAT Perceptual Ability, predental science GPA, and overall predental GPA. Among the measures of dental school achievement, the strongest association was observed between National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) scores and dental school GPA. These were also moderately correlated with final clinical grade. All of the measures of dental school achievement were slightly stronger for candidates who passed the Central Regional Dental Testing Service (CRDTS) examination than for those who failed that exam. Of the predental credentials considered, predental science GPA and overall predental GPA were the best predictors of dental school GPA. DAT Academic Average was the best predictor of NBDE scores. Although DAT Perceptual Ability was the best predictor of clinical competency at the time of graduation, these two variables were only weakly correlated. DAT Perceptual Ability scores and overall predental GPA were slightly higher for candidates who passed the CRDTS examination than for those who failed that exam.
Arbree, Nancy S.; Chapman, Robert J.
A survey of 52 dental schools found that dental implant techniques were taught in 34 pre- and 34 postdoctoral curricula, involving mostly prosthodontics and oral surgery departments, with periodontology departments lagging behind. Most predoctoral programs did not have research involvement. Cooperation among specialties is recommended over implant…
Farman, Allan G.; Hines, Vickie G.
A survey of dental schools that revealed processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are being carried out in a timely manner is discussed. However, methods for reducing patient exposure to radiation are not being fully implemented, and some dental students are being exposed to x-rays. (Author/MLW)
Journal of Dental Education, 1980
Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)
Sanger, Roger G.
In an effort to market current predoctoral dental courses offered at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center School of Dentistry to the practicing dentist, a 10-hour forensic odontology course was offered to both predoctoral dental students and practicing dentists and their staffs. Positive reactions and cost effectiveness of this pilot…
Myers, Sharon E.; Downs, Robert A.
A study was done to determine what differences, if any, existed in the level of dental health knowledge between pupils at continuous resident (CR) schools (schools which employed a full-time dental hygienist) and pupils at nonresident (NR) schools (schools which provided only classroom instruction by the teacher). Demographic characteristics of…
Cederberg, Robert A; Valenza, John A
Electronic health records (EHRs) are a major development in the practice of dentistry, and dental schools and dental curricula have benefitted from this technology. Patient data entry, storage, retrieval, transmission, and archiving have been streamlined, and the potential for teledentistry and improvement in epidemiological research is beginning to be realized. However, maintaining patient health information in an electronic form has also changed the environment in dental education, setting up potential ethical dilemmas for students and faculty members. The purpose of this article is to explore some of the ethical issues related to EHRs, the advantages and concerns related to the use of computers in the dental operatory, the impact of the EHR on the doctor-patient relationship, the introduction of web-based EHRs, the link between technology and ethics, and potential solutions for the management of ethical concerns related to EHRs in dental schools.
McDermott, R E; Fuglerud, K P
The debt level of graduating dental students is increasing annually. Six of Canada's 10 dental schools responded to a survey designed to ascertain the level of student debt on entering and graduating from dental school. For the academic year 1993-94, the average starting debt for students was $2,013.89 and the average graduating debt was $25,671.30. On average, dental students accumulated more than $23,600 in debt while pursuing their dental education. Of those students who completed the survey, 57.89 per cent relied on their parents for assistance, and 76.69 per cent received student/government loans. The level of student debt was independent of age, gender and parents' income.
Feng, Xiaoying; Mugayar, Leda; Perez, Edna; Nagasawa, Pamela R; Brown, David G; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S
Recently, there has been increased attention to including cultural diversity in the education of health professionals, including concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) inclusion and visibility. Studies regarding cultural exposure and acceptance of LGBT populations have been concentrated in medicine, with findings showing that medical providers often graduate having missed the preparation required to care for LGBT persons. A visible, comprehensive, culturally competent environment in dental schools would help ensure that all oral health professionals and students are aware of services available to address the particular needs of LGBT students. The aims of this survey-based study conducted in 2015-16 were to determine dental students' perceptions regarding LGBT students' needs and to assess dental students' knowledge of resources for LGBT persons at three U.S. dental schools, one each in the Midwest, West, and South. Of the 849 students invited to participate, 364 completed the survey (338 dental, 26 dental hygiene), for an overall response rate of 43%. The response rate at individual schools ranged from 30% to 55%. The results showed perceptions of insufficient LGBT information, resources, and support at these institutions, especially at the Western school. There were significant differences among the three schools, with students at the Western school more than the other two schools perceiving that their institution was less aware of whether it met the academic, social support, and spiritual needs of LGBT students. There were no significant differences between LGBT and non-LGBT students' perceptions. The authors urge dental school administrators to explore the degree to which their programs teach respectful and caring behavior towards LGBT students and, by extension, LGBT patient populations.
Andersen, Ronald M; Carreon, Daisy C; Friedman, Judith-Ann; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Nakazono, Terry T; Davidson, Pamela L
This study examined the factors influencing the proportion of underrepresented minority students (URM) in dental schools. Using a comprehensive recruitment model, it considered the relative importance of community characteristics (population demographics, oral health policies, dental care system, and university environment), dental school characteristics (Pipeline-supported, mission, and financing), and community-based dental education (CBDE) characteristics of the dental school on recruitment of URM students. Data come from a national survey of dental school seniors and a variety of publicly available sources. Three outcome variables measure URM recruitment: percent URM, percent Hispanic, and percent African American in the first year of dental school. Multivariable results revealed that the most important factors predicting a higher percent URM in first-year classes were a higher proportion of URM clinical faculty and graduating students' perceptions that their clinical rotation experience improved their ability to care for diverse groups. For percent Hispanic in the first year, a higher proportion of URM clinical faculty and students spending more time in clinical rotations predicted greater Hispanic recruitment. Graduating students' perceptions that they were less prepared to treat diverse groups were directly associated with the proportion of Hispanic students in the class. For a higher percent of African Americans in the first-year class, the most important factors were a higher proportion of blacks in the county, support from the national Pipeline program, and graduating students' perceptions of better preparedness to integrate cultural differences into treatment planning. Higher total financial aid awarded by the school was negatively associated with recruitment of African Americans. Results suggest some improved URM recruitment strategies for dental schools.
Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.
Miller, Faith Y
Early detection of childhood caries is important to childrens' overall health. Untreated childhood caries can lead to pain, as in abscesses from prolonged neglect; altered dietary intake; and delays in the development of the permanent teeth if the primary teeth are prematurely lost. In the summer of 2000, funds were provided to various oral health care provider organizations by the Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Oral Health, to purchase portable equipment to deliver preventive services (i.e., exams, sealants, and oral hygiene education) to second-grade and sixth-grade children who qualified for Medicaid and/or free and reduced-cost lunch programs. The Dental Sealant Grant Program at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale was a unique program that utilized dental hygiene students as the primary human resource. Within the state, the Dental Sealant Grant Program was, at the time of this report, the only grantee sponsored by a stand-alone dental hygiene program (not affiliated with a dental school). Other positive aspects of the dental hygiene-sponsored sealant program were that the supervising dentist was the primary Medicaid provider and a member of the dental hygiene faculty; dental hygiene faculty participated actively as site coordinators and clinicians; and dental hygiene students were given the opportunity to volunteer for the program as a service-learning option.
Anderson, Joan I; Patterson, April N; Temple, Henry J; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
The objectives of the study reported in this article were to assess dental student leaders' perceptions of educational efforts concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics and the cultural climate concerning LGBT issues in dental schools in the United States and Canada. In addition, the perceptions of student leaders who self-identified as belonging to the LGBT community and of students with a heterosexual orientation were compared. Data were collected from 113 dental student leaders from twenty-seven dental schools in the United States and three in Canada. Fifty student leaders were females, and sixty-two were males. Only 13.3 percent of the respondents agreed that their dental education prepared them well to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds. The more the student leaders believed that their university has an honest interest in diversity, the better they felt prepared by their dental school program to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds (r=.327; p<.001). The better they felt prepared, the more they perceived the clinic environment as sensitive and affirming for patients with different sexual orientations (r=.464; p<.001). The more they reported that dental schools' administrations create a positive environment for students with LGBT orientations, the more they agreed that persons can feel comfortable regardless of their sexual orientation (r=.585; p<.001). In conclusion, the findings indicate that dental school administrators play an important role in ensuring that future care providers are well prepared to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds and that staff, faculty, students, and patients from these backgrounds are not discriminated against.
Ihm, Jung-Joon; Lee, Gene; Kim, Kack-Kyun; Jang, Ki-Taeg; Jin, Bo-Hyoung
The purpose of this study was to examine what cognitive and non-cognitive factors were responsible for predicting the academic performance of dental students in a dental school in the Republic of Korea. This school is one of those in Korea that now require applicants to have a bachelor's degree. In terms of cognitive factors, students' undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and Dental Education Eligibility Test (DEET) scores were used, while surveys were conducted to evaluate four non-cognitive measures: locus of control, self-esteem, self-directed learning, and interpersonal skills. A total of 353 students matriculating at Seoul National University School of Dentistry in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 consented to the collection of records and completed the surveys. The main finding was that applicants who scored higher on internal locus of control and self-efficacy were more likely to be academically successful dental students. Self-directed learning was significantly associated with students ranked in the top 50 percent in cumulative GPA. However, students' interpersonal skills were negatively related to their academic performance. In particular, students' lack of achievement could be predicted by monitoring their first-year GPA. Therefore, the identification of those factors to predict dental school performance has implications for the dental curriculum and effective pedagogy in dental education.
Wataha, John C; Mouradian, Wendy E; Slayton, Rebecca L; Sorensen, John A; Berg, Joel H
The University of Washington School of Dentistry may be the first dental school in the nation to apply lean process management principles as a primary tool to re-engineer its operations and curriculum to produce the dentist of the future. The efficiencies realized through re-engineering will better enable the school to remain competitive and viable as a national leader of dental education. Several task forces conducted rigorous value stream analyses in a highly collaborative environment led by the dean of the school. The four areas undergoing evaluation and re-engineering were organizational infrastructure, organizational processes, curriculum, and clinic operations. The new educational model was derived by thoroughly analyzing the current state of dental education in order to design and achieve the closest possible ideal state. As well, the school's goal was to create a lean, sustainable operational model. This model aims to ensure continued excellence in restorative dental instruction and to serve as a blueprint for other public dental schools seeking financial stability in this era of shrinking state support and rising costs.
Formicola, Allan J.; Klyvert, Marlene; McIntosh, James; Thompson, Albert; Davis, Martin; Cangialosi, Thomas
Describes how the Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery strives to admit more underrepresented minority students. Discusses its D.D.S. minority admissions program, postdoctoral minority admissions program, Science and Technology Entry Program (STEP) for middle and high school students, and "zero" tuition dental assisting…
McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others
To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)
Albert, David A.; McManus, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Dennis A.
School-based health centers (SBHCs) often are located in high-need schools and communities. Dental service is frequently an addition to existing comprehensive services, functioning in a variety of models, configurations, and locations. SBHCs are indicated when parents have limited financial resources or inadequate health insurance, limiting…
Kress, Gerard C.; Dogon, I. Leon
Undergraduate performance and standardized test scores were correlated with dental school performance for 131 members of nine Harvard School of Dental Medicine classes to determine the predictive validity of the earlier variables. The only significant positive correlation was of the Dental Admission Test and dental National Board Examination, part…
University of the Health Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Oral Biology July 2015 Naval...Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Bethesda, Maryland CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL MASTER’S THESIS This is to...Salehrabi and Rotstein evaluated root canal treatments completed by practitioners in a dental insurance network and reported a 97% survival rate of
Farman, A.G.; Hines, V.G.
A survey of North American dental schools revealed that processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are, in most instances, being carried out in a timely manner. Available methods for reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation are, however, not being fully implemented. Furthermore, in some instances, dental students are still being exposed to x-rays primarily for teaching purposes.
Berthold, P; Lopez, N
An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and
Fu, Martin M; Rodriguez, Angel; Chen, Rebecca Y; Fu, Earl; Liao, Shu-Yi; Karimbux, Nadeem Y
The aims of this study were to analyze the administrative trends in U.S. dental schools at the beginning and end of a thirteen-year period and to identify the predictive factors for those changes. Administrative trends were measured by the difference in the number of major administrative positions for 1997 and 2010 reported in American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and American Dental Association (ADA) publications. Secondary measures (program length, student enrollment, and tuition) were also gathered. The mean numbers of administrative positions per school significantly increased over the study period, while the mean number of clinical science departments per school significantly decreased. The change in the number of directors was positively correlated with the change in student enrollment, but inversely correlated with the change in number of vice/associate/assistant deans. The change in the number of clinical science departments was positively correlated with changes in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but inversely correlated with the change in in-state tuition. The number of all departments per U.S. dental school significantly decreased in this period. The schools that had consolidation of clinical science departments were less likely to have increases in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but more likely to have increases in in-state tuition.
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Smith, Deborah B; Overman, Pamela R; Bunce, Larry
Most dental school faculty members arrive on campus with a wealth of clinical experience but little to no teacher training. For the past two decades, there has been a call for schools to educate their faculty on a wide variety of topics including educational methodology and cutting-edge educational techniques through faculty development programs. Drawing on theories of general program evaluation as well as evaluation specific to educational programming, the aim of this study was to investigate outcomes of the Faculty Development Program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry between 2007 and 2014. A mixed-methods research design gathered quantitative data via email survey sent to all eligible teaching faculty members; it received an overall response rate of 54% (N=51). Qualitative data came from open-ended survey questions and a focus group with seven volunteer faculty participants. The survey data suggested that the stated outcomes of faculty development were being met for all stakeholder groups with varying degrees of success. Focus group results indicated a need for a more formal new faculty orientation and better communication with all about the specific charge of faculty development within the school. Evaluation of faculty development activities in academic dental institutions is a necessary component of the ongoing improvement of dental education. Suggestions for future evaluations include the idea of collaborating with other dental schools to increase sample sizes, which would increase participants' perception of the level of confidentiality and make statistical analyses more robust.
Feldman, Cecile A.; And Others
Four surveys were part of an evaluation of the Pew National Dental Education Program to help dental schools respond to the changing health care environment. Results show funded schools gained a better understanding of their environment, reported increased participation in and commitment to planning among constituencies, and implemented strategic…
Reinhardt, John W
Educational patient care clinics are becoming an increasingly important source of revenue for dental schools. Revenue from clinics can help offset the rising cost of dental education. In addition, those clinics represent a source of income over which the schools have reasonably direct control. Recently, a group of nine U.S. dental schools conducted a detailed financial survey of their clinics and shared the confidential results with each other. The purpose of their analysis was to develop benchmarks for key factors related to clinical financial productivity and expenses and to define best practices to guide improvements at each school. The survey found significant variations among the nine schools in revenue produced by predoctoral students and by postdoctoral residents. There were similar variations for levels of clinical staffing. By sharing the results of the survey with each other, the individual schools gained a strong understanding of the business strengths or weakness of their own clinical programs. That information gave each school's leaders the opportunity to investigate how they might improve their clinical fiscal sustainability.
von Bergmann, Hsingchi; Dalrymple, Kirsten R; Shuler, Charles F
This study sought to determine whether using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) would detect differences in personality preferences in first-year dental students admitted to the same dental school through different admission methods. First-year dental students admitted in 2000 and 2001 were given the MBTI instrument during orientation prior to the start of classes. In fall 2000, the Class of 2004 had 140 students, with 116 in the traditional track and twenty-four in the parallel problem-based learning (PBL) track. In fall 2001, the Class of 2005 had 144 students, all enrolled in the PBL curriculum. All students admitted to the PBL track had experienced a process that included evaluation of their participation in a small group. Students in the traditional track had individual interviews with faculty members. Both student groups were required to meet the same baseline grade point average and Dental Admission Test standards. In 2000, the PBL students showed personality preferences that were distinctly different from the personality preferences of traditional track students in the categories of Extroversion (89 percent PBL, 44 percent traditional) and Thinking (72 percent PBL, 39 percent traditional). In 2001, the all-PBL class retained the trend towards Extroversion (69 percent). This study suggests that admission method may effectively change the personality preference distribution exhibited by the students who are admitted to dental school.
Hart, Glenn T.; And Others
A survey of 48 United States and 9 Canadian undergraduate dental school clinics investigated the extent of routine use of screening blood tests for patients, test types used, and plans to increase or decrease screening test use. Six responded that they routinely test asymptomatic patients, with 2-20 tests used per patient. (MSE)
Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others
Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)
Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (p<0.05). Patients who had completed disease control treatments had a significantly higher retention rate (62 percent) than those who did not (42 percent). Finally, some groups of dental students had higher retention rates than others (p<0.05), indicating that service providers were a driver of retention. The resulting insights benefit dental schools in recruiting patients with the greatest likelihood of returning for care, providing dental students with skills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs.
Henderson, Algo D.; Gumas, Natalie B.
This study explores black and ethnic studies programs as a possible means of creating a pool of motivated black students to draw upon for recruitment to medical and dental schools and as an alternative to the traditional liberal arts program. Chapter I discusses the crisis in the health services, the shortage of black doctors, the lack of medical…
Journal of Dental Education, 1980
Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…
Hicks, Jeffery L; Hendricson, William D; Partida, Mary N; Rugh, John D; Littlefield, John H; Jacks, Mary E
Academic dentistry, as a career track, is not attracting sufficient numbers of new recruits to maintain a corps of skilled dental educators. The Faculty Development Program (FDP) at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental School received federal funds to institute a 7-component program to enhance faculty recruitment and retention and provide training in skills associated with success in academics including:(1) a Teaching Excellence and Academic Skills (TExAS)Fellowship, (2) training in research methodology,evidence-based practice research, and information management, (3) an annual dental hygiene faculty development workshop for dental hygiene faculty, (4) a Teaching Honors Program and Academic Dental Careers Fellowship to cultivate students' interest in educational careers, (5) an Interprofessional Primary Care Rotation,(6) advanced education support toward a master's degree in public health, and (7) a key focus of the entire FDP, an annual Career Transition Workshop to facilitate movement from the practice arena to the educational arm of the profession.The Career Transition Workshop is a cap stone for the FDP; its goal is to build a bridge from practice to academic environment. It will provide guidance for private practice, public health, and military dentists and hygienists considering a career transition into academic dentistry. Topics will be addressed including: academic culture, preparation for the academic environment,academic responsibilities, terms of employment,compensation and benefits, career planning, and job search / interviewing. Instructors for the workshop will include dental school faculty who have transitioned from the practice, military, and public health sectors into dental education.Objectives of the Overall Faculty Development Program:• Provide training in teaching and research skills,career planning, and leadership in order to address faculty shortages in dental schools and under representation of minority
Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z; Cheek, Darlene
In a general effort to facilitate dental professionals' effective tobacco-dependence education (TDE), the student part of the project reported here had three purposes: 1) to promote tobacco cessation activities in the dental school clinic, 2) to evaluate dental and dental hygiene students' confidence level in treating tobacco-dependent patients, and 3) to determine the frequency, duration, and depth with which the students assisted tobacco-dependent patients. Surveys of senior dental and dental hygiene students at the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry were conducted in 2008. Of the twenty-seven questions on the survey, nineteen related to the procedures students performed and questions asked of patients, one question asked how many minutes students spent counseling patients, and seven questions related to barriers to incorporating TDE activities. Only 56.5 percent of the responding dental students reported they routinely "asked and advised" about their patients' smoking behaviors, but 87.5 percent of the responding dental hygiene students reported they routinely did so. After the curricular intervention, the follow-up survey found that the dental students more frequently showed their patients the effects of tobacco on the oral mucosa and more frequently discussed pharmacotherapy options and made referrals during routine care. Until all dental and dental hygiene students are required to meet written board and clinical competencies in TDE and given adequate mentoring by clinical faculty to treat tobacco-dependent patients, the likelihood of seeing major improvements in tobacco-cessation treatment in dental practices is low.
Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana
Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.
Hillenburg, Kenneth L; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol A; Kinney, Janet S; Temple, Henry; Inglehart, Marita R
The aims of this study were to assess curricular coverage of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content in U.S. and Canadian dental schools and U.S. dental hygiene programs, including hours of LGBT content, pedagogy used, and assessment methods, and to determine whether respondents perceived their institution's coverage as adequate. Data were collected from academic deans at 32 U.S. and two Canadian dental schools and from program directors at 71 U.S. dental hygiene programs (response rates 49%, 20%, 23%, respectively). The results showed that 29% of responding dental schools and 48% of responding dental hygiene programs did not cover LGBT content. Among the respondents, dental schools dedicated on average 3.68 hours and dental hygiene programs 1.25 hours in required settings to LGBT content. Lectures (dental schools 68%, dental hygiene programs 45%) and small group instruction (43%, 25%) were reported as the most common methodology used in teaching this content. Most of the responding dental schools and dental hygiene programs covered HIV (85%, 53%), oral disease risk (63%, 54%), and barriers to accessing health care for LGBT people (58%, 38%). Up to a third reported no need for coverage of topics such as sexual orientation (21%, 32%), coming out (29%, 37%), transitioning (29%, 38%), and sex reassignment surgery (32%, 35%). Assessment was through written examinations (41%, 30%) and faculty-observed patient interactions (21%, 23%); some respondents (20%, 33%) reported no assessment of learning outcomes. The most frequently endorsed strategies for increasing LGBT content were receiving curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health issues and health disparities and having trained faculty to teach LGBT content.
Hayashi, M; Seow, L L; Lynch, C D; Wilson, N H F
The teaching of posterior composites has undergone considerable refinement and development in western countries in recent years. However, little information exists on this teaching in other parts of the world. The aim of this paper is to investigate the teaching of posterior composites to undergraduate dental students in Japan. In late 2007/early 2008, a questionnaire seeking information on the teaching of posterior composites was distributed by email to the person responsible for teaching operative dentistry in each of the 29 dental schools having undergraduate dental degree programmes in Japan. Twenty-three completed responses were returned (response rate = 79%). While all 23 schools taught the placement of composite in occlusal cavities in premolars and molars, 7 schools did not teach the placement of two-surface occlusoproximal composites in premolars (n = 1) and molars (n = 6) and 14 schools and 15 schools do not teach placement of three surface occlusoproximal composites in premolars and molars, respectively. While composite at the time of the survey accounted for 45% of posterior direct restorations placed by students, it is anticipated that this proportion will increase to 59% in 5 years time. Variations were noted between schools in the teaching of principles of cavity design, techniques for restoring proximal contours and light-curing technologies; however, more consistency was observed in techniques used for protecting operatively exposed dentine than that observed in western countries. Despite variations between dental schools being noted in the teaching of certain techniques for posterior composites, the overall extent and content of teaching of posterior composites in Japan could be described as comparable, if not exceeding, than that observed in western countries.
Robinson, Michelle A; Reddy, Michael S
Decades of research have shown that organizational climate has the potential to form the basis of workplace operations and impact an organization's performance. Culture is related to climate but is not the same. "Culture" is the broader term, defining how things are done in an organization, while "climate" is a component of culture that describes how people perceive their environment. Climate can be changed but requires substantial effort over time by management and the workforce. Interest has recently grown in culture and climate in dental education due to the humanistic culture accreditation standard. The aim of this study was to use corporate climate principles to examine how organizational culture and, subsequently, workplace operations can be improved through specific strategic efforts in a U.S. dental school. The school's parent institution initiated a climate survey that the dental school used with qualitative culture data to drive strategic planning and change in the school. Administration of the same survey to faculty and staff members three times over a six-year period showed significant changes to the school's climate occurred as a new strategic plan was implemented that focused on reforming areas of weakness. Concentrated efforts in key areas in the strategic plan resulted in measurable improvements in climate perception. The study discovered that culture was an area previously overlooked but explicitly linked to the success of the organization.
Jones, M L; Hobson, R S; Plasschaert, A J M; Gundersen, S; Dummer, P; Roger-Leroi, V; Sidlauskas, A; Hamlin, J
This document was written by Task Force 3 of DentEd III, which is a European Union funded Thematic Network working under the auspices of the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE). It provides a guide to assist in the harmonisation of Dental Education Quality Assurance (QA) systems across the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). There is reference to the work, thus far, of DentEd, DentEd Evolves, DentEd III and the ADEE as they strive to assist the convergence of standards in dental education; obviously QA and benchmarking has an important part to play in the European HE response to the Bologna Process. Definitions of Quality, Quality Assurance, Quality Management and Quality Improvement are given and put into the context of dental education. The possible process and framework for Quality Assurance are outlined and some basic guidelines/recommendations suggested. It is recognised that Quality Assurance in Dental Schools has to co-exist as part of established Quality Assurance systems within faculties and universities, and that Schools also may have to comply with existing local or national systems. Perhaps of greatest importance are the 14 'requirements' for the Quality Assurance of Dental Education in Europe. These, together with the document and its appendices, were unanimously supported by the ADEE at its General Assembly in 2006. As there must be more than one road to achieve a convergence or harmonisation standard, a number of appendices are made available on the ADEE website. These provide a series of 'toolkits' from which schools can 'pick and choose' to assist them in developing QA systems appropriate to their own environment. Validated contributions and examples continue to be most welcome from all members of the European dental community for inclusion at this website. It is realised that not all schools will be able to achieve all of these requirements immediately, by definition, successful harmonisation is a process that will take time. At
Gershen, Jay A.
The president-elect's address looks at the future role of the American Association of Dental Schools, a proposed study of dental education by the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine, and contributions of other studies and associations. Association needs include a new mission, redistribution of resources, increased legislative…
Carroll, Alexander M; Schuster, Gregory M
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant positive correlation between dental students' Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores, particularly on the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT), and their performance on a dental school's competency exam. Scores from the written and clinical competency exam administered in the fall quarter of the fourth year of the curriculum at Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona were compared to DAT scores of all 216 members of the graduating classes of 2012 and 2013. It was hypothesized that students who performed highly on one or more sections of the DAT would perform highly on the competency exam. Backward stepwise regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the PAT scores were most strongly correlated with the competency exam scores and were a positive predictor for all three clinical sections of the exam (operative dentistry, periodontics, and endodontics). Positive predictors for the written portion of the exam were total DAT score for patient assessment and treatment planning and the DAT reading comprehension score for prosthodontics; there were no predictors for periodontics. The total variance explained by the results ranged from 4% to 15%. While statistically significant relationships were found between the students' PAT scores and clinical performance, DAT scores explained relatively little variance in the competency exam scores. According to these findings, neither the PAT nor any of the DAT components contributed to predicting these students' clinical performance.
Journal of Dental Education, 1994
This statement of the American Association of Dental Schools outlines salient issues in the future of dental education. Issues concern the quality of undergraduate, graduate, and continuing dental education, links with medical education, supply of and demand for dentists, accreditation, licensure, and relationships within the dental profession.…
Jones, A C; Courts, F J; Sandow, P L; Watson, R E
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 256 dental students, representing four classes, at the University of Florida College of Dentistry. The results of this psychological instrument were then correlated with overall dental school performance based on results from the National Dental Board Examinations Part I and II (NB-I, NB-II), yearly class rank, and specific academic difficulties as measured by the Student Performance Evaluation Committee. Introverted students were found to display a significantly increased performance on NB-I (p = .038) and NB-II (p = .044). They were also found, however, to demonstrate a progressively lower class rank over the four-year period than extroverted students and were more likely to experience major academic difficulties as well. Judging and sensing individuals were found to earn a higher class rank over the four-year period than perceiving and intuitive students, respectively. Perceiving students were found to exhibit major difficulties or were placed on probation more often than judging individuals. These results may prove useful in counseling students to recognize potential problems before they commence their dental education or to anticipate and address specific weaknesses during the course of their education.
Background Links between the demanding nature of studies in the health sciences, students’ personality traits and psychological distress have been well-established. While considerable amount of work has been done in medicine, evidence from the dental education arena is sparse and data from Latin America are lacking. The authors conducted a large-scale investigation of psychological distress among dental students in Colombia and sought to determine its curriculum and student-level correlates. Methods The Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to all students officially registered and attending classes or clinics in 17 dental schools in 4 geographic districts of Colombia between January and April 2012. Additional information was collected on participants’ socio-demographic information and first career choice, as well as school’s characteristics such as class size. The Global Severity Index (GSI) score, a measure of overall psychological distress, served as the primary analytical endpoint. Analyses relied on multilevel mixed-effects linear and log-binomial regression, accounting for study design and sample characteristics. Results A total of 5700 dental students completed the survey, a response rate of 67%. Pronounced gradients were noted in the association between socio-economic status and psychological distress, with students in higher strata reporting fewer problems. After adjustment for all important covariates, there was an evident pattern of increasing psychological distress corresponding to the transition from the didactic, to the preclinical and clinical phases of training, with few differences between male and female students. Independent of other factors, reliance on own funds for education and having dentistry as the first career choice were associated with lower psychological distress. Conclusions Levels of psychological distress correlated with students’ socio-economic and study
Wells, Anne; Brunson, David; Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W
The American Dental Education Association's Admissions Committee Workshop (ADEA ACW) was designed to challenge dental school administrators and admissions committee members to review their current admissions practices and to explore ways to attract a more diverse student body. Presented at the invitation of dental schools, this half-day interactive workshop provides opportunities for a dental school's administrators, staff, and admissions committee members to learn about the value of diversity in the educational environment and how to implement holistic admissions practices that take into consideration the experiences, attributes, and metrics of candidates for admission. This report explores the rationale for the development of the ADEA ACW, discusses lessons learned from presentation of the workshop at more than twenty-seven U.S. dental schools, and tracks enrollment trends of underrepresented minority students in dental schools where the workshop has been presented.
Stockstill, John W.; And Others
A survey of 278 high school guidance counselors investigated their awareness of the dental profession as a career choice and the methods and materials they use in recruitment. Most were unfamiliar with a professional dental recruitment program, and most would not use it even if paid for by dental professional associations. (MSE)
Lane, Brittany A; Luepke, Paul; Chaves, Eros; Maupome, Gerardo; Eckert, George J; Blanchard, Steven; John, Vanchit
Calibration in diagnosis and treatment planning is difficult to achieve due to variations that exist in clinical interpretation. To determine if dental faculty members are consistent in teaching how to diagnose and treat periodontal disease, variations among dental students can be evaluated. A previous study reported high variability in diagnoses and treatment plans of periodontal cases at Indiana University School of Dentistry. This study aimed to build on that one by extending the research to two additional schools: Marquette University School of Dentistry and West Virginia University School of Dentistry. Diagnosis and treatment planning by 40 third- and fourth-year dental students were assessed at each of the schools. Students were asked to select the diagnosis and treatment plans on a questionnaire pertaining to 11 cases. Their responses were compared using chi-square tests, and multirater kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between classes and between schools. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the effects of school, class year, prior experience, and GPA/class rank on correct responses. One case had a statistically significant difference in responses between third- and fourth-year dental students. Kappas for school agreement and class agreement were low. The students from Indiana University had higher diagnosis and treatment agreements than the Marquette University students, and the Marquette students fared better than the West Virginia University students. This study can help restructure future periodontal courses for a better understanding of periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning.
This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…
Silverton, Susan; Sinkford, Jeanne; Inglehart, Marita; Tedesco, Lisa; Valachovic, Richard
This report presents the analytical results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian dental schools conducted during 1997 by the American Association of Dental Schools. It documents how women's health and oral health issues are addressed in the curriculum. It also presents an annotated bibliography of research involving oral and craniofacial health and…
Good, Mary Ellen
This paper presents strategies for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in the school setting to use in case management of migrant children with dental disease. Although dental disease is the major health problem of all school-age children in the nation, the problem is even more severe for children of migrant farmworkers. Leininger's transcultural…
Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min
The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…
Kennedy, Susan L.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to evaluate cognitive growth of elementary school students (K-6) in an integrated dental health education program. The project was initiated by the Rural Dental Health Program in a rural Pennsylvania community. The sample population of the research project consisted of 1,917 students from nine elementary schools in…
Larsen, Charles D.; Larsen, Michael D.; Handwerker, Lisa B.; Kim, Maile S.; Rosenthal, Murray
Background: The objective of the study was to quantitatively compare school- and community-based dental clinics in New York City that provide dental services to children in need. It was hypothesized that the school-based clinics would perform better in terms of several measures. Methods: We reviewed billing and visit data derived from encounter…
Kumar, Mukesh; Banerjee, Prasenjit; Gondhalekar, Rajesh; Gondhalekar, Rajeshri; Lall, Rajeev; Parwani, Rajkumar
Background: A dental survey was conducted among the school going children of age group 6-13 yrs, focused to find out incidence of malocclusion so as to predict the probable time at which preventive measures can be taken. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried on 985 unrelated healthy subject, including of 575 boys and 410 girls and the population was divided into three economic group of upper, middle and lower class. Results: 1)In the study 57% of sample is found with normal occlusion.2)The proportion of malocclusion was higher in males.3)Lower income group sample showed highest proportion of malocclusion. Conclusion: In this study on school going children, it was found out that 57% of population showed normal occlusion and that malocclusion was higher in males and in lower income group population. PMID:25214733
Itaya, Lisa E; Glassman, Paul; Gregorczyk, Suzanne; Bailit, Howard L
California is home to one-third of the U.S. population with limited English proficiency (LEP). Studies indicate that treating LEP patients without professional interpreters can result in miscommunication, decreased patient satisfaction, and serious medical errors. To address this problem, federal laws require all health care institutions receiving federal monies to provide interpretation services to their LEP patients at no cost to the patient. In this study we surveyed 122 students and fifty-six faculty members from the five California dental schools with respect to number, communication strategies, impact on education and clinic finances, and student and faculty perceptions regarding serving LEP patients in their clinics. Over 50 percent of students surveyed spoke a foreign language either fluently or moderately fluently. Students reported that about 10 percent of their patients required interpreters, that untrained interpreters (e.g., family, friends, bilingual students) worked adequately, but that LEP patients were more difficult to treat. To comply with federal laws, dental schools are confronted with the challenge of covering the cost of providing language services to LEP patients.
Sung, Janet; Gluch, Joan I
Dental schools need to produce graduates who are adequately prepared to respond to the complex needs and challenges of the increasingly diverse and interconnected world in which they will practice dentistry. To enhance discussions about the coverage of global oral health competencies in dental education, the aims of this study were to assess how global health education is currently incorporated into predoctoral dental training in the U.S. and which global oral health competencies are being covered. Surveys were emailed to all 64 accredited U.S. dental schools during the 2015-16 academic year. Respondents from 52 schools completed the survey (response rate 81%). The results showed that social determinants of oral diseases and conditions, how to identify barriers to use of oral health services, and how to work with patients who have limited dental health literacy were covered in the greatest number of responding schools' curricula. Key areas of global health curricula that were covered rarely included global dental infrastructure, data collection design, and horizontal and vertical programming approaches to health improvement. Despite current dialogue on the addition of global oral health competencies to dental curricula, only 41% of the responding schools were currently planning to expand their global oral health education. Based on these results, the authors conclude that it may be most feasible for dental schools to add recommended global oral health competencies to their curricula by incorporating didactic content into already established courses.
Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Ramires, Irene; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo
The increasing consumption of juices, soft drinks and teas among children has increased significantly fluoride ingestion at the age range of risk for development of dental fluorosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluoride concentrations in some brands of industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil. Material and Methods: 98 brands of beverages were analyzed, divided into 3 lots, comprising 36, 32 and 30 brands, respectively, for the first, second and third lots. Fluoride concentrations were determined by HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode (Orion 9409). Results: Fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 1.76 μg F/mL. It was observed a wide variation in fluoride concentrations among the different brands, as well as the different lots of the same brand. There was no information on fluoride concentrations on the labels of any product. Conclusions: Some of the products analyzed could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake and, thus, be important risk factors for development of dental fluorosis, which indicates the need of controlling the production of these beverages with respect to fluoride concentration. PMID:19089131
Hermsen, Kenneth P; Johnson, J Dane
Forensic odontologists play an important role locally and nationally in assisting in the identification of the victims of mass fatality incidents, whether natural or human-made. With the recent passage of legislation by Congress identifying dentists as a first-responder resource, knowledge of their expanding role in disaster response is particularly important. The purpose of this article is to describe the forensic dental course being taught at Creighton University School of Dentistry in Omaha, Nebraska, as a model for providing a fundamental education in forensic dentistry and disaster preparedness at the predoctoral dental level. This model is designed to 1) provide students with a broad view of forensic odontology; 2) give them a functional knowledge of the tools and techniques of the modern forensic dentist; 3) provide basic knowledge of their potential role in disaster preparedness and response; and 4) encourage students to pursue further forensic education, become active in national forensic organizations, and get involved in disaster preparedness/response in their home communities following graduation. This article includes lecture topics, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises being used at Creighton to teach students the fundamentals of forensic odontology and disaster preparedness.
Henry, Rachel K; Webb, Chadleo
Since social media sites began to appear in the 1990s, their popularity has increased dramatically, especially among younger individuals. With this widespread use of social media, institutions of higher education are finding the need to implement social media policies. The purpose of this study was to gather information from accredited U.S. dental schools on their social media policies. A survey sent to academic deans asked questions related to social media policies and violations of policies. The survey yielded a 35.9 percent (n=23) response rate. Social media policies at the university level were reported by 47.8 percent (n=11) of respondents, and 34.8 percent (n=8) had social media policies specifically in the dental school. Schools that had an institutional social media policy were more likely to have a social media policy in the dental school (p=0.01), and dental schools were more likely to have a policy if the academic dean had been in the position less than five years (p=0.01). All twenty-three responding dental schools have official social media pages. Dental educators and administrators may want to look for opportunities to raise awareness of social media professionalism in their dental schools.
Ahmad, Mas S; Razak, Ishak A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L
Meeting the oral health care needs of the growing population of people with special health care needs (SHCN) starts with dental students' acquisition of sound knowledge and development of clinical competence at the predoctoral level. The aim of this study was to review the level of undergraduate education in Special Needs Dentistry (SND) in Malaysian and Australian dental schools. The deans of all six Malaysian public dental schools and eight of nine Australian dental schools participated in a postal survey on current undergraduate didactic and clinical training in SND at their institutions. The results showed the number of dental schools in Malaysia with teaching in SND as a specific discipline was relatively low compared to that of Australia. However, a high percentage of Malaysian and Australian dental schools reported incorporating teaching of SND into pediatric dentistry (83.3 percent vs. 75 percent), oral medicine/oral pathology (66.7 percent vs. 75 percent), and oral surgery (66.7 percent vs. 25 percent). Most respondents said their school delivered SND clinical training in dental school clinics, hospital-based settings, and residential aged care facilities. Respondents in both countries viewed lack of faculty expertise as the greatest barrier to providing SND education. The study provides valuable information that can direct SND curriculum development in the two countries.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Morris, Dustin R
A lack of curriculum time devoted to teaching dental students about the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) health care patient needs and biases against LGBT students and faculty have been reported. Understanding dental school administrators' attitudes about LGBT students' needs might provide further insight into these long-standing issues. The aims of this study were to develop a survey to assess dental administrators' attitudes regarding the support services they believe LGBT-identified students need, to identify dental schools' current diversity inclusion policies, and to determine what types of support dental schools currently provide to LGBT students. A survey developed with the aid of a focus group, cognitive interviewing, and pilot testing was sent to 136 assistant and associate deans and deans of the 65 U.S. and Canadian dental schools. A total of 54 responses from 43 (66%) schools were received from 13 deans, 29 associate deans, and 11 assistant deans (one participant did not report a position), for a 40% response rate. The findings suggest there is a considerable lack of knowledge or acknowledgment of LGBT dental students' needs. Future studies are needed to show the importance of creating awareness about meeting the needs of all dental student groups, perhaps through awareness campaigns initiated by LGBT students.
Passia, Nicole; Kern, Matthias
This survey of German dental schools sought to gain insight into the present prosthetic treatment concepts and their application in student and postgraduate education, as well as to compare the results to those from an identical 2002 survey. A questionnaire, based on this issue, was sent via email to the chairpersons of all prosthetic departments of the German dental schools, and 93.1% of the departments completed the questionnaire. Within the limitations of this survey, almost all treatment concepts for the reduced dentition are taught intensively at dental schools in Germany while some therapy forms are preferred.
Chambers, David W; Bergstrom, Roy
The ultimate goal of financial management in a dental school is to accumulate assets that are available for strategic growth, which is a parallel objective to the profit motive in business. Budget development is often grounded in an income statement framework where the goal is to match revenues and expenses. Only when a balance sheet perspective (assets = liabilities + equity) is adopted can strategic growth be fully addressed. Four views of budgeting are presented in this article: 1) covering expenses, 2) shopping, 3) strategic support, and 4) budgeting as strategy. These perceptions of the budgeting process form a continuum, moving from a weak strategic position (covering expenses) to a strong one (budgeting as strategy) that encourages the accumulation of assets that build equity in the organization.
Spector, Michael L; Fischer, Mark; Dawson, Deborah V; Holmes, David C; Kummet, Colleen; Nisly, Nicole L; Baker, Karen A K
This pilot study investigated the prevalence and specific reasons for usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among patients of a dental school clinic. Four hundred and two patients completed a 30-page survey on CAM usage. A higher rate of CAM usage was found in this dental school clinic population than rates previously reported in a general population. More than three-quarters (76.1%) of the respondents reported using at least one CAM treatment in the past 12 months; 93.3% reported using at least one CAM treatment at some time in their lives. High rates of chiropractic use were found in this population. Tooth pain was the most frequently reported dental condition motivating CAM use. About 10% of dental school clinic patients use topical oral herbal and/or natural products to treat dental conditions, most frequently for preventive/oral health reasons or for tooth pain.
Myrick, Richard; Marx, Barbara Spencer
Data are presented from an exploratory study examining the influence of dental school building design on the quality and quantity of student information conversations. The purposes of the research were to determine--(1) what patterns of interaction exist commonly among dental students, and (2) how the architectural design of the building…
Smith, Peter B.; Campbell, Robert L.
A national survey of 53 dental schools found most were not interested in developing a separate division or department of dental anesthesiology. Of those with a dentist anesthesiologist responsible for teaching pain control, all have or favor such a division. Less than one-third employ professionals limiting their practice to anesthesiology. (MSE)
Crain, Geralyn Dell
Currently, there is need for change in the way that dental schools in the United States educate their students to keep pace with the rapidly changing nature of the profession and to better address societal needs. Despite a well-documented change agenda put forth by individual authors and agencies both within and outside of dental education,…
California State Legislature, Sacramento. Office of the Legislative Analyst.
This report analyzes the effect of the California Dental Disease Prevention Program (DDPP). The program includes education about dental health and nutrition, daily toothbrushing and flossing, and weekly application of a fluoride mouthrinse. The DDPP serves approximately 350,000 elementary school children. The implementation of the DDPP is…
Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan
Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939
Journal of Dental Education, 1999
The proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Schools include the president's annual report, president-elect's and executive director's addresses, a summary of proceedings, the revised constitution, a list of competencies for entry into the dental hygiene profession, association bylaws, member administrators,…
Tanalp, Jale; Kayataş, Müzeyyen; Can, Elif Delve Başer; Kayahan, Mehmet Baybora; Timur, Tuğçe
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general attitude of senior dental students towards rubber dam use, specifically focusing on endodontic practices prior to starting to serve community. Questionnaires were distributed to senior year students of a private school and a state school in Istanbul. Questions were asked about areas where the students used rubber dam, its advantages and difficulties, and whether they agreed or disagreed with some aspects of the rubber dam. The private school students rated isolation whereas those of the state school selected prevention of aspiration which the top advantage rubber dam provides. Students of the state school agreed with the opinion that isolation cannot be achieved without rubber dam and it extended the procedure with a significantly higher ratio compared to the private school. Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the perceptions of dental students on rubber dam needs to be improved and strategies should be developed so that this valuable adjunct will comprise one of the indispensable elements of dental care.
Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Åstrøm, Anne N; David, Jamil; Masalu, Joyce R
Background Dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems influence people's oral quality of life and thus their perceived need for dental care. So far there is scant information as to the psychosocial impacts of dental diseases and the perceived treatment need in child populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives Focusing on primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania, a district deprived of dental services and with low fluoride concentration in drinking water, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP), and to describe the distribution of OIDP by socio-demographics, dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems. The relationship of perceived need estimates with OIDP was also investigated. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. A total of 1745 students (mean age 13.8 yr, sd = 1.67) completed an extensive personal interview and under-went clinical examination. The impacts on daily performances were assessed using a Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP instrument and caries experience was recorded using WHO (1997) criteria. Results A total of 36.2% (41.3% urban and 31.4% rural, p < 0.001) reported at least one OIDP. The prevalence of dental caries was 17.4%, dental pain 36.4%, oral problems 54.1% and perceived need for dental treatment 46.8% in urban students. Corresponding estimates in rural students were 20.8%, 24.4%, 43.3% and 43.8%. Adjusted OR for reporting oral impacts if having dental pain ranged from 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.6) (problem smiling) to 4.7 (95% CI 3.4–6.5) (problem sleeping),- if having oral problems, from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3–2.6) (problem sleeping) to 3.8 (95% CI 2.7–5.2) (problem eating) and if having dental caries from 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–2.0) (problem eating) to 2.2 (95% CI 1.5–2.9) (problem sleeping). Students who perceived need for dental care were less likely to be females (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.6–0.9) and more likely to have impacts on eating (OR = 1
Riordan, P J; Dalton-Ecker, L; Edwards, T S
Different ways of service provision frequently lead to different services being provided. In the School Dental Service (SDS) in Western Australia, all 5-15-yr-olds are eligible for care free of charge and most avail themselves of the service. The parents of some children choose to use private dentists (typically copaying about 50% of the cost) and their children do not attend the SDS. This study aimed to compare the dental status of 12-yr-olds who attended private dentists with that of matched children enrolled in the SDS. Non-enrolled 12-yr-olds in Perth (F- 0.8 mg/l) were identified and asked to provide background information and participate in clinical examinations. Each non-enrolled participant was matched with a classmate of the same sex. Of 184 non-enrolled children, 100 actually participated. Data on caries experience (DMFT and DMFS), fissure sealants and gingival health (CPITN) were collected by clinical examination. Analyses used Wilcoxon's signed rank, categorical and t-tests and simple linear regression. Caries prevalence was lower in non-enrolled children (0.31) than in enrolled (0.47). Caries experience was also lower in non-enrolled children (mean DMFT 0.71 vs. 0.95, ns). Enrolled children had more FT than non-enrolled (Wilcoxon, P = 0.059) but the mean number of DT in each group was 0.14. Enrolled children had somewhat fewer fissure sealants than non-enrolled children but in enrolled children there was an apparent (P = 0.056) inverse relationship between number of fissure sealants and DMFT scores; this was not the case in the non-enrolled group, suggesting better targeting of fissure sealants in the SDS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Stewart, Carol M; Bates, Robert E; Smith, Gregory E
This study assessed relationships between academic performance in dental school and "first attempt" performance on a state dental licensure examination for 1996-2003 graduates from the University of Florida College of Dentistry (UFCD). The 524 graduates were ranked into quartiles based on graduating GPA. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), the students' mean exam score (or exam section score) for each respective quartile (n=131) was compared with mean score for graduates in the combined four quartiles (n=524). ANOVA assessments, by quartile, were performed for the following six measures: 1) overall composite score on the dental licensure exam, 2) clinical periodontics section, 3) clinical amalgam section, 4) combination of clinical periodontics and clinical amalgam, 5) laboratory (manikin exam) with a written prosthodontic exam, and 6) manikin exam without the prosthodontic exam. For the overall exam and all exam sections, a significant (p<0.001) relationship was found between higher mean exam scores and academic ranking in quartile 1. A significant relationship was found between performance (lower mean scores) and ranking in quartile 4 for all exam sections, with the exception of the clinical periodontal section. The results of this study indicate a correlation between performance in dental school and performance on the Florida dental licensure exam for 1996-2003 UFCD graduates.
Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria
The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish
Rugh, John D.; Sever, Naomi; Glass, Birgit Junfin; Matteson, Stephen R.
An academic detailing program involving dental students as the academic detailers was conducted at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental School in 2008 and 2009. Students were trained to visit general dentists and present critically appraised topic (CAT) documents in a face-to-face intervention. Thirty-eight students visited 143 general dentists during summer vacation breaks. Students reported that their participation in the project reinforced their commitment to evidence-based practice as taught in their coursework. The dentists also reported positively on the project. PMID:22012774
Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey
The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.
Wrzosek, Mariusz; Warner, Gary; Donoff, R Bruce; Howell, Thomas H; Karimbux, Nadeem
The purpose of this project is to assess how information technology (IT) is being implemented and managed in U.S. dental schools. Recent advances in IT have restructured many of the administrative, curricular, and clinical functions in dental schools. Purchasing hardware and software and hiring personnel to maintain IT present significant financial and administrative commitments for these schools. A nine-question survey was sent to all U.S. dental schools via email with a follow-up postal mailing. Forty-six surveys were returned (83.6 percent response rate). The analysis indicates that dental schools are managing IT in vastly different ways. For example, 71 percent of the schools report a centralized structure, and 61 percent have a line item in the budget to manage IT. On average there are 4.4 full-time equivalents hired to manage IT, with the majority of these people being trained in IT (eight schools reported dually trained IT/dental personnel). The majority of schools report using software to manage their admissions process (70 percent), curriculum analysis (72 percent), and delivery of curriculum content (72 percent), as well as to manage their student clinics (91 percent, business aspect; 87 percent, patients; 65 percent, grading on clinic floor; 76 percent, managing clinical evaluations) and faculty practices (85 percent, business aspect; 65 percent, patients). The use of multimedia (50 percent) and simulation (52 percent) in the preclinical area is mixed. The purchase of laptops (24 percent) and PCs (11 percent) is required in almost a third of all schools participating in this survey. Dental schools in the United States are managing IT in a variety of different ways, using various internally and commercially available tools. The cost to institutions can be large and is usually handled in centralized structures in the school with fixed budgets. The results of this survey can be used to assist schools in the planning and implementation of IT at their
Kitagawa, Noboru; Sato, Yuji; Komabayashi, Takashi
Geriatric dentistry and its instruction are critical in a rapidly aging population. Japan is the world’s fastest-aging society, and thus geriatric dentistry education in Japan can serve as a global model for other countries that will soon encounter the issues that Japan has already confronted. This study aimed to evaluate geriatric dental education with respect to the overall dental education system, undergraduate geriatric dentistry curricula, mandatory internships, and graduate geriatric education of a selected dental school in Japan. Bibliographic data and local information were collected. Descriptive and statistical analyses (Fisher and Chi-square test) were conducted. Japanese dental schools teach geriatric dentistry in 10 geriatric dentistry departments as well as in prosthodontic departments. There was no significant differences found between the number of public and private dental schools with geriatric dentistry departments (p = 0.615). At Showa University School of Dentistry, there are more didactic hours than practical training hours; however, there is no significant didactic/practical hour distribution difference between the overall dental curriculum and fourth-year dental students’ geriatric dental education curriculum (p=0.077). Graduate geriatric education is unique because it is a four-year Ph.D. course of study; there is neither a Master’s degree program nor a certificate program in Geriatric Dentistry. Overall, both undergraduate and graduate geriatric dentistry curricula are multidisciplinary. This study contributes to a better understanding of geriatric dental education in Japan; the implications of this study include developing a clinical/didactic curriculum, designing new national/international dental public health policies, and calibrating the competency of dentists in geriatric dentistry. PMID:21985207
Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen
This article applies two well-known management and leadership models-Theory X and Theory Y, and Situational Leadership-to dental education. Theory X and Theory Y explain how assumptions may shape the behaviors of dental educators and lead to the development of "cop" and "coach" teaching styles. The Situational Leadership Model helps the educator to identify the teaching behaviors that are appropriate in a given situation to assist students as they move from beginner to advanced status. Together, these models provide a conceptual reference to assist in the understanding of the behaviors of both students and faculty and remind us to apply discretion in the education of our students. The implications of these models for assessing and enhancing the educational environment in dental school are discussed.
Arnold, Janet; Shugars, Daniel A.
Surveys conducted to (1) investigate why dental hygienists choose to become dentists, (2) evaluate their success in dental school, (3) assess the experience of those who had entered dental school, and (4) gauge the level of interest among dental hygienists in applying to dental school are discussed. (Author/MLW)
Chen, C J; Jallaludin, R L
In recent years, the concept of a Health-Promoting School has received much interest. In Malaysia, dental nurses are ideally placed to play a lead role in promoting Oral Health within the school setting. This study aims to provide information on the knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion in schools, among dental nurses. A postal questionnaire was used to measure dental nurses' knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion. The majority (60%) of dental nurses had good knowledge of Oral Health Promotion. Generally, they perceived that they play an important role in promoting Oral Health in schools. However, a sizeable proportion (25%) did not think they had a role to play in working together with school authorities to provide children with healthy food choices in school canteens. The majority (60%) of dental nurses did not perceive Oral Health Promotion to be important as a whole. They had a good perception of the concepts: it supports behaviour change, it has appropriate goals, it integrates oral health and general health and relieves anxiety. However, they had a poorer perception of the concepts; diverse educational approaches, participation, focus on prevention, early intervention, "spread of effect" of dental health education and "make healthier choices the easier choices". Years of service was not significantly associated with knowledge and perception of Oral Health Promotion. Dental nurses should be reoriented towards a more holistic practice of Oral Health Promotion. Workshops that invite active participation from dental nurses should be conducted to equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills.
Moraes, N; Moraes, E; Cunha Marques, H H
Fifty-three patients were examined for dental abnormalities at an institution specializing in care of the mentally deficient in Bauru, São Paulo State. The incidence of teeth with abnormal morphology, mainly second molars with an abnormal number of cusps, was extremely high. Enamel hypoplasia was frequently found in anterior teeth, and the percentage of fractured maxillary incisors was significantly higher than that observed in normal individuals.
Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F
The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.
Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Cheramie, Toby
The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of correlations between dental admissions criteria, including a chalk carving exercise, and students' subsequent academic performance. The retrospective cohort study examined the records of dental students at Louisiana State University Health Science Center School of Dentistry for the years 1998 to 2008. Only those students who could be categorized into the following four groups were included: 1) those who graduated in the top 10% of their class, 2) those who graduated in the bottom 10% of their class, 3) those who repeated a year of dental school, and 4) those who were dismissed or resigned. The study sample consisted of 176 students: 62 in the first group, 62 in the second group, 25 in the third group, and 27 in the fourth group. Data collected were each student's undergraduate grade point average (GPA); chalk carving score; undergraduate biology, chemistry, physics (BCP) GPA; Dental Admission Test (DAT) Academic Average; Perceptual Ability Test (PAT) score of the DAT; total DAT score; grade in preclinical operative dentistry class; grade in morphology and occlusion class; and dental school GPA at graduation. The results showed that only the undergraduate GPA and BCP GPA were significantly higher for students in the top 10% of their class than for other groups. The only positive correlation involving the chalk carving scores was with the preclinical operative dentistry course grade. This study thus found limited correlations between this institution's admissions criteria and its students' success in dental school.
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; McCracken, Michael S; Woldt, Janet L; Brennan, Robert
The purpose of this article is to describe the process and procedures involved in the implementation of portfolio assessment at two dental schools. Portfolios can be defined as a purposeful collection of student work that involves reflection in which students identify gaps in their knowledge and abilities and develop strategies for correcting those gaps. Framed within the current context of dental education and the calls for change in the ways dental students are taught and assessed, these two dental schools embarked upon an assessment strategy aimed at engaging students in self-directed learning and self-assessment. Where one school chose the implementation of programmatic portfolios based on all program competencies, the other school implemented portfolio assessment around specific program competencies not typically captured easily with traditional assessment measures such as ethics and ethical decision making. In a competency-based dental curriculum in which competence has been defined as the ability to accurately self-assess, it makes sense that strategies aimed at developing the skill of self-assessment should be the goal of every dental education program.
Klein, Stephen P.; And Others
The cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures were assessed in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program, a four-year study involving more than 20,000 students, from ten schools nationwide. Communal water fluoridation was reaffirmed as the most cost-effective means of…
Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert
Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)
Despite the important role the personal statement plays in the graduate school application processes, little research has been done on its functional features and little instruction has been given about it in academic writing courses. The author conducted a multi-level discourse analysis on a corpus of 30 medical/dental school application letters,…
Platt, David; And Others
A carefully controlled hepatitis B immunization program among the University of Pittsburgh's dental students and faculty resulted in 96 percent of tested recipients having positive protective antibody titers. A direct relationship between age and positive titers emerged, supporting vaccination early in the dental career. (MSE)
Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Kapferer, Ines; Burtscher, Doris; Ulmer, Hanno; Dumfahrt, Herbert
The purpose of this study was to identify the performance differences between two groups of Austrian dental students (one with a prior medical degree and one without a medical degree) during their dental school training and final dental licensure examination. A specific aim was to determine if having a medical degree is a predictive factor for dental students' scores on the Austrian Dental Admission Test (Austrian DAT), performance in the dental clinic, and scores on final exam. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of 122 students (thirty-nine with a medical degree and eighty-three without a medical degree) who were enrolled in the Dental Clinic at Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria, between 2001 and 2006. Three performance categories were considered: Austrian DAT results, clinical performance after the first clinical year in dental school, and performance on the final dental licensure examination. Information on students' age, gender, and previous medical degree was collected from official records. Analyses with student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test revealed that the students with a medical degree had significantly higher Austrian DAT total test scores, grade point averages after the first clinical year, and scores on the final exam. Additionally, those students had significantly better performance on the final exam in prosthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery. The linear regression analysis showed that a medical degree had an independent effect on average scores on the final exam, age, and Austrian DAT test scores, while gender showed no statistically significant effect. Overall, the study found that dental students with a prior medical degree had significantly higher Austrian DAT total test scores and performed significantly better in the first clinical year and on the final exam than those without a prior medical degree.
Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S
The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy.
Easa, David; Harrigan, Rosanne; Hammatt, Zoè; Greer, Mark; Kuba, Carolyn; Davis, James; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven
Research suggests that oral health is linked to systemic health, and those with poor oral health are potentially at greater risk for important diseases, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in Hawaii have high rates of many such diseases. Studies in children in Hawaii have revealed disparities in dental health; for example, API children have significantly higher rates of cavities than other groups. Hence, conducting further study is vital in adults, particularly APIs, to assess oral health and its correlation to overall health outcomes. Given the lack of a dental school and the lack of fluoridated water in the state, the University of Hawaii's John A. Burns School of Medicine (ABSOM) has identified the need to assume a leadership role in creating effective community-based oral health research and treatment programs. With the support of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, JABSOM fostered a collaborative relationship with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry, a premiere research-intensive dental school, the Waimanalo Health Center, and the Hawaii State Department of Health. This partnership has worked together to implement a community-based approach to performing research designed to illuminate disparities and develop innovative strategies to promote oral health in Hawaii's diverse populations. We hope that this collaborative, culturally competent approach may serve as a model for use in other settings without a research-intensive dental school.
Corrigan, Dale M; Walker, Mary P; Liu, Ying; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and/or factors associated with medically compromised patients seeking dental care in the oncology dental support clinic (ODSC) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry. An 18-item survey was mailed to 2,541 patients who were new patients to the clinic from 2006 to 2011. The response rate was approximately 18% (n = 450). Analyses included descriptive statistics of percentages/frequencies as well as predictors based on correlations. Fifty percent of participants, 100 females and 119 males, identified their primary medical diagnosis as cancer. Total household income (p < .001) and the importance of receiving dental care (p < .001) were significant factors in relation to self-rated dental health. Perceived overall health (p < .001) also had a significant association with cancer status and the need for organ transplants. This study provided the ODSC at UMKC and other specialty clinics with vital information that can contribute to future planning efforts.
Kobale, Mihaela; Klaić, Marija; Bavrka, Gabriela
Purpose Health care studies are usually considered to be complex, demanding and time consuming. The right motivation toward choosing a career in the health field is of utmost importance for the successful completion of studies. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors motivating students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia and, also, to examine their career perceptions. Material and Methods Based on specific questions from available literature, a questionnaire was designed and a total of 270 questionnaires were distributed to the first year students during 2013, 2014 and 2015. Results A total of 206 students responded, for a response rate of 76.3%. 26.9% of students enrolled in dental studies because it was their first career choice; 16.4% of them believed that it is easy to find a regular job in dentistry. 9.9% of students thought that salaries are high in the field of dental medicine. 45.4% of the first year students were interested in a career in private practice after graduation. These results provide interesting clues to motivation and give additional insights into the expectations of students regarding their studies and profession. Conclussion The obtained data can be used for the further improvements in the quality of dental study curricula and teaching process. PMID:27847393
Ali, Kamran; Raja, Mahwish; Watson, Gordon; Coombes, Lee; Heffernan, Eithne
The significance of the educational environment in health professions academic institutions, increasingly recognized on a global scale, is fundamental to effective student learning. This study was carried out to evaluate students' perceptions of the educational environment in five undergraduate dental institutions in Pakistan. This non-interventional study used a postal questionnaire based on the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM). The subjects were dental students taking the final professional B.D.S. examination at five dental institutions affiliated with the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 197 students participated in the study (response rate of 83.82 percent). The overall DREEM score was 115.06 (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Nine items recorded scores <2 and were flagged for remediation. Significant differences were observed between students' perceptions of learning and of teachers (p<0.05). Many issues challenge the quality and delivery of dental education in Pakistan, and dental institutions need to develop robust mechanisms to incorporate contemporary international trends in dental education in order to improve the educational environment.
Lynch, Christopher D; Ash, Peter J; Chadwick, Barbara L
Community-based clinical teaching/outreach programs using a variety of approaches have been established in many predoctoral dental schools around the world. The aim of this article is to report current trends in the teaching of community-based clinical teaching/outreach teaching in dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In late 2010-early 2011, a questionnaire was distributed by e-mail to deans of the eighteen established dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The questionnaire included both open and closed questions relating to current and anticipated trends in community-based clinical teaching. Fourteen responses were received (response rate=78 percent). All fourteen responding schools reported inclusion of a community-based clinical teaching program. Ten schools indicated that their program was based on total patient (comprehensive) care including the treatment of child patients. In nine schools, the program is directed by a senior clinical academic in restorative dentistry. As well as student dentists, ten schools and seven schools include teaching of student dental therapists and student dental hygienists, respectively. There is a varied experience within the schools surveyed in terms of the extent, nature, and content of these programs. Overall, however, community-based clinical teaching was seen as part of the future of dental school education in many schools as an ideal way of preparing graduates for Dental Foundation Training and subsequent independent practice.
Kingsley, Karl; Sewell, Jeremy; Ditmyer, Marcia; O'Malley, Susan; Galbraith, Gillian M
This article reports development of an evidence-based admissions formula that effectively incorporates the admissions criteria most likely to influence dental school performance. This study utilized peer-reviewed literature and analysis of admissions and performance data from the first three classes of students at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine (UNLV-SDM). We used Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and ANOVA to determine the strength and direction of association between admissions variables, both singly and in combination, and performance measures. Our initial results revealed no significant relationship between our previous admissions formula, which was adapted from other dental admissions offices, and student performance for our first class and National Board Dental Examination Part I (NBDE-I) (R=.288) or dental school grade point average (DS-GPA) (R=0.193). After using the combined data from the first three classes of students at UNLV-SDM, we confirmed no significant relationship between our previous admissions formula and DS-GPA (R=0.207) and a slight increase in correlation to NBDE-I (R=0.303). More detailed analysis of the admissions variables within the formula revealed that some Dental Admission Test scores, such as Reading Comprehension, Quantitative Analysis, and Biology, were significantly correlated with dental school performance at UNLV-SDM, allowing for revision of the admissions formula to a formula score that is now significantly correlated with student performance for the first class to NBDE-I (R=0.458) and DS-GPA (R=0.368), as well as the combined data from the first three cohorts at UNLV-SDM (R=0.361, 0.218, respectively). In addition, this reformulation did not significantly impact the overall ranking of females or minorities. Although formulaic data can never perfectly predict student performance, this study demonstrated that constant review and revision of relevant admissions criteria are needed for each
Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés
In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.
Pendleton, Darryl D; Graham, Bruce S
This chapter describes the strategies implemented by one dental school during the past decade to establish an environment that supports a culture of diversity. The school audited its initial diversity milieu, authored a strategic plan for diversity, fully participated in university-wide diversity initiatives, and created an administrative infrastructure for underrepresented minority (URM) student support. Mentoring and counseling programs were established for URM students, and a schoolwide diversity committee was formed to make cultural competence a high priority for all students, faculty, and staff. URM faculty members were recruited and retained through a minority faculty development program. Student professional organizations were established and supported by mentoring partnerships with members of the corresponding organizations in the practicing community. The school's diversity culture is continuously evaluated and nurtured within the context of evolving human interactions in society, dental education, and dental practice.
Peedikayil, Faizal C; Premkumar, Chandru T; Narasimhan, Dhanesh; Jose, Deepak
Introduction Dental trauma can overtake dental caries and periodontal disease as the most significant threat to dental health among young people. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment. The role of school teachers in the prevention of traumatic dental injuries is a topic that has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, studies conducted in different regions of the world have demonstrated that teachers and other lay people’s knowledge about traumatic dental injuries is inadequate and their behavior does not contribute to reduce the sequelae. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of school teachers about dental trauma and its management in Kannur district. Materials and Methods The survey was conducted under the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry; Kannur Dental College among 303 school teachers randomly selected from 16 schools. Four schools were selected from 16 schools using stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross sectional study design was used. A stratified cluster sampling method was done to select the study subjects. The nature and purpose of the study was first explained to the teachers in local language. Following this the printed questionnaire was distributed to school teachers. The questionnaire was prepared based on the needs of the study after referring similar questionnaires used in studies conducted in different parts of the world. Results A statistically significant association was found between the teacher’s knowledge regarding trauma and their teaching experience. Out of the total school teachers who participated in the study, 90.1% responded correctly that the teeth most frequently affected by traumatic accidents are the upper front teeth. Nearly 23.4% responded correctly regarding management of traumatic tooth fracture. Almost 46.5% had correct knowledge regarding the reimplantation of avulsed permanent teeth. Only 14.2% responded
Cunningham, I M; Lynch, C D
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the utilisation of peer review of teaching (PRT) within UK dental schools.Method A structured questionnaire was emailed to all sixteen UK dental schools seeking information on existing PRT schemes, level of staff engagement, and the success of schemes in relation to extent of operation and perceived benefit.Results A 100% response rate was achieved. Fourteen schools (88%) operate PRT schemes. For most, the expected frequency of staff engagement is annually, although there was a wide range between schools (minimum = once every five years, maximum = three times per year). Nine schools (64%) consider their schemes to be fully operational. Twelve schools (86%) feel their staff are either mostly or fully engaged. Reasons for sub-optimal operation and/or engagement include: newly introduced schemes, problems with compliance for off-campus staff, and loss of momentum. Thirteen schools (93%) consider that PRT benefits their teaching staff. Ten schools (71%) stated that changes are required to their schemes.Conclusion PRT is operating within the majority of U.K dental schools but the format and success of schemes varies. Schemes will benefit from ongoing development but changes should take into account evidence from the literature, particularly recognised models of PRT.
Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A.; Richards, Jessica K.; Holtzman, Jennifer S.
The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients’ ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school’s general dental clinic during 2012–13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects’ oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults’ oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients’ ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy. PMID:25941146
Henzi, David; Davis, Elaine; Jasinevicius, Roma; Hendricson, William
Dental students have little input into the selection of course topics and subject matter included in their dental curricula. Curriculum requirements are framed by the Commission on Dental Accreditation, which has stipulated competencies and associated biomedical and clinical knowledge that must be addressed during dental school. Although these competency requirements restrict the variance of educational experiences, students are eager to share their views on the curriculum within the realm of their educational experience. The objective of this research project was to elicit the perspectives of dental students from a broad cross-section of U.S. and Canadian dental schools about their education. A total of 605 students (285 sophomores, 220 seniors, 100 residents) from twenty North American dental schools completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis to communicate their perceptions of the curriculum. Students were also asked to provide their impressions of the overall quality of the educational program in an open-ended written format. The students' qualitative comments were then reviewed and categorized into key issues or themes. Resulting themes for each category of the Curriculum SWOT (C-SWOT) analysis were the following. Strengths: 1) clinical learning experience, and 2) opportunity to work with knowledgeable faculty. Weaknesses: 1) disorganized and inefficient clinical learning environment, 2) teaching and testing that focus on memorization, 3) poor quality instruction characterized by curricular disorganization, and 4) inconsistency among instructors during student evaluations. Opportunities: 1) develop strategies to provide students with more exposure to patients, especially early in the curriculum, and 2) opportunities to learn new technology/techniques. Threats: 1) cost of dental education, 2) students' concerns about faculty "brain drain," i.e., lack of sufficient numbers of dental faculty capable of providing high
Simon, Lisa; Hum, Lauren; Nalliah, Romesh
The number of Americans with limited English proficiency (LEP) is growing, and legal protections mandate that LEP individuals have equal access to health care services. The aim of this study was to determine the availability of interpretation services in U.S. dental school clinics and the kinds of instruction dental students are given regarding treatment of LEP patients. A survey was distributed to the academic deans of all U.S. dental schools; 35 completed the survey for a response rate of 58%. Respondents were asked to report on the number of LEP patients treated in their student clinics, the resources available to students working with LEP patients, and the extent of instruction offered. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The results indicated that the proportion of LEP patients treated at U.S. dental schools was perceived to be higher than that of the general population. The availability of interpreter services and the extent of student education about LEP individuals varied widely. Among the responding schools, the most common language spoken by LEP patients was Spanish, followed by Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) and Russian. Most of the responding dental schools reported offering fewer than two hours of instruction to their predoctoral students on treating LEP patients. Although almost 90% of the respondents indicated believing LEP patients received care equal in quality to that of non-LEP patients in their clinics, only 61.9% indicated that their students were adequately prepared to manage LEP patients following graduation. These findings suggest that dental schools should consider curricular innovations that will prepare students to work with LEP populations and improve the ability of LEP patients to receive care in the teaching clinic setting.
Fontana, Margherita; Guzmán-Armstrong, Sandra; Schenkel, Andrew B; Allen, Kennneth L; Featherstone, John; Goolsby, Susie; Kanjirath, Preetha; Kolker, Justine; Martignon, Stefania; Pitts, Nigel; Schulte, Andreas; Slayton, Rebecca L; Young, Douglas; Wolff, Mark
Maintenance of health and preservation of tooth structure through risk-based prevention and patient-centered, evidence-based disease management, reassessed at regular intervals over time, are the cornerstones of present-day caries management. Yet management of caries based on risk assessment that goes beyond restorative care has not had a strong place in curriculum development and competency assessment in U.S. dental schools. The aim of this study was to develop a competency-based core cariology curriculum framework for use in U.S. dental schools. The Section on Cariology of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) organized a one-day consensus workshop, followed by a meeting program, to adapt the European Core Cariology Curriculum to the needs of U.S. dental education. Participants in the workshop were 73 faculty members from 35 U.S., three Canadian, and four international dental schools. Representatives from all 65 U.S. dental schools were then invited to review and provide feedback on a draft document. A recommended competency statement on caries management was also developed: "Upon graduation, a dentist must be competent in evidence-based detection, diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and nonsurgical and surgical management of dental caries, both at the individual and community levels, and be able to reassess the outcomes of interventions over time." This competency statement supports a curriculum framework built around five domains: 1) knowledge base; 2) risk assessment, diagnosis, and synthesis; 3) treatment decision making: preventive strategies and nonsurgical management; 4) treatment decision making: surgical therapy; and 5) evidence-based cariology in clinical and public health practice. Each domain includes objectives and learning outcomes.
Palatta, Anthony; Cook, Bryan J; Anderson, Eugene L; Valachovic, Richard W
In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) called for interprofessional education (IPE) to be adopted by the health professions education community as the pedagogical approach to educating future practitioners for practice in multidisciplinary teams. In dentistry, this call built on points made in the key 1995 IOM report Dental Education at the Crossroads. Currently, IPE and collaborative practice are among the most significant changes to health care education and delivery in the 21st century. This report describes the path that dental education has taken regarding IPE since the first national report on the subject was released in 1995. It also reports the results of a 2014 survey of U.S. dental schools to ascertain their progress in adopting and implementing IPE, as well as perceived obstacles that persist. Of the 63 dental schools, 62 participated, for a response rate of 98%. While over 90% of the respondents reported that their schools offer IPE experiences, only 58.1% had formal university-led and -promoted IPE programs. Formal IPE experiences were more prevalent at public institutions (67.6%, compared with 44% of private institutions). In 2012, a previous study reported that 66% of the IPE experiences offered to dental students were voluntary; today, 69.1% of these activities are required. Interprofessional core competencies occupy four of the top five content areas of IPE programming, providing a framework for schools to implement IPE activities. However, finding the bandwidth within the dental curriculum to accommodate IPE competencies, identifying adequate time in the schedule, providing faculty training, and assessing IPE activities were the most frequently reported challenges. The results of this survey lead to recommendations for academic dental institutions moving through this transitional phase in adopting IPE.
Simon, Lisa; Hum, Lauren; Nalliah, Romesh
Legal protections in the United States mandate that individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP) have equal access to health care. However, LEP populations are at higher risk of poor health. Dental school clinics offer lower cost care by supervised dental students and often provide care for LEP patients. The aims of this study were to survey dental students about their clinical experience with LEP patients, the interpreter resources available at their dental school clinics, and the extent of instruction on these topics. Academic deans at 19 dental schools (30.6% of 62 invited schools) distributed the survey to their students, and the survey was completed by 325 students (4.2% of students at the 19 participating schools). Among the responding students, 44% reported their dental school clinic lacked formal interpreter services, and most of the respondents reported receiving minimal instruction on caring for LEP patients. Only 54% of the responding students reported feeling adequately prepared to manage LEP patients following graduation. These results suggest there is limited access to interpreter services for students while in dental school. A large proportion of these dental students thus reported feeling unprepared to treat LEP patients after graduation.
Seckinger, R J; Weintraub, A M; Berthold, P; Weintraub, G S
Over the past 20 years the incorporation of implant dentistry into academia has been documented in some detail for North American dental schools but has not been pursued on an international level. In June of 1993, we surveyed 51 dental schools outside of the United States affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine's Office of International Relations concerning their teaching involvement with implant dentistry. Results from the 44 (86 percent) responding schools suggest that implant dentistry is being incorporated into predoctoral curriculums. Industrialized countries were more inclined to provide implant education. Insufficient time and the thought that the predoctoral level was not the place for implant dentistry were cited as some of the reasons for not incorporating implant dentistry into the curriculum. Oral surgery, prosthodontics, and periodontics departments developed and administered the implant curriculum. Formats varied among schools with respect to allotted time, curricular placement, laboratory experience, and clinical participation. Didactic material most frequently presented included a historical overview, diagnosis and treatment planning, classification of dental implants, and surgical and prosthetic concepts. Clinical involvement varied from actual implant placement to observation of prosthodontic procedures. Results were categorized based on the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) classification of countries in six regions.
Castillo-de Oyagüe, Raquel; Albaladejo, Alberto
Objectives: Given the need to ensure that dentists are sufficiently skilled to offer the best possible care to their patients, this study aims to evaluate the teaching methods and clinical experience achieved by undergraduate dental students in Spain and Portugal as regards complete dentures. Study design: In February 2011, a questionnaire seeking information about the preclinical and clinical teaching of complete dentures was e-mailed to all Spanish and Portuguese dental schools with fully developed undergraduate degree dental programs. Results: A response rate of 82.6% was obtained. The distribution of lectures and hours spent at the laboratory and in clinical activities revealed that teaching complete dentures is eminently a practical issue, this being mostly performed by full-time prosthodontists. All surveyed schools teach the design of the record base, and most of them instruct students in the mounting of teeth in wax. Most schools (94.7%) used a semiadjustable articulator, alginate for primary impressions (73.7%) and elastomeric materials in border-molded custom trays for final impressions (68.4%). In most schools, within the clinical setting students work in pairs, the mean student/ professional staff member ratio being 2.3 ± 0.7. Most schools perform a competence-based assessment (83.3%), although innovative techniques such as problem-based learning are still rarely applied. On average, the students emplaced 1.8 ± 1.2 complete dentures during their clinical training, ranging from 0 to 4, although no clear trend was seen as regards the minimum number of dentures to be made for graduating. Conclusions: Variations in teaching programs and clinical experience concerning complete denture curricula among Spanish and Portuguese dental schools are evident, but all the schools base their teaching mainly on preclinical and clinical practice. However, the low number of dentures made by student per year seems insufficient to ensure clinical skills and cope with
Oakley, Marnie; Vieira, Alexandre R
Clinical dental faculty members' lack of scholarly activity not only impacts their ability to be promoted and retained in their institutions but limits the contributions they could make to clinical discovery. Contributing factors to this situation include the lack of purposeful mentoring and the widespread faculty shortages, which increase faculty workloads. One way to address this challenge is to develop and implement formal mentoring programs, endorsed by the dental school's administration, that use reward structures in which novice clinical faculty members are teamed with faculty members experienced in scholarly activity. The Clinical Research Scholars Program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine has been in existence since 2008. Preliminary data from this program suggest that this has been a successful plan for increasing the scholarly activity of the clinical teacher-scholar. Although not without limitations, this program may serve as a model for other schools to consider as they encourage their own clinical faculty members to undertake research initiatives. Similar programs at dental schools across the country can enhance discovery, research, and treatment by expanding the number of researchers who are addressing the public's oral and systemic health needs.
Merchant, Virginia A.; Molinari, John A.
Results of a 1988 survey of dental school deans concerning infection control instruction and protocols found increased attention to infection control and application of recommended protocols. Findings are contrasted with those of earlier studies, and remaining obstacles to implementation of infection control programs are discussed. (Author/MSE)
Klein, Stephen P.; And Others
The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…
Butters, Janice M.; And Others
This article reviews issues and circumstances surrounding the death of a University of Louisville (Kentucky) dental school faculty member found to be positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. it addresses administrative aspects including public relations, patient relations, epidemiological review, and staff counseling. (MSE)
Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta
A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)
Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.
A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…
Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.
IN PLANNING A NEW RESEARCH AND TEACHING BUILDING FOR THE SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE, A PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED OUTLINING THE DESIGN NEEDS AND THE SPACE AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS. MAJOR AREAS OF THE PROGRAM WERE--(1) GENERAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS, (2) THE RESEARCH COMPONENT, AND (3) THE BASIC SCIENCE TEACHING COMPONENTS. SPACE…
The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)
Tanalp, Jale; Karapinar-Kazandag, Meriç; Ersev, Handan; Bayirli, Gündüz
The aim of this study was to assess the current status of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an educational material in dental schools in Turkey. A survey was sent to senior members of the endodontic departments of seventeen dental schools; fourteen responded. All respondents reported that they used MTA in their clinical practice, with apexification, perforations, retrograde fillings, and root resorptions being the most frequently occurring treatment procedures. All reported that information was given to students regarding MTA mainly as part of the curriculum. The third and fourth years were the periods when MTA was introduced to students in most of the schools. Twelve schools reported that students had the opportunity to observe procedures in which MTA was used, but students had the chance to use the material in a very minor proportion of the schools, mainly under the supervision of clinical instructors. Ten schools agreed that MTA should be included in the regular endodontic curriculum. Financial constraints seemed to be the predominant reason for those who answered this question negatively, followed by difficult handling properties and low radiopacity of the material. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that ways should be sought to prevent financial difficulties from depriving dental students of the opportunity to receive information about contemporary methodologies such as MTA utilization.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L
Pain constitutes a major reason patients pursue dental treatment. This article presents a novel curriculum to provide dental students comprehensive training in the management of pain. The curriculum's four-tier scaffold combines traditional and problem-based learning to improve students' diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and assessment skills to optimize decision making when treating pain. Tier 1 provides underpinning knowledge of pain mechanisms with traditional and contextualized instruction by integrating clinical correlations and studying worked cases that stimulate clinical thinking. Tier 2 develops critical decision making skills through self-directed learning and actively solving problem-based cases. Tier 3 exposes students to management approaches taken in allied health fields and cultivates interdisciplinary communication skills. Tier 4 provides a "knowledge and experience synthesis" by rotating students through community pain clinics to practice their assessment skills. This combined teaching approach aims to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills to assist dental graduates in better management of pain throughout their careers. Dental curricula that have moved to comprehensive care/private practice models are well-suited for this educational approach. The goal of this article is to encourage dental schools to integrate pain management into their curricula, to develop pain management curriculum resources for dental students, and to provide leadership for change in pain management education.
Sadeghipour, Maryam; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Afshin; Shariatpanahi, Seyed Peyman
By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals’ dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This correlation was further spread over the network within the 5 months period. Moreover, it was identified that the average brushing level was improved within the 5 months period. Given that there was a significant correlation between social network’s nodes’ in-degree value, and brushing level, it was suggested that the observed improvement was partially due to more popularity of individuals with better tooth brushing habit. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) was used to demonstrate the dynamics of dental brushing frequency within a sample of friendship network. Two models with static and dynamic assumptions for the network structure were proposed. The model with dynamic network structure successfully described the dynamics of dental health behavior. Based on this model, on average, every 43 weeks a student changes her brushing habit due to learning from her friends. Finally, three training scenarios were tested by these models in order to evaluate their effectiveness. When training more popular students, considerable improvement in total students’ brushing frequency was demonstrated by simulation results. PMID:28103260
Sadeghipour, Maryam; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Afshin; Shariatpanahi, Seyed Peyman
By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals' dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This correlation was further spread over the network within the 5 months period. Moreover, it was identified that the average brushing level was improved within the 5 months period. Given that there was a significant correlation between social network's nodes' in-degree value, and brushing level, it was suggested that the observed improvement was partially due to more popularity of individuals with better tooth brushing habit. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) was used to demonstrate the dynamics of dental brushing frequency within a sample of friendship network. Two models with static and dynamic assumptions for the network structure were proposed. The model with dynamic network structure successfully described the dynamics of dental health behavior. Based on this model, on average, every 43 weeks a student changes her brushing habit due to learning from her friends. Finally, three training scenarios were tested by these models in order to evaluate their effectiveness. When training more popular students, considerable improvement in total students' brushing frequency was demonstrated by simulation results.
Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun Prasad; Govindarajan, Mohan; Reddy, Venugopal; Krishnakumar, Ramalingam; Kaliyamoorthy, Sugumaran
Purpose Dental trauma has become an important aspect of dental public health. The primary requisite before actively dealing with such problems is to describe the extent, distribution, and variables associated with the specific condition. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and role of socioeconomic status and anatomic risk factors in traumatic dental injuries (TDI) to permanent anterior teeth in 10 to 16 year old Sainik (Army) school, children in India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was collected through a survey form and clinical examination. The permanent anterior teeth of four hundred and forty six male school children were examined for TDI. The socio-economic status, lip coverage and overjet were recorded. Statistical significance for the association between occurrence of TDI and the various risk factors was carried out. Results The prevalence of TDI to permanent anterior teeth was 23.8%. A large number of injuries occurred during participation in sports. Inadequate lip coverage and a large maxillary overjet were identified as important predictors for dental trauma. Conclusion A high prevalence of dental trauma was observed in the study population suggestive of low awareness regarding the cause, effects and prevention of the condition. PMID:24427477
Singh, Sweta; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Meghashyam; Rao, SreeVidya Krishna; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy
The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the level and type of bacterial contamination of the mobile phones of dental personnel involved in direct patient care and to determine the usefulness of cleaning with 70 percent isopropyl alcohol for decontamination. Dental faculty and trainees in an Indian dental school were asked to participate in a study in which a questionnaire concerning patterns of mobile phone use and disinfection was administered. Swabs from mobile phones of the participants were taken using moist sterile swabs and plated on blood agar plates. The bacteria isolated were identified by biochemical tests. Eighteen percent of the participants (n=9) reported using their phones while attending patients. Nearly 64 percent (n=32) used their mobiles for checking time, and 64 percent (n=42) reported never cleaning their phones. In total, fifty mobile phones were cultured for microorganisms: 98 percent (n=49) were culture-positive, and 34 percent (n=17) grew potentially pathogenic bacteria. There was significant reduction in the mean number of colony-forming units after decontamination with alcohol (p<0.001). The bacterial load was reduced by around 87 percent. The results of this study show that mobile phones may act as an important source of nosocomial pathogens in the dental setting. Therefore, it is important for dental school administrators to encourage higher compliance with hand-washing practices and routine surface disinfection through framing of strict protocols to reduce the chances of occurrence of nosocomial infections.
Vázquez-Mayoral, E E; Sánchez-Pérez, L; Olguín-Barreto, Y; Acosta-Gío, A E
HIV/AIDS patients face unique oral diagnostic and treatment challenges. The aim of this investigation among dental school deans (DSD) and graduate school applicants (GSA) who had qualified from 30 different dental schools was to assess their perceptions on dental education relevant to infection control (IC) and HIV/AIDS patient care. The questionnaire included Likert-type scale evaluations of agreement with statements. Of 158 questionnaires, 23 DSD (68% response rate), and 123 GSA (100% response rate) returned valid questionnaires. Fifteen (65%) DSD and 89 (72%) GSA ranked as "very strong" their perception that infection control prevents the transmission of blood borne viruses. However, the perception prevailed, among DSD and GSA, that HIV infection was a "very strong" to "strong" occupational hazard. Special reprocessing of instruments used on HIV patients was frequently reported. Many considered "very strong" to "strong" that HIV/AIDS patients must be treated in specialized clinics, and nearly half (48%) of the DSD and one third (35%) of the GSA stated that their school does refer HIV/AIDS patients to dental treatment in specialized clinics. These results indicate that many dental schools in Mexico must provide better education on IC and HIV/AIDS patient care to enhance attitudes toward HIV/AIDS patients.
Barber, Michael; Wiesen, Robert; Arnold, Sara; Taichman, Russell S; Taichman, Linda Susan
Many graduating dentists leave dental school feeling that they are not prepared to start and run a dental practice. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge and perceptions dental graduates have in the area of practice management. A twenty-item survey was mailed in the fall of 2008 to nearly half of the University of Michigan dental school alumni who had graduated between the years of 1997 and 2007. Respondents were asked about their demographics, practice characteristics, and perceptions of knowledge/experience regarding practice management skills at the present time as well as at graduation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The majority of respondents were general practitioners (84 percent) aged thirty to thirty-nine practicing between six and ten years with practice incomes reported to be greater than $300,000 per year (79 percent). Most dentists reported being either an owner or co-owner of the practice (57 percent), and 33 percent reported being an associate in the practice. Upon graduation, 7 percent of the respondents felt that they had a strong knowledge of accounting or human resource issues; this perception increased to 47 percent at the present time. Similarly, less than 6 percent of respondents felt they understood issues pertaining to dental insurance upon graduation; this perception increased to 68 percent after having spent time in the workforce. In contrast to the large increase in knowledge/experience in business aspects of dentistry that had accrued since graduation, most alumni reported only a 7 percent increase in their knowledge of the legal aspects of dental practice. Results from this study indicate that interventions are needed to increase graduating dentists' knowledge of practice management and close the gap between their knowledge and its application in real life. The majority of alumni believed there is a need to improve the curriculum focused on these aspects of dental practice.
BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MORAES, Camila Mascarenhas; OLYMPIO, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; PESSAN, Juliano Pelim; GRIZZO, Larissa Tercília; SILVA, Thelma Lopes; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina; de OLIVEIRA, Rodrigo Cardoso; GROISMAN, Sonia; RAMIRES, Irene
Fluoridation of the public water supplies is recognized as among the top ten public health achievements of the twentieth century. However, the positive aspects of this measure depend on the maintenance of fluoride concentrations within adequate levels. Objective: To report the results of seven years of external control of the fluoride (F) concentrations in the public water supply in Bauru, SP, Brazil in an attempt to verify, on the basis of risk/benefit balance, whether the levels are appropriate. Material and Methods: From March 2004 to February 2011, 60 samples were collected every month from the 19 supply sectors of the city, totaling 4,641 samples. F concentrations in water samples were determined in duplicate, using an ion-specific electrode (Orion 9609) coupled to a potentiometer after buffering with TISAB II. After the analysis, the samples were classified according to the best risk-benefit adjustment. Results: Means (±standard deviation) of F concentrations ranged between 0.73±0.06 and 0.81±0.10 mg/L for the different sectors during the seven years. The individual values ranged between 0.03 and 2.63 mg/L. The percentages of the samples considered "low risk" for dental fluorosis development and of "maximum benefit" for dental caries prevention (0.55-0.84 mg F/L) in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh years of the study were 82.0, 58.5, 37.4, 61.0, 89.9, 77.3, and 72.4%, respectively, and 69.0% for the entire period. Conclusions: Fluctuations of F levels were found in the public water supply in Bauru during the seven years of evaluation. These results suggest that external monitoring of water fluoridation by an independent assessor should be implemented in cities where there is adjusted fluoridation. This measure should be continued in order to verify that fluoride levels are suitable and, if not, to provide support for the appropriate adjustments. PMID:23559119
Hiremath, Anand; Ankola, Anil V; Hebbal, Mamata; Mohandoss, Suganya; Pastay, Pratibha
Introduction In India, the trend indicates an increase in oral health problems especially dental caries, which has been consistently increasing both in prevalence and in severity. Children of all age groups are affected by dental caries. It becomes imperative to collect the data on prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs to provide preventive care. Aim To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs of 6-11years old Indian school children. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Sampling frame consisted of 6-11years old primary school children. Study sample consisted of 13,200 children selected from 10 talukas of Belgavi District, Karnataka, India. Clinical examination for dmft and DMFT was carried out in the school premises by five teams, each consisting of one faculty, three postgraduate students and five interns from the KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India. The examiners were trained and calibrated by the principal investigator. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and t-test. Results The overall caries prevalence was 78.9%, mean dmft was 2.97±2.62 and mean DMFT was 0.17±0.53. The decayed teeth component was the principal component in both dmft and DMFT indices. The mean dmft in boys was higher compared to girls and it was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion This study provided us with the baseline data, using which treatment was provided to all the children screened. The children were provided treatment at the camp site/dental hospital/satellite centers and primary health care centers according to the facilities available. PMID:27891457
Fine, Jared I; Isman, Robert E; Grant, Catherine B
California children suffer more from dental disease than any other chronic childhood disease. Disparities in access and oral health are disproportionately represented among children from minority and low-income families. A comprehensive school-based/linked dental program is one essential ingredient in addressing these problems. Described here are the goals, program elements, and challenges of building a seamless dental services system that could reduce barriers care, maximize resources, and employ best practices to improve oral health.
Simons, D; Pearson, N; Evans, P; Wallace, T; Eke, M; Wright, D
This paper describes a service evaluation of a dental treatment programme providing care to children not normally taken to the dentist. It explains the extension of the Back2School programme from the pilot phase and assesses if a mobile dental unit (MDU) can provide a high quality service. The public health competencies it illustrates include oral health improvement, developing and monitoring quality dental services, and collaborative working.
Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne
As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.
Filker, Phyllis J; Cook, Nicole; Kodish-Stav, Jodi
The objective of this study was to investigate if electronic patient records have utility in dental school strategic planning. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been used by all predoctoral students and faculty members at Nova Southeastern University's College of Dental Medicine (NSU-CDM) since 2006. The study analyzed patient demographic and caries risk assessment data from October 2006 to May 2011 extracted from the axiUm EHR database. The purpose was to determine if there was a relationship between high oral health care needs and patient demographics, including gender, age, and median income of the zip code where they reside in order to support dental school strategic planning including the locations of future satellite clinics. The results showed that about 51 percent of patients serviced by the Broward County-based NSU-CDM oral health care facilities have high oral health care needs and that about 60 percent of this population resides in zip codes where the average income is below the median income for the county ($41,691). The results suggest that EHR data can be used adjunctively by dental schools when proposing potential sites for satellite clinics and planning for future oral health care programming.
Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne
As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.
Joseph, Bobby K; Ali, Mohammad A; Sundaram, Devipriya B
In Kuwait, the age-standardized incidence rate (per 100,000) for oral cancer is 1.5 and the mortality rate is 0.4. Early detection of oral cancer combined with appropriate treatment greatly improves the chances of cure and the quality of life. However, little is known about patient awareness of this disease and the ability to identify early signs, particularly among high-risk groups. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess dental patients' awareness and knowledge of mouth cancer and beliefs and perceptions about risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from a convenience sample of outpatients attending the dental admission clinic. The questionnaire included questions to ascertain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of risk factors, and signs of oral cancer as well as sources of information regarding the same. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows 19.0. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed out of which 136 completed questionnaires were returned and used for the study. The mean knowledge score for oral cancer risk factors was found to be 5.2 ± 2.7 out of ten while that of signs and symptoms was 3.4 ± 2.7 out of eight. When the knowledge of risk factors of oral cancer was taken into consideration along with variables, significant difference was seen only in sex with women having better knowledge (p = 0.03). Knowledge about signs and symptoms of oral cancer revealed a highly significant difference with the level of education (p = 0.03). Family, friends, and colleagues were mentioned as the main source of information regarding oral cancer. Our findings suggest that knowledge regarding oral cancer risk factors, signs, and symptoms was found to be lacking among the dental patients which emphasizes the need for patient education at the dental centers as well as public awareness programs.
Rao, S P; Bharambe, M S
The oral health status in school children of Wardha was studied to find out the geographical differences in oral health status and to relate it with the teeth cleaning habit and nutritional status. A cluster sample of 778 children studying in 2 urban, 4 rural and 2 tribal primary schools was selected. Majority (60.8%) of children were habituated to clean their teeth with Manjan. The prevalence of periodontal diseases was significantly high in children habituated to ash, Manjan and coal. The tribal children showed a better oral health status than urban counterparts. Nutritional status has played no role in dental decay. The school oral health education campaigns should be addressed to dental caries, periodontal diseases and the harmful teeth cleaning materials.
Porteous, Nuala B; Bizra, Eamon; Cothron, Annaliese; Yeh, Chih-Ko
This study was conducted to determine the content of infection control (IC) curricula, the extent of IC monitoring and compliance, and the number of bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposures/year in U.S. dental schools. A questionnaire was emailed to persons responsible for predoctoral IC programs. The response rate was 60 percent. Most schools did not have an independent course and used classroom lectures and clinic demonstrations to teach IC. Schools with an IC committee were more likely to use online learning (p<0.05), utilize multiple teaching methods (p<0.05), issue written warnings for IC violations (p<0.0001), and use multiple disciplinary actions (p<0.005) than schools without an IC committee. Schools with an IC coordinator were less likely to issue grade reductions for IC violations than schools with no IC coordinator (p<0.05). Thirty-eight percent reported ≥ 16 BBP exposures/year, and 18 percent reported <5. There was significant correlation between BBP exposure incidents and large class size (p<0.005). Respondents were satisfied with their IC curriculum and perceived that dental students had a high level of IC compliance and satisfaction, along with staff IC promotion and compliance. The findings suggest that schools without an IC committee should consider its benefits. Further investigation of schools with high numbers of BBP exposures is recommended.
Haresaku, S; Mariño, R; Naito, T; Morgan, M V
The term 'oral health care for older adults' has various interpretations, and its meaning is not clear among dental school academic staff. Additionally, there are no theoretical or practical stand-alone courses on oral health care for older adults in Japanese dental schools. To improve oral health care education, we investigated the opinions and attitudes toward oral health care education for older adults among academic staff in dental schools. Data were collected in seven dental schools from May to September 2013 via an online questionnaire survey. Five-hundred-fifty-eight academics (428 male, 130 female) participated (response rate 57%). The average number of years since they had completed a university degree was 20.2 (SD 10.2) years. The majority (Over 90%) of participants perceived that oral health care should be provided in nursing facilities, hospitals, and at home. Its treatments and instructions should include, not only methods of keeping good oral hygiene, but also improvement of oral function such as swallowing training and salivary glands massage. The majority (84.2%) suggested oral health care education should be combined as a one-credit, stand-alone course. Findings indicate that dental academics have an understanding the need for a course in oral health care for older adults. Participants supported the need for further development of education in oral health care for older adults' in Japan, as a separate course on its own right. However there were some different views about content by teaching field. The need for a national core program for teaching oral health care education was suggested.
Mozer, James E.; And Others
The Bi/Polar Inventory of Core Strength was administered to two senior dental classes. This inventory identifies preferences on three fundamental underlying dimensions of personality and yields eight personality patterns, which were subsequently correlated with the students' self-assessment of various aspects of the dental school experience.…
Dyras, Marta; Lyszczarz, Justyna; Wójtowicz, Barbara; Jankowska, Katarzyna
The aim of this work was the comparison of calendar age with dental age in the aspect of basic nutritional ingredients intake with precise taking into consideration microelements, macroelements and vitamins. 79 schoolchildren from swimming classes of championship school in Cracow aged 10-13 were included in the examination. Among this group of pupils 24-hour recall and complex dental examination including the estimation of dental status, the hygienic status of oral cavity were conducted and the presence of dental and occlusion defects were estimated. 24-hour recall including 3 following days contained the number of products in every meal, the number of meals and the time of their consumption. The schoolchildren were divided into 3 groups on the ground of the difference between dental and calendar age. Dentition on time (no more than 5 months difference between dental and calendar age) was stated by 25 pupils--group I. Accelerated dentition of fixed teeth was observed by 36 pupils--group II and delayed dentition by 18 persons--group III. In all groups lower than safe calcium intake (80% of pupils from these groups) and iron intake (55%) was noticed. In the range of left micro- and macroelements the disturbances in nutritional status were mainly stated bypersons with delayed dentition. The shortages in Magnesium intake concerned 67% of school children and in Zinc intake--72%. In the group of schoolchildren with accelerated dentition these shortages were about 40%. In the range of vitamins intake low niacin intake (39% of schoolchildren) and riboflavin intake (25%) were stated. The differences among these groups were observed only in thiamine intake (33% from group II and 19% from group III). In the group III more often low energetic value of daily nutrient intake was stated.
Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha
Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112
Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J.; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S.; Gritz, Ellen R.
Rates of tobacco use are increasing in regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and 6 supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into dental curricula using a 5-point Likert scale (“1”= strongly disagree to “5”=strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66% South America, 18% Mexico/Central America, 16% the Caribbean). Two%, 12%, and 83% of respondents reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated in dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools. PMID:24385339
Stacey, D Graham; Kurunathan, Tania M
Dental educators have traditionally prioritized cognitive indicators (especially undergraduate grade point average and Dental Admission Test scores) in choosing students for admission to dental school. These indicators' role in predicting academic outcomes, including coursework and examination success, is well documented. However, noncognitive predictors including conscientiousness, self-discipline, achievement-striving, task orientation, deliberation, resilience, and situational judgment have also been identified. This study's aims were to assess the significance of noncognitive indicators measured by the version of the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO PI) known as the NEO-PI-3, determine the place in the curriculum when these indicators' impact was most influential, and compare their influence with that of the cognitive indicators. Analysis was performed on stored data for three classes of dental students from admission through clinical exams at one U.S. dental school. Significant associations were found between NEO-PI-3 domains and facets (especially Conscientiousness) and the outcomes of coursework grades, standardized exam scores, and clinical behavior scores. Multiple regression analyses identified that the noncognitive indicators enhanced the prediction of students' academic and clinical performance early in the curriculum and then equaled or surpassed the predictive impact of cognitive indicators as they progressed through the curriculum sequence. The implications of noncognitive predictors for dental education are discussed including the challenge to identify and then weight the indicators, whether to include them as admissions criteria, how to assess their impact as compared with cognitive measures, the necessity of standardization of assessment, and if and when to evaluate their relevance to professional practice.
Ben-Gal, Gilad; Weiss, Ervin I
According to a recent American Dental Association survey, posterior composite resin restorations now outnumber amalgam restorations in the United States. Dental schools around the world vary considerably in the extent to which they teach the use of composite resins. We aimed to determine if there has been an increase in the placement of posterior composite restorations in an Israeli dental school and if faculty experience affects the type of posterior restoration placed. In this retrospective study, we recorded and analyzed all the restorations performed by undergraduate students in the last five academic years at the Hebrew University Hadassah School of Dental Medicine in Jerusalem. All clinical records of student treatments between 2004 and 2009 were screened, and direct restorations were registered. Out of 6,094 posterior restorations performed during the study period, 42.3 percent were made of composite resin, increasing from 36.8 percent in 2004-05 to 48.5 percent in 2008-09, an increase of 11.7 percent. When clinical instructors were asked to state their preference if they themselves were to undergo posterior restoration, similar results were obtained. Instructors with less than ten years' experience preferred posterior composite resin restorations in 54.8 percent of the hypothetical situations, compared with 37.2 percent preferred by instructors with ten years of experience or more. It appears that the use of composite resin was influenced mainly by the prevailing trend and was not based on scientific evidence. Dental faculties should define criteria, based on up-to-date clinical studies, for using new materials, taking into consideration differences among instructors regarding treatment concept.
Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Kapferer, Ines; Ostermann, Herwig; Staudinger, Roland; Dumfahrt, Herbert
Since the year 2000, prospective dental students at Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria, have undergone both theoretical and practical preadmission exams, called the Dental Admission Test (DAT). The aim of this investigation was to assess the suitability and outcome of this selection practice. Five classes from 2001 to 2005 (N=97; forty-three female, fifty-four male) were retrospectively reviewed. DAT results were compared with student performance, gender, ability to graduate on time, and dropout rates. Furthermore, the influence of a previous medical degree was evaluated. The t-test was used to analyze correlations between the results of the DAT and the following: gender, students who graduated on time, and students who had previously completed a medical degree. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was applied to analyze correlations among test scores, age, and students' performance during the first clinical year. Students graduating on time were noted to have significantly better DAT results; students with a previous medical degree showed significantly better grades during their first clinical year. The difference between the performance of male and female applicants on the DAT was not significant. Correlation was found between DAT results and dental school performance (r=-0.462). We conclude that the DAT may reduce dropout rates by excluding applicants unlikely to be successful in practical courses and that DAT scores are a reliable tool to predict student performance during the first clinical year of dental school in Innsbruck.
Bastos, Douglas Rezende; de Castro Ferreira Conti, Ana Cláudia; Filho, Leopoldino Capelozza; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues; de Almeida Cardoso, Maurício
Aim: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and severity of short face pattern in ethnically different individuals. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 4,409 Brazilians (2,192 females and 2,217 males), with a mean age of 13 years, enrolled in secondary schools in the municipality of Bauru. The sample inclusion criteria involved subjects with vertically impaired facial relationship based on excessive lip compression, when standing at natural head position, with the lips at rest. Once short face syndrome had been identified, the individuals were classified into three severity subtypes: mild, moderate, and severe. The sample was then stratified by ethnic background as White (Caucasoid), Black (African descent), Brown (mixed Caucasian–African descent), Yellow (Asian descent), and Brazilian Indian (Native Brazilian descent), using the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification. The chi-square test at the 5% significance level was used to compare frequency ratios of individuals with vertically impaired facial relationships and across different ethnicities, according to severity. Results: The prevalence of short face pattern was 3.15%, as 1.11%, 1.99%, and 0.02% considered mild, moderate and severe subtypes, respectively. The severe subtype was rare (0.02%) and found only in one White individual. The White group had the highest relative frequency (45.53%) of the moderate subtype, followed by Brown individuals (43.40%). In the mild subtype, Yellow (68.08%) and White (62.21%) individuals showed similar and higher relative frequency values. Conclusion: The prevalence of short face pattern was 3.15%, and White individuals had the highest prevalence.
Lynch, C D; Singhrao, H; Addy, L D; Gilmour, A S M
All areas of the practice of dentistry are evolving at a considerable pace. One area in particular which has seen a rapid revolution is the oral rehabilitation of partially dentate adults. The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary teaching of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) in dental schools in Ireland and the United Kingdom. An online questionnaire which sought information in relation to the current teaching of FPDs was developed and distributed to 15 Irish and UK dental schools with undergraduate teaching programmes in Spring 2009. Responses were received from 12 schools (response rate=80%). All schools offer teaching programmes in relation to FPDs. The number of hours devoted to pre-clinical/phantom head teaching of FPDs ranged from 3 to 42h (mean: 16h). The staff/student ratio for pre-clinical teaching courses in FPDs ranged from 1:6 to 1:18 (mode: 1:12). Cantilever resin-retained FPDs were the most popular type of FPD provided clinically (average=0·83 per school; range=1-2). Five schools (42%) report that they have requirements (e.g. targets, quotas, competencies) which students must complete prior to graduation in relation to FPDs. Fixed partial dentures form an important part of the undergraduate teaching programme in UK and Irish dental schools. While this teaching is subjected to contemporary pressures such as lack of curriculum time and a lack of available clinical facilities and teachers, there is evidence that teaching programmes in this area are evolving and are sensitive to current clinical practice trends and evidence-based practice.
Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima
Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.
Spallek, Heiko; Johnson, Lynn; Kerr, Joseph; Rankin, David
Health Information Technology (Health IT) constitutes an integral component of the operations of most academic dental institutions nowadays. However, the expenses associated with the acquisition and the ongoing maintenance of these complex systems have often been buried among costs for other electronic infrastructure systems, distributed across various cost centers including unmeasured central campus support, covered centrally and therefore difficult to quantify, and spread over years, denying school administrators a clear understanding of the resources that have been dedicated to Health IT. The aim of this study was to understand the financial impact of Health IT at four similar U.S. dental schools: two schools using a purchased Electronic Health Record (EHR), and two schools that developed their own EHR. For these schools, the costs of creating ($2.5 million) and sustaining ($174,000) custom EHR software were significantly higher than acquiring ($500,000) and sustaining ($121,000) purchased software. These results are based on historical data and should not be regarded as a gold standard for what a complete Health IT suite should cost. The presented data are intended to inform school administrators about the myriad of costs associated with Health IT and give them a point of reference when comparing costs or making estimates for implementation projects.
Chambers, David W; Bergstrom, Roy
Financial management includes all processes that build organizations' equity through accumulating assets in strategically important areas. The tactical aspects of financial management are budget deployment and monitoring. Budget deployment is the process of making sure that costs are fairly allocated. Budget monitoring addresses issues of effective uses and outcomes of resources. This article describes contemporary deployment and monitoring mechanisms, including revenue positive and marginal analysis, present value, program phases, options logic, activity-based costing, economic value added, cost of quality, variance reconciliation, and balanced scorecards. The way financial decisions are framed affects comparative decision-making and even influences the arithmetic of accounting. Familiarity with these concepts should make it possible for dental educators to more fully participate in discussions about the relationships between budgeting and program strategy.
Federlin, Marianne; Price, Richard
Delivering an inadequate amount of light to a light-cured resin will result in a resin that is inadequately cured. This study measured the radiant exposure that students delivered to a simulated restoration to determine if instruction with immediate feedback increased the amount of light they delivered. The amount of light (radiant exposure in J/cm(2)) delivered to a simulated restoration by sixty-three dental students using the same curing light for twenty seconds was recorded. The experiment was repeated after the students had been given detailed light-curing instructions together with immediate feedback using the MARCPS system. Initially, the students delivered between 1.4 and 17.5 J/cm(2) (mean±SD: 9.8±3.5 J/cm(2)). After receiving instructions and feedback on their light-curing technique, they delivered between 6.7 J/cm(2) and 17.8 J/cm(2) (mean±SD: 13.2±3.3 J/cm(2)). ANOVA and Fisher's post hoc multiple comparison tests showed that providing immediate feedback on the students' light-curing technique made a significant improvement in the radiant exposure they delivered (p<0.05). It was concluded that many dental students in this study were not using the curing light properly. After the students had received one session of additional instruction and immediate feedback using the MARC-PS, they delivered 35 percent more light energy to the same simulated restoration. Students who were closer to graduation showed a greater improvement in their light-curing technique (p=0.0091).
This study compared the preference for learning styles of dental students in a small class in physiology at a South African university with the preference for teaching styles of the lecturers. It also analyzed and evaluated the teaching methods and aids the lecturers used. The study was done in the last teaching block of the year after students have been exposed to all the lecturing styles in the same premedical subject. Two separate questionnaires were used in the study in order to evaluate teaching methods and teaching media used by the lecturers and to measure the teaching methods and teaching media that students preferred. Through a critical analysis of the data, it was found that the students preferred cooperative and active teaching/learning experiences more than the lecturers are using them. The study emphasizes the importance of students being actively involved in the teaching-learning process through cooperative methods. This may enhance their ability to utilize cognitive skills such as creative thinking, interpretation, critical thinking, and problem-solving.
Hamamoto, Darryl T; Farrar, Suzanne K; Caplan, Daniel J; Lanphier, Terrence F; Panza, Jeanne C; Ritter, André V
Dental schools are facing substantial financial challenges and a shortage of faculty members. One solution to address these issues has been to hire "shared" faculty members, i.e., faculty members whose primary appointment is at one institution who are hired by another institution to teach a course or part of a course. This is a controversial concept. A survey of academic deans at U.S. and Canadian dental schools was conducted for this study; thirty-nine (54 percent) of the seventy-two academic deans completed the online survey. This survey found that the use of shared faculty members is not rare amongst U.S. and Canadian dental schools and that the opinions of the academic deans about the use of shared faculty members ranged widely-from strong support to strong disapproval. Using shared faculty members has advantages and disadvantages for students, the shared faculty members, and both institutions. Many of the disadvantages could be potentially minimized by stakeholders' working together to develop collaborative arrangements. Networks could be developed in which institutions coordinate hiring of shared faculty members based on what expertise is needed. Financial challenges and shortages of faculty members are unlikely to be resolved in the near future, but use of shared faculty members is one promising approach to begin to meet these challenges.
Polk, Deborah E; Nolan, Beth A D; Shah, Nilesh H; Weyant, Robert J
The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which dental schools in the United States have policies and procedures in place that facilitate the implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines. The authors sent surveys to all 65 U.S. dental schools in 2014; responses were obtained from 38 (58%). The results showed that, of the nine policies and procedures examined, only two were fully implemented by 50% or more of the responding schools: guidelines supported through clinical faculty education or available chairside (50%), and students informed of guidelines in both the classroom and clinic (65.8%). Although 92% of the respondents reported having an electronic health record, 80% of those were not using it to track compliance with guidelines. Five schools reported implementing more policies than the rest of the schools. The study found that the approach to implementing guidelines at most of the responding schools did not follow best practices although five schools had an exemplary set of policies and procedures to support guideline implementation. These results suggest that most dental schools are currently not implementing guidelines effectively and efficiently, but that the goal of schools' having a comprehensive implementation program for clinical guidelines is achievable since some are doing so. Future studies should determine whether interventions to improve implementation in dental schools are needed.
Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Somasundaram, Sujatha; Gawthaman, Murugesan; Vinodh, Selvaraj; Manikandan, Sundaram; Gokulnathan, Subramanian
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88%) children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6%) than in girls (61.5%). The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended. PMID:25210362
Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi
This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245
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Browning, William D; Reifeis, Paul; Willis, Lisa; Kirkup, Michele L
Shaping a clinical curriculum that is appropriate for novice dentists, is based on high-quality evidence of efficacy, yet reflects current practices is challenging. CAD/CAM units have been available to dentists since the late '80s. Recent improvements in the software, hardware and the clinical performance of available all-ceramic blocks have keyed a surge in interest. Based on a careful review of the systems available and, equally importantly, a review of the research regarding the longevity of reinforced glass ceramics, IUSD decided to add training on the use of the E4D CAD/CAM system to the curriculum. Students now receive lectures, preclinical hands-on training and clinical experience in fabricating all-ceramic restorations. At present any student who is interested in providing an all-ceramic restoration for his/her patient can do so using our CAD/CAM system. In a little less than one year our undergraduate dental students have provided 125 all-ceramic crowns to their patients. Clinical faculty have been impressed with the marginal fit and esthetics of the crowns. Finally, with students designing, milling, sintering and staining the restorations the CAD/CAM systems has reduced lab costs significantly.
Raja, Sheela; Shah, Raveena; Hamad, Judy; Van Kanegan, Mona; Kupershmidt, Alexandra; Kruthoff, Mariela
Although the importance of empathy, rapport, and anxiety/pain awareness in dentist-patient relations has been well documented, these factors continue to be an issue with patients in many dental school clinics. The aim of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how patients at an urban, university-affiliated medical center and its dental school's clinic experienced oral health care and to generate ideas for improving the dental school's clinical curriculum and management of the clinic. Although patient satisfaction surveys are common, in-depth patient narratives are an underutilized resource for improving dental education. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 uninsured or underinsured dental patients at these sites, and the results were analyzed using content analysis. Major phenomena that participants discussed were the importance of empathy and good rapport with their oral health providers and provider awareness of dental pain and anxiety. Many patients also discussed feeling dehumanized during dental visits. Based on their positive and negative experiences, the participants made suggestions for how oral health professionals can successfully engage patients in treatment.
Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu
Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447
Syed, Ather Ahmed; Chaturvedi, Shefali; Goenka, Puneet; Sharma, Swati
ABSTRACT Introduction: Trauma to primary and permanent teeth and their supporting structures is one of the most common dental problems seen in children. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on timely attention with prompt and appropriate treatment, which often relies on knowledge of the teachers who may be present at the place of accidents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate via a questionnaire the knowledge level of primary school teachers in South Jaipur regarding dental trauma. Design: Questionnaire survey. Materials and methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 300 primary school teachers from 20 randomly selected private and semi-aided schools of South Jaipur. Results: A total of 278 teachers responded to the survey. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that most of the respondents had accepted poor knowledge regarding dental trauma, with a mean knowledge of 10.56 ± 2.58. Conclusion: This study highlighted inadequate knowledge regarding emergency management of traumatic dental injuries, and teachers felt the need for training in the management of dental trauma as part of their training program. How to cite this article: Nirwan M, Syed AA, Chaturvedi S, Goenka P, Sharma S. Awareness in Primary School Teachers regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in Children and Their Emergency Management: A Survey in South Jaipur. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):62-66. PMID:27274158
Casamassimo, Paul S; Seale, N Sue
The aim of this study was to characterize the current status of predoctoral pediatric dentistry patient pools in U.S. dental schools and compare their status to that in 2001. A 2014 survey of school clinic-based and community-based dental patient pools was developed, piloted, and sent to pediatric predoctoral program directors in 57 U.S. dental schools via SurveyMonkey. Two follow-up contacts were made to increase the response rate. A total of 49 surveys were returned for a response rate of 86%. The responding program directors reported that their programs' patient pools had declined in number and had changed in character with more diversity and fewer procedures. They attributed the changes to competition, cost, and location of the dental school. The respondents reported that community-based dental education clinical sites continued to provide additional service experiences for dental students, with contributions varying by the nature of the site. A large number of the respondents felt that their graduates lacked some basic pediatric dentistry clinical skills and were not ready for independent practice with children. The results of this study suggest that the predoctoral pediatric dentistry patient pool has changed and general dentists may be graduating with inadequate experiences to practice dentistry for children.
Moalic é; Zérilli, A; Capo-Chichi, S; Apovi, G
Dental caries is becoming increasingly common in developing countries but very few attempts have been made to assess its prevalence accurately. We therefore carried out an epidemiological survey in 1998 in the south of Benin, to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in 300 school children, both boys and girls, aged 12 to 14 years. Each child underwent a dental examination and interview and the data obtained were recorded in a personal clinical record. We determined DMF index for various subgroups of children. We then analyzed DMF index and its correlation with sex, age, socioeconomic level, the urban or rural origin of the child, diet and daily dental hygiene practices. We found that mean DMF index at age 12 years was 0.83 (38.7% had dental caries and 4.4% had fillings), and thus, 61. 3% of the children were free of dental caries. We also found that 80% of the children had an accumulation of tartar. More boys than girls had dental caries. Rural children were less likely to have dental caries than urban children. The prevalence of caries appears to be low despite poor dental hygiene and a lack of dental treatment. These results conflict with those of most other studies. However, they should be interpreted with caution because the population studied was very homogeneous (selection bias), the age of the children could be no more than approximate (some were probably younger than 12 and others older than 14, because the registry system is inaccurate), there had been health education classes in some schools before the survey and it was difficult to define socioeconomic level and a sugary diet. For example, the lower socioeconomic level (no TV, radio, electricity or tap water) was probably an accurate representation of children from the rural area, whereas urban children were proud of being well-equipped and may have had a tendency to exaggerate. The prevalence of dental caries in this population is currently as low as that for most pre-industrial African countries. To
Aydin, Ulkem; Ozturk, Mustafa; Kirbiyik, Sema
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet access and use among dental school outpatients to evaluate the type of information they seek and their views regarding health-related information. A total of 400 consecutive outpatients were surveyed. A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics and Internet use. Users were asked about the frequency and location of their Internet access. Access to health-related information and medical and dental topics of interest was recorded. Participants expressed their opinions on the usefulness of the information and the improvements that might be needed. A total of 33.0% of the participants were Internet users. Those in the 15- to 24-year age group were male, unmarried, and at school and were much more likely to use the Internet than their counterparts. Twelve percent of the users were seeking online health information. Dental information was sought by 16.7% (n = 8) of online health seekers. Those in the 25- to 34-year age group were married, employed, and who have a university degree and were much more likely to seek health information on the Internet than their counterparts. Currently, persons seeking online health information in this population in Turkey are a small minority. It is important to respond to the specific health needs of the Internet users to post accurate information.
More, Frederick G; Whitehead, Albert W; Gonthier, Mark
The purpose of this article is to explore issues that pertain to the needs of gay men, lesbians, and bisexual and transgender (GLBT) students as a subgroup in U.S. dental schools. The increasing visibility of GLBT persons in all aspects of life is one aspect of the changing face of the U.S. population. Increasingly, there is dialogue about issues related to GLBT persons, their nontraditional families, and their full engagement in society. Recent court decisions, changing policies in states and municipalities, and increasing acceptance in society promote inclusion. Likewise, this dialogue has extended into academic life. In medicine and nursing, GLBT issues include the needs of GLBT patients, the mentoring of faculty and administration, and acculturation of students in a dynamic college environment. Increasing the acceptance of GLBT persons and enhancing the value of diversity throughout the community and within the profession are challenges that must be met. In addition, fostering positive behaviors in a multicultural environment is a priority that is recognized in business and academe. In an effort to assess the present situation in U.S. dental schools, a survey was developed to gather data about support services provided for GLBT students. Based on the results of the survey, a series of recommendations are made to meet the needs of GLBT students, faculty, staff, and administrators in dental education institutions.
Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne
As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.
Butler, W J; Segreto, V; Collins, E
The severity of dental mottling in 2,592 school-aged, lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities was investigated in 1980-81 to identify factors associated with mottling and to construct a prediction model for the prevalence of mottling. The communities were selected to obtain a wide range of levels of fluoride in the drinking water. The children within each of the communities were contacted through their schools and received a dental examination to assess the severity of mottling. Information on demographic, dental health practice, and other candidate predictor variables was obtained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. A number of water quality measurements were also recorded for each community. White and Spanish-surname children had about the same prevalence of mottling while Blacks had a higher prevalence, odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 3.7. Children from homes which had air conditioning had a lower prevalence of mottling (OR = .6, (0.4, 0.8)). The use of fluoride toothpaste or drops and the number of fluoride treatments were almost identical among those who did and did not develop moderate mottling. In addition to fluoride, total dissolved solids and zinc were water quality variables associated with mottling. PMID:4061713
Sofola, Oyinkansola O; Folayan, Morenike O; Denloye, Obafunke O; Okeigbemen, Sunny A
The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens amongst Nigerian clinical dental students, their HBV vaccination status, and reporting practices. A cross-sectional study of all clinical dental students in the four Nigerian dental schools was carried out by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that asked questions on demography, number and type of exposure, management of the exposures, personal protection against cross infection, and the reporting of such exposures. One hundred and fifty-three students responded (response rate of 84.5 percent). Only thirty-three (37.9 percent) were fully vaccinated against HBV. Ninety (58.8 percent) of the students have had at least one occupational exposure. There was no significantly associated difference between sex, age, location of school, and exposure. Most of the exposures (44.4 percent) occurred in association with manual tooth cleaning. There was inadequate protection of the eyes. None of the exposures were formally reported. It is the responsibility of training institutions to ensure the safety of the students by mandatory HBV vaccination prior to exposure and adequate training in work safety. Written policies and procedures should be developed and made easily accessible to all workers to facilitate prompt reporting and management of all occupational exposures.
Irani, Soussan; Meschi, Marjane; Goodarzi, Azizollah
Background and aims Recent progresses in preventive dentistry and their correct application in many developed coun-tries have remarkably decreased the rate of oro-dental diseases in children and teenagers, while the rate of oro-dental diseases is on the rise among the children in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of educating school health care instructors by measuring their level of oral health knowledge and their opinions about the impact of oral health and preventive dentistry. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study. Questionnaires were administered before and after an educational lecture to school health care instructors in Hamadan, Iran. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. Results In this study, 31 school health care instructors took part. The percentage of instructors in poor knowledge level was 22.6% before the educational lecture (education), which decreased to 0 percent after the education (P < 0.05). The percentage of instructors with good knowledge level was 3.2%, which increased to 80.6% after the education (P < 0.05). Conclusion Close cooperation between universities and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education will lead to im-provements in the level of knowledge and awareness of school health care instructors. PMID:23230483
O'Neill, Paula N.; Taylor, C. David
Surveyed U.S. and Canadian dental schools on their faculty development activities and how they are administered. Identified percentages of schools engaging in each of 18 faculty development activities, and six administrative models: an office of academic affairs, departmental chair, a faculty development committee, an office of the dean, an office…
Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te
The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males,…
Frankl, Spencer N.
Discusses, in the context of the experience of the Boston University School of Dental Medicine, the challenges and opportunities inherent in creating and sustaining a diverse student body and a diverse faculty, staff, and administration. Highlights the role of the school's evolution as a learning organization as an essential contributing factor to…
Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe
Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895
Doubleday, Alison F; Goben, Abigail
The aims of this pilot study were to investigate current copyright training and support provided to faculty at North American dental schools and to examine faculty members' knowledge and attitudes related to specific copyright issues. In 2015, a survey with questions about faculty members' comfort about their own and their colleagues' knowledge and application of various copyright issues was designed and distributed. True/false questions were asked to determine the extent of knowledge about copyright. Participants were given eight scenarios depicting examples of behavior related to copyright issues and asked to indicate whether the behavior in the scenario was ethical or unethical and compliant with or infringing upon copyright. A total of 104 participants completed the survey, all at U.S. dental schools; the numbers in the non-faculty groups were small, so the analysis was limited to the 61 faculty respondents (approximately 0.5% of U.S. dental faculty members in 2015). The results showed that these dental faculty members were less confident in their colleagues' knowledge and application of copyright and fair use than they were in their own knowledge and application. Both knowledge and attitude were found to be important factors in the respondents' decision making related to copyright and fair use, although it appeared that in some contexts faculty members relied on either knowledge or attitude more strongly than the other. A large percentage (88%, n=53) said they would be open to receiving additional training in copyright from their institution. Faculty development on this topic should address attitudes about the ethics regarding application of copyright law in addition to providing factual information and should emphasize what is permissible under current copyright law rather than simply discussing actions that constitute violations.
Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.
The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.
National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.
The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…
Sewerin, I P
The diagnostic usefulness of radiographs is diminished by errors of film handling, and retakes mean increased radiation doses. Avoiding artefacts due to static electricity is part of a quality assurance programme. The number of types of artefacts originating from static electricity in the Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, were recorded over a five-week period with low temperatures and low air humidity. During the period 3137 intra-oral and 638 extra-oral films were processed by seven assistants and a number of trainees. A total of 48 artefacts on 47 extra-oral films was observed. The artefacts were classified into four types. Only one case of classical 'lightning' was found, while nine were of a hitherto undescribed type ('animals' or 'cactus flowers'). The most common type appeared as dots arranged in straight lines; their origin was obscure, but it was suspected that they were caused by the processing machine. The one typical 'lightning' case occurred on a Status-X film, consistent with the theory that friction may be a causative factor. Although individual frequencies varied, all the radiography assistants and trainees were associated with the artefacts recorded.
Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando
This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.
Omar, Hanan; Khan, Saad A; Toh, Chooi G
Student-generated videos provide an authentic learning experience for students, enhance motivation and engagement, improve communication skills, and improve collaborative learning skills. This article describes the development and implementation of a student-generated video activity as part of a knowledge, observation, simulation, and experience (KOSE) program at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It also reports the students' perceptions of an activity that introduced first-year dental students (n=44) to clinical scenarios involving patients and dental team aiming to improve professional behavior and communication skills. The learning activity was divided into three phases: preparatory phase, video production phase, and video-watching. Students were organized into five groups and were instructed to generate videos addressing given clinical scenarios. Following the activity, students' perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire. The results showed that 86 percent and 88 percent, respectively, of the students agreed that preparation of the activity enhanced their understanding of the role of dentists in provision of health care and the role of enhanced teamwork. In addition, 86 percent and 75 percent, respectively, agreed that the activity improved their communication and project management skills. Overall, the dental students perceived that the student-generated video activity was a positive experience and enabled them to play the major role in driving their learning process.
Rosen, Evan B; Donoff, R Bruce; Riedy, Christine A
There has historically been limited development and utilization of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical dentistry. However, in recent years PROMs have been recognized by other health care fields as valuable in the comprehensive assessment of patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to survey deans of U.S. dental schools to better understand their vision for the role of PROMs in the field of dentistry. A 13-question online survey was emailed to the deans of the 64 accredited U.S. dental schools at the time to gather their opinions about the value of patient-reported outcomes in dentistry. The survey consisted of questions in 12 domains such as treatment planning, perceived success/complications of surgery, identification/management of dental pain, psychological and oral function, and insurance payment/reimbursement. Of the 64 deans, 33 responses were received (51.5% response rate), but three surveys were excluded due to incomplete answers, resulting in a final response rate of 46.8%. All respondents reported there was value in utilization of PROMs for understanding a patient's satisfaction of a procedure, a patient's perceived success of dental surgery, identifying dental pain, and managing dental pain. However, there was disagreement among the respondents about utilization of PROMs for the purpose of determining insurance payment and/or reimbursement. Additional steps should be taken to develop clinically appropriate PROMs for dentistry and to determine the appropriate situations in which to use dental PROMs. This study suggests that PROMs should be incorporated into dental school curricula as they will likely play a role in future comprehensive treatment assessment.
North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational-Technical Programs.
DEVELOPED BY TEACHERS IN DENTAL HYGIENE PROGRAMS, THE STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR DENTAL AUXILIARY EDUCATION, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF THE DENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND BASED UPON THE EXPERIENCE OF THREE OPERATING DENTAL HYGIENE PROGRAMS OVER A 3-YEAR PERIOD, THIS GUIDE IS FOR ADMINISTRATOR AND TEACHER USE IN DEVELOPING CURRICULUMS IN DENTAL HYGIENE IN…
Saravanan, S; Kalyani, C; Vijayarani, MP; Jayakodi, P; Felix, AJW; Nagarajan, S; Arunmozhi, P; Krishnan, V
Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean's fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997). Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls) were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI) score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ‘borderline’ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6). A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the
Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M
To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes.
Matos, Andreia; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Fernandes, Joao C. S.
The noise levels made by different clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are considered to be the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound levels were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece noise measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal, and acrylic). Noise levels were determined using a precision sound level meter, which was positioned at ear level and also at one-meter distance from the operator. Some of the handpieces were brand new and the others had a few years of use. The sound levels encountered were between 60 and 99 dB(A) and were compared with the noise limits in A-weighted sound pressure level for mechanical equipments installed in educational buildings included in the Portuguese Noise Code and in other European countries codes. The daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d) of the students and professors were calculated to be between 85 and 90 dB(A) and were compared with the European legal limits. Some noise limits for this type of environment are proposed and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are given.
Kateeb, Elham T; Warren, John J; Damiano, Peter; Momany, Elizabeth; Kanellis, Michael; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Ansley, Tim
The International Dental Federation and World Health Organization have promoted the use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in modern clinical settings worldwide. In the United States, the practice of ART is not believed to be widely used, which may be a result of little attention given to ART training in predoctoral pediatric dentistry curricula in U.S. dental schools. This study investigated the extent of clinical and didactic instruction on ART provided in U.S. dental schools by surveying the predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs in 2010. Of the fifty-seven directors asked to complete the survey, forty-four responded for a response rate of 77 percent. Of these forty-four programs, 66 percent reported providing clinical training on ART, though only 14 percent provide this training often or very often. The types of ART training provided often or very often included interim treatment (18 percent) and single-surface cavities (14 percent) in primary teeth. However, ART was said to be rarely taught as a definitive treatment in permanent teeth (2 percent). Attitude was a major predictor, for clinical training provided and using professional guidelines in treatment decisions were associated with a positive attitude towards ART. These predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs used ART mainly in primary, anterior, and single-surface cavities and as interim treatment. As ART increases access of children to dental care, the incorporation of the ART approach into the curricula of U.S. dental schools should be facilitated by professional organizations.
Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen
Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials."
Background Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. Method A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3–5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5–16 –year-olds attending grade 1–5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Results Caries prevalence for 5–6 –year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5–6 –year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft
Craig, Jean L.
Nutrition instruction at the Dental School of the University of Texas Health Science Center (San Antonia) has been required for 20 years and is now an integrated part of the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs with both didactic (freshman year) and clinical (sophomore year) components. (MSE)
Howell, T. Howard; Matlin, Karl
Harvard University's new dental school curriculum, and the changes mandated for its implementation, are discussed. The curriculum is characterized by small tutorial groups, student-centered instruction, and clinical treatment teams. The innovations have required significant institutional revitalization efforts and financial investment, with…
Middletown Public Schools, CT.
This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by dentists, dental hygienists, dental laboratory technicians, and dental assistants and also to help students acquire some basic dental assistant…
Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C
This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly.
Seow, W K; Amaratunge, A; Bennett, R; Bronsch, D; Lai, P Y
This investigation studied the dental health status of a group of 184 Australian Aboriginal children with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 0.8 years, who were attending pre-schools in metropolitan Brisbane, a non-fluoridated state capital city. The DDE (Developmental Defects of Enamel) Index was used to chart enamel hypoplasia and enamel opacities. WHO criteria was used to diagnose dental caries. The results showed that 98% of children had at least one tooth showing developmental enamel defects. Each child had a mean of 3.8 +/- 1.7 teeth affected by enamel hypoplasia and another 1.1 +/- 0.8 teeth affected by enamel opacity. Seventy-eight percent of the children had dental caries. The mean number of decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) per child was 3.8 +/- 3.7. The decayed component constituted 3.5 (95%) of the mean dmft, indicating a high unmet restorative need in this group. The mean dmfs (decayed, missing, filled, surfaces) was 5.9 +/- 7.3. Maxillary anterior labial decay of at least one tooth affected 43 (23%) of the children. In this sub-group, the dmft and dmfs was 9.1 +/- 2.8 and 15.4 +/- 7.7 respectively. Oral debris was found in 98% of the children. It is hypothesized that the high levels of underlying developmental enamel defects, compounded by low fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene and a diet high in refined sugars pose an important caries risk factor in this group of children.
Evans, Caswell A
Some individuals emphasize dentistry as the provision of services; others concentrate on achieving specified levels of oral health. One's vision of dentistry affects how the issue of access is viewed. The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry has been the recipient of a Profession and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education project (the Pipeline) grant to promote oral health in underserved communities and to train students to function effectively in such settings. The School's Extramural Clinical Experience is described. This involves 60 days of providing care in seventeen sites for students in their fourth year of training. Students must qualify for these rotations based on clinical competency and they must document their experiences. The positive effects observed so far in this program are described.
Hermes, Chirley Roberta; Baumhardt, Simone Glesse; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker
Aggressive periodontitis is a rare, severe and rapidly progressing periodontal disease. Early diagnosis is of utmost importance for establishing treatment in order to stop periodontal destruction and prevent tooth loss. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a Dental School in Brazil by means of a cross-sectional study. First, records from patients aged 15-36 years were consecutively scrutinized. Patients should not have systemic diseases. The search went up to 383 valid records. By means of periapical radiographs, the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the bone crest was measured. Records in which there was severe bone loss or periodontal destruction incompatible with the age of the patient were selected. Patients with bone loss > or = 3mm were called to answer a questionnaire and undergo periodontal examination, in order to confirm or dismiss the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. From a total 383 records, 55.1% (211) were female and 44.9% (172) were male. In 3.9% (15) of the records, presumed diagnosis was aggressive periodontitis, and 12 out of those 15 eligible patients (80%) came in for clinical examination and confirmation or dismissal of the diagnosis. Aggressive periodontitis was diagnosed in 7 patients, corresponding to 1.8% of the total. Of these, 4 (1% of the total) presented generalized aggressive periodontitis and 3 (0.8% of the total) presented localized aggressive periodontitis. In 5 patients (1.3%) chronic periodontitis was diagnosed. It may be concluded, within the limits of the study, that aggressive periodontitis at this Dental School is compatible with world prevalence values, suggesting the need for periodontal diagnosis as from adolescence, considering the possible damage caused by this disease.
... and thumb sucking Toddlers, school-age children and adolescents During each regular checkup, the dentist or hygienist ... dental hygienist about proper oral health care for adolescents. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/ ...
Chapple, I L C
A look at the history of Birmingham Dental Hospital which, since it was first founded in 1858 as Birmingham Dental Dispensary, has moved six times, the sixth move being to its new Pebble Mill site on 1 April 2016.
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Public Health and Health Services.
For more than 30 years, school-based health centers have been making an important difference in the health of millions of children by providing an array of medical and other health services at school. This brochure addresses school-based dental care as part of the Caring for Kids program, a multi-site grant program funded through the Robert Wood…
Hill, Heather K; Stewart, Denice C L; Ash, Joan S
The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of Health Information Technology Systems (HITS) on dental school users when the systems are integrated into chair-side patient care. We used qualitative research methods, including interviews, focus groups, and observations, to capture the experiences of HITS users at a single institution. Users included administrators, clinical faculty members, predoctoral students, support staff, and residents. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach, and nine themes emerged: 1) HITS benefits were disproportionate among users; 2) communicating about the HITS was challenging; 3) users experienced a range of strong emotions; 4) the instructor persona diminished; 5) there were shifts in the school's power structure; 6) allocation of end-users' time shifted; 7) the training and support needs of end-users were significant; 8) perceived lack of HITS usability made documentation cumbersome for clinicians; and 9) clinicians' workflow was disrupted. HITS integration into patient care impacts the work of all system users, especially end-users. The themes highlight areas of potential concern for implementers and users in integrating a HITS into patient care.
Mattheos, N; Nattestad, A; Schittek, M; Attström, R
A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the competence and attitude of dental students towards computers. The current study presents the findings deriving from 590 questionnaires collected from 16 European dental schools from 9 countries between October 1998 and October 1999. The results suggest that 60% of students use computers for their education, while 72% have access to the Internet. The overall figures, however, disguise major differences between the various universities. Students in Northern and Western Europe seem to rely mostly on university facilities to access the Internet. The same however, is not true for students in Greece and Spain, who appear to depend on home computers. Less than half the students have been exposed to some form of computer literacy education in their universities, with the great majority acquiring their competence in other ways. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills of the average dental student, within this limited sample of dental schools, do not facilitate full use of new media available. In addition, if the observed regional differences are valid, there may be an educational and political problem that could intensify inequalities among professionals in the future. To minimize this potential problem, closer cooperation between academic institutions, with sharing of resources and expertise, is recommended.
Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay
Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622
Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Santos-Silva, Alan-Roger; Lopes, Márcio-Ajudarte; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes
Objectives: Several medical and dental schools have described their experience in the transition from conventional to digital microscopy in the teaching of general pathology and histology disciplines; however, this transitional process has scarcely been reported in the teaching of oral pathology. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to report the transition from conventional glass slide to virtual microscopy in oral pathology teaching, a unique experience in Latin America. Study Design: An Aperio ScanScope® scanner was used to digitalize histological slides used in practical lectures of oral pathology. The challenges and benefits observed by the group of Professors from the Piracicaba Dental School (Brazil) are described and a questionnaire to evaluate the students’ compliance to this new methodology was applied. Results: An improvement in the classes was described by the Professors who mainly dealt with questions related to pathological changes instead of technical problems; also, a higher interaction with the students was described. The simplicity of the software used and the high quality of the virtual slides, requiring a smaller time to identify microscopic structures, were considered important for a better teaching process. Conclusions: Virtual microscopy used to teach oral pathology represents a useful educational methodology, with an excellent compliance of the dental students. Key words:Digital microscopy, virtual microscopy, dental education, virtual slides, oral pathology. PMID:25129250
Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.
Huettig, Fabian; Behrend, Florian
It is unknown what disadvantages are faced by patients deciding for a prosthodontic treatment by inexperienced students. Commonly, the related extra effort and time are compensated by cost reduction of treatment fees. Thereby, the dental schools subsidize treatments to teach clinical prosthodontics. The aim of this study was to clarify the benefits to patients as well as the efforts of the dental school. Data collected from three courses in a dental school in Germany were patient gender, age, occupation, zip code, number of visits, scope of treatment including costs, financial discount, and remaining copayment. Travel costs were calculated based on zip code. Balance of travel costs and treatment discount was defined as financial benefit. The results showed that 185 patients (95 male) aged 32 to 82 years (median=58) were treated with fixed restorations (FR, n=110), telescopic dentures (TD, n=87), complete dentures (CD, n=17), or other (RD, n=3). The mean number of visits was 11 for FR, 12 for TD, and 9 for CD. Single distance to the clinic ranged from 0.6 to 65 miles (median=12). Total costs of prosthodontics were reduced by 19% on average. The mean financial benefit was 429 USD (median=298, min=-482, max=4025). The financial benefits were found to differ widely, including additional expenditures of patients. Participation, travel burden, and copayment did not depend on age, gender, or occupation. The financial benefit was relativized because students needed at least twice the sessions of a dentist. As a result, the financial efforts of dental schools are significant and compromise a cost-covering education.
Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Paludetto Junior, Moacir; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Peres, Marco A
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009. The survey was conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Ministry of Health in students 11 to 17 years of age or older in the 27 State capitals, using a self-administered questionnaire. Analyses included Poisson regression following a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of dental pain in the sample (n = 54,985) in the previous six months was 17.8% (95%CI: 17.5-18.1). Higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14 years and over, racial self-identification as black, brown, or indigenous, enrollment in public schools, lower maternal schooling, not living with the mother, history of smoking or drinking, less frequent toothbrushing, and heavy consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Dental pain was thus associated with socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors.
Costello, Bernard J; Marshall, Kathy L; Schafer, Tara; Phillips, Scott; Hart, Thomas C
The promotion and tenure process for faculty members varies, by design, for different disciplines, departments, and academic institutions. For many faculty members in U.S. dental schools, the process may thus appear nebulous and be difficult to navigate. In this article, we review the history, forces of change, and some of the mechanisms utilized for promotion and tenure of faculty in the health sciences, particularly for clinician-educators. Some institutions have successfully created hybrid tracks for clinician-educators in order to develop and recognize these faculty members' scholarly activity in addition to their clinical teaching. Hybrid tracks empower faculty members to successfully perform scholarly activities that realistically reflect institutional missions. The authors of this article conclude with a number of practical suggestions to enhance development and retention of faculty using the hybrid promotion and tenure mechanism. These include demonstrating the congruence of institutional mission, faculty activities, and promotion and tenure guidelines; developing scholarly activities for clinician-educators that can be measured in the promotion and tenure process; rewarding scholarly achievement for clinician-educators utilizing the promotion and tenure mechanism; and developing an evaluation system that accounts for changes in mission and faculty activities.
Tsai, Tsung-Hsun; Spielman, Andrew I; Kramer, Gene A
The development and dissemination of meaningful and useful performance reports associated with examinations involved in the licensure process are important to the communities of interest, including state boards, candidates, and professional schools. Discussions of performance reporting have been largely neglected however. The authors recognize and reinforce the need for such discussions by providing prototypes of performance reporting in dentistry with examples and recommendations to guide practice. For illustrative purposes, this article reviews and discusses the different reporting models used over the past ten years with Part I and Part II of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE). These reporting models are distinguished by such features as the following: 1) scores in each discipline covered on the exam (four for Part I and nine for Part II) and an overall average are reported in a standard-score metric; 2) a single overall score in a standard-score metric is reported; and 3) performance on the exam is reported as pass/fail. Standard scores on the NBDE range from 49 to 99, with 75 being a passing score. Sample data, without identifying information, are used to illustrate the reporting models.
Peker, Ilkay; Akarslan, Zuhre; Basman, Adil; Haciosmanoglu, Nur
The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of dentists regarding toothbrush disinfection. This study included 147 dentists (88 women and 59 men) who were actively employed at a dental school in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were asked to fill out a standard questionnaire, which contained questions regarding their demographics, brushing habits, toothbrush storage and disinfection habits, toothpaste use, knowledge about toothbrush disinfection, and whether they advised their patients about toothbrush storage. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and statistical analyses were performed with t-tests, chi-squared tests, and Fisher exact tests, where appropriate. Among the 147 surveyed dentists, 62.6% and 85.7% reported that they did not have any knowledge about toothbrush disinfection and did not disinfect their toothbrushes, respectively. However, approximately two thirds of surveyed dentists thought that toothbrush disinfection should be performed by everyone, including healthy individuals. Significant associations were found between knowledge about toothbrush disinfection and the professional title of dentists, how they stored their toothbrushes, and whether their toothbrushes were in contact with each other during storage (p < 0.05). A minority of dentists reported that they disinfected their toothbrushes.
Abdelkarim, Ahmad; Benghuzzi, Hamed; Hamadain, Elgenaid; Tucci, Michelle; Ford, Timothy; Sullivan, Donna
In this study, attitudes and perceptions of U.S. dental students and faculty members were evaluated regarding four aspects of dental education: technology integration, instructional strategies, student diversity, and school duration. A survey instrument with eight statements using a five-point Likert scale and a free-text comment section was developed and distributed through Survey Monkey. A total of 426 students and 187 faculty members from ten U.S. dental schools participated, a response rate of 17 percent of those surveyed. Faculty and student responses were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The results of this analytic procedure revealed that the groups differed in their average responses for seven of the eight statements. Analysis of the faculty and student comments revealed similar themes between the two groups. Both dental students and dental faculty members stated that technology integration should be viewed as only a supplement to conventional instruction and showed mixed opinions about electronic textbooks. Further, both groups had positive views of the roles of problem-based learning, community service, and the integration of research practice into dental education. Both groups also valued diversity in the student body and supported the current four-year duration of dental school.
Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford
Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006
Love, Robert M; Ponnambalam, Y
An epidemiological study of dental and facial trauma injuries was performed on patient presentations to the University of Otago School of Dentistry during the period 2000-2004. A total of 1287 patients were seen for dental injuries with 3473 tooth injuries. The mean age was 17.48 +/- 13.13 years (range: 2-86), the highest number of injuries occurred in the 16-25 year group with a male to female ratio of 2.01:1. Uncomplicated crown fractures were the most common injury that required treatment and the variables of age, gender, tooth type, type of injury, cause of injury, location where injury occurred were similar to other studies. Falls, accidental contact, assault and motor vehicle accidents attributed to >60% of the causes of trauma and to more serious injuries. Dental injuries sustained during sporting activities reflected the potential for high impact contact and the pattern of injury suggested that preventative measures had a positive outcome in limiting the number and degree of complexity of injuries. The emergence of skateboard injuries was a feature of this study. Non-sport causes attributed to the majority of facial fractures while rugby union was the most common sport associated with bone fractures. This study shows that dental and facial injury rates and patterns in a New Zealand region are similar to other populations.
Peyerl, Drielli; Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Mendonça Figueirôa, Silvia Fernanda
The present study discusses geological and paleontological research conducted by geoscientists in the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group, of the Triângulo Mineiro region, Brazil. This analysis based largely on historical documentary sources focuses on the pioneering work of geoscientists, who made numerous discoveries of dinosaur fossils. This work contributes to a chronological survey that has been compiled on the geological studies in the Bauru Group, and describes the importance of the paleontological discoveries made during the twentieth century.
Babar, Muneer Gohar; Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Yong, Wong Mei; Mitha, Shahid; Al-Waeli, Haider Abdulameer
Empathy has been identified as a crucial foundation in building an effective dentist-patient relationship. The aim of this study was to assess patients' perceptions of dental students' empathic care in the primary oral health care clinic at International Medical University in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in May-October 2014. The study also assessed the validity and reliability of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) Measure in this setting; the association between number of encounters and students' CARE Measure scores; and the association between students' empathy (measured by the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire) and CARE Measure scores. Participants were 283 patients (aged ≥18 years) who were asked to self-complete the ten-item CARE Measure immediately after their clinical encounter with students who provided care under supervision of the teaching staff. The results showed that the CARE Measure demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.95). A single factor solution emerged, accounting for 69% of the variance. The mean CARE Measure score in the consultations was 43.55±6.14, and 26% of the students achieved the maximum possible score of 50. The mean number of encounters with each student was 2.33±2.78. An increase of one episode was associated with an insignificant average CARE score decrease of 0.05 (-0.28, 0.38), whereas students' empathy was associated with a small increase in average CARE Measure score of 0.63 (0.08, 1.18). These results provide evidence of the measure's ability to support feedback to dental students on their empathy when interacting with patients.
Daouda, Faye; Aïda, Kanouté; Mbacké, Lo Cheikh; Mamadou, Mbaye
Objective: Dental caries is frequently observed in children, particularly among those residing in developing countries. The most adapted strategies against this pathology remains prevention based on information, education, and communication (IEC), as well as on early diagnosis and treatment. We carried out a study that aimed to analyze the development of dental caries in a cohort of school children followed during their primary education. The objective was to assess the evolution of the dental status of a cohort of students during their elementary curriculum. Materials and Methods: A cohort of school children was followed during 6 years from the first grade to the sixth grade. Monitoring of these school children focused every year on IEC based on learning methods of brushing messages, dietary advice, systematic visits, fluoride use, and primary dental care. During the school year, the students were periodically subjected to education and communication briefings (IEC). Primary care consisted of extracting and descaling rhizalyzed teeth in the same period. The data from this review were collected using the World Health Organization questionnaire, and statistical analysis was performed with the software Epi-info version 6.04 d. Results: The mean age of the 171 school children was 6 years in the first grade and 11 years in the sixth grade. In the first grade, the decayed permanent teeth prevalence was 31.6% and the In permanent teeth: Decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMF/T) was 0.47. The decayed primary teeth prevalence was 75% and the in primary teeth: decayed or filled teeth (df/t) 2.23. In the sixth year, the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 51% and DMF/T 0.36 whereas the decayed primary teeth prevalence was 12% and the df/t was 0.19. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth increased from 31.6 to 51% whereas the mean DMF/T was not statistically different between school children of the first and sixth grade class. Conclusion: The promotion of oral health
Shivaprakash, P K; Ohri, Kushagra; Noorani, Hina
This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations were made from the data gathered: The mean IQ score of children without dental fluorosis was significantly higher than those children who had dental fluorosis. The mean IQ scores did not vary with the severity of dental fluorosis as classified by Dean's fluorosis index. Also it was noticed that the percentage of children with dental fluorosis was more in Extremely Low and Low IQ categories whereas the percentage of children without dental fluorosis was more in Average and High Average IQ categories. Previous studies had indicated toward decreased Intelligence in children exposed to high levels of fluoride and our study also confirmed such an effect.
Obeng, Cecilia S.
Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…
El Tantawi, Maha M A; Abdelsalam, Maha M; Mourady, Ahmed M; Elrifae, Ismail M B
e-Assessment provides solutions to some problems encountered in dental students' evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experience of a limited-resources dental school with e-assessment provided through an open-source learning management system (LMS). Data about users' access and types of e-assessment activities at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt, were obtained from the web-based LMS Moodle. A questionnaire developed to assess students' perceptions of the e-assessment was also sent to students registered in two courses (undergraduate and postgraduate) with the same instructor. The results showed that most e-courses at the school had one form of e-assessment (82%) and, of these, 16.7% had summative assessment activities. There were significant differences among departments in the number of e-courses with e-assessment. One-quarter of e-courses with e-assessment used Moodle quizzes. Of 285 students registered in the two courses that included the questionnaire, 170 responded (response rate=59.6%). The responding students positively perceived the impact of e-assessment on learning and its reliability and security, whereas technical issues and related stresses were negatively perceived. This study suggests that e-assessment can be used at minimal cost in dental schools with limited resources and large class sizes with the least demands on faculty members and teaching staff time. For these schools, an open-source LMS such as Moodle provides formative e-assessment not available otherwise and accommodates various question formats and varying levels of instructors' technical skills. These students seemed to have a positive impression of the e-assessment although technical problems and related stresses are issues that need to be addressed.
Ha, Anh T; Gansky, Stuart A
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 requires Notices of Privacy Practices (NPP) in plain (clear, concise, and easily understood) language. The objectives of this study were to test the readability of U.S. dental school NPPs; examine factors relating to readability; and develop a plain language NPP supplement. Readability statistics were Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL). Social capital measures of potential resources available to people in a civil society (e.g., perceived trust, perceived reciprocity, and per capita voluntary organization membership) along with lawyers per capita for each state were examined for potential relationships with readability levels. One-sample t-tests assessed plain language (FRE=60, FKGL=8), and analyses of variance compared groups. Spearman rank correlations (r(s)) compared social capital to readability. A plain language NPP supplement was developed. All fifty-six U.S. dental school NPPs were obtained (100 percent response). Forty-eight of fifty-six schools (86 percent) had website NPPs. FRE and FKGL were significantly more complex than plain language, overall (both p<0.0001, 95% CIs: FRE=37.6, 40.5; FKGL=11.2, 11.8) and by region (all p<0.014). Readability did not differ by region. Social capital measures moderately related to readability (0.18 < or = |r(s)| < or =0.39) with reciprocity being most related (FRE r(s)=0.36, FKGL r(s)=-0.39). U.S. dental school NPPs are more complex than "plain language."
Wadenya, Rose O; Schwartz, Susan; Lopez, Naty; Fonseca, Raymond
In 1989, the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine (UPSDM) found there was an urgent need for new programs that would be effective in recruiting highly qualified and talented underrepresented minority students and ensuring their retention. Major efforts focused on leadership, financial support, institutional commitment, and the creation of an inclusive environment. UPSDM also offers an accelerated program leading to combined bachelor's and dental degrees and has agreements with several undergraduate institutions, including Xavier University in Louisiana and Hampton University, to enroll students in this program. UPSDM encourages minority retention through a Peer Mentorship Program, a Minority Mentorship Program, and course offerings that focus on diversity. Over the past thirteen years, these efforts have successfully garnered a fivefold increase in the number of underrepresented minority students at UPSDM.
Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Salcido-García, Juan-Francisco; Hernández-Flores, Florentino
Background The aim of this study was to know the distribution of dental developmental alterations in the population requesting stomatological attention at the Admission and Diagnosis Clinic of our institution in Mexico City. Material and Methods We reviewed the archives and selected those files with developmental dental alterations. Analyzed data were diagnoses, age, gender, location and number of involved teeth. Results Of the 3.522 patients reviewed, 179 (5.1%) harbored 394 developmental dental alterations. Of them, 45.2% were males and 54.8% were females with a mean age of 16.7 years. The most common were supernumeraries, dental agenesia and dilaceration. Adults were 30.7% of the patients with dental developmental alterations. In them, the most common lesions were agenesia and supernumeraries. Mesiodens was the most frequently found supernumerary teeth (14.7%). Conclusions Our finding that 30.7% of the affected patients were adults is an undescribed and unusually high proportion of patients that have implications on planning and prognosis of their stomatological treatment. Key words:Developmental dental alterations, developmental alterations, supernumerary teeth, dental agenesia, root dilaceration. PMID:26946196
John, J. Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, KP; Priya, P.R. Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A.K.
Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status and mass
Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian
An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.
Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J.; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian
An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351
Asnaashari, Mohammad; Tavakkoli, Mohammad Amin; Shafiei Ardestani, Sara
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic injuries to the teeth are among the most serious dental accidents, with the anterior teeth being mostly affected. Some consequences of dental trauma include misshaping, speech defects, psychological and social effects. The knowledge of the field can reduce the suffering, cost, and the time for patients, parents, and health care providers. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment prognosis of anterior traumatized teeth in patients referred to Endodontics and pediatrics Departments of Shahid Behesthi and Tehran Dental Schools during 1996-2001. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients participated in this descriptive study. All affected by trauma to the teeth and completing the proposed treatment. Retrospective data, based on trauma forms as well as the clinical notes a questionnaire prepared for the study and analyzed in terms of age, gender, the type of trauma and etiology. RESULTS: Eighty four percent of the studied traumatized teeth were maxillary centrals. Falling-outs are most frequent cause of the traumas (56.5%), followed by sport and play events (30.4%). Enamel- dentin fractures with and without pulpal involvement were the most prevalent trauma types. Most of the selected treatment procedures were involved with pulp and periapical areas. CONCLUSION: Based on the finding of the study, the prognosis of traumatized anterior teeth in patients referred to the studied centers was estimated to be good. PMID:24494023
Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey
Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha
Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044
Ain, Tasneem S.; Lingesha Telgi, Ravishankar; Sultan, Saima; Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar Telgi, Chaitra; Tirth, Amit; Kumar Pal, Sumit; Gowhar, Owais; Tandon, Vaibhav
Background Traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth are a significant public health problem, not only because their prevalence is relatively high, but also because they have considerable impact on children’s daily lives. Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) cause physical and psychological discomfort, pain and other negative impacts, such as tendency to avoid laughing or smiling, which can affect social relationships. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth among 12-year-old school children in Kashmir, India. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in private and government schools of India among 1600 schoolchildren aged 12 years. In addition to recording of the type of trauma (using Ellis and Davey classification of fractures, 1970), over jet, Angle’s molar relation and lip competence were also recorded. The socioeconomic status and academic performance of the study subjects were registered. The data obtained were compiled systematically and then statistically analyzed. The statistical significance for the association between the traumatic injury and the variables was analyzed using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to identify potential risk predictors of TDIs. Results The overall prevalence of TDI to anterior teeth was found to be 9.3%. The TDI to anterior teeth in male was more than female, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant (P < 0.01). Falls and sports were the most common causes of trauma in the present study. The highest potential risk factor for the occurrence of trauma was over jet. Academic performance was found to be significantly associated to TDI to anterior teeth, when analyzed in a multiple regression model. Conclusions It was concluded that the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 9.3%. Traumatic dental injuries among children exhibit complex interaction between the victims’ oral conditions and their behavior. Therefore
Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken
Background Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals’ and society’s health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. Methods We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds’ decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. Results High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient −0.011; 95% confidence interval, −0.018 to −0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. Conclusions S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism. PMID:27108752
Saito, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Momomi; Ueshima, Fumie; Matsumoto, Shinya; Hayakawa, Hiroki; Masuda, Hitomi; Makiishi, Takemi
Background Oral hygiene education is central to every stage of periodontal treatment. Successful management of periodontal disease depends on the patient's capacity for oral self-care. In the present study, the oral self-care and perceptions of patients attending a dental school clinic in Japan were assessed using a short questionnaire referring to existing oral health models. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of sixty-five patients (age range 23-77) with chronic periodontitis. The pre-tested 19-item questionnaire comprised 3 domains; 1) oral hygiene, 2) dietary habits and 3) perception of oral condition. The questionnaire was used as a part of the comprehensive assessment. Results Analyses of the assessment data revealed no major problems with the respondents' perceived oral hygiene habits, although their actual plaque control levels were not entirely adequate. Most of the respondents acknowledged the importance of prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, but less than one third of them were regular users of the dental care system. Twenty-five percent of the respondents were considered to be reluctant to change their daily routines, and 29% had doubts about the impact of their own actions on oral health. Analyzing the relationships between patient responses and oral hygiene status, factors like 'frequency of tooth brushing', 'approximal cleaning', 'dental check-up' and 'compliance with self-care advice' showed statistically significant associations (P < 0.05) with the plaque scores. Conclusion The clinical utilization of the present questionnaire facilitates the inclusion of multiple aspects of patient information, before initiation of periodontal treatment. The significant associations that were found between some of the self-care behaviors and oral hygiene levels document the important role of patient-centered oral health assessment in periodontal care. PMID:19874626
Hill, Heather K.; Stewart, Denice C. L.; Ash, Joan S.
Health Information Technology Systems (HITS) are becoming more widely integrated into patient care in the dental school setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a chairside HITS on users in the dental school setting. Qualitative techniques, including interviews, focus groups and observations, were used. Using grounded theory, we saw 9 themes emerge. One theme of particular interest was that “training and support needs of end-users were significant.” This paper explores this theme in detail and discusses the implications. PMID:21346989
Baseer, Mohammad Abdul; Rahman, Ghousia; Yassin, Mona Ali
Background: Routine use of gloves, masks and spectacles are important in infection control. Aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infection control measures among the patients attending clinics of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP) in Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study of a convenient sample of dental patients attending dental clinics of RCsDP. A structured, close ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 patients and a response rate of 86% was obtained. Questionnaireconsisted of series of queries related to knowledge and attitudes of patients towards infection control measures. Data analysis included frequency distribution tables, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Final study sample included 301 patients (147 males and 154 females). Almost 99%, 93.7% and 82.7% of the patients agreed that dentist should wear gloves, face mask and spectacles while providing treatment. However, 60.1%, 30% of the patients said that HIV and hepatitis-B infections can spread in dental clinics. Half of the patients felt that they were likely to contract AIDS and 77.7% refused to attend clinics if they knew that AIDS and Hepatitis-B patients treated there. Only 25.2% said that autoclave is the best method of sterilization. A significantly higher knowledge of infection control was observed among the previous dental visitors compared to the first time visitors to the dental clinics (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns
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Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem
Social media consist of powerful tools that impact not only communication but relationships among people, thus posing an inherent challenge to the traditional standards of who we are as dental educators and what we can expect of each other. This article examines how the world of social media has changed dental education. Its goal is to outline the complex issues that social media use presents for academic dental institutions and to examine these issues from personal, professional, and legal perspectives. After providing an update on social media, the article considers the advantages and risks associated with the use of social media at the interpersonal, professional, and institutional levels. Policies and legal issues of which academic dental institutions need to be aware from a compliance perspective are examined, along with considerations and resources needed to develop effective social media policies. The challenge facing dental educators is how to capitalize on the benefits that social media offer, while minimizing risks and complying with the various forms of legal constraint.
Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Ramires, Irene; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães
Objective: to analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru and classify the samples as acceptable or unacceptable according to the fluoride concentration. Material and methods: samples were collected from 30 areas at two periods, October 2002 and March 2003. The fluoride concentration in the samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion sensitive electrode (Orion 9609) connected to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720). Samples with fluoride concentration ranging from 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L were considered acceptable, and those whose concentration was outside this range as unacceptable. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: the fluoride concentration of the water samples varied between 0.31 and 2.01 mg F/L. Nearly 56% of the samples were classified as acceptable. Conclusion: the variations in fluoride concentration at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station reinforce the need of constant monitoring for maintenance of adequate fluoride levels in the public water supply. PMID:19089059
Bandeira, Kamila L N; Medeiros Simbras, Felipe; Batista Machado, Elaine; de Almeida Campos, Diogenes; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Kellner, Alexander W A
Titanosaurian dinosaurs include some of the largest land-living animals that ever existed, and most were discovered in Cretaceous deposits of Argentina. Here we describe the first Brazilian gigantic titanosaur, Austroposeidon magnificus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous Presidente Prudente Formation (Bauru Group, Paraná Basin), São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. The size of this animal is estimated around 25 meters. It consists of a partial vertebral column composed by the last two cervical and the first dorsal vertebrae, all fairly complete and incomplete portions of at least one sacral and seven dorsal elements. The new species displays four autapomorphies: robust and tall centropostzygapophyseal laminae (cpol) in the last cervical vertebrae; last cervical vertebra bearing the posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina (pcdl) bifurcated; first dorsal vertebra with the anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae (acdl/pcdl) curved ventrolaterally, and the diapophysis reaching the dorsal margin of the centrum; posterior dorsal vertebra bearing forked spinoprezygapophyseal laminae (sprl). The phylogenetic analysis presented here reveals that Austroposeidon magnificus is the sister group of the Lognkosauria. CT scans reveal some new osteological internal features in the cervical vertebrae such as the intercalation of dense growth rings with camellae, reported for the first time in sauropods. The new taxon further shows that giant titanosaurs were also present in Brazil during the Late Cretaceous and provides new information about the evolution and internal osteological structures in the vertebrae of the Titanosauria clade.
Titanosaurian dinosaurs include some of the largest land-living animals that ever existed, and most were discovered in Cretaceous deposits of Argentina. Here we describe the first Brazilian gigantic titanosaur, Austroposeidon magnificus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous Presidente Prudente Formation (Bauru Group, Paraná Basin), São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. The size of this animal is estimated around 25 meters. It consists of a partial vertebral column composed by the last two cervical and the first dorsal vertebrae, all fairly complete and incomplete portions of at least one sacral and seven dorsal elements. The new species displays four autapomorphies: robust and tall centropostzygapophyseal laminae (cpol) in the last cervical vertebrae; last cervical vertebra bearing the posterior centrodiapophyseal lamina (pcdl) bifurcated; first dorsal vertebra with the anterior and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae (acdl/pcdl) curved ventrolaterally, and the diapophysis reaching the dorsal margin of the centrum; posterior dorsal vertebra bearing forked spinoprezygapophyseal laminae (sprl). The phylogenetic analysis presented here reveals that Austroposeidon magnificus is the sister group of the Lognkosauria. CT scans reveal some new osteological internal features in the cervical vertebrae such as the intercalation of dense growth rings with camellae, reported for the first time in sauropods. The new taxon further shows that giant titanosaurs were also present in Brazil during the Late Cretaceous and provides new information about the evolution and internal osteological structures in the vertebrae of the Titanosauria clade. PMID:27706250
Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh
The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.
Journal of Dental Education, 2001
This issue introduces the poster presentations for the American Association of Dental Schools annual conference. The issue contains a list of poster presentations, poster abstracts for each of four time blocks, a list of poster session authors, and a keyword index. (EV)
Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Castellanos, Roberto Augusto; Pinheiro, Márcia Farias; de Albuquerque, Silvana Rodrigues; Pinho, Cristina
The aim of this paper was to assess the caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and to identify the access of children to dental services and the coverage of such services, which might be related to differences between the groups. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 3,313 clinical exams, which followed the WHO (1997) criteria for the diagnosis of dental caries. The analysis was carried out by means of the Student's t test, the chi-square test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences regarding DMFT and frequency of caries-free individuals between public and private schools. However, while F (filled teeth) was the most prevalent component of the index in subjects from private schools, M (missing teeth) was the most common in those from public schools. The access to dental services in the last year was the only variable associated to the differences between both groups. Thus, the importance of access to dental services and social benefits must be pointed out in order to guarantee equity in oral health.
Hoover, Terry E.; Lyon, Lucinda J.
This essay examines the collateral benefits to faculty from a guided learning literature review project for students. We describe a 3-year continuum of project creation and refinement designed to foster critical thinking and writing for second year dental students at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. We discuss…
Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem
The goal of this article is to describe the broad curricular constructs surrounding teaching and learning about social media in dental education. This analysis takes into account timing, development, and assessment of the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors needed to effectively use social media tools as a contemporary dentist. Three developmental stages in a student's path to becoming a competent professional are described: from undergraduate to dental student, from the classroom and preclinical simulation laboratory to the clinical setting, and from dental student to licensed practitioner. Considerations for developing the dental curriculum and suggestions for effective instruction at each stage are offered. In all three stages in the future dentist's evolution, faculty members need to educate students about appropriate professional uses of social media. Faculty members should provide instruction on the beneficial aspects of this communication medium and help students recognize the potential pitfalls associated with its use. The authors provide guidelines for customizing instruction to complement each stage of development, recognizing that careful timing is not only important for optimal learning but can prevent inappropriate use of social media as students are introduced to novel situations.
Jacobs, Stanley S.; Zullo, Thomas G.
Curriculum innovation and research in the dental medicine field is addressed as a major area of concern to those faced with pressures to provide more efficient and effective health care services. A survey was undertaken to determine (1) the type of training and background desired and (2) recruitment procedures and employment prospects for persons…
Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A
The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children's access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, "A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States." We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices.
Friedman, Jay W.; Nash, David A.
The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children’s access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, “A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States.” We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices. PMID:23865650
Oliveira, Viviane Camila de; Almeida, Luiz Carlos de
The aim of this study was to observe the occurrence of mosquito larvae, especially Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in the tanks and axillae of bromeliads at the Bauru Municipal Botanical Gardens, São Paulo, Brazil, highlighting the epidemiological implications for the use of these plants. The majority of the larvae belonged to mosquitos from genus Culex, with only occasional findings of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The use of screens for protection of the plants, exposure to sunlight, and larger amounts of water in the tanks may have influenced the occurrence and grouping of larvae.
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; McCracken, Michael S; Woldt, Janet L; Brennan, Robert L
The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment in two U.S. dental schools using a unified framework for validity. In the process of validation, it is not the test that is validated but rather the claims (interpretations and uses) about test scores that are validated. Kane's argument-based validation framework provided the structure for reporting results where validity claims are followed by evidence to support the argument. This multivariate generalizability theory study found that the greatest source of variance was attributable to faculty raters, suggesting that portfolio assessment would benefit from two raters' evaluating each portfolio independently. The results are generally supportive of holistic scoring, but analytical scoring deserves further research. Correlational analyses between student portfolios and traditional measures of student competence and readiness for licensure resulted in significant correlations between portfolios and National Board Dental Examination Part I (r=0.323, p<0.01) and Part II scores (r=0.268, p<0.05) and small and non-significant correlations with grade point average and scores on the Western Regional Examining Board (WREB) exam. It is incumbent upon the users of portfolio assessment to determine if the claims and evidence arguments set forth in this study support the proposed claims for and decisions about portfolio assessment in their respective institutions.
Dua, Rohini; Sharma, Sunila
Aim: The paper aims to present a study conducted in Dera Bassi, Mohali, India. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in children of age group 7-12 years in private schools in Gulabgarh village. Material & Method: Age & sex distribution, etiological factors, risk factors and cause of injury were the parameters taken into consideration. The data collected was processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software program. Results: The overall prevalence of dental trauma was 14.5%, amongst the 880 subjects examined, out of which, 63.2% males and 36.4% females were found to be affected. The maxillary central incisor was found to be most commonly affected tooth (43.8%). The most common cause of injury reported was fall during playing (37.5%). Conclusion: Enamel fracture was most prevalent (50%). No risk factor was significantly higher than others; however children with Angle's class II div 1 malocclusion exhibited greater risk factor for traumatic injuries. PMID:22557895
Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others
A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…
Reviews the state of dental education and current developments at Nordic dental schools. Discusses similarities and differences in the institutional circumstances of the schools, including demands on the schools, their educational philosophies, and the educational system and its regulation. (EV)
Mihalik, Jason P; Myers, Joseph B; Sell, Timothy C; Anish, Eric J
Objective: To present the case of a 17-year-old male soccer goalkeeper who sustained maxillofacial fractures and dental trauma after being struck in the face by an opponent's knee. Background: Because of the nature of the sport and a lack of protective headgear, soccer players are at risk for sustaining maxillofacial trauma. Facial injuries can complicate the routine management of on-field medical emergencies often encountered by certified athletic trainers. The appropriate management of maxillofacial trauma on the playing field may help to reduce both the immediate and long-term morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. Differential Diagnosis: Lacerated superior labial artery, lacerated upper lip, dental fractures, maxillofacial fractures, orbital blowout fracture, closed head injury, cervical spine injury, cerebrovascular accident. Treatment: The athlete received immediate on-field medical care and was subsequently transported to the hospital, where diagnostic testing was performed and further treatment was provided. Hospital inpatient management included dental and plastic surgery. After discharge from the hospital, the athlete underwent several additional dental procedures, including gingival surgery and nonsurgical endodontic treatments. The fractures were followed closely to assure that adequate healing had occurred. The athlete did not return to soccer. Uniqueness: Certified athletic trainers need to be prepared for on-field medical emergencies. Bleeding associated with maxillofacial trauma can complicate basic medical interventions such as airway maintenance. Inappropriate on-field management may result in unnecessary morbidity and mortality for the injured athlete. Therefore, immediate recognition of the severity of the injury is needed in order to institute appropriate airway-management strategies. Conclusions: It is sometimes necessary to consider nonstandard methods of airway management in order to first address heavy bleeding that may be
Seraj, Bahman; Shahrabi, Mehdi; Ghadimi, Sara; Ahmadi, Rahil; Nikfarjam, Jaleh; Zayeri, Farid; Taghi, Fatemeh Pour; Zare, Hadi
Objective Bruxism is defined as the habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bruxism and correlated factors in children referred to dental schools of Tehran, based on Parent's report. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 600 4-12 year-old children with a mean age of 7.4±2.4 years, who were referred to four dental schools in Tehran. After collecting information with questionnaire filled out by parents, χ2, Fisher Test, Mann-Whitney and t-Test were used to analyze the data. Findings The prevalence of bruxism was 26.2%. Bruxism begun in average at the age of 4.9±2 years. Also it occurred 2.6 times more in children who had a family history of bruxism (father-mother), compared to children who didn't have such a history. 87% of children with bruxism had a history of distressing events in their life, and 13% of children with bruxism did not report any history of distressing events in their life. In this study most common oral habit was nail biting. In study of parasomnias, drooling was the most, and snoring the least reported sleep disorder. Bruxism in children with drooling was twice more than in other children. The prevalence of bruxism in children with temporomandibular disorder was 63.6% and in children without TMD was 24.7%. Conclusion Based on Parent's report, 26.2% of children showed bruxism and there was a significant relation between bruxism and mother's job, family history, distressing event in life, parasomnias, especially drooling and sleep walking, TMD, hyperactivity, depression, acrophobia and lygophobia. PMID:23056700
X-Ray Equipment and Protective Devices of Dental Assistant Programs in Pennsylvania Vocational Technical Schools. Vocational-Technical Education Research Report, Health Occupations, Monograph No. 7, Vol. 16, No. 1.
Hominsky, Dolores J.; Hole, F. Marvin
Objectives of a Pennsylvania study were (1) to investigate the ways in which the vocational technical schools of the state have met the recommendations of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources for classroom structural design and dental x-ray machines in dental assistant training programs and (2) to collect data on the methods by…
Nava, William R; Martinelli, Agustín G
The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata) is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet.) and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.). In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group) located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids). This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record.
Crawford, Jean H.
Sources of dental health education teaching aids which are available for free or at minimal cost include: (1) The American Dental Health Association; (2) state and local departments of public health; (3) schools of dentistry, dental hygiene, and dental assisting; and (4) the Educator's International Guide. (JN)
Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C
The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944
Menegazzo, Mirian Costa; Bertini, Reinaldo José; Manzini, Flávio Fernando
A new Podocnemidinura specimen from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Paraná Basin) of southeastern Brazil was described. The Bauru Group provided an important portrait of the Brazilian Mesozoic terrestrial biota, which boasts a vertebrate fauna formed from fishes, frogs, lacertilians, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs and mammals; records of palynomorphs; and invertebrate fauna consisted of gastropods, bivalves, ostracods and conchostracans. Nevertheless, the age of these continental deposits is not precisely estimated, which prevents global correlations, and its fauna is argued to be endemic. The new specimen described is the first turtle from the Santo Anastácio Formation, and its morphological comparison with other South American forms provided a significant advancement in the understanding of the age of this unit (Late Cretaceous). This study permitted a revision of the turtle taxa of the Bauru Group. As a result, some taxa were considered synonym, including the new Santo Anastácio form. The specimen is still unnamed due to the absence of skull characters that preclude its accurate positioning within the Bauru Group skull-based taxa. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon were analyzed into Podocnemidinura clade.
Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S
Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.
Dannels, Sharon A; McLaughlin, Jean M; Gleason, Katharine A; Dolan, Teresa A; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn C; Morahan, Page S
In 2006, deans of the sixty-four U.S. and Canadian dental schools were surveyed to gain their perspectives on their institutions' organizational culture for faculty, family-friendly policies, processes used by deans to develop faculty leadership, and the impact of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women. The deans reported (52 percent response rate) an improved climate in terms of gender equity, yet recognized that inequities still exist. Of fifteen family-friendly policies, only three were available at more than 50 percent of the schools, with little indication that additional policies were under consideration. The deans reported active engagement in behaviors to develop the leadership of their faculty members. Of the nine processes, 50 percent of the deans indicated three they believed to be particularly effective with women. They agreed that ELAM has had a positive impact on their alumnae and their schools. Results are discussed in terms of how the deans' perceptions compare to faculty perceptions and within the larger context of higher education and other organizations. The responsibility of the dean to shape the dental school's culture, particularly in the face of the changing demographics of dental faculty, adds to the importance of the unique perspective provided by the deans.
Rey, Rosalia; Nimmo, Susan; Childs, Gail S; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S
Dental clinicians have an expanding range of biomaterial choices for restoring tooth structure. Scientific developments in cariology, advances in dental biomaterials, and patients' esthetic concerns have led to a reduction in amalgam restorations and an increase in composite restorations. The aim of this study was to compare teaching time with students' clinical procedures in amalgam and composite posterior restorations in dental schools across the United States. Academic deans in 60 schools were invited to complete a survey that asked for the amount of instructional time for amalgam and composite posterior restorations and the number of clinical restorations performed by their Classes of 2009, 2010, and 2011. Of these 60, 12 returned surveys with complete data, for a 20% response rate. Responses from these schools showed little change in lecture and preclinical laboratory instruction from 2009 to 2011. There was a slight increase in two-surface restorations for both amalgam and composites; however, the total number of reported composite and amalgam restorations remained the same. Of 204,864 restorations reported, 53% were composite, and 47% were amalgam. There were twice as many multisurface large or complex amalgam restorations as composites. One-surface composite restorations exceeded amalgams. Among the participating schools, there was little to no change between curriculum time and clinical procedures. Findings from this preliminary study reflect a modest increase in two-surface resin-based restorations placed by dental students from 2009 to 2011 and little change in curricular time devoted to teaching amalgam restorations. The total number of posterior composite restorations placed by students in these schools was slightly higher than amalgams.
Atkinson, Jane C; Zeller, Gregory G; Shah, Chhaya
The Electronic Patient Record (EPR) or "computer-based medical record" is defined by the Patient Record Institute as "a repository for patient information with one health-care enterprise that is supported by digital computer input and integrated with other information sources." The information technology revolution coupled with everyday use of computers in clinical dentistry has created new demand for electronic patient records. Ultimately, the EPR should improve health care quality. The major short-term disadvantage is cost, including software, equipment, training, and personnel time involved in the associated business process re-engineering. An internal review committee with expertise in information technology and/or database management evaluated commercially available software in light of the unique needs of academic dental facilities. This paper discusses their deficiencies and suggests areas for improvement. The dental profession should develop a more common record with standard diagnostic codes and clinical outcome measures to make the EPR more useful for clinical research and improve the quality of care.
Parkinson, Joseph W; Turner, Sharon P
One of the ways dental education is changing the way it is preparing the next generation of learners is through efficient utilization of interactive social media. Social media, which facilitates interaction and sharing of new ideas, is being utilized to educate students, residents, and faculty. Unfortunately, as with most improvements in technology, there are growing pains. Faculty, student, and patient interaction on social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, can lead to inappropriate or embarrassing situations. Striking the appropriate balance between free speech rights of students and faculty and the need for colleges and universities to have efficient operations is often left to the judicial system. The concepts of free speech and contract law and how each is applied in educational settings should be understood by students, faculty, and administrators. This article provides a review of legal cases that led to current social media policies, as well as present-day cases that exemplify the application of these principles, to help dental educators gain a greater understanding of the boundaries of protected speech. It also provides a set of sample guidelines for communicating through these media.
Walker, Mary; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia; Liu, Ying; Kelly, Patricia; Branson, Bonnie
Objectives. We evaluated the effect of an alternative dental workforce program—Kansas’s Extended Care Permit (ECP) program—as a function of changes in oral health. Methods. We examined data from the 2008 to 2012 electronic medical records of children (n = 295) in a Midwestern US suburb who participated in a school-based oral health program in which preventive oral health care was delivered by ECP dental hygienists. We examined changes in oral health status as a function of sealants, caries, restorations, and treatment urgency with descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Pearson correlations. Results. The number of encounters with the ECP dental hygienist had a statistically significant effect on changes in decay (P = .014), restorations (P = .002), and treatment urgency (P = .038). Based on Pearson correlations, as encounters increased, there was a significant decrease in decay (–0.12), increase in restorations (0.21), and decrease in treatment urgency (–0.15). Conclusions. Increasing numbers of encounters with alternative providers (ECP dental hygienists), such as with school-based oral health programs, can improve the oral health status of low-income children who would not otherwise have received oral health services. PMID:26180957
Yadav, J P; Lata, Suman; Kataria, Sudhir K; Kumar, Sunil
Fluoride concentration of groundwater reserves occurs in many places in the world. A critical area for such contamination in India is alluvial soil of the plain region, consisting of five blocks (Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Beri, Matanhail, and Sahalawas) of the Jhajjar District adjacent to the National Capital Territory of India, New Delhi. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between water fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India. The fluoride content in underground drinking water sources was found to vary in villages. Hence, the villages were categorized as high-fluoride villages (1.52-4.0 mg F/l) and low/normal-fluoride villages (0.30-1.0 mg F/l). The source of dental fluorosis data was school-going children (7-15 years) showing different stages and types of fluorosis who were permanent resident of these villages. The fraction of dental fluorosis-affected children varied from 30% to 94.85% in the high-fluoride villages and from 8.80% to 28.20% in the low/normal-fluoride villages. The results of the present study revealed that there existed a significant positive correlation between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental fluorosis in high-fluoride villages (r = 0.508; p < 0.001) and insignificant correlation in low-fluoride villages.
Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena
Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…
Cohen, D. Walter
Four major factors responsible for trends in applicants to dental school are identified: cost, competition, demographics, and the practicing dentist. The initiation of the Pew National Dental Education Program at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine is described. (MLW)
Ottenga, Marc E; Mjör, Ivar
This study recorded the number of preclinical lecture and simulation laboratory sessions spent teaching the preparation and placement of amalgam and resin composite posterior restorations. These data were compared to the use of both materials in the operative clinic as placed by third- and fourth-year students. The number of posterior restorations inserted by the students, expressed as a function of the number of restoration surfaces, was also evaluated. The results show that the teaching of posterior restorations pre-clinically has consistently favored amalgam 2.5 to 1 during the last three years. However, clinically, resin composite is being used for posterior restorations 2.3 times more often than amalgam. The only instance that favored amalgam over composite during the last year was in the placement of four surface posterior restorations. This shift in emphasis from amalgam to composite needs to be addressed within dental educational institutions so that newly graduated dentists are prepared to place composite restorations properly.
Nash, David A; Friedman, Jay W; Kardos, Thomas B; Kardos, Rosemary L; Schwarz, Eli; Satur, Julie; Berg, Darren G; Nasruddin, Jaafar; Mumghamba, Elifuraha G; Davenport, Elizabeth S; Nagel, Ron
In 1921, New Zealand began training school dental nurses, subsequently deploying them throughout the country in school-based clinics providing basic dental care for children. The concept of training dental nurses, later to be designated dental therapists, was adopted by other countries as a means of improving access to care, particularly for children. This paper profiles six countries that utilise dental therapists, with a description of the training that therapists receive in these countries, and the context in which they practice. Based on available demographic information, it also updates the number of dental therapists practising globally, as well as the countries in which they practice. In several countries, dental therapy is now being integrated with dental hygiene in training and practice to create a new type of professional complementary to a dentist. Increasingly, dental therapists are permitted to treat adults as well as children. The paper also describes the status of a current initiative to introduce dental therapy to the United States. It concludes by suggesting that dental therapists can become valued members of the dental team throughout the world, helping to improve access to care and reducing existing disparities in oral health.
Journal of Dental Education, 1985
The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)
Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James
Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)
Suggestions for facilitating dental health education programs in public schools include: (1) determining who will be responsible for dental health education; (2) involving parents; (3) using community health resources; and (4) assessing the results of programs. (JN)
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Farsi, Deema J.; Elkhodary, Heba M.; Merdad, Leena A.; Farsi, Najat M.A.; Alaki, Sumer M.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Bakhaidar, Haneen A.; Alolayyan, Mohammed A.
Objectives To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child’s caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p<0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC. PMID:27874156
Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar
Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.
Marsola, Júlio C De A; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Montefeltro, Felipe C; Langer, Max C
Pan-Podocnemididae turtles are ubiquitous in Late Cretaceous rocks of the Bauru Group in southeastern Brazil. This group of side-necked turtles is particularly abundant in a turtle-bearing site of the Presidente Prudente Formation known as Tartaruguito. Here, we describe the first turtle egg (LPRP-USP 0052) from the Tartaruguito site. LPRP-USP 0052 is nearly complete but misses a pole and measures 5,1 and 2,9-2,2 centimeters due to its flattened minor axis. The egg morphology and microstructure were analyzed by observations performed with CT, Optic Microscopy, Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Wave Dispersion Energy analyses. The eggshell ranges from 145 to160 micrometers thick. Considering the matching morphology of the new specimen and its provenance from the stratigraphic horizon that yielded only the podocnemidids Bauruemys and Roxochelys, it is most likely that LPRP-USP 0052 was produced by a podocnemidid turtle.
de Oliveira, Lorena Batista; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimarães Bahia; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental caries index among 12-year-old schoolchildren and individual and contextual factors related to the schools in the city of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 2,075 schoolchildren using the 2010 National Survey of Oral Health methodology. The dependent variable was the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and the independent variables were individual (sex, race, and maternal education) and contextual ones (type of school, health district, and the presence of oral programs). Multilevel analysis and log-linear negative binominal regression were performed, considering the complex sampling design. Mean DMFT index was 1.51. Female students, whose mothers had lower schooling, those attending public schools, located in districts with the worst socioeconomic indicators, and covered by the Family Health Strategy had higher caries levels. The dental caries index was low and associated with the schoolchildren sociodemographic characteristics and factors related to the schools, showing inequalities in distribution.
Oliver, Richard C.
School-based, as contrasted with hospital-based, programs in advanced education for general dentistry (AEGD) will continue to grow because of changing disease patterns favoring provision of a broader range of dentistry services, need for additional training, student demand, and institutional desire for increased enrollments. (MSE)
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A
A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.
Kramer, M S; Vanilovich, I; Matush, L; Bogdanovich, N; Zhang, X; Shishko, G; Muller-Bolla, M; Platt, R W
To study the effects of prolonged and exclusive breast-feeding on dental caries, we followed up children participating in the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), a cluster-randomized trial of a breast-feeding promotion intervention based on the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. A total of 17,046 healthy, mother-infant breast-feeding pairs were enrolled from 31 Belarussian maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics, of whom 13,889 (81.5%) were followed up at 6.5 years. At follow-up, polyclinic pediatricians transcribed the reports of a standard dental examination performed by public health dentists at age 6 years and recorded in the children's polyclinic charts. Analysis was based on intention to treat, with a statistical model that accounts for clustering within hospitals/clinics to permit inferences at the individual level. The experimental intervention led to a large increase in exclusive breast-feeding at 3 months (43.3 vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence of any breast-feeding at all ages up to and including 12 months. No significant intervention effects were observed on dental caries. Our results, based on the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation, provide no evidence of beneficial or harmful effects of prolonged and exclusive breast-feeding on dental caries at early school age.
Ramponi, Denise R
Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.
Danaei, Shahla Momeni; Mazareie, Elham; Hosseininezhad, Sahar; Nili, Mahsa
Introduction: Assessment of students’ perspective is an essential element in effective educational quality evaluation. By identifying strengths and weaknesses, it leads to improvement in future performance. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed through a questionnaire comprising 23 questions. Reliability was assessed using α-Chronbach (α =0.87), and validity was confirmed by a group of five experts. Tukey test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and two sample t-tests were used for data analysis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed through a questionnaire comprising 23 questions. Reliability was assessed using α-Chronbach (α =0.87), and validity was confirmed by a group of five experts. Tukey test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and two sample t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 168 answered questionnaires were entered in our study. Maximum satisfaction in most items was shown in removable prosthodontics and orthodontics departments whereas oral surgery and comprehensive treatment departments acquired the least scores. In all departments, personnels’ respectful attitude had the highest score whereas minimum grade was given to stressful workload and overall satisfaction in each department. In comparison with a similar study, conducted 3 years ago, level of satisfaction was raised for orthodontics and removable prosthodontics departments though it was declined for the pediatrics department. Conclusion: The special cadre of clinical instructors comprising both experienced and young members is considered as an important factor leading to high student satisfaction in the orthodontics department. Promotion of a removable prosthodontics department is related to the high relevance between the implemented educational program and the curriculum. The moderate performance of oral surgery and restorative departments is indicative of the need for more attention from ministry authorities to major dental departments such as
Silvani, Samara; Trivelato, Roberta Ferreira; Nogueira, Ruchele Dias; Gonçalves, Luciano de Souza; Geraldo-Martins, Vinícius Rangel
Context: The knowledge of the reasons for the placement of direct restorations makes possible to trace an epidemiological profile of a specific population and to direct the teaching of dentistry to techniques that are commonly used today and will be continued performed in the future. Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify the reasons for placement and replacement of direct restorations in patients treated in the Dental Clinic of the Uberaba University – Brazil. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated 306 restorative procedures carried out on 60 patients. During the treatment planning, a form that contained information about the patient's gender, tooth number, the classification of restorations, the reasons for placement and replacement of amalgam and tooth-colored restorations, the material that had to be removed and the new material used to fill the cavities was filled for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: The data showed that most of the patients were female (66.7%). Of all the restorations placed, 60.45% were 1st-time placements, while 39.55% were replacements. For 1st-time restorations, the main reason for placement was primary caries (76.76%), followed by non-carious cervical lesions (15.14%). The amalgam restorations were replaced more frequently (67.77%). The primary reason for replacements was the presence of secondary caries (for both previous amalgam (42.68%) and composite (66.67%) restorations (P < 0.05). The resin composite was the most indicated material for the new restorations (98.04%) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The main reason for placement of direct restorations was primary caries, while secondary caries was the main reason for replacements. In almost all cases, the material used to fill the cavities was the resin composite. PMID:24808696
Background In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy), which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. Methods It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. Results As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90%) and students (93.25%) feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%). P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. Conclusions In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves. PMID:23176285
Basilici, Giorgio; Bo, Patrick Führ Dal'; de Oliveira, Emerson Ferreira
The stratigraphic and sedimentological knowledge of the Bauru Group (Upper Cretaceous, SE Brazil) is still generally insufficient and controversial. A sedimentological and palaeopedological study allowed to interpret the south-eastern portion of the Bauru Group according to the model of a fluvial distributary system. This work has two objectives: (1) to include palaeosols in the interpretation of a fluvial distributary system and (2) to give detailed information on the sedimentological and stratigraphic features of the SE portion of the Bauru Group in order to support biostratigraphical, taphonomic and palaeoecological studies. In the south-eastern portion of the Bauru Group, three genetic stratigraphic units were described and interpreted, here informally called lower, intermediate and upper units. The lower unit is constituted of muddy sandstone salt flat deposits and sandstone sheet deltas deposits and is interpreted as a basinal part of a fluvial distributary system. The intermediate unit is formed of very fine to fine-grained sandstone-filled ribbon channel and sandy sheet-shaped beds, suggesting a distal or medial portion of a fluvial distributary system. The upper unit does not match with the present models of the fluvial distributary system because mostly constituted of moderately developed, well-drained, medium- to fine-grained sandstone palaeosols, which testify pauses of sedimentation to the order of 104 years. Preserved features of sedimentary structures suggest that the parent material was formed by occasional catastrophic unconfined flows. This unit may represent the most distal portion of a fluvial distributary system generated by retrogradation of the alluvial system due to aridification of the climate. The upper unit may be interpreted also as proximal portion of fluvial distributary system if considering the coarser-grained and the well-drained palaeosols. However, the absence of channel deposits makes this interpretation unconvincing.
Bailit, Howard; Beazoglou, Tryfon
This article examines the financing of dental care in the United States. The major issues addressed include the amount and sources of funds, the reasons for increased dental care expenditures, the comparison of dental care with other medical care expenditures, the policy implications of current trends, and some cautious predictions about the financing of dental care in the next 10 to 20 years. The supply of dental services is expected to increase substantially in the next 10 to 20 years with more dental school graduates, a new midlevel practitioner, and greater use of allied dental health personnel. Whether the supply of services will grow faster than the demand for care is unknown.
Background Pre-school children in families of recently settled refugees often have very high rates of early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is associated with a high level of morbidity and is largely preventable, however effective culturally appropriate models of care are lacking. This study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the refugee experience related to early oral health by exploring pre-school refugee families (i) understanding of ECC and child oral health, (ii) experiences of accessing dental services and (iii) barriers and enablers for achieving improved oral health. The knowledge gained will be critical to the development of effective early oral health programs in refugee children. Methods Community based participatory qualitative methodology using focus groups of resettled refugee families and community refugee nurse interviews. A community reference group was established and a bi-lingual community research associate was employed. Transcripts were analysed for thematic content using NVivo software. Results There were 44 participants: eight focus groups (nine countries of origin) and five interviews. Emergent themes were (i) the major influence of parents’ previous experience, including their beliefs about deciduous (baby) teeth, traditional feeding practices and poverty; and a consequent lack of understanding of the importance of early oral health and early dental caries, (ii) the burden of resettlement including prioritising, parenting, learning about new foods and how to assimilate into the community, and (iii) refugees’ difficulties in accessing both information and dental services, and the role of schools in addressing these issues. An Opportunities for Change Model was proposed. Conclusions The main implication of the study is the demonstration of how enhanced understanding of the refugee experience can inform improvement in early oral prevention and treatment. The community participatory methodology of the study provided a basis for cross
Pahinis, Kimon; Stokes, Christopher W; Walsh, Trevor F; Cannavina, Giuseppe
The purpose of this study was to present and evaluate a blended-learning course developed for undergraduate (B.D.S.), postgraduate, and diploma (hygiene and therapy) students at the University of Sheffield School of Clinical Dentistry. Blended learning is the integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning. The overall methodology used for this study was action research. The data were collected using three processes: questionnaires to collect contextual data from the students taking the course; a student-led, nominal group technique to collect group data from the participants; and a non-participant observer technique to record the context in which certain group and individual behaviors occurred. The online component of the course was accepted as a valuable resource by 65 percent of those responding. While online information-sharing occurred (31 percent of the students posted in forums), there was no evidence of online collaboration, with only 8 percent replying to forum postings. Accessibility of the online environment was one of the main concerns of the students at the nominal group sessions. Differences regarding overall engagement with the course between the student groups (years) were observed during the sessions. The majority of the students were satisfied with the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) course. No statistically significant differences between males and females were found, but there were differences between different student cohorts (year groups).
Lyon, Lucinda J.
This exploratory study was designed to develop a baseline model of expertise in dental education utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum of skill acquisition. The goal was the development of a baseline model of expertise, which will contribute to the body of knowledge about dental faculty skill acquisition and may enable dental schools to…
Journal of Dental Education, 1995
An Institute of Medicine study concerning dental education's future is summarized. Eight principles guiding the study are outlined, and findings/recommendations in each area (oral health status, dental education's mission, focus on health outcomes, research role, patient care, dental school's role in the university, accreditation, dental…
Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; de Castro, Alice Bonatto; Basilici, Giorgio
Two large-scale sediment deformation structures, minor fold occurrences in cross-bedded sand dune deposits and complex convolute folds, are observed in red sandstones, in a zone about 1.5 km long in floodway cuts at the Sérgio Motta/Porto Primavera dam, São Paulo state, Brazil. The most important structures are confined to planar zones, up to 10 m thick, in undeformed dune foreset strata were they can be traced laterally for about 50-60 m. The sandstones are part of the Rio Paraná Formation, Caiuá Group, which accumulated in a great sand sea of about 100,000 km 2. The Caiuá Desert developed during the Late Cretaceous in the southern part of the Bauru Basin, an intracontinental subsiding area in the central-southern part of the South-American Platform. The basin was filled by a sandy sequence about 300 m thick. The sand sea deposits correspond to the Caiuá Group and comprise: a) deposits of dry sand sheets (Santo Anastácio Formation), b) deposits of medium-sized dunes and humid interdunes of the sand sea peripheral zones (Goio Erê Formation), and c) deposits of large-sized complex aeolian dunes and draas, that correspond to the central part of the inland sand sea (Rio Paraná Formation). The deformations in the sediments are attributed to the effects of fluidization, liquefaction and shear stress, which are interpreted as being earthquake-induced structures, mainly because: (1) the deformed horizons are confined between undeformed cross-bedded strata, (2) the complex convolute folds sometimes include nappe-like structures that overlie foreset facies, (3) during the Bauru Basin infilling there was tectonic activity associated with alkaline volcanism on the borders of the basin and related silicification in the central-southern part. The main silicification zones are aligned to regional lineaments that cross the area near the large-scale sedimentary deformation structures.
Shenoy Panchmal, Ganesh; Kumar, Vijaya; Jodalli, Praveen S.; Sonde, Laxminarayan
To assess and compare the effect of herbal and fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, a parallel group placebo controlled randomized trial was conducted among 240 schoolchildren (12–15 years old). Participants were randomly divided and allocated into Group I (0.2% fluoride group), Group II (herbal group), and Group III (placebo group). All received 10 ml of respective mouth rinses every fortnight for a period of one year. Intergroup and intragroup comparison were done for Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries. Streptococcus mutans count showed a statistically significant difference between Group I and Group III (p = 0.035) and also between Group II and Group III (p = 0.039). Glucan concentration levels showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.024) between Group II and Group III at 12th month. Mean DMF scores showed no statistical difference between the three groups (p = 0.139). No difference in the level of significance was seen in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. The present study showed that both herbal and fluoride mouth rinses, when used fortnightly, were equally effective and could be recommended for use in school-based health education program to control dental caries. Trial registration number is CTRI/2015/08/006070. PMID:28352285
Zadik, Y; Levin, L
This study was designed to evaluate decision-making among Jerusalem Hebrew-University and Tel Aviv University dental schools graduates in various restorative dentistry, endodontics and oral surgery issues. A survey was conducted among 52 dentists during a dental military convention. Most of the dentists stated they will not recommend of re-treatment of endodontic-treated tooth with asymptomatic peri-apical pathology that does not need further rehabilitation. The study reveals over treatment and over-medication in restorative and surgery decisions. More than half of the dentists decided to treat caries lesions that extend to the dentino enamel junction, in low and moderate caries risk patients. More Hebrew University graduates than Tel Aviv University graduates recommend of removal of asymptomatic horizontal fully impacted mandibular third molar and disease-free maxillary third molar antagonist. Most of Tel Aviv graduates routinely prescribe antibiotic coverage after complicated tooth extraction. This study supports the need for continuing education on daily performed dental procedures.
Faus-Matoses, Vicente; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Faus-Llácer, Vicente J.
Objectives: To evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal fillings and compare manual and rotary preparation performed on extracted teeth by undergraduate dental students. Study Design: A total of 561 premolars and molars extracted teeth were prepared using nickel-titanium rotary files or manual instrumentation and filled with gutta-percha using a cold lateral condensation technique, by 4th grade undergraduate students. Periapical radiographs were used to assess the technical quality of the root canal filling, evaluating three variables: length, density and taper. These data were recorded, scored and used to study the “technical success rate” and the “overall score”. The length of each root canal filling was classified as acceptable, short and overfilled, based on their relationship with the radiographic apex. Density and taper of filling were evaluated based on the presence of voids and the uniform tapering of the filling, respectively. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the quality of root canal treatment, considering p < 0.05 as a statistical significant level. Results: The percentage of technical success was 44% and the overall score was 7.8 out of 10. Technical success and overall score were greater with rotary instruments (52% against 28% with a manual one, p < 0.001; 8.3 against 6.7 respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that inexperienced operators perform better root canal treatment (RCT) with the use of rotary instrumentation. Key words:Dental education, endodontics, rotary instrumentation, radiographs, root canal treatment, undergraduate students. PMID:24121911
Khan, Suleman Abbas; Navit, Saumya; Chadha, Dheera; Johri, Nikita; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana
Background Fluoridation of drinking water, despite being regarded as one of the top ten public health achievements of the twentieth century, has remained a much debated concept. Various studies on animals and aborted human fetuses have confirmed that excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood, causes a number of irreversible structural and functional changes in the CNS leading to memory, learning and intellectual deficits. Aim To compare the IQ levels of school children of two different locations, having different fluoride levels in water, and to establish a relationship between fluoride levels, prevalence of fluorosis and its effect on IQ levels. Materials and Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted among 429 children aged 6 – 12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from two different areas with different levels of fluoride in drinking water in and around Lucknow district. Dental fluorosis was measured using Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Intelligence Quotient was measured using Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (1998 edition). Results Majority of the fluorosis free children (76.3%) had an IQ grade 2 (definitely above the average). Majority of the children suffering from very mild and mild dental fluorosis were found to have IQ grade 3 (Intellectually average). Children with moderate cases of dental fluorosis were found to have IQ grade 4 (Definitely below average). Only 5 children with severe fluorosis were included in the study and they all were found to have an IQ grade 5. Hence, a trend of increase in the IQ grade (decrease in intellectual capacity) was observed indicating a strong correlation between fluorosis grade and IQ grade. Conclusion Findings of this study suggest that the overall IQ of the children exposed to high fluoride levels in drinking water and hence suffering from dental fluorosis were significantly lower than those of the low fluoride area. PMID:26673535
Tomita, Nilce Emy; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Franco, Laércio Joel; Iunes, Magid; Freitas, José Alberto de Souza; Lopes, Eymar Sampaio
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the oral health condition in a Japanese population aged 40 to 79, in Bauru, Brazil as well as its association with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance. It involved 530 subjects, from both sexes. All persons of first generation (Issei) and a random sample of one third of second generation (Nisei) were submitted to a home interview. A clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test, and examination of oral health conditions took place at the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomaly - USP. The data were processed by Epi-Info program and 22.9% of the individuals presented diabetes mellitus (group I), 15.1% impaired glucose tolerance (group II), and 61.9% were considered normoglycemics (group III). The percentage of edentulous subjects was 45.9% for the total sample, and values of 58.4%, 46.7%, and 41.2% were observed for groups I, II, and III, respectively. Among the edentulous subjects, no one showed necessity of making a total prothesis. These data indicate that tooth loss showed significant association with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus, but there was no significant association with glucose intolerance.
Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.
A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…
... help keep the dental office running smoothly. Important Qualities Detail oriented. Dental assistants must follow specific rules and protocols, such as infection control procedures, when helping dentists treat patients. Assistants also ...
Douglass, Chester; Fein, Rashi
Analysis of the current status of and recent trends in dental school finances provides an overall financial description, documents trends in revenue and expenses, discusses student debt and its consequences, and presents alternatives for increasing revenues and decreasing expenses. The paper provides background for an Institute of Medicine study…
Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Cinotti, Debra A.
Repeated studies of graduating dental students indicate limited preparation to provide services for individuals with special healthcare needs. By the end of the 1990s and into the present decade, more than half of the U.S. dental schools provided less than five hours of class room presentations and about three quarters of the schools provided 0-5…
Sundin, Robert H.; And Others
Explores attitudes of dental and medical students toward death and dying. Attitudes toward death influencing choice between dental school and medical school are latent. Attitudes of dental and medical students toward death may be differentially affected by their professional experiences. (Author/BEF)
Sharma, Arun; Sachdev, Vinod; Chopra, Radhika
Introduction Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases affecting the oral cavity. Among the oral bacteria, mutans streptococci have been implicated as major cariogenic bacteria as they can produce high levels of dental caries causing substances such as lactic acid and extracellular polysaccharides. Aim The aim of the study was to detect the presence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in dental plaque by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method, quantification of these micro-organisms using Modified Sucrose-Bacitracin (SB-20M) agar medium and to correlate their presence in Caries Active (CA) and Caries Free (CF) pre-school children. Materials and Methods Sixty-eight pre-school children, in the age group of 3-5 years were divided equally into 34 CA and 34 CF children. Dental plaque samples were obtained for detection of these microorganisms by PCR method and quantification was done using SB-20M culture medium. The data was analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 16. For statistical analysis, the frequencies and means of Colony Forming Units (CFU) were used with CI = 95%. For bivariate analysis, Fisher exact test was used at 5% level of significance. The comparison of mean of number of CFU of S. mutans and S. sobrinus was made by Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s Rho test at 1% level of significance was used for correlation between dmft and CFU in CA group. Results The results showed that S. sobrinus was significantly higher in CA group as compared to CF group whereas S. mutans showed no significant difference. On quantification of these micro-organisms, S. sobrinus was present in significantly higher numbers in CA group as compared to CF group. On correlating the CFU/ml of the micro-organisms with the dmft index, both the micro-organisms showed a positive correlation. Conclusion We conclude that S. mutans and S. sobrinus were detected in higher numbers in CA children as compared to CF children. PCR is a sensitive
Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.
We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.
Robertson, Lee T.
A survey of 51 of the 53 dental schools in the continental United States investigated pharmacology curriculum content and time allocation. Found that most schools offered a traditional didactic course in basic pharmacology, with half of the medical school-based and three-fourths of the dental school-based programs providing additional pharmacology…
Vilhena, Fabiano Vieira; Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Caldana, Magali de Lourdes; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the storage and distribution of toothbrushing material for school children. Twenty individuals responsible for the collective oral hygiene of school children from Bauru - SP and São José dos Campos - SP participated in the first stage of the study, answering 2 questionnaires about five different kits for use by school children. The statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon (p<0,05). In the second stage, the amount of toothpaste or liquid cleanser applied to the toothbrush by 178 school children aged 4 to 8 years from 2 cities from the state of São Paulo (Bauru e Bariri) was weighed using a portable balance. The statistical analysis was obtained by using Pearson's correlation coefficient and analysis of covariance (p <0,05). Kit 5 obtained levels of satisfaction and high satisfaction when compared with the others kits (1 - 4). The school children from Bauru (0.41g) used smaller amounts of toothpaste than the school children from Bariri (0.48g). The average of the amount of liquid cleanser applied by the sample was 0.15g. The "drop technique" (liquid cleanser) was considered practical for dispensing a small, standardized quantity of the product. Kit 5 was considered a good alternative for establishing a collective oral health protocol in the Brazilian health system.
Imfeld, Thomas N.; And Others
A method for predicting high dental caries increments for children, based on previous research, is presented. Three clinical findings were identified as predictors: number of sound primary molars, number of discolored pits/fissures on first permanent molars, and number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of first permanent molars with white…
Wadenya, Rose O.; Schwartz, Susan; Lopez, Naty; Fonseca, Raymond
Describes the university's focus on leadership, financial support, institutional commitment, and creation of an inclusive environment for minority students; an accelerated program leading to combined bachelor's and dental degrees, which includes agreements with Xavier University and Hampton University; and peer mentorship and minority mentorship…
Storrs, Mark J; Alexander, Heather; Sun, Jing; Kroon, Jeroen; Evans, Jane L
Previous research on interprofessional education (IPE) assessment has shown the need to evaluate the influence of team-based processes on the quality of clinical education. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate the effectiveness of interprofessional team-based treatment planning (TBTP) on the quality of clinical education at the Griffith University School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Queensland, Australia. A scale was developed and evaluated to measure interprofessional student team processes and their effect on the quality of clinical education for dental, oral health therapy, and dental technology students (known more frequently as intraprofessional education). A face validity analysis by IPE experts confirmed that items on the scale reflected the meaning of relevant concepts. After piloting, 158 students (61% response rate) involved with TBTP participated in a survey. An exploratory factor analysis using the principal component method retained 23 items with a total variance of 64.6%, suggesting high content validity. Three subscales accounted for 45.7%, 11.4%, and 7.5% of the variance. Internal consistency of the scale (α=0.943) and subscales 1 (α=0.953), 2 (α=0.897), and 3 (α=0.813) was high. A reliability analysis yielded moderate (rs=0.43) to high correlations (0.81) with the remaining scale items. Confirmatory factor analyses verified convergent validity and confirmed that this structure had a good model fit. This study suggests that the instrument might be useful in evaluating interprofessional or intraprofessional team-based processes and their influence on the quality of clinical education in academic dental institutions.
Grandy, Thomas G.; And Others
A study documenting dental students' stress levels state and trait anxiety throughout their third year found no significant changes during the year but suggest a need for stress management programs within the dental school environment. (MSE)
Meskin, Lawrence H.; And Others
A dental health program in an elementary school succeeded in identifying children considered to be "high risk" in oral health and, through treatment and education, significantly improved their dental health. (JD)
Robbins, Morris L
Access to care continues to be an overriding issue in dentistry. The development of new categories of dental auxiliaries, such as mid-level providers, is a matter of concern to many states and the dental profession. Tennessee has an EFDA educational program for dental auxiliaries taught by dental school educators who have trained more than 300 auxiliary personnel in restorative and prosthetic dentistry. Graduates of this educational program have helped keep Tennessee's dentists well ahead of any increased demand for dental care.
Chatham, C; Spencer, M H; Wood, D J; Johnson, A
The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which digital dental technologies have been introduced into the curricula of UK dental schools. A survey was carried out of all the UK dental schools that teach undergraduate dental students. The survey contained six questions and was designed to determine if digital dental technology techniques or systems were being taught in the curricula, what these techniques were, and whether the school dental laboratories supported these techniques. Sixteen schools were surveyed and 11 replied: a response rate of 69%. Forty-five percent of the schools that replied did not teach digital dental technology in their curriculum. Of the 55% of schools who did teach digital dental technology, 50% gave lectures or demonstrations while the other 50% allowed practical involvement by the student. Two thirds of these stated that not all the students participated in practical usage. Seventy-three percent of the schools that replied had dental laboratories using some, but not all the digital dental technology techniques listed. Eighty percent of the schools that were not teaching digital dental technology said it was because it was not included in the curriculum, and 20% stated it was due to a lack of technical expertise or support.
Hoyle, Debra A; Ryan, Penni M; Hand, Jed S; Damiano, Peter; Schneider, Galen B
Like many other states, Iowa has an aging dental workforce. As this aging population of dentists retires and communities are unable to find new dentists to take over their practices, more small and rural communities lack easy access to oral health care. The University of Iowa College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics established the Office of Iowa Practice Opportunities in 2006 to promote dental practice opportunities in Iowa for its graduates. With this office, an infrastructure connecting the college with practices and communities across the state has been developed. The Office of Iowa Practice Opportunities is the first place many students go to decide what they will do after graduation and to identify practice opportunities in Iowa. The office has exceeded the college's initial expectations and has provided significant assistance in retaining recently graduated dentists in the state of Iowa and ensuring access to oral health care in the state. This article will show that facilitating connections to practice opportunities has a place in a college of dentistry.
Mueller, P O; Lowder, M Q
Dental sepsis or periapical abscess formation constitutes a large percentage of dental conditions that afflict horses. Dental sepsis occurs when the pulp chamber of the tooth is exposed to the oral cavity or external environment, allowing bacterial localization with resulting infection. Although acute, primary, septic pulpitis in horses is rare, dental sepsis often results from colonization of the pulp chamber with pathogenic bacteria secondary to maleruption or impaction of teeth with secondary alveolar bone lysis, primary fractures of the tooth, mandible, or maxilla, periodontal disease, or infundibular necrosis. The sequela to pulpal infection are extensions into the periradicular tissues and mandibular or maxillary periapical abscess formation.
Amin, Maryam; Zulla, Rosslynn; Gaudet-Amigo, Gisele; Patterson, Steven; Murphy, Natalie; Ross, Shelley
At a dental school in Canada, problem-based learning (PBL) sessions were restructured from an integrated dental-medical model to a separate dental model, resulting in three groups of students available for study: those who had participated in the two-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental alone, and the two-year dental alone. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which the PBL structure affected the dental students' perceptions of the learning value of PBL in the different models. A total of 34 first-, second-, and third-year dental students participated in six focus groups in May and June 2011 (34% of students in those total classes). Semistructured questions explored their experiences in the different PBL structures. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was employed. The results showed positive and negative perceptions for both the combined dental and medical settings and the settings with dental students alone. For students in the combined PBL groups, positive perceptions included gaining information from medical peers, motivation to learn, and interdisciplinary collaborations. The negative perceptions mainly related to irrelevant content, dominating medical students, and ineffective preceptors. Members of the separate dental groups were more positive about the content and felt a sense of belonging. They appreciated the dental preceptors but were concerned about the inadequacy of their medical knowledge. Overall, the dental students valued the combined PBL experience and appreciated the opportunity to learn with their medical colleagues. Close attention, however, must be paid to PBL content and the preceptor's role to optimize dental students' experience in combined medical and dental groups.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…
Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J
Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.
American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.
ALTHOUGH THE DENTAL PROFESSION NOW SEEKS SUPPORT FOR AUXILIARY TRAINING PROGRAMS FROM EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES OTHER THAN DENTAL SCHOOLS, IT IS CONCERNED THAT TRAINING IN NONDENTAL SCHOOL SETTINGS SUCH AS JUNIOR COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, UNIVERSITY EXTENSION PROGRAMS, AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS PREVENTS TRAINEE EXPOSURE TO…
At the end of the revolution against the Tokugawa Shogun in 1868, the new Meiji government introduce Western medicine and science into Japan. Dental education, however, was neglected by the new regime. Dr. Kisai Takayama, a Samurai warrior turned dentist, realized this and established the first dental school in Japan in 1890. Meeting a definite need, the school expanded several times and introduced into the country standards which raised Japanese dental education to the level of that in the Western world. In 1990, the hundredth anniversary celebration of the school was held, following the completion of the school's magnificent new campus in 1981 and a new headquarters building in 1990.
Dunning, David G; Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian M; Aksu, Mert N
With issues such as shrinking revenue, access to care, faculty workloads, and graying faculty, dental schools are faced with difficult challenges that fall to dental school deans to manage. Do dental school deans have the organizational skill sets and ethical frameworks necessary to address the challenges now facing dental schools? The purpose of this article is to pose questions and suggestions regarding some of the key issues in dental colleges today and to stimulate discussion in the dental community about needed changes in dental education.
Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine
Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247
Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping
This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.
Bailit, Howard L; Beazoglou, Tryfon J
In 2000, the thirty-six states with public dental schools provided an average subsidy of 49,347 dollars per dental student. In contrast, nineteen states provided little or no subsidy. Since states invest in dental education, in part, to ensure an adequate supply of dentists, we examined the factors that explain dentist variation among states. We found that population size, per capita income, and the number of students from the state enrolled in dental school had a significant and positive impact. The level of state support for dental education and the presence of a dental school had a negative or nonsignificant effect, respectively. Apparently, dentists locate based primarily on the demand for their services and, to a lesser extent, on where they were raised. The states' investment in dental education had little impact on number of dentists because some states had many dentists but invested little in dental education. We identified two states that collectively account for 15 percent of enrolled students even though they provide minimal subsidy for dental education. We discuss the implications of these findings for states that do not have dental schools and need more dentists. This research was supported in part by grants from the Connecticut Health Foundation (Dental Workforce in Connecticut: Issues and Options), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the California Endowment (Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education).
... few quick steps. There is no drilling or scraping of the molars. Your dentist will: Clean the ... Dental sealants. Updated October 19, 2016. ADA.org Web site. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral- ...
... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to...
Parry, Glenn R; Evans, Jane L; Cameron, Andrew
The aim of this research was to investigate the quality of written prosthetic prescriptions provided by fourth-year dental students to a commercially operated dental laboratory and to ascertain the contribution of interprofessional education to improving prescription quality. Based on guidelines established by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency of the European Union (Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC), an audit was conducted prior to and after an educational intervention was delivered by a dental technician to a dental student cohort at one Australian dental school. Prior to the intervention, thirty-nine dental prosthetic prescriptions were collected, analyzed, and audited to determine the clarity of written communication and instructions from dental student to dental technician. Following the intervention, a further forty prosthetic prescriptions were collected from the same cohort of students and were audited. The audit of the initial prescriptions showed that 85 percent (n=33) did not comply with the recommended conventions. After the intervention, the prescriptions that did not meet the guidelines had fallen to 30 percent (n=12) of the total. Improvements in prosthetic prescriptions submitted by these dental students to the commercial dental laboratory suggest there is an advantage to including a prosthetic prescription-writing module in dental school curricula.
Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249
Mirghani, I; Mushtaq, F; Allsop, M J; Al-Saud, L M; Tickhill, N; Potter, C; Keeling, A; Mon-Williams, M A; Manogue, M
Virtual reality simulators are becoming increasingly popular in dental schools across the world. But to what extent do these systems reflect actual dental ability? Addressing this question of construct validity is a fundamental step that is necessary before these systems can be fully integrated into a dental school's curriculum. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the Simodont (a haptic virtual reality dental simulator) to differences in dental training experience. Two hundred and eighty-nine participants, with 1 (n = 92), 3 (n = 79), 4 (n = 57) and 5 (n = 61) years of dental training, performed a series of tasks upon their first exposure to the simulator. We found statistically significant differences between novice (Year 1) and experienced dental trainees (operationalised as 3 or more years of training), but no differences between performance of experienced trainees with varying levels of experience. This work represents a crucial first step in understanding the value of haptic virtual reality simulators in dental education.
Grandy, Thomas G. And Others
A study to document the stress (anxiety and depression) levels of students at a small midwestern dental school is described. The points of greatest distress during the first academic year were also investigated. (MLW)
Gilmour, A S M; Welply, A; Cowpe, J G; Bullock, A D; Jones, R J
Objective To investigate the self-reported confidence and preparedness of final year undergraduate students in undertaking a range of clinical procedures.Methods A questionnaire was distributed to final year dental students at Cardiff University, six months prior to graduation. Respondents rated their confidence in undertaking 39 clinical procedures using a 5-point scale (1 = can undertake on own with confidence, 5 = unable to undertake). Students also responded yes/no to experiencing four difficulties and to three statements about general preparedness.Results 71% (N = 51) responded of which 55% (N = 28) were female. Over half reported being 'anxious that the supervisor was not helping enough' (57%) and 'relying heavily on supervisor for help' (53%). Eighty percent 'felt unprepared for the clinical work presented' and gender differences were most notable here (male: 65% N = 33; females: 93% N = 47). Mean confidence scores were calculated for each clinical procedure (1 = lowest; 5 = highest). Confidence was highest in performing 'simple scale' and 'fissure sealant' (mean-score = 5). Lowest scores were reported for 'surgical extractions involving a flap (mean-score = 2.28)', 'simple surgical procedures' (mean-score = 2.58) and the 'design/fit/adjustment of orthodontic appliances' (mean-score = 2.88).Conclusions As expected complex procedures that were least practised scored the lowest in overall mean confidence. Gender differences were noted in self-reported confidence for carrying out treatment unsupervised and feeling unprepared for clinical work.
Vignarajah, S; Williams, G A
In 1989 a national survey was carried out on children aged 3 to 4 years attending nursery schools, to investigate the prevalence of caries experience, nursing bottle caries and enamel defects in the primary dentition, and these children's dentally related habits. In the first part of the study, examination of 482 Antiguan children showed that the dmft and dmfs values were 0.80 and 1.26 respectively, and that 77 per cent of the children were caries free; 4.6 per cent of children had nursing bottle caries; and enamel defects occurred in 24 per cent of children. No significant difference was found in oral health between urban and rural samples. In the second part, which was an interview survey, habits such as thumb sucking (13 per cent), not brushing their teeth (3 per cent), and swallowing fluoride toothpaste (13 per cent) were found among 369 children. In the third (a questionnaire) survey, a response rate of 63 per cent was obtained. Significantly more of the children with nursing bottle caries (78.6 per cent) had the habit of sleeping with a feeding bottle than occurred in caries free children (25.6 per cent), but there was no difference in the infant feeding pattern. The children with enamel defects were breast fed for a shorter period and had an earlier introduction to bottle feeding, compared with children without enamel defects. In the final part of the survey, an assessment of snack eating habits at school, a 58 per cent response rate was achieved. The majority of children often brought healthier snacks, together with daily sugar-rich drinks. Significantly more caries free children brought sugary snacks less frequently than children with caries experience.
... professor at the University of Washington School of Dentistry in Seattle. In that case, their visits would ... D.S., professor, dental public health sciences and pediatric dentistry, University of Washington School of Dentistry, Seattle; Feb. ...
Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.
Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993
To arrive at a learning situation conducive to a scientific approach in dental school teaching of diagnosis, treatment, prescription, and judgment of prognosis, it is necessary to strengthen the scientific environment in dental schools, increase scientifically trained faculty, and guarantee student involvement in research. (MLW)
Leightner, Jonathan E.; Zwemer, Jack D.
Provides data on the financial gains accruing to government, both federal and state, from increased support of dental education, especially in private schools. Tables and calculations are offered to show that the net present value for government averages $292,103 per graduate from private dental schools and $116,1888 per graduate from public…
Burgess, Ralph C.
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193
Han, S. S., Ed.
Presented are the proceedings of a symposium on the implementation of contemporary biology in dental curriculum, sponsored by the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Approximately 180 dental educators, including 69 official delegates from every dental school in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico attended. The program aimed…
Porat, D; Kawamura, M; Eli, I
Few studies have been published regarding the importance of oral hygiene education for dental students and little is known about the influence of dental education in dental schools on students' attitudes to the subject. The objective of the present research was to examine the changes that occur in the attitudes of Israeli dental students toward their dental health during the course of their professional training. The research was based on a questionnaire developed at The Hiroshima University, Japan (The Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory, HU-DBI), and provides a quantitative estimate of the students' attitudes to their dental health. Similar studies have been carried out in several countries (Japan, Australia, Indonesia and Finland). This study was performed on students from the two dental schools in Israel, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University and The Faculty of Dental Medicine at Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Students from all six academic years (1st-6th) were requested to complete the questionnaire within two months, from the beginning of the academic year that started in October 1999. While no significant differences could be detected in the students' attitudes with regard to the dental school of their origin, female students (from both schools) showed a significantly better attitude than their male colleagues throughout the years. Results showed a significant improvement in the students' attitudes through the years of their professional training, especially between the 1st year and the clinical years (5th and 6th) of their studies. This can be related to the teaching curricula in the dental schools in Israel that emphasizes clinical issues in the two last years of study. When comparing the results of this study to similar ones that were conducted in other parts of the world, certain differences become apparent. In spite of the gradual improvement in the Israeli students' attitudes during the course
Kawahara, M; Takeshita, T; Akita, S
The Resuscitation Committee of Hiroshima City Dental Association was established in 1983 in order to provide acute medical support in case of emergency during dental treatment at private dental clinics. This Committee is composed of representatives from the Hiroshima City Dental Association, Hiroshima University School of Dentistry, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima City Health Bureau, and Hiroshima City Fire and Ambulance Department. A portable ECG monitor with defibrillator and a resuscitation kit are held in readiness at the Hiroshima University Hospital. In case of emergency during dental treatment at a private dental clinic, we hurry to the clinic with the resuscitation set and give emergency treatment. We have been involved in two cases of emergency since this system started. Both of them recovered without any sequelae. Besides these activities, we give lectures annually to dentists and dental hygienists on the treatment of medical emergencies.
Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH.
A survey was made of the dental departments in two hospitals, two public dental out-patient clinics, and seven private practicing dentists to identify the tasks performed by the dental assistant and evaluate the existing dental assistant curriculum in Detroit schools. Analysis of data revealed that many of the dental assistants learned their…
Visković, R; Vujanović, M; Brcić, V
A group of 301 children (146 males and 155 females) aged 3-6 years, from kindergartens in Zadar, on the island of Ugljan and in Zadar suburbs, Bibinje and Sukosan, were examined. The prevalence of orthodontic anomalies and caries in pre-school children with exclusively deciduous dentition was assessed. Results were recorded in WHO forms for oral health state and required treatment assessment, and then compared. The overall prevalence of orthodontic anomalies in the sample of pre-school children was 47.50%, most of them found in children from the city of Zadar (56.36%), followed by those from the island of Ugljan, and from Bibinje and Sukosan (47.86% and 33.78%, respectively). According to diagnosis, premature loss was the leading cause (13.28%), followed by open bite (12.62%), primary crowding (7.64%), cross bite (4.98%), trauma (2.65%), overbite (2.32%), diastema (1.99%), other anomalies (1.32%), and progeny complex (0.66%), with a higher incidence in boys than in girls (28.23% vs. 19.26%). The frequency of caries (KIO) in the total sample was 68.8%, caries index (KIZ) 22.4%, and mean caries index (KIP) 4.2%, with no substantial differences related to sex or place of residence. Intact deciduous dentition was observed in 78.25%, treated in 2.1% and untreated in 22.4% of the subjects. The percentage of intact teeth was higher in the maxilla (78.6% vs. 76.6%), whereas the percentage of treated teeth was higher in the mandible (2.8% vs. 1.32%). No interrelationship was found between the frequency of orthodontic anomalies and caries. Assessment of the treatment requirements revealed that 667 deciduous teeth needed treatment.
Petchel, Karen A.; Mello, Arthur F.
A weekly "swish and spit" program takes about ten minutes of class time, effectively prevents dental caries, and promotes an awareness and greater concern for good dental practices in the school community. (MJB)
Beukers, Nicky G F M; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Wijk, Arjen J; Loos, Bruno G
Background The association between periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD) has been established in some modestly sized studies (<10 000). Rarely, however, periodontitis has been studied directly; often tooth loss or self-reported periodontitis has been used as a proxy measure for periodontitis. Our aim is to investigate the adjusted association between periodontitis and ACVD among all individuals registered in a large dental school in the Netherlands (Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)). Methods Anonymised data were extracted from the electronic health records for all registered patients aged >35 years (period 1998–2013). A participant was recorded as having periodontitis based on diagnostic and treatment codes. Any affirmative answer for cerebrovascular accidents, angina pectoris and/or myocardial infarction labelled a participant as having ACVD. Other risk factors for ACVD, notably age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and social economic status, were also extracted. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the adjusted associations between periodontitis and ACVD. Results 60 174 individuals were identified; 4.7% of the periodontitis participants (455/9730) and 1.9% of the non-periodontitis participants (962/50 444) reported ACVD; periodontitis showed a significant association with ACVD (OR 2.52; 95% CI 2.3 to 2.8). After adjustment for the confounders, periodontitis remained independently associated with ACVD (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.39 to 1.81). With subsequent stratification for age and sex, periodontitis remained independently associated with ACVD. Conclusions This cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort in the Netherlands of 60 174 participants shows the independent association of periodontitis with ACVD. PMID:27502782
Uswak, Gerry; Keller-Kurysh, Emory
The profession of dental therapy has long been held up as a model for reducing access to care barriers in high-risk, underserved populations worldwide. Dental therapists practice in many countries delivering preventive and basic restorative care to children and adults. In North America, dental therapy education and practice date back to 1972 with the establishment of training programs at the National School of Dental Therapy in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, and the Wascana Institute of Applied Arts and Science in Regina, Saskatchewan, as a means of reducing access to care barriers in Canada's northern territories and to implement the Saskatchewan Health Dental Plan, respectively. At present, dental therapy in North America has reached a crossroads: in the United States, the profession is cautiously being explored as a solution for improving access to care in at-risk populations. In 2011, Canada's sole training program, the National School of Dental Therapy in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, closed when the federal government eliminated its funding. This article examines the impact of private practice employment of dental therapists in Saskatchewan on the supply of dental therapist human resources for health in Canada's three northern territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon), its role in the closure of the National School of Dental Therapy in 2011, and ramifications for the future of dental therapy in Canada.
Dummett, C. O.
In existence for more than 100 years, the schools of medicine and dentistry of Howard University and Meharry Medical College have been responsible for training the majority of African-American physicians and dentists. The dissolution of the doctrine of "separate but equal" has resulted in the acceptance of larger numbers of African-American health professionals to America's medical and dental educational institutions. The University of Tennessee School of Dentistry is a primary example of a formerly segregated institution that has changed its policies and presently possesses a respectable number of African-American dental alumni. In a recent acknowledgment of this fact on Alumni Day, black graduates of this University celebrated and sponsored a program to increase the number of African-American matriculants at the school. PMID:8764529
Dummett, C O
In existence for more than 100 years, the schools of medicine and dentistry of Howard University and Meharry Medical College have been responsible for training the majority of African-American physicians and dentists. The dissolution of the doctrine of "separate but equal" has resulted in the acceptance of larger numbers of African-American health professionals to America's medical and dental educational institutions. The University of Tennessee School of Dentistry is a primary example of a formerly segregated institution that has changed its policies and presently possesses a respectable number of African-American dental alumni. In a recent acknowledgment of this fact on Alumni Day, black graduates of this University celebrated and sponsored a program to increase the number of African-American matriculants at the school.
Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.
This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…
Moore, J R
This paper relates recent modes of dental practice to changes that the public and government are likely to ask the health care professions to make in the future. As usual they are asking for the best of all worlds. First, that we maintain the clinical model to the highest standards of personal dental care based and tested against the best research at our disposal, whilst we ensure there is no reduction in the high technical standards for which british dentists have a reputation. Second, that the profession is required to consider ways of providing care on the medicosocial model for the whole community at an economic level the country will afford. The broad changes in dental education have been reviewed, from the technical apprenticeship to the establishment of strong university departments in teaching hospitals. The importance of a sound biomedical foundation and of research both to education and the credibility of dental practice as a primary health care profession is stressed if the profession is to retain its position as a sister to medicine and not slide down to that of a technical ancillary. PMID:6374141
Karibe, H; Kawakami, T; Suzuki, A; Warita, S; Ogata, K; Aoyagi, K; Agholme, M B; Dahllöf, G
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the perspectives of dental students towards their career choice and dental education in Japan and Sweden. One hundred and fourteen dental students from the Nippon Dental University, Japan and 43 dental students from the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden participated in this study. Information was derived from a self-answered questionnaire consisting of five items for career choice and six items for dental education. Chi-square test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for comparison. Significant differences were detected for 10 questionnaire items between the two countries. Regarding motivation towards the career choice, 44% of Swedish students indicated interpersonal motives related to helping other people, whereas 32% of Japanese students indicated expectations of their family in the dental profession. As future career options, 64% of Japanese and 47% of Swedish students planned to work as general dentists. More Swedish students (37%) preferred specialisation than Japanese students (17%). Nearly three-quarters of the Swedish students were satisfied with the teaching faculty of their school, whilst only 32% of the Japanese students indicated content. The perspectives of dental students were different in Japan and Sweden. This study provides a description of the perspectives of Japanese and Swedish dental students and enables better understanding of career decision and dental curriculum issues.
Dental implant surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots with ... look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures ...
Ishizuka, Yoichi; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kagami, Noriaki; Satou, Ryouichi; Sugihara, Naoki
The primary aim of the present study was to compare efficiency in detecting suspected caries requiring observation (CO) and decayed teeth (DT) between dental explorers and Community Periodontal Index (CPI)-probes in school dental examinations and evaluate the effect of their respective use on Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index scores. A total of 126 elementary and high school students were examined. All the clinical findings were obtained by a pair of trained dentists examining each student at routine annual school dental examinations. A dental explorer or CPI-probe and dental mirror were used for the examination. One dentist used the dental explorer, while the other used the CPI-probe. The choice of which instrument to use by the first dentist to examine the student was made at random. A comparison of the explorers and CPI-probes revealed that the numbers of patients and permanent teeth classified as CO were greater with the former in 6th-grade elementary and high school students (p<0.05). The Kappa value for CO and DT was 0.560 for 6th-grade elementary school and 0.846 for high school students. All DMFT scores were higher with the explorers than with the CPI-probes in the 6th-grade elementary school students. No significant difference was observed between the explorers and CPI-probes in any of the DMFT scores in any group, however. The present results indicate that as long as the low rate of caries in Japanese school children is maintained, the epidemiological data on this disease should not show any significant change if a CPI-probe is used instead of an explorer in school dental examinations.
Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.
Ramnarine, Carol Anne
This report describes and evaluates a program to improve the dental health of Hispanic migrant children in a Los Angles County school district. Difficulties in providing dental health care to this population included the high cost of dental care, limited access to dental services, poor nutrition, and lack of parental involvement. The 3-month…
Wright, F A
In this study of 200 New Zealand schoolchildren aged 7-13 years, a questionnaire interview was used to gain information related to estimating dental anxiety and general illness anxiety. Information related to sociodemographic differences, belief differences, and an estimate of potential health behaviour was also collected. Oral examinations were performed and the number of dental restorations present recorded. Dental anxiety was associated with memory of pain during a dental visit. The number of restorations present, and a history of pain during a dental visit, were important predictors of illness anxiety. Neither dental anxiety nor illness anxiety operating alone provided an estimate of future dental health behaviour. Dental anxiety and illness anxiety operated through a complex interplay of variables. A stepwise multiple regression technique was used to determine the possible pathways to potential dental health behaviour. Perceived vulnerability to dental caries and perceived severity of dental disease were important in the prediction of potential denture wearing; school attended and ethnic background were useful predictors of potential extraction seeking; and school grade and level of perceived internal control were predictors of potential preventive visitation.
Davidson, P L; Nakazono, T T; Carreon, D C; Gutierrez, J J; Shahedi, S; Andersen, R M
The USA dental education programmes are facing challenges similar to those confronting countries around the globe, particularly amongst the industrialised nations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational programmes of 15 USA dental schools to determine their impact on improving workforce diversity and oral health care access. The study investigates the predictors of public service plans of dental school seniors in Pipeline and non-Pipeline Program dental schools. We analysed baseline and post-intervention data collected in the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Annual Survey of Dental School Seniors and a set of contextual variables. Public service plans (dependent variable) was predicted by four types of independent variables: intervention, contextual, community-based dental education (CBDE), and student characteristics. Findings from the study show that access to a state or federally sponsored loan repayment program was the most significant predictor of public service plans and that increasing educational debt was the most significant barrier. In the short-term we may be able to sustain the USA loan repayment programs to motivate senior dental students to provide public service to address the oral health care access crisis. However, in the long-term, a new workforce development initiative will be required to transform dental education and practice, modelled after the well-respected licensure programmes for Physician Assistants and/or Advanced Practice Registered Nurses, to expand oral health care access, particularly amongst vulnerable population subgroups, such as low-income children and families.
Demoli, Nazif; Vučić, Zlatko; Milat, Ognjen; Gladić, Jadranko; Lovrić, Davorin; Pandurić, Vlatko; Marović, Danijela; Moguš-Milanković, Andrea; Ristić, Mira; Čalogović, Marina; Tarle, Zrinka
The purpose of this paper is to present the current activities of a research collaborative program between three institutions from Zagreb (School of Dental Medicine, Institute of Physics, and Institute Ruđer Bo\\vsković). Within the scope of this program, it is planned to investigate and find guidelines for the refinement of the properties of dental biomaterials (DBs) and of procedures in restorative dental medicine. It is also planned to identify and model the dominant mechanisms which control polymerization of DBs. The materials to be investigated include methacrylate based composite resins, new composite materials with amorphous calcium phosphate, silorane based composite resins, glass-ionomer cements, and giomer.
Dunning, David G; Lange, Brian M; Madden, Robert D; Tacha, Koko K
There is increasing pressure on recent dental school graduates to understand and successfully utilize patient management and business management strategies to run a productive dental office. Dental schools are faced with the dilemma to either add more credit hours in their already crowded curriculum or adjust predental school requirements. All fifty-nine U.S. dental schools were assessed online to determine admission requirements in the areas of behavioral science and business education. Results show that only 11.9 percent of the schools require prerequisite course work in behavioral science and no school requires prerequisite course work in business. However, 64.4 percent and 30.5 percent of schools encouraged or recommended prerequisite course work in behavioral science and business, respectively. We suggest that the dental education community involve key stakeholders to discuss the incorporation of prerequisite course work in behavioral science and business. Additional courses in these disciplines would provide dental students better backgrounds from which the dental curriculum could build a more advanced and applied perspective to better prepare students for practice.
Gallagher, J E; Calvert, A; Niven, V; Cabot, L
Aim To compare trends in the volume, socio-demography and academic experience of UK applicants and entrants to medicine and dentistry in the UK with university in general, before and after the major increase in university fees in England in 2012.Methods Descriptive trend analyses of University and College Admissions Services (UCAS) data for focused (preferred subject was medicine or dentistry) and accepted applicants, 2010-14, compared with university in general in relation to socio-demography (age, sex, ethnicity, POLAR 2, region) and academic experience (school type). POLAR2 data provide an indication of the likelihood of young people in the area participating in further or higher education.Results In 2012 the volume of applicants to medicine and dentistry fell by 2.4% and 7.8% respectively, compared with 6.6% for university overall. Medical applications remained buoyant and by 2014 had risen by 10.2% from 2010 to 23,365. While dental applications fell in both 2012 and 2013, they had increased by 15.6% to 3,410 in 2014, above 2010 levels. Females formed the majority of applicants, and admissions, with the proportion gaining admission to dentistry in 2014 reaching an all-time high (64%), exceeding medicine (56%), and university in general (56%). Mature admissions to dentistry were at their highest in 2010 (29%) falling to 21% in 2014, compared with 22-24% in medicine. Black and minority ethnic group admissions to university, although rising (24% in 2014), are still less than for medicine (34%) and dentistry (48%). In 2013, just over half of the students admitted to dentistry were from BME groups (51%) for dentistry. Among UK applicants <19 years, over 60% of applicants, and 70% of accepted applicants, to medicine and dentistry are from the top two POLAR2 quintiles representing areas of high participation in education; however, in 2014 there was a notable increase in the proportion of applications from the lower two quintiles to dentistry (19%) and medicine (20
Grillo, Cássia Maria; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi; da Luz Rosário de Sousa, Maria
Acute dental pain is the main reason for seeking dental services to provide urgent dental care; there is consensus about the use of alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, to control dental pain in pre-dental care. This study aimed to evaluate the use of acupuncture in reducing the intensity of acute dental pain in pre-dental care in patients waiting for emergency dental care, and was conducted at the After-Hours Emergency Dental Clinic of Piracicaba Dental School, and at the Emergency Center Dental Specialties I in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample consisted of 120 patients. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure pain intensity. All patients underwent one session of acupuncture; the points LI4, ST44 and CV23 were selected and were used alone or in combinations. Reduction in pain was observed in 120 patients (mean initial VAS=6.558±1.886, p<0; mean final VAS=0.962±2.163, p<0.00001). The results of this study indicate that acupuncture analgesia could be a technical adjunct to pain control in patients with acute dental pain, contributing to the restoration of health with social benefit.
Holman, Shaina Devi; Wietecha, Mateusz S; Gullard, Angela; Peterson, Jon M B
This study aimed to provide a first nationwide assessment of dental students' attitudes toward the importance of research and its integration into the dental curriculum. For this purpose, the American Association for Dental Research National Student Research Group developed an online survey that was distributed to 89 percent of U.S. dental students in May 2012. The survey consisted of twenty-one Likert-type items divided into three groups: importance of research in dentistry, barriers to research involvement, and exposure to research in the dental curriculum. There were 733 responses (3.9 percent response rate), including students in all stages of education representing fifty-eight out of sixty-one dental schools. Age and race/ethnic distributions corresponded with U.S. dental school enrollees. Results showed that 63 percent of respondents had conducted research before matriculation, and of the 34 percent that participated in research during dental school, only 27 percent were newcomers. Respondents strongly agreed that scientific research enabled their progress in dentistry. Inadequate time in the curriculum was an obstacle they perceived to research involvement during dental school. Respondents agreed that dental curricula emphasize evidence-based practices but may be inadequately teaching biostatistics and research methodologies. Students with research experience tended to have stronger positive opinions about the importance of research in dental education. Efforts to foster research in schools have been well received by students, but several issues remain for enriching dental education through greater involvement of students in research.
Nomura, Lincon Hideo; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Peres, Marco Aurélio
The objective of this study was to assess the relation between dental pain, dental caries and socioeconomic status among 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil in 2002. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 181 schoolchildren. Dental pain experience was the dependend variable analyzed. Socioeconomic data of the children's families were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT index (WHO, 1997). The field workteam consisted of an examiner and a recorder. The statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and the non-conditional multiple logistic regression. The response rate was 93.4%. The intraexaminer agreement measured on a tooth by tooth basis was high (kappa > 0.73). Dental pain prevalence was 33.7% (CI95% 26.0-42.0). The multiple regression analysis, adjusted by sex and other variables, showed that children with DMFT > 1 presented 2.9 (OR CI95% 1.4-6.1, p < 0.01) more chances of having dental pain when compared with those with DMFT < or = 1. Children whose mother's schooling level was equal or less than 4 years presented 2.5 (OR CI95% 1.2-5.6, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with others whose mothers had more than 5 years of schooling and, finally, children whose family income was up to U$ 67.00 showed 3.2 (OR CI95% 1.2-8.4, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with the ones whose families had higher income. High levels of caries attack, low mother schooling level and low family income were associated to dental pain.
University of Science and Technology, Tehran, IRAN Abstract- Implantology has a widespread application in dental cases these days. Although the life...System, in Mackinny RV: Endosteal Dental Implant, Mosby Year Book, 1991  Weiss M, Titanium Fiber-Mesh Metal Implant, J. Oral Implantology , 1986...STRESS ANALYSIS ON THE BONE AROUND FIVE DIFFERENT DENTAL IMPLANTS S. M. Rajaai, S. Khorrami-mehr School of mechanical Engineering Iran
Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy
Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)
Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong
Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.
McTigue, Dennis J
Pediatric dentists have, by tradition and default, provided care for persons with special health care needs (PSHCN), regardless of age. Deinstitutionalization of PSHCN in the 1960s, however, overwhelmed the dental care system, and oral health care became one of the greatest unmet needs of this population. This presentation follows the history of training for dentists in this aspect of care, from the first demonstration programs in the 1970s to the current educational programs in U.S. dental schools. Today's dental students must be competent in assessing the treatment needs of PSHCN, but accreditation standards do not require competency in the treatment of this group of patients. Recommendations to rectify this include revising dental school curricula to be more patient-centered, improving technology in schools, earlier clinical experiences for dental students, and the use of community-based clinics.
Basilici, Giorgio; Führ Dal'Bó, Patrick Francisco
Few previous studies have given significant consideration to the palaeosols in aeolian sand sheet sedimentary successions and, mainly, to their palaeoenvironmental and stratigraphic meaning in interaction with the deposits. These themes are considered in this study that deals with the depositional architecture and the factors controlling the construction, accumulation and preservation of an ancient aeolian sand sheet, that forms part of the Adamantina and Marília formations, in the Bauru Basin (Late Cretaceous, Brazil). In the NW portion of the Bauru Basin, these two units, ca 220 m thick, consist of sandstone, and secondarily of sandy conglomerate and mudstone, and are characterised by vertically alternated palaeosols and deposits. Facies analyses of the deposits and macroscopic characterisation of the palaeosols in 45 outcrops were integrated with laboratory analyses that consisted in descriptions of slabs of rock samples, petrographic analyses, clay mineralogy determination, geochemical analyses of the major oxides, and micromorphological characterisation of the palaeosols. Three architectural elements were recognised: palaeosols, wind-ripple-dominated aeolian sand sheet deposits, and ephemeral river deposits. The palaeosols constitute 66% of the entire sedimentary succession, and consist principally of Aridisols and, subordinately, of Alfisols, Vertisols, and Entisols. The wind-ripple-dominated aeolian sand sheet deposits (25%) are composed of sandstone, organised in translatent climbing wind-ripple strata, and secondarily of sandstone and mudstone deposited by infrequent floods. The ephemeral river deposits (9%) consist of sandy conglomerates 4 m thick and ca 2 km wide. Wind-ripple-dominated aeolian sand sheet deposits formed during relatively dry climate period on an unstable topographic surface of an aeolian sand sheet, where aeolian deposition or erosion prevailed. Palaeosols and ephemeral river deposits formed in a more humid climate period on a stable
Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D
Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.
Townsend, G; Thomas, R; Skinner, V; Bissell, V; Cohen, L; Cowpe, J; Giuliani, M; Gomez-Roman, G; Hovland, E; Imtiaz, A; Kalkwarf, K; Kim, K-K; Lamster, I; Marley, J; Mattsson, L; Paganelli, C; Quintao, C; Swift, J; Thirawat, J; Williams, J; Soekanto, S; Jones, M
Dental schools around the world face new challenges that raise issues with regard to how they are governed, led and managed. With rapid societal changes, including globalization and consumerism, the roles of universities and their funding have become intensely debated topics. When financial burdens on universities increase, so does the pressure on dental schools. This is exacerbated by the relative expense of running dental schools and also by the limited understanding of both university managers and the public of the nature and scope of dentistry as a profession. In these circumstances, it is essential for dental schools to have good systems of leadership and management in place so that they can not only survive in difficult times, but flourish in the longer term. This paper discusses the concept of governance and how it relates to leadership, management and administration in dental schools and hospitals. Various approaches to governance and management in dental schools on different continents and regions are summarized and contrasted. A number of general governance and leadership issues are addressed. For example, a basic principle supported by the Working Group is that an effective governance structure must link authority and responsibility to performance and review, i.e. accountability, and that the mechanism for achieving this should be transparent. The paper also addresses issues specific to governing, leading and managing dental schools. Being a dean of a modern dental school is a very demanding role and some issues relating to this role are raised, including: dilemmas facing deans, preparing to be dean and succession planning. The importance of establishing a shared vision and mission, and creating the right culture and climate within a dental school, are emphasized. The Working Group advocates establishing a culture of scholarship in dental schools for both teaching and research. The paper addresses the need for effective staff management, motivation and
Bailit, Howard L
Disparities in access to dental care are a major problem in the United States. Effectively run community-based dental education programs can make a significant contribution to reducing access disparities and at the same time enrich the educational experiences of dental students and residents. For complex historical reasons, dental schools did not base their clinical training programs in community hospitals and clinics like the other health professions. Now, because of trends in school finances, changes in societal values, and limitations in current educational experiences, schools are increasing the time students spend in community clinics. This is likely to continue. The chapters in the first section of the report on the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program--for which this chapter serves as an introduction-provide detailed information on the operation of community-based education programs.
Telles-Irvin, Patricia; Schwartz, Ivy S.
A survey of 164 female members of the Texas dental association and 62 junior and senior students at the 3 Texas dental schools investigated sexual harassment experiences with patients and colleagues, reasons for tolerating such behavior, and the manner in which the offensive behavior was handled. Results and implications are discussed. (MSE)
Gonty, Arthur A.
Two surveys about the teaching of orofacial pain in the dental curriculum are reported, and the comprehensive course taught at the University of Kentucky is described. The first survey was of 89 Kentucky course alumni. The second was of 57 dental schools concerning the status of their orofacial pain curricula. (MSE)
Potter, Rosario H. Yap; McDonald, Ralph E.
Latent abilities of dental students were analyzed as causes and professional achievements as effects, with preadmission performances as indicators of latent abilities. The results demonstrate that structural analysis focuses on the direct impact of the quality of dental school education. (Author/MLW)
Ardenghi, Diego Machado; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian
Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to investigate the transitions practitioners undergo as they move from dental school to their first job in a dental clinic and their learning in the workplace. The paper aims to investigate their use of ethical principles as they engage in practice, providing a theoretical explanation for the gap practitioners…
Journal of Dental Education, 1986
American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…
American Dental Association, Washington, DC. Council on Dental Education.
Dental hygiene programs should operate on a nonprofit basis as departments, divisions, schools, or colleges of a parent institution of higher learning approved or eligible for approval by agencies recognized by the National Commission on Accreditation. Provision should be made for liaison with the dental profession. The physical plant should meet…
Molinari, John; Gray, Carolyn F.
The American Association of Dental Schools' task force on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dental education recommends that educational strategies stress the necessity for routine infection control procedures in treatment, enhancing the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning all aspects of disease prevention.…
A study investigated the quantity of alloy lost in the fabrication of three types of cast restoration by dental students, and identified the proportion of loss at each of the four principal stages of the fabrication process. Suggestions for reducing metal loss and related costs in dental schools are offered. (MSE)
Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…
Lalloo, Ratilal; Johnson, Newell W.; Blinkhorn, Anthony S.; Ichim, Paul
Objective: The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission Report suggests introducing an internship period for all newly qualified dental/oral health practitioners in Australia. This study gauged the opinions of undergraduates from three dental schools in Australia. Methods: An online survey collected demographic information on gender and…
Balis, Sophia A.; Rule, James T.
Describes a seminar program at the University of Maryland Dental School, which uses books, short stories, and films that integrate human values into dental education, specifically in pediatric dentistry, for residents, clerks, and faculty. Results of initial evaluation and changes in the program over time are detailed. (DB)
Yanoff, Jay M.; And Others
The impact of an experiential/feedback oriented curricula on levels of confidence of dental students was examined. The study was conducted in the TEAM (Training in Expanded Auxiliary Management) program at the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. The subjects were 31 senior dental students (fourth year) who had completed a…
Wides, Cynthia D; Brody, Harvey A; Alexander, Charles J; Gansky, Stuart A; Mertz, Elizabeth A
The University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry established the Dental Postbaccalaureate Program in 1998 to provide reapplication assistance to students from economically and/or educationally disadvantaged backgrounds who were previously denied admission to dental school. The goals were to increase diversity in the dental school student population and improve access to dental services for underserved populations. This article assesses the program's short-, mid-, and long-term outcomes and is the first to examine long-term practice patterns after a dental postbaccalaureate program. Data collected on all participant (n=94) demographics, pre/post-program DAT scores, and post-program dental school admission results were used to assess short- and mid-term outcomes. Long-term outcomes and practice patterns were assessed using results of a census survey administered between 2009 and 2011 to the participants who had completed dental school and been in practice for at least two years (n=57). The survey had a response rate of 93 percent (n=53). Descriptive statistical techniques were used to examine the responses and to compare them to U.S. Census Bureau data and nationally available practice data for new dental graduates. Program participants' DAT scores improved by an average of two points, and 98 percent were accepted to dental school. All survey respondents were practicing dentistry, and 81 percent reported serving underserved populations. These participants treat more Medicaid recipients than do most dentists, and their patient population is more diverse than the general population. The outcomes demonstrate that the program's graduates are increasing diversity in the dental student population and that their practices are providing access to care for underserved populations.
Poulos, Teresa Mae Perkins
Dental health education can be an integral part of the school curriculum, even when there are constraints on time and money and a formal health instruction program is lacking. Under these less than ideal circumstances, dental health education may be correlated at all grade levels with instruction in other subjects including, but not limited to,…
Fuller, J L; Killip, D E
In a questionnaire survey, dental students from all four classes at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry were asked if they had cheated during their first and second years. They were then asked if they believed that others cheated. Cheating was admitted to by 43 percent of the respondents, but 94 percent believed it was occurring. Plagiarism was delineated as a form of cheating; while fewer students admitted to its use, the reported occurrence should be of concern in technique courses. Responses were analyzed both by year in school and grade point average. Reasons for cheating were described; and some conditions conducive to cheating were found to be under the control of the instructor.
Yan, Xu; Zhang, Xinwen; Jinno, Yohei; Tachibana, Keishu; Gao, Jie; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Shen, Yong; Ai, Hongjun
The aim of this study was to identify and compare the attitudes of dental students towards dental education in Japan and China. Fifty-four dental students from the Stomatology School of China Medical University and 51 dental students from the Dental Faculty of Kyushu University, Japan, participated in this study. Information was derived from a self-answered questionnaire consisting of 11 items. Significant differences in the responses of the participants from the two countries were detected for 10 of the questionnaire items (P < 0.05). Nearly three-quarters of the Japanese students were satisfied with the teaching faculties of their schools, while only a quarter of the Chinese students indicated satisfaction. A total of 69% of Chinese students thought that learning a foreign language wasted too much time compared with none of the Japanese students. A student-oriented teaching mode was not well accepted by either of the groups, and 62% of Chinese students and 53% of Japanese students wanted to increase the duration of the clinical practice stage of education. The findings from this study enhance our understanding of differences and/or similarities among dental students in the two nations. This information may help to define strategies to improve the quality of dental education, and especially exchange programmes of international students.
Tolle, Susan W.; Ciodo, Gary T.
Practicing dentists were surveyed concerning their information needs and stresses in serving terminally ill patients, and dental schools were surveyed concerning current and projected curricula in death education. The results of the study and their implications are discussed. (MSE)
Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.
A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)
Durward, C S; Todd, R V
Between 1975 and 1979 Cambodia suffered a massive destruction of its social structures under the Khmer Rouge. The dental profession was almost annihilated and the dental school in Phnom Penh stripped bare. Dental training has now begun again and the long process of restoration is in progress. The ratio of dentists to the population is still pitifully low and public services are concentrated in Phnom Penh and in provincial towns. Traditional dentists provide the only accessible dental care in many places. A primary oral health care system has yet to be developed.
Sato, Manuel; Camino, Javier; Oyakawa, Harumi Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Lyly; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi
This study evaluated the effect of dental education on oral health-related attitudes and behavior of students in a five-year dental program in Peru. A survey using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), which consists of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding oral health behavior and attitudes, was completed by Year 1 and Year 5 dental students at the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in Lima, Peru. A total of 153 Year 1 students and 120 Year 5 students responded to the Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the Year 1 students, the Year 5 dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as “I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste” (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58); “I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are” (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36); and “I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well” (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69). Overall, the data showed that the curriculum in this dental school in Peru resulted in more positive oral health-related attitudes and behavior among Year 5 dental students compared to those of Year 1 dental students. PMID:24002856
Sato, Manuel; Camino, Javier; Oyakawa, Harumi Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Lyly; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Bird, William F; Komabayashi, Takashi
This study evaluated the effect of dental education on oral health-related attitudes and behavior of students in a five-year dental program in Peru. A survey using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), which consists of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding oral health behavior and attitudes, was completed by Year 1 and Year 5 dental students at the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in Lima, Peru. A total of 153 Year 1 students and 120 Year 5 students responded to the Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the Year 1 students, the Year 5 dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.58); "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.10-0.36); and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.69). Overall, the data showed that the curriculum in this dental school in Peru resulted in more positive oral health-related attitudes and behavior among Year 5 dental students compared to those of Year 1 dental students.
Reeson, Michael G; Walker-Gleaves, Caroline; Ellis, Ian
The challenges of health care are increasingly complex and subject to frequent change. Meeting these demands requires that health professionals work in partnership with each other and the patient. One way of contributing to this is for students to learn together. However, effective teamwork requires an education system that helps to foster understanding among all those entering the health workforce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes towards shared learning of undergraduate dental students and trainee dental technicians in a university dental school/hospital in the United Kingdom. Twenty-five trainee dental technicians and 75 undergraduate dental students took part in the study over five academic years. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. A 100% response rate was achieved from the questionnaires. The results indicated the majority of students recognized the benefits of shared learning and viewed the acquisition of teamworking skills as useful for their future working lives, beneficial to the care of their patients, and likely to enhance professional working relationships. The study also found a positive association of being valued as an individual in the dental team by all student groups. Future dental curricula should provide opportunities to develop effective communication between these two groups and encourage teamworking opportunities. These opportunities need to be systematically developed in the dental curriculum to achieve the desired goals.
Swogger, Susan E; Samsky, Monica
Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source from EBSCO Information Services provides indexing and full-text access to an extensive selection of dental journal literature, as well some full-text dental monographs. As stated by EBSCO, titles are chosen from those commonly held in dental school libraries. The database aims to support practitioners, researchers, and advanced dental education. This column includes sample searches from Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source as well as a discussion of its special content and features.
Plekavich, E J
The problems involved in teaching prosthodontics in a general practice program outwardly appear to be due to the lack of sufficient basic prosthodontic training dispensed by the dental schools. This lack of sufficient training is not the fault of dental school faculties. The students are not learning what they are taught. What they need is more repetition, which means more time. The problems are not insurmountable. We just must find the route.
Borges, Carolina Marques; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer
In spite of the high prevalence of malocclusion in adolescents reported worldwide, there are few studies that have investigated the association between normative malocclusion and self-rated dental and gingival appearance among adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify the association between normative malocclusion and dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance among Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adolescents aged 15 to 19 years (n= 16,126) living in 250 towns of all five Brazilian regions. Dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance was the outcome. The main explanatory variable was malocclusion assessed by using the Dental Aesthetic Index - DAI. The other explanatory variables included were per capita family income, schooling delay, study conditions, sex, age, skin color, dental outcomes (untreated dental caries, missing teeth due dental caries, dental calculus, fluorosis, and dental pain) and use of dental services. Simple and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed. Dissatisfaction with dental appearance reached 11.4% (95%CI: 10.4-12.5) of the entire sample. All levels of malocclusion were associated with dissatisfaction with dental appearance. Adjusted multivariable analysis showed that dissatisfaction with dental appearance among individuals affected by severe or very severe malocclusion was respectively 40% and 80% higher than among those with normal occlusion. Malocclusion was associated with dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance. The results contribute to include self-rated dental appearance criteria in orthodontic treatment decision, mainly within the National Health System - SUS.
Kingston, Richard D.
As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…
Silberman, S L; Cain, M J; Mahan, J M
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was employed to measure the nature and strength of dental students' various basic preference in perceiving and making judgments. The MBTI yields four sets of scores--extrovert-introvert (E-l), sensing-intuitive (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judging-perceptive (J-P)--and represents 16 personality types that define these preferences. The sample consisted of five classes at the University of Mississippi School of Dentistry (n = 217). The data indicated that the largest group (32 students) was ESFJ, while the next largest (30) was ESTJ. The least frequently represented groups were the INTP (3), the INFP (7), the INTP (7), and the ENTP (7). Dental students exhibited characteristics different from those of students in business, engineering, social work, medicine, and other fields. These findings have implications for admissions committee decisions as well as for the organization and curriculum of the dental school.
Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha
Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632
The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a test to assess dental school applicants' critical thinking abilities. The intent was to include this test on the Dental Admission Test (DAT) if it was shown to enhance the DAT's validity. Correlation and regression analyses of undergraduate and dental school performance with scores on each of the tests on the DAT battery and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were performed. Data were collected from 439 third- and fourth-year dental students who consented to participate and were enrolled at one of the ten accredited dental schools included in the study. These ten dental schools were from most regions of the United States. This study concluded that including the CCTST on the DAT did not significantly enhance the DAT's validity.
... documents in the Related Resources section. Why is mercury used in dental amalgam? Approximately half of a ... about bioaccumulation, please see Related Resources. Is the mercury in dental amalgam the same as the mercury ...
Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z
Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.
Mashabi, Samar; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina
This study examined the impact of community dental rotations on the clinical productivity of senior students when they returned to the dental school clinic. Data from two classes at the Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine were used to compare productivity pre- and post-externship experiences (continuous ten weeks), controlling for several confounding variables. The results indicated a statistically significant and clinically important increase in post-rotation student productivity and revenues. This study suggests that community clinic rotations could offset the loss of dental school revenues during the externship period.
Taphonomy of a Baurusuchus (Crocodyliformes, Baurusuchidae) from the Adamantina Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Bauru Basin), Brazil: Implications for preservational modes, time resolution and paleoecology
Araújo Júnior, Hermínio Ismael de; Silva Marinho, Thiago da
Upper Cretaceous vertebrate accumulations from the Adamantina Formation are known due to their high taxonomic diversity. On the other hand, taphonomic analyses still are rare, limiting the understanding of processes related to the biostratinomic and fossildiagenetic histories of this lithostratigraphic unit. In 2005, fossils were collected from an outcrop located at Jales municipality, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. From this outcrop, a well-preserved Baurusuchus was recovered, which displays a peculiar set of taphonomic signatures. This paper identifies and interprets taphonomic features of a specimen of Baurusuchus (Crocodyliformes, Baurusuchidae; UFRJ DG 418-R) from the Adamantina Formation (Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Basin), in Jales municipality, state of São Paulo. Brief taphonomic comparisons with other specimens previously studied (crocodiles and dinosaurs) and a lithofaciological analysis of the outcrop were undertaken in order to enhance the knowledge of the stratigraphy and paleoenvironment and improve the time resolution for the Adamantina Formation in the region of Jales. Furthermore, paleoecological data were interpreted based on the taphonomic analysis. The fossil is composed of an articulated segment of vertebral column, ribs, part of the pelvic girdle and gastralia. There is no hydraulic equivalence between both the specimen of Baurusuchus and the size of quartz grain predominant in the fossiliferous layer, suggesting death in situ or short transport as a “water carcass”. Teeth marks identified on the pubes were assigned to a small/juvenile baurusuchid crocodyliform or a theropod dinosaur. The repositioning of some elements (ribs and dorsal osteoderms) is suggestive of mummification. Desiccation marks were observed and attributed to the stage 1 of weathering. These features suggest subaerial exposure of the carcass prior to burial, however, probably after the mummification. On the other hand, the subaerial exposure was short
...-AG21 Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation of Special Controls for Dental Amalgam, Mercury, and Amalgam Alloy; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food... classified dental amalgam as a class II device, reclassified dental mercury from class I to class II,...
Weaver, Richard G; Haden, N Karl; Valachovic, Richard W
The American Dental Education Association's 2001-02 Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance obtained data by which to report, in aggregate and by type of school, the amount of financial assistance being received by dental students, in the form of loans, grants and scholarships, and work-study programs. Over 90 percent of the dental students received financial assistance through one or more federal, state, and/or school source. The average amount of assistance per student was dollar 35,100, ranging from an average of dollar 27,700 at public dental schools to dollar 51,100 at private dental schools. Loan programs accounted for almost 88 percent of all financial assistance; grants and scholarships, for 12 percent; work-study programs, for 0.2 percent. Overall, financial assistance exceeded average tuition and fees by 102 percent. With such levels of reliance on financial assistance, it remains imperative that students, even at the undergraduate level, receive the counseling, monitoring, and advice that will help them judiciously seek and manage appropriate types and amounts of financial assistance as they obtain their dental education.
Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.
Dental assistant programs at Intermountain School-Public Health Service (PHS) Indian Health Center, Brigham City, Utah; PHS Health Center-Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas; and PHS Alaska Native Hospital, Mt. Edgecumbe, Alaska accept a total of 34 trainees from all areas of the Division of Indian Health annually. The 10-month curriculum operates…
Feldman, Cecile A.
The University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine's recently established computer program involved creation of a lab with six microcomputers and design of a course in computer literacy for dentistry. Students (N=94) found the course appropriate in format and time, and self-reported knowledge increased in all but three subject areas. (MSE)
Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.
Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…
Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.
The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…
Thiel, Sandra J.
Compiled to introduce the dental assisting student to various techniques used in the dental office and to present theoretical information essential for the student's professional development, this laboratory guide consists of three units of instruction. The first unit is an introduction to dental assisting and contains five topics of study. The…
Baum, Bruce J.
This paper responds to the Institute of Medicine's 1995 report concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It examines whether real reform is occurring at the National Institute of Dental Research, within the academic dental community, and within the practicing profession. It concludes that very little…
Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong
Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796
Salvador, Milton Carlos Gonçalves; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Ribeiro, Mariana Carvalho Mandim; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo
A group of destructive changes occurring in jaws in patients with maxillary complete dentures and mandibular removable partial dentures (bilaterally) has been described in the literature as the combination syndrome. However, this condition is not clinically observed in all patients. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence index on signs of combination syndrome and to verify whether these changes also occurred in patients rehabilitated with a mandibular removable partial denture (unilaterally). Sample was composed of 44 patients, completely edentulous in the maxilla. Thirty-two patients had a Kennedy Class I removable partial denture and 12 a Kennedy Class II. Three major alterations were observed in 20.5% of the studied population. Nevertheless, these changes were present only in 25% of patients with Kennedy Class I removable partial denture. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that patients with Kennedy Class II removable partial denture do not have similar signs that lead to the combination syndrome’s condition. PMID:19089092
Gerhard-Szep, Susanne; Güntsch, Arndt; Pospiech, Peter; Söhnel, Andreas; Scheutzel, Petra; Wassmann, Torsten; Zahn, Tugba
Aim: At the annual meeting of German dentists in Frankfurt am Main in 2013, the Working Group for the Advancement of Dental Education (AKWLZ) initiated an interdisciplinary working group to address assessments in dental education. This paper presents an overview of the current work being done by this working group, some of whose members are also actively involved in the German Association for Medical Education's (GMA) working group for dental education. The aim is to present a summary of the current state of research on this topic for all those who participate in the design, administration and evaluation of university-specific assessments in dentistry. Method: Based on systematic literature research, the testing scenarios listed in the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives (NKLZ) have been compiled and presented in tables according to assessment value. Results: Different assessment scenarios are described briefly in table form addressing validity (V), reliability (R), acceptance (A), cost (C), feasibility (F), and the influence on teaching and learning (EI) as presented in the current literature. Infoboxes were deliberately chosen to allow readers quick access to the information and to facilitate comparisons between the various assessment formats. Following each description is a list summarizing the uses in dental and medical education. Conclusion: This overview provides a summary of competency-based testing formats. It is meant to have a formative effect on dental and medical schools and provide support for developing workplace-based strategies in dental education for learning, teaching and testing in the future. PMID:27579365
Parolia, Abhishek; Mohan, Mandakini; Kundabala, M; Shenoy, Ramya
Teaching and learning activities in the dental clinic or hospital are a challenging area for students as well as teachers. With various teaching methodologies being used in dental schools around the world, gaining greater understanding of students' attitudes toward these methodologies would be useful for dental educators. The objective of this study was to explore the preferences of dental students in India about various aspects of lecture courses. A structured survey consisting of ten closed-ended questions was developed, and 2,680 undergraduate students from forty-three dental schools in India were approached via e-mail with a follow-up postal mailing. Of these, 1,980 students responded, for a response rate of 73.8 percent. Most of the students reported preferring lectures with the aid of PowerPoint and chalkboard. They preferred morning lectures from 8 am to 10 am for a maximum of thirty to forty minutes for each lecture, and they preferred to receive information about the lecture topic in advance. The students said that delivery of clinical demonstrations was beneficial after the lectures, and they preferred learning-based rather than exam-oriented education. The respondents also said that attendance should be made compulsory and that numerical marking of examinations should not be replaced by a grading system.
Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; West, Joseph F
Over at least the last twenty years, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has given attention and priority to increasing the number of underrepresented minority (URM) dental school applicants, enrollees, and faculty members and to meeting the challenges of achieving diversity in the oral health workforce of the future as racial and ethnic minorities continue to grow and are expected to comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. population by the middle of the twenty-first century. Dental schools have the responsibility of preparing dentists to provide oral health care for the nation's population. This includes creating a workforce of adequate size and racial/ethnic composition. As part of ADEA's priorities to improve the recruitment, retention, and development of URMs in the dental profession, with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, ADEA launched the Minority Dental Faculty Development Program in 2004. The intent of the program is to foster academic partnerships, mentoring, and institutional commitment and leadership designed to increase the number of URM individuals interested in and prepared for careers in academic dentistry.
Arnett, M R; Loewen, J M; Romito, L M
Social networking applications have become an established means of communication; applications that did not exist ten years ago are now used daily. Social media can be used for a myriad of reasons including instructional tools to supplement learning. This project was designed to assess the usage of social media applications by dental school faculty members and identify the types of accounts they prefer. Four hundred forty-three full-time dental and dental hygiene faculty members from five U.S. dental schools were invited to complete a twelve-item online survey regarding their social media usage. The response rate was 50 percent (n=221). Of the respondents, nearly half were dentists, and 62 percent were ≥51 years of age. Facebook was the most popular social network, reportedly used by 111 respondents. The most often reported frequency of use was weekly (20.4 percent, n=221); users indicated utilizing a network primarily for personal rather than professional purposes. However, 37 percent of the respondents reported not using any social media. The most frequently cited barriers to the use of social media were time (48 percent) and privacy concerns (48 percent). Although few would dispute the influence social media has on today's students, the suitability and appropriateness of social media technology and its integration into dental curricula require further evaluation.
Hood, Janet Grobe
Community-based service-learning is increasingly common in dental education. By definition, service-learning combines educational goals with service to the community, and the community and school are equal partners. The three main goals of service-learning are improving learning, promoting civic engagement, and strengthening communities. There have been calls from many groups to reform dental education to better serve the public, and service-learning is one of the most often recommended methods to help meet this goal. One of the key attributes of service-learning is its potential to promote civic engagement and social responsibility during the student's education. The social responsibility of dentists and aspects of professionalism can be learned by students through participation in well-structured service-learning programs. Community-based service-learning programs can also address societal needs by improving the public's access to oral health care through partnerships among dental schools, oral health providers, and communities. This article describes service-learning programs at several dental schools to illustrate application of this educational strategy in predoctoral dental education. This article also describes challenges that confront schools desiring to implement and sustain service-learning programs, including academic quality, faculty development and training, interprofessionalism, making time in the curriculum, budget, faculty shortages and time, student credit, quality control, and remote sites away from the dental school.
Virtue, Shannon Myers; Pendergast, Laura; Tellez, Marisol; Waldron, Elizabeth; Ismail, Amid
The aims of this study were to identify noncognitive factors that dental faculty members perceived to contribute to dental students' success and to assess dental faculty members' ratings of the relative importance of these factors to academic performance, clinical performance, and overall success. Out of 184 eligible faculty members at one U.S. dental school, 43 respondents (23.3%) completed a survey in 2015-16. The survey asked respondents to rank the importance of seven noncognitive factors to academic performance, clinical performance, and overall success. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the ratings on importance of each noncognitive factor. Two additional open-ended questions asked faculty members to 1) think of dental students who performed very well and list the noncognitive factors they believed contributed to those students' success and 2) identify the two most important of those factors that contributed to success. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify themes in the open-ended responses. The respondents rated professionalism and preparedness highest in importance for overall success. Preparedness was rated highest in importance for academic performance, and communication was highest in importance for clinical performance. Six themes were identified in the open-ended responses: communication/interpersonal skills, approach to learning, personal characteristics, professionalism, diverse experiences, and technical abilities. On both open-ended items, the most frequently cited noncognitive skill was communication/interpersonal skills followed by approach to learning. In this study, dental faculty members perceived communication, preparedness, and professionalism as important skills contributing to dental students' success.
Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A
Dr. Howard Riley Raper (1886-1978) was an early oral health pioneer and dental roentgenology faculty member of the Indiana Dental College (IDC) who single-handedly introduced key concepts in radiology to dentistry. Due to his efforts, IDC became in 1910-11 the first dental school to have a regular course in dental radiology. Virtually all American dental schools soon added this subject to their regular curriculum. Raper's text, Elementary and Dental Radiography (1913) became the first comprehensive student textbook of dental X-ray diagnosis. In his 1933 Blue Book entitled, The New Aim in the Care of the Teeth, Raper elaborated upon his mission to prevent caries, by comparing the insidious damages of tooth decay with the threat of insect-borne disease.
Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without
Wides, Cynthia; Alam, Sonia Rab; Mertz, Elizabeth
In July 2009, California eliminated funding for most adult non-emergency Medicaid dental benefits (Denti-Cal). This paper presents the findings from a qualitative assessment of the impacts of the Denti-Cal cuts on California's oral health safety-net. Interviews were conducted with dental safety-net providers throughout the state, including public health departments, community health centers, dental schools, Native American health clinics, and private providers, and were coded thematically using Atlas.ti. Safety-net providers reported decreased utilization by Denti-Cal-eligible adults, who now primarily seek emergency dental services, and reported shifting to focus on pediatric and privately-insured patients. Significant changes were reported in safety-net clinic finances, operations, and ability to refer. The impact of the Denti-Cal cuts has been distributed unevenly across the safety-net, with private providers and County Health Departments bearing the highest burden. PMID:24583494
Reynolds, P A; Eaton, K A; Paganelli, C; Shanley, D
This paper describes the three successive and successful DentEd projects, funded by the European Union, that established a productive thematic network which identified common content within the dental curriculum. It then developed an agreed professional profile, with a defined set of competences and a modular curriculum for all new dental graduates based on the European Credit Transfer System and trends in learning and assessment. The three phases took nine years to complete. Phase one investigated all aspects of dental undergraduate education and included over 30 visits to different dental schools by teams of dental educators. Phase two built on this work and included further visits to dental schools. Phase three refined the competency framework that had been developed in phase two and culminated in a global dental conference which finalised position papers on all aspects of dental education. The work and recommendations of the ICT in dental education group are considered in detail in the paper. The projects provided the stimulus for a number of European and international collaborations, including the web-based International Federation of Dental Education and Associations (IFDEA) Knowledge Centre and the International Virtual Dental School (IVIDENT), both of which aim to make increasingly sophisticated ICT-based educational material available worldwide and to promote international understanding.
Solomon, Eric S.; And Others
This study examined costs of providing care by undergraduate dental students in dental school clinics. Cost estimates for each procedure were compared to fees charged, determining net cost of providing care. The model is recommended for improving clinic efficiency in this and other dental education clinical settings. (MSE)
Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim
Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720
experiences, like school dentistry. Almost no correlation was seen between socio-economic factors and satisfaction with dental care. Change between the two study years was affected by self-perceived oral health, experiences from the most recent dental visit and care organization. As a whole, the study confirms models of oral health and care utilization.
Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L
Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.
Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M
This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.
Lopez, Naty; Johnson, Sara; Black, Nicki
Dental students deal with various stressors while in dental school. While some develop adaptive coping skills, others may suffer from damaging effects of constant and increasing levels of stress. This study evaluated a peer mentoring program at a dental school in the Midwest to determine student perceptions of its benefits and to identify areas for improvement. Data were collected through a survey sent out to all dental classes online. The twenty-five-item survey was based on student responses during two focus groups held to elicit student assessment of the peer mentoring program. Sixty-six percent of the student body participated with representation from all four classes. Students find their peer mentoring program an effective tool in helping them deal with stress especially during transition phases of their curriculum, first into dental school and later from preclinic to the clinics. Having a mentor means easy access to an available person who can help students relieve anxieties about dental school. Experiencing dental school enables a student to serve as a mentor, so a non-dental student is seen as not effective. Peer mentoring needs to be loosely structured and flexible and should cover all years in the dental curriculum.
Hood, Janet Grobe
Although many changes are being made, many are still needed in educating future dental professionals about prevention programs, ethics, professionalism, communication, cultural competence, and access to care. It is not yet clear if producing more dentists will put these professionals into underserved areas where they are needed, with the skills they need. The achievements of the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program schools in increasing the amount of time students spend in community-based education and service-learning programs result from a widespread, national effort to meet this challenge. This article is a personal reflection and review of these programs, considering what has been learned and still needs to be learned about student educational impact and quality, faculty issues, program management, infrastructure and logistics, and financial impact, with suggestions for future study that can help dental schools design the most effective programs.
Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna
A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)
Solomon, Eric S; Jones, Daniel L
Current and future dental school graduates are increasingly likely to choose a non-traditional dental practice-a group practice managed by a dental service organization or a corporate practice with employed dentists-for their initial practice experience. In addition, the growth of non-traditional practices, which are located primarily in major urban areas, could accelerate the movement of dentists to those areas and contribute to geographic disparities in the distribution of dental services. To help the profession understand the implications of these developments, the aim of this study was to compare the location characteristics of non-traditional practices and traditional dental practices. After identifying non-traditional practices across the United States, the authors located those practices and traditional dental practices geographically by zip code. Non-traditional dental practices were found to represent about 3.1% of all dental practices, but they had a greater impact on the marketplace with almost twice the average number of staff and annual revenue. Virtually all non-traditional dental practices were located in zip codes that also had a traditional dental practice. Zip codes with non-traditional practices had significant differences from zip codes with only a traditional dental practice: the populations in areas with non-traditional practices had higher income levels and higher education and were slightly younger and proportionally more Hispanic; those practices also had a much higher likelihood of being located in a major metropolitan area. Dental educators and leaders need to understand the impact of these trends in the practice environment in order to both prepare graduates for practice and make decisions about planning for the workforce of the future.
Solis, Enrique, Jr.; Pettibone, Timothy J.
The purpose of the study was to develop cultural models that describe dental care practices among the primary ethnic cultures of the Southwest. The pilot study sample, of Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans, was obtained through the Las Cruces Schools. Sampling was stratified random sampling using elementary school (grades 1-6) records. Initial…
Schwartz, Robert M.; And Others
A comprehensive program for reducing student stress at the Behavioral Science Department of the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine is described. Components include the school's overall orientation, the student advising and counseling system, and student-oriented programs and courses. (Author/MLW)
Silverstein, Steven J
Dental public health is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation. Dental public health has been defined as the "science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than as an individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis." This article will describe the many career and educational pathways dentists may follow to become irvolved in the practice of dental public health.
Journal of Dental Education, 1984
Guidelines developed for educational institutions as curriculum development aids are presented. They are the result of efforts within the American Association of Dental Schools (AADS) by the Section on Oral Radiology. Their use as course development aids is suggested by AADS policy. (MLW)
Rodis, Omar M.; Kariya Naoyuki; Nishimura, Michiko; Matsumura, Seishi
There has been a noticeable change of curricula in specialized and technical courses offered in Japanese schools and universities. One of these is the integration of English for general and specific purposes in the dental curriculum. Although a number of studies have assessed the former, very few have assessed English for specific purposes…
Jones, Derek W
International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.
The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation.
Mann, Nancy K
This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.
Ganzberg, Steven; Rashid, Robert G.; Davidian, Edward
In order to determine if dentist anesthesiologists (DAs) actively contribute to research in the field of anesthesiology, and thus contribute new knowledge to the field, an extensive literature search was accomplished. DAs make up only 1.5% of dentists who actively contribute to anesthesia research but account for 10% of publications. To determine if the impact of DA research was similar to the American Dental Association (ADA) recognized specialties, h-indices of noted researchers in other specialties were compared to the h-indices of noted DA researchers. The results show that the impact of top DA researchers in dental anesthesiology is similar to the impact of top dental specialty researchers, despite lack of academic departments in dental schools where a large percentage of dental research is completed. Dentist anesthesiologists actively contribute to the research in anesthesiology for dentistry and thus, actively contribute to new knowledge in the field. PMID:21410360
ten Cate, J M; Imfeld, T
Although reports on dental erosion have always appeared in the dental literature, there is currently a growing interest among researchers and clinicians. Potential risk factors for dental erosion are changed lifestyle and eating patterns, with increased consumption of acidic foods and beverages. Various gastrointestinal and eating disorders expose the dentition to frequent contacts with very acidic gastric content, which may lead to erosion. Whether these factors indeed lead, on a population scale, to a higher prevalence and incidence of erosion is yet to be established. This article summarizes the different aspects of the prevalence, pathology, etiology, assessment, prevention and treatment of dental erosion, and concludes with recommendations for future research.
Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray
Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036
Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista
Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying. PMID:24966759
Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil
The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis.
Walker, Mary P; Duley, Susan I; Beach, M Miles; Deem, Lisa; Pileggi, Roberta; Samet, Nachum; Segura, Adriana; Williams, John N
This article reviews current dental education economic challenges such as increasing student tuition and debt, decreasing funds for faculty salaries and the associated faculty shortage, and the high cost of clinic operations and their effect on the future of dentistry. Management tactics to address these issues are also reviewed. Despite recent efforts to change the clinical education model, implementation of proposed faculty recruitment and compensation programs, and creation of education- corporate partnerships, the authors argue that the current economics of public dental education is not sustainable. To remain viable, the dental education system must adopt transformational actions to re-engineer the program for long-term stability. The proposed re-engineering includes strategies in the following three areas: 1) educational process redesign, 2) reduction and redistribution of time in dental school, and 3) development of a regional curriculum. The intent of these strategies is to address the financial challenges, while educating adequate numbers of dentists at a reasonable cost to both the student and the institution in addition to maintaining dental education within research universities as a learned profession.
Coates, Dawn E; Kardos, Thomas B; Moffat, Susan M; Kardos, Rosemary L
New Zealand has a long history of dental care provided by school dental nurses, now known as dental therapists. The nature of their training courses, although delivered in different centers, had remained relatively constant until 1999 when educational responsibility was transferred to the universities. Dental hygienists were not trained in New Zealand until 1994, with the exception of the New Zealand Army hygienists. Since 2001, the education of both dental therapists and dental hygienists has been the responsibility of the universities. Significant and progressive changes in educational delivery have occurred since then, which have culminated in three-year degree qualifications for dual-trained oral health professionals. Factors influencing this change included increased professionalism associated with the new legislative requirements for registration, workforce shortages, and enhanced educational and clinical practice requirements. The Bachelor of Oral Health degree at the University of Otago has an added emphasis on social sciences and incorporates aspects of learning relating to New Zealand's cultural heritage. We explore in this article the rationale for the introduction of a Bachelor of Oral Health in New Zealand and how it is designed to equip graduates as professionals in oral health.
Tavoc, Tabitha; Newsom, Ron; DeWald, Janice P
This study sought to determine if statistically significant differences existed among and between licensed dental hygienists and first- and second-year dental hygiene students in Texas on a cross-cultural adaptability measure. The cross-cultural adaptability of licensed dental hygienists and of first- and second-year dental hygiene students attending five randomly selected dental hygiene schools in Texas was investigated. A sample of 289 individuals completed the fifty-item Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) and a brief demographic survey, resulting in 278 usable responses. The CCAI yields a total score and four individual subscale scores that describe a person's readiness to interact with people of different cultures. The results revealed no statistically significant differences among the licensed hygienists and students in the first and second years of study and CCAI scores. A statistically significant relationship (r=.148) was found between age and one of the four CCAI subscale scores: flexibility/openness. No other statistically significant relationships were found. The number of years to earn a degree, level of practice, ethnicity, and years employed may not play a significant role in enhancing cross-cultural adaptability. Further research needs to be conducted to determine differences and relationships between and among various dental hygiene groups and their cross-cultural adaptability performance.
Harrison, A; Stephens, A P
This survey has documented the current role of dental technicians in dental schools in the United States. This role is still rather minor, but it is significant. Some suggestions for improving the situation have been made. A further survey of this kind should be made again in 3-5 years, at which time a comparison with this survey may reveal a developing pattern and some better clues to the future.
Rogér, James M
The Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program (ADCFP) was established in 2006 by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) with the financial support of the ADA Foundation to encourage dental students to consider careers in dental education and to provide participating fellows with insights into academic life. The ADA Foundation provided funding during the 2006-07 academic year for eleven dental student fellows, who were paired with faculty mentors at their respective schools. Fellows and mentors attended a two-day retreat in the summer of 2006, and over the course of the subsequent year in dental school, the fellows with guidance from their mentors participated in preclinical laboratory, classroom, small-group, and clinical teaching experiences; designed and implemented a research project; developed a philosophy of education; completed career reflection essays; assembled a portfolio to represent their ADCFP activities and projects; conducted a series of interviews with faculty designed to expose students to roles, issues, and career paths in academic dentistry; and presented a synopsis of their experiences at the ADEA Annual Session in New Orleans in March 2007. The fellows and mentors completed midyear and end-of-year evaluations of the ADCFP in which feedback and recommendations were collected by telephone interviews and questionnaires. Fellows reported positive experiences and an increased interest in and understanding of academic careers. Mentors also evaluated the ADCFP positively and reported enhancements in their mentoring skills. This article describes the goals and format of the ADCFP, summarizes program evaluation data elicited from the fellows and mentors, and proposes recommendations for future fellowship classes.
Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R
In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.
Maraj, E; Kroon, J
The public oral health sector offers essentially two types of services to learners viz, (i) clinical services, where curative and restorative treatment, and prophylactic care is provided, and (ii) school-based services which focus on a primary preventive approach to oral health that consists of health promotion and specific protection initiatives e.g. brushing programmes. Learners may be exposed to a combination of clinical and school-based services or to school-based services only. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of services delivered by the public oral health sector on periodontal health and oral hygiene status of 6-year-old Sowetan learners to a control group who were not exposed to any organised oral health programme. Follow-up visits were conducted every 6 months from baseline for a period of 18 months. A significant decrease in the percentage of learners with healthy periodontal tissues and a significant increase in the percentage of learners with gingival bleeding was observed for all three cohorts. Oral hygiene performance, assessed according to the Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP) index, demonstrated no improvement after 18 months, although the mean scores remained within the 'fair' interval. No significant benefit could be demonstrated in providing a clinical services component in combination with school-based services. No significant positive impact of the brushing programme on oral hygiene and periodontal health status of learners was observed after 18 months when compared to a control group.
Bohaty, Brenda S; Redford, Gloria J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C
The aim of this study was to explore student and course director experiences with the redesign of a traditional lecture-based course into a flipped classroom for teaching didactic content in pediatric dentistry to second-year dental students. The study assessed student satisfaction, extent of student engagement, overall course grades, and course director satisfaction. The students enrolled in a flipped classroom pediatric dentistry course (spring semester 2014; SP14) were asked to complete pre- and post-course questionnaires to assess their perceptions of active learning, knowledge acquisition, and course satisfaction. The process was repeated with the class enrolled in the same course the following year (SP15). Responses for SP14 and SP15 resulted in an overall response rate of 95% on the pre questionnaire and 84% on the post questionnaire. The results showed that the greatest perceived advantage of the flipped classroom design was the availability and access to online content and course materials. Students reported enhanced learning due to heightened engagement in discussion. The results also showed that students' overall course grades improved and that the course director was satisfied with the experience, particularly after year two. Many calls have been made for educational strategies that encourage critical thinking instead of passive learning environments. This study provides one example of a course redesign and demonstrates the need for both faculty and student development to ensure success when a flipped classroom methodology is introduced.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…
Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.
This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…
Dental radiography is a necessary diagnostic modality in small animal practice. It is not possible to accurately assess and diagnose tooth resorption, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, neoplasia and injury without it. Dental radiography is also necessary for treatment and assessment of the patient postoperatively.
Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura
This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…
Carpenter, Corinne K.; Volpe, Margaret E.
This workbook contains l8 units of instruction for dental assistant students, each designed to give students practical experience in completing forms that simulate realistic situations in a dental office. Units are: (1) The Appointment Record, (2) The Recall System, (3) Clinical Records, (4) Estimates, (5) Daily Record Sheet, (6) Patient's…
Jongbloed-Zoet, C; Bol-van den Hil, E M; La Rivière-Ilsen, J; van der Sanden-Stoelinga, M S E
Dental hygiene education in the Netherlands started in 1968 after a long political debate about roles, functions and the working domain. From a slow start with five students in a school based on the American model with a 2-year curriculum, dental hygiene education is now a 4-year, higher professional education with an admission of 300 students annually who pursue the degree of Bachelor of Health at a University of Applied Sciences. In the 45 years of its existence, the dental hygiene profession has undergone a tremendous change. In the beginning, dental hygienists worked under the supervision of a dentist, which changed in 1992 to their working 'under referral' from a dentist, and again in 2006, when dental hygienists became directly accessible. One-third of the working force of approximately 2700 dental hygienists (2010) is now working in their own independent practice. The focus of professional practice has changed from the prevention of caries via periodontology to the relationship between dental health and general health and well-being. The profession, the education and the Dutch Dental Hygienists' Association (Nederlandse Vereniging van Mondhygiënisten) have matured, and its members are now serious partners in oral health care.
Spalding, Peter M; Bradley, Richard E
Early U.S. dental training involved a closer relationship between commercialism and education, which was strongly counteracted by university affiliations at the beginning of the twentieth century. With recent decreases in public support for higher education, schools have become increasingly dependent on private revenue sources, including corporate support. There are ethical risks as well as benefits from dental schools establishing business partnerships with corporations. In 2002, a private, for-profit company was responsible for the inception and direct funding of an orthodontic postgraduate program at a private U.S. university. In the last four years, this company has begun funding two additional orthodontic programs, both associated with U.S. public dental schools. Such partnerships with academic institutions represent unique corporate relationships with dental education that are fraught with ethical risks. The dental profession needs to preserve the appropriate autonomy of dental education from commercial influences in order to prevent erosion of academic and ethical standards that are critical to professional integrity and public trust.
Holyfield, Lavern J; Miller, Barbara H
Policies exist to promote fairness and equal access to opportunities and services that address basic human needs of all U.S. citizens. Nonetheless, health disparities continue to persist among certain subpopulations, including those of racial, ethnic, geographic, socioeconomic, and other cultural identity groups. The Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) has added standards to address this concern. According to the most recent standards, adopted in 2010 for implementation in July 2013, CODA stipulates that "students should learn about factors and practices associated with disparities in health." Thus, it is imperative that dental schools develop strategies to comply with this addition. One key strategy for compliance is the inclusion of cultural competence training in the dental curriculum. A survey, the Dental Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (D-TACCT), based on the Association of American Medical Colleges' Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT), was sent to the academic deans at seventy-one U.S. and Canadian dental schools to determine best practices for cultural competence training. The survey was completed by thirty-seven individuals, for a 52 percent response rate. This article describes the use of this survey as a guide for developing culturally competent strategies and enhancing cultural competence training in dental schools.
Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.
A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…
Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi
The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.
Valenza, John A; Walji, Muhammad F; Taylor, David; Estes, Kristine
Innovation has been an integral part of The University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston and its approach to educating dentists since the school's origin in 1905. Its history is rich with examples, such as a modular, self-directed curriculum and a general practice-based patient care delivery system. Moving into the 21st century, the school has embraced new models for patient care and research upon which to build innovative programs for teaching and learning. Combined with a technological explosion across the world and in education, UTDB has been a leader on many fronts, such as electronic patient records, clinical simulation and research in informatics. As the school looks ahead to a new building by 2012, additional advances and innovations are planned to follow. This article takes a look at the past, present, and future contributions by UTDB to innovation in dental education.
Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A
The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.
Service, USAF School of Aerospace Med- icine. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the ebetract entered In Block 20, it different from Report) 13...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse ide iI neceseay and identify by block number) Dental diamond rotary instruments Diamond instrument cutting...performance Diamond instrument quality ABS.TLRACT fConi on, revere aide It neceeary aid Identify by block number) -’In this test and evaluation of the
USAFSAM-SR-90-2 DEC FILE COPY, COMPENDIUM OF DENTAL RESIDENTS’ RESEARCH PROJECTS AND LITERATURE REVIEWS *. 1989 SN SDTIC EL ECTE Mo!r Joe B. Drane...special report was submitted by personnel of the Dental Investigation Service, Clinical Sciences Division, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Human...Security Classification) Compendium of Dental Residents’ Research Projects and Literature Revie,,is - 1989 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Drane, Joe B. III 13a
Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine
These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth"…
Mutzbauer, T. S.; Rossi, R.; Ahnefeld, F. W.; Sitzmann, F.
Twenty-four of the thirty-two German universities that have dental schools replied to a questionnaire survey that showed that all the schools responding held lectures on the topic "Medical Emergencies" although this is not mandatory for registration. All of the universities in the former East Germany also offered practical training sessions as part of the curriculum. The proportion of West German universities offering such courses is only 60%. The basic essentials of the theory and practice of emergency medicine should only be taught in courses with mandatory participation. PMID:10323124